THE N A V Y
In the world of lifting and hoisting FAVCO is almost everywhere
The magazine of the Navy League of
CONTENTS Pot* Book
Eiro — I ho
The Cruise the
5 Is it Goodbye Navy
Sea Cadel Corps News
Missile Boats and the Royal sundry
(a photographic recordl
Official Opening of T.S.
News from Britain
Nautical Notes from all Compass Points
The views expressed in articles appearing in this publication are those of the authors concerned They do not necessarily represent the views of the editor, the Navy league, or official opinions or policy Published by Hie Navy League of Australia, 6 6 Clarence Street, Sydney, N.S.W., 5 0 0 0 ; Tel.: 1 9 - 6 5 3 1 Postal Address: Bo« 1719, G P.O., Sydney. N.S.W.. 3001 All Correspondence Should be Directed to the Editor EDITOR: Dennis P. Trickelt, Esq.. Box C17«, Clarence Street Post Office, Sydney, N.S.W., 3 0 0 0 . Australia. ADVERTISING AND PUBLICATION: PERCIVAL PUBLISHING CO PTY LTD SYDNEY MELBOURNE ADELAIDE BRISBANE PfSTH H06A.RT 106 Henderson Rd. 17 ElKabeth Sr 17 Curr.e St 546 Queen St 43 St George's Tee 152 Collins SI AI„ondr,O o 2015 Melbourne. 3000 Adela.de. 5COO Br,.bane. 4000 Perth 6000 h 4 o ° 7000 'hone: 69 6231 Phone 62 6411 Phone 51-6225 Ph«,e 31-2531 Phone: 2T 203I PhSeeJyjj
THE N A V Y PATRON:
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LEAGUE OF Right
FEDERAL COUNCIL "resident: Commander J. B. Howse, V.R.D R.A.N.V.R. Deputy President: It. Cmdr. F. G. Evons M.B.E.. V.R.D., R.A.N.V.R. Secretary: It Cmdr. A. A. Andrews. M B E. R.A.N (Ret d), 28 Royal Street. Chcts wood. N.S.W , 2067. •"lew South Wales Division Patron: His Excellency, the Governor of New South Wales. Chairman: Rec.* Admirai H. A. Showers. CB.E. Secretory: lieut. Cmdr A A Andrews. M.B.E . R A N. (Retd). 28 Royal Street. Chotswood. Sydney. 2067 Victorian Division 'atron: His excellency." The Governor of Victoria. ihoirmon: It. Cmdr. F. G. Evans. M.B.E . V.R.D.. R.A.N.V R.
Secretary: Miss E. C. Shorrocks, 528 Collins Street. Melbourne. 3000. Queensland Division 'otron: His Excellency, The Governor of Queensland. Chairmon: Cdr. N S. Pixley, M.B.E . V.R.D . R.A.N R. (Retd.) Hon. Secretary: G B O'Neill. Esq . Box 376E. G.P.O . Brisbane. 4001 Australian Capital Territory Division Chairman: Commonder J. B. Howse. V.R.D . R A.N.V.i?. Hon. Secretary: Commonder D. M. Blake V.R.D., R.A.N.V.R., 60 limestone Ave.. Ainslie. 2602 Northern Territory Division Patron: His Honour the Administrator Choirmon: lieut. Cdr. J. J Ravenscroft.
the Naval Board: Director of Naval Reserves, Captain R. C Savage. D.S C , R.A.N.; lieut. Cmdr. E. D. Sandberg. R.A.N, ry leoout:
Commander J. B. Howse, V.R.D., R.A.N.V.R. R.A.N.V.R.
V.R.D., R.A.N.V.R. Hon. Secretary: Mrs V. M Slide. C/• H.M.A.S. "Melville", Darwin. 5790 AUSTRALIAN
February-March-April, 1 9 6 9
Representative from Division, also—
South Australian Division Patron: His Excellency. The Governor at South Australia Chairman: T. Froncts Matters. Esq. Hon. Secretary: Miss Penny Wardle. Box 1529M. G.P.O Adelaide. 5001.
