TI-3252: Perancangan Organisasi STRUKTUR ORGANISASI

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

TI-3252: Perancangan Organisasi

Struktur Organisasi (Mintzberg)

Laboratorium Sistem Produksi www.lspitb.org ©2003

Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

STRUKTUR ORGANISASI •

Organizations are structured to capture & direct systems of flows and to define inter-relationships among different parts (Mintzberg, 1993).



5 parts of organization: ƒ Operating Core ƒ Strategic Apex ƒ Middle Line ƒ Technostructure ƒ Support staff

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

FIVE BASIC PARTS OF THE ORGANIZATION (1)

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

FIVE BASIC PARTS OF THE ORGANIZATION (OPERATING CORE)



The operators who perform the basic work related directly to the production of products & services



4 fungsi: ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ



Secure the inputs for production Transform the inputs into outputs Distribute the outputs (selling & physically distributing) Provide direct support to the input, transformation & output function (performing mantenance on the operating machnines & inventorying the raw materials)

Operating core Ö the heart of every organization, the part that produces the essential outputs that keep it alive

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

FIVE BASIC PARTS OF THE ORGANIZATION (STRATEGIC APEX)



People who charged with overall responsibility: chief executive officer, executive committee



Charged with ensuring the organization: ƒ serve its mission in an effective way ƒ serve the needs of those who control or otherwise have power over the organization



3 duties: ƒ Direct supervision Ö mechanism of coordination, allocate resources, issue work orders, authorize majors decisions, resolve conflits, design & staff the organization, monitor employee performance, motive & reward employees

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

FIVE BASIC PARTS OF THE ORGANIZATION (STRATEGIC APEX)



The management of organization’s boundary Ö relations with its environment ƒ Informing influential people in the environment about the organization’s activities ƒ Developing high level contacts for the organization ƒ Negociating major agreements with outside parties ƒ Serving as figureheads ƒ Carrying out ceremonial duties



The development of the organization’s strategy Ö mediating force between the organization and its environment

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

FIVE BASIC PARTS OF THE ORGANIZATION (MIDDLE LINE)



Senior managers to the first line supervisors who have direct authority over the operators



Taks: ƒ Collects feedback information on the performance of his own unit, often aggregating information in the process ƒ Flowing up are distubances in the unit ƒ Proposals for changes; decisions requiring authorization ƒ Flowing down are resources that he must allocate in his unit, rules & plans that he must elaborate & projects that he must inplement; boundary conditions to manage ƒ Maintain liaison contacts with other managers, analysts, supports staffers and outsiders whose work is interdependent with; concerned with formulating the strategy for his unit

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

FIVE BASIC PARTS OF THE ORGANIZATION (TECHNOSTRUCTURE)



The analysts: ƒ Serve the organization by affecting the work of others ƒ Concerned with adaptation; changing the organization to meet environmental change; control; stabilizing & standardizing patterns of activitivy in the organization



3 types of control analysts: ƒ Work study analysts: standardize work processes ƒ Planning & control analysts: standardize outputs (long range planners, quality control engineers, production schedulers & accountants) ƒ Personnels analysts: standardize skills (trainers &recruiters)

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

FIVE BASIC PARTS OF THE ORGANIZATION (SUPPORT STAFF)



Exits to provide suppport to the organization outside its operating work flow



Many support units are self contained: mini organizations



Support unies can be found at various level of the hierarchy: ƒ Top level: Public relations, legal counsel ƒ Middle level: Industrial relations, pricing and R&D ƒ Lower level: Standardized work, cafetaria, mailroom, reception, payroll

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

FIVE BASIC PARTS OF THE ORGANIZATION

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

KARAKTERISTIK ORGANISASI (1) •

A system of formal authority: Flow of formal power down the hierarchy ƒ Organigram: position, group into units, formal authority flows, informal relationships



A network of regulated flows: ƒ Production work through the operating core, ƒ Commands & instruction down the administrative hierarchy to control the operating core, ƒ Feedback information on results ƒ Staff information & advice feeding into decision making

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

KARAKTERISTIK ORGANISASI (2)

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

KARAKTERISTIK ORGANISASI (3)



A system of informal communication: mutual adjustment in coordination Ö Sociogram: map of who actually communicated



A system of work constellations: ƒ People in the organization cluster into groups (not related with hierarchy or five parts) ƒ Each cluster deals with distinct decisions appropriate ƒ Manufacturing: fabrication, assembly & distribution ƒ Administrative production: production scheduling, general plant administration ƒ New product:analysts, line managers & support staffers (reserachers)



A system of adhoc decision processes: flow of one strategic decision, from beginning to end

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

KOMPLESITAS KARAKTERISTIK ORGANISASI

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

TIPE ORGANISASI (1)



Simple Structure: ƒ Based on direct supervison, pull to centralize ƒ The strategic apex



Machine Bureaucracy: ƒ Based on standardization of work processes, pull to standardize ƒ Tehnostructure, design of the standards is raison d’etre



Professional Bureaucracy: ƒ Based on standardization of skills, pull to professionalize ƒ The operating core seek to minimize the influence of the administrators, managers

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

TIPE ORGANISASI (2)



Divisionalized Form: ƒ Based on standardization of outputs ƒ Middle line (seek autonomy) but must achieve in different way, by drawing power down from the strategic apex ƒ Pull to balkainize: split into market based unit, control own decision



Adhocracy: ƒ Based on mutual adjustment ƒ The support staff gains the most influence in the organization ƒ Members are autonomous for decision maling, owing to their expertise