Tasmanian Division Patron: Vice Admiral Sir Guy Wyott. K.B.E.. CB. Hon. Secretory: K. M. Uhr Henry. Esq.
Western Australian Division Patron: His Excellency. The Governor at Western Australia Chairman: Roland Smith. Esq Hon. Secretary: R A Hannah, Esq . I t } Coode Street Como. 6152
S C Cdr. I E Forsythe lieut. Cmdr. F. G. Evans. V.R.D.. R.A.N.V.R.
It. Cmdr. A . A . R.A.N. (Retd). P a g e Seventeen
BOOK REVIEW CARIBBEAN
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By TOM CRICHTON Publisher: Robert Hale Limited, London (our copy supplied by Hicks Smith & Sons Pty, Ltd, Sydney. Price $3.25. 207 pages. Published: January, 1969. Review by When the yacht-chartering season ,.ime to an end in the Mediterranean. T o m Crichton set off across ihe Atlantic in his 50-foot yacht Jack L o n d o n " to try his luck in ihe West Indies. This book tells of his adventures on the way. his experiences in the West Indies, and the return journey across the Atlantic. A s a straight-out narrative the hook is superb. The author's crew on the way over were an American would-be bullfighter, an Knglish Divinity student and two hard drinking seamen—a Finn and a Dane. (The dust-jacket, incidentally. calls them "two rumbustious Swedes"). The adventures of this little band arc faithfully recorded hy the author. When he arrived at St. Thomas, in the Virgin Islands. Crichton. ifter an initial set-to with officialdom. settled down to the business i'f chartering his yacht to the tourists. His descriptions of the trious islands in the West Indies which he visited are first class, evoking in me a strong desire to • isit all these, places. ( A lot of he places mentioned appear in the January issue of the "National (•eographic"). Crichton's descriptions of some " f his paying guests are very telling. His first charter was fairly disasrous; the charterers were a ghastly •ursome referred to as "The People iom Sandusky". Other charterers >ere more likeable, and I am sure eaders will be enchanted by the ale of the bibulous Mr. Thornton nd the search for his misplaced lotor cruiser. I feel that the publishers have -t M r . Crichton down in their resentation of the book. For a art, the proofreading must have een rather slipshod, as there are 'O many spelling mistakes and r bruary-March-April,
misprints. Again, the dust.iacket notes appear to have been written by someone who had not read the book very thoroughly (perhaps this is to make sure that book reviewers actually read the book and do not just rely on the dustjacket). However, this book can be recommended for its fascinating des-
criptions of the West Indies and of yachting generally. The author's acute observations of human beings in general and his fellow Americans in particular make the book a better than average travel or yachting book. One final thought—a map or two would add a lot of interest to a book such as this.
T o "The Navy", Box C I 7 8 , Clarence Street Post Office. Sydney, N A W . 2000. Australia.
I enclose $2.30, being ^subscription to " T h e N a v y " magazine for l i years (refer notes below). Name Street Suburb
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The navies of ten countries were represented o n a United States N a v a l S u p p l y M a n a g e m e n t course w h i c h visited C a n a d a late last year. C o u r s e m e m b e r s included representatives f r o m T h a i l a n d . K o r e a . Chile. Germany. Philippines. Canada. Fcuador. Turkey and Brazil. W h i l s t in the M o n t r e a l area the g r o u p of senior naval officers visited the N a v a l S u p p l y D e p o t . M a n and H i s W o r l d and the C o l l e g e Militaire. R o y a l in St. Jean. F o r a two day visit to Ottawa they were welcomed by MajorCieneral F . D . A r m o u r . Deputy C h i e f of Logistics. C a n a d i a n Forces, and attended briefings given by other senior officers from the headquarters. A t the Capital visits were made to the C a n a d i a n F o r c e s Base R o c k cliffe and the Aeronautical M u s e u m . T h e final two d a y s of the tour were spent at C . F . B . Shearwater when the guests viewed facilities at H . M . C . Dockyard and other military installations in the H a l i f a x area.
Hydrofoil torpedo boats for Communists
Phones: 3151 and 2113 THE NAVY
PEOPLE S REPUBLIC O F C H I N A
Nautical Notes from all Compass Points
T h e N a v y o f the People's R e p u b l i c of C h i n a is reported to have a new class o f h y d r o f o i l torpedo boats designed and built in the country. S o m e 26 craft are believed to have i^een constructed since 1966 Particulars gleaned so far include a displacement o f 45 tons with a length of 73 ft. and a d r a u g h t of 3.1 ft.. j nd an armament of two 21-in. torpedo tubes a n d two 12.7 m m . I tins. I n C o m m u n i s t C h i n a they are I n o w n as the Huchwan class. O n e t f this class is reported to have I een transferred to the N o r t h Vietr am naval forces, but it is not k n o w n whether o n a permanent or loan basis. February-March-April,
T h i s class brings the total n u m ber of C h i n e s e torpedo, g u n and missile craft of the fast patrol boat type up to over 3 0 0 units. Ballistic-missile submarine force? A c c o r d i n g to the I n d i a n Institute of Defence Studies the C h i n e s e N a v y has 24 long-range s u b m a r i n e s capable of l a u n c h i n g nuclear missiles. T h e Institute also states that C h i n a ' s naval strength, in addition to the submarines, consists of f o u r destroyers. five destroyer-escorts. 11 frigates. 18 minesweepers and 35 patrol boats. FRANCE Naval
F r a n c e m o u n t e d a large scale naval exhibition last October. T w o new types of fast patrol boats were s h o w n with launchers for a new surface-to-surface missile, called the MM 38. Fxocete. made b y N o r d Aviation. The boats are obviously the French version of the Russian Komar a n d Osa class. T h e M M 38 incorporates a n u m b e r of A S 30 Kormoran components: weighs 1.540 lbs. has automatic guidance and a range of 20 nautical miles. T h e missile rises initially to about 50 ft. then descends to 10 ft. and h a s a speed of M a c h I. It w o u l d appear to be a great advance o n the R u s s i a n Styx w h i c h is slow a n d travels at a considerable height. At o n l y 10 ft. above the water a M a c h I missile w o u l d appear to be almost i m m u n e to detection by radar, m a k i n g it very difficult to shoot it d o w n either b y g u n s or anti-missile missiles. T h e o n l y defence w o u l d be some f o r m of r a d i o countermeasures. but the p r o b l e m will be to detect it in time to take a n y effective action o f a n y sort. I f the missile will d o all that is claimed for it, the F r e n c h w o u l d seem to have hit o n a real winner. THE NAVY
* O r d e r for N o r d 262s Reports f r o m France suggest that up to 39 N o r d 262 t u r b o p r o p transports m a y be ordered by the F r e n c h N a v y a n d A i r Force. T w o have recently been ordered b y the N a v y for crew training and personnel transports, and the A i r F o r c e is said to be negotiating for six for short range liaison operations. N a v y planning, however, involves a total purchase o f 15 N o r d 262s to replace S 0 - 3 0 Brctagncs a n d C - 4 7 s by 1970. a n d the N a v y m a y also require another 18 of the type to replace C - 4 7 s n o w used for liaison duties. T h e T u r b o m c c a Bastan 6 engines p o w e r i n g initial military deliveries will later be replaced b y Bastan 7s. INDIA 'Creepers' acquired from Soviet Union C o n s i d e r i n g that India is still in the C o m m o n w e a l t h she is pretty cagey about her recent acquisitions f r o m the Soviet U n i o n . T h e r e was a time w h e n all her warships were either former ships of the R o y a l N a v y or British-built, but n o w that she h a s gone s h o p p i n g elsewhere for her naval hardware she is keeping her light under a bushel. A c c o r d i n g to a recent report w h i c h reached this c o l u m n two escort ships of the Soviet Peiya class were transferred in the s u m mer f r o m the U . S . S . R . for incorporation in the I n d i a n N a v y . T h e s e lithe flush-deckers have such a squat funnel, such a comparative lack o f superstructure, a n d such a low-lying silhouette i n general that they are said to be able to creep up over the h o r i z o n or t h r o u g h any sort o f white-horse seas without attracting too m u c h attention. But. as they are reputed to be capable o f d o i n g 30 knots, perhaps 'creep' is not the right w o r d . E v e n at this speed, h o w ever. their reported engine power seems a bit high. T h e y are said to have two diesels o f 8.000 h.p. and two gas turbines o f 15.000 h.p. each, with two shafts. ( P h o t o next page).