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

TIPE ORGANISASI (3)

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

TIPE ORGANISASI (4)

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

SIMPLE STRUCTURE (1) KARAKTERISTIK

• •

Coordinating Mechanism: Direct Supervision Key Part of Organization: Strategic Apex Ö no technostructure, few support staffers



Main Design Parameters: ƒ Centralization ƒ Organic Structure operating core, non-structure, avoids using all the formal devices of structure

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

SIMPLE STRUCTURE (2) KARAKTERISTIK



Situational Factors: ƒ Young, small, new organization Ö no have the time to elaborate administrative structure ƒ Enterpreneurial firm: – aggresive & innovative – seraching for the risky environments where the bureaucracies fear to tread ƒ Non-spohisticated technical system ƒ Simple, dynamic environment ƒ Possible extreme hoslitily or strong power needs of top manager ƒ Not fashionable

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

SIMPLE STRUCTURE (3) KARAKTERISTIK

• Small managerial hierarchy Ö minimal use of planning • Minimal differentiation among units Ö coordination (direct supervision)



Process Ö to be highly intuitive & non-analytical, oriented to the aggresive search for opportunities



Chief executive tends to have a wide span of control

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

SIMPLE STRUCTURE (4) KARAKTERISTIK



Formal aspects of managerial work are of less significance

• Informal communication is convenient & effective Ö between the chief executive & everyone



Decision making is likewise flexible, with centralization of power allowing for rapid response



Handling disturbances & innovating in an entrepreneurial way

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

SIMPLE STRUCTURE

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

MACHINE BUREAUCRACY (1) KARAKTERISTIK



Coordinating Mechanism: Standardization of work processes Ö for coordination, little mutual adjustment in the operating core



Key Part of Organization: Technostructure



Main Design Parameters: ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

Behavior formalization Vertical & horizontal job specialization Usually functional grouping Large operating unit size Vertical centralization & limited horizontal decentralization, action planning

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

MACHINE BUREAUCRACY (2) KARAKTERISTIK

• Situational Factors: ƒ Old (mature organization), large enough to have the volume of operating work needed for repetition and standardization

ƒ Regulating, nonautomated technical system, routinize work ƒ Simple, stable environment Ö extremely simple & almost perfectly stable work

ƒ External control ƒ Not fasionable

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

MACHINE BUREAUCRACY (3) KARAKTERISTIK



Operating tasks are simple & repetitive Ö a minimum of skill & little training



The use of direct supervison by first line managers is limited by the fact standardization handles most of the coordination



Tight regulation of the operating work



Mass production firm, white collar bureaucracies

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

MACHINE BUREAUCRACY (4) KARAKTERISTIK



Tasks of middle line managers: ƒ To handle the disturbances that arise among the highly specialized workers of the operating core ƒ To work in a liaison role with the analysts of the technostructure to incorporate their standards down into operating units ƒ To support the vertical flows in the structure Ö the aggregation of the feedback information up the hierarchy and the elaboration of the action plans that come back down

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

MACHINE BUREAUCRACY

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

MACHINE BUREAUCRACY CONTOH ORGANIGRAM

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

PROFESSIONAL BUREAUCRACY (1)

KARAKTERISTIK

• Coordinating Mechanism: Standardization of skills • Key Part of Organization: Operating core • Main Design Parameters: ƒ Training ƒ Horizontal job specialization ƒ Vertical & horizontal decentralization

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

PROFESSIONAL BUREAUCRACY (2)

KARAKTERISTIK

• Situational Factors: ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

Complex Stable environment Non-regulating, non-sophisticated technical system Fashionable

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

PROFESSIONAL BUREAUCRACY

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

PROFESSIONAL BUREAUCRACY

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

PROFESSIONAL BUREAUCRACY

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

DIVISIONALIZED FORM (1) KARAKTERISTIK

• Coordinating Mechanism: Standardization of outputs • Key Part of Organization: Middle line • Main Design Parameters: ƒ Market grouping ƒ Performance control system ƒ Limited vertical decentralization

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

DIVISIONALIZED FORM (2) KARAKTERISTIK

• Situational Factors: ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

Diversified markets (particulary products or services) Old, large Power needs of middle managers Fashionable

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

DIVISIONALIZED FORM

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

DIVISIONALIZED FORM

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

DIVISIONALIZED FORM

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

DIVISIONALIZED FORM

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

DIVISIONALIZED FORM

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

ADHOCRACY (1) KARAKTERISTIK



Coordinating Mechanism: Mutual adjustment



Key Part of Organization: ƒ Support staff (in the Administrative Adhocracy, together with the Operating Core in the Operating Adhocracy)



Main Design Parameters: ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

Liaison devices Organic structure Selective decentralization Horizontal job specialization, training Functional & market grouping concurrently

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

ADHOCRACY (2) KARAKTERISTIK

• Situational Factors: ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

Complex Dynamics (sometimes disparate) environment Young (especially Operating Adhocracy) Sophisticated & often automated technical system (in the Administrative Adhocracy) ƒ Fashionable

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

ADHOCRACY

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

ADHOCRACY

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

ADHOCRACY

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

DIMENSI ORGANISASI

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Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB

DIMENSI ORGANISASI

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TI-3252: Perancangan Organisasi STRUKTUR ORGANISASI

Departemen Teknik Industri FTI-ITB TI-3252: Perancangan Organisasi Struktur Organisasi (Mintzberg) Laboratorium Sistem Produksi www.lspitb.org ©200...

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