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These handy little escorts or mini-frigates are believed to displace 1.050 tons standard a n d 1.200 tons full load vwith an overall length of 2 6 2 ft. and a beam of 32 ft. F o r their size they are fairly well armed with four 3-in. ( 7 6 m m . ) g u n s in two gunhouses. one f o r w a r d a n d one aft. four 16-barrel antisubmarine rocket launchers, two abreast before the bridge a n d two abreast abaft the after turret, a n d five 21-in. torpedo tubes in a quintuple bank abaft (he exhaust vent or funnel. They were designed with a view to fitting two mine-rails and have a minelaying stern configuration. They do not look very expensive, although they appear to have all it takes for in and out defensive and offensive warfare. O n e cannot help thinking that at least one N A T O navy c o u l d d o with ships like this; modified, of course, to national characteristics and conditions. ( P h o t o below).
membered that Britain h a s agreed to station a s q u a d r o n o f Shackletons in M a l t a for this purpose. JAPAN Plessey
I he Plessey Electronics G r o u p is to supply two high-definition sonar equipments to the Jap.inese N a v y . T h e equipment, designed by the Admiralty Underwater Weapons. Establishment, a n d m a n u f a c t u r e d at Plessey's M a r i n e Systems D i v i s i o n , f o r m s the core of a successful British minehunting system. Picture (below) s h o w s the operations r o o m for the s o n a r system being supplied.
Italy at present uses G r u m m a n S 2 T r a c k e r s , whose range is limited. T h e advent of the Atlantic will m e a n that Italy could cover very nearly the whole of the Mediterranean. N A T O is pressing hard for increased maritime surveillance o f the M e d i t e r r a n e a n a n d it will be re-
Italy has been evaluating three new types of long-range maritime aircraft, the Breguet Atlantic, the L o c k h e e d O r i o n and the H a w k e r Siddeley N i m r o d . Late last year an order was placed for 18 Breguet Atlantic A . S . W . aircraft and deliveries are scheduled to start in 1970. Price per unit has been stated to be S3.200.000.
Thirteen R o y a l M a l a y s i a n N a v y ships participated with vessels of the British. A u s t r a l i a n and New Z e a l a n d navies in exercises in the Straits o f M a l a c c a d u r i n g J a n u a r y and February. O r g a n i s e d by the British C o m mander o f the F a r Fast Fleet, the exercise was held in the N o r t h e r n half of the Straits and involved a total o f 4 0 ships. T h e a i m of the operation was to exercise the ships of the four navies in all aspects o f maritime and a m p h i b i o u s warfare. Prior to exercise Fortex 69. ships of the Royal Malaysian Navy. R o y a l T h a i N a v y and the R o y a l Navy carried out mine-sweeping exercises (sponsored by the R o y a l T h a i N a v y ) off Phuket in T h a i l a n d .
MALAYSIA Exercise "Fortex
A l s o f r o m Plessey comes news of the successful trials and widespread adoption o f their Plessey-Sippican E x p e n d a b l e B a t h y t h e r m o g r a p h system (X.B.T.). P r i m a r i l y for use in anti-submarine operations. the X . B . T . enables a s h i p to obtain accurate a n d continuous temperature-versus-depth recordings without h a v i n g to reduce speed or stop. A complete temperature record d o w n to depths of 1.500 feet can n o w be made in less than 9 0 seconds at speeds of up to 30 knots.
Co-ordination of activities of British. A m e r i c a n and Italian landbased maritime patrol aircraft in maintaining and extending surveillance o f the Mediterranean sea is the m a i n function of a new N A T O naval command MARAIRMED. w h i c h was set up at N a p l e s late in 1968. B a c k g r o u n d of the NATO decision is the increasing deployment o f Soviet warships in the area, the latest estimate of which lists one helicopter carrier, one cruiser, eight or ten destroyers, about an equal n u m b e r o f submarines, and v a r i o u s types equipped for intelligence missions. T h e U . S . N , already has a maritime reconnaissance c o m m a n d at N a p l e s , known as COMUSF A I R W I N G . equipped with O r i o n s
90-1981 - 90-1987 - 90-2627 Pag*
a n d N e p t u n e s , a n d the U . K . uses two photo-reconnaissance C a n b e r r a s q u a d r o n s based at M a l t a . B r i t a i n has agreed to assign a s q u a d r o n o f Shackletor.s to MAKAIRMED early this year, replacing them later with its new jet N i m r o d type. Italy will later have Breguet Atlantic's to assign to this role. Exercise
W i t h the focus so m u c h o n the R u s s i a n fleet in the M e d i t e r r a n e a n these days, it seems unfortunate that the large N A T O exercise 'Eden A p p l e ' recently carried out in that area did not receive m o r e publicity. T h e r e d o not appear to have been a n y press representatives embarked. Indeed, a television team w h i c h went out specially to cover the exercise returned e m p t y handed. T h e exercise, w h i c h h a d been planned for some time and was not laid o n because o f the recent R u s sian m o v e s in the M e d . , took place f r o m 5th to 20th N o v e m b e r . It w a s conducted b y A d m i r a l L . S o t g i u (COMNAVSOUTH). from his headquarters in M a l t a . F o r c e s taking part were d r a w n f r o m the British. F r e n c h . U.S.. Italian a n d G r e e k navies together with a n u m b e r of shore-based maritime patrol aircraft p r o v i d e d principally b y the F r e n c h . T h e R . N ' s contribution included two guided-
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nel, a n d
tic) last November ed
T h e exercise three phases: (a) (b) (c)
5th to 9th Working-up. 10th to 16th Tactical. 16th to 20th Assembly and Naples.
November. November. November. w a s h - u p at
During the w o r k i n g - u p period the forces were divided into two. British. F r e n c h a n d Italian surface ships, including the Focli, tested procedures for air defence, replenishment at sea a n d anti-submarine warfare operating south of T o u l o n . T h e "enemy' submarines were provided by the U.S.. British and F r e n c h : F r e n c h Atlantic m a r i time aircraft carried out ASW patrols. A l l forces were under the overall c o m m a n d o f V i c e - A d m i r a l de Seitivauk de Greische. the F r e n c h C - i n - C M e d . at T o u l o n .
D u r i n g the second phase, the N A T O fleet continued to w o r k in g r o u p s a n d both groups were attacked by Eagle's Buccaneers f r o m S a r d i n i a a n d M a l t a , and C a n b e r r a s from Malta. A m o c k a m p h i b i o u s task force was f o r m e d a n d crossed the central M e d i t e r r a n e a n to south o f Greece, near K i t h e r a . where it was attacked by G r e e k F . P . B s A n o t h e r g r o u p of ships simulated a c o n v o y passing t h r o u g h the Sicilian Straits and was heavily attacked f r o m the air a n d b y s u b marines. For once the usual Russian s n o o p e r s seem to have been conspicuous o n l y by their absence, a h i g h l y u n u s u a l occurrence. M o s t o f the ships taking part rendezvoused on completion at N a p l e s a n d G a e t a o n 16th N o v e m ber a n d a ' w a s h - u p ' w a s held at the N A T O headquarters o f C - i n - C S o u t h at B a g n o l i .
A m o n g s t the F r e n c h ships taking part were the aircraft carrier Foch a n d the cruiser Colbert. I n all there were m o r e than 5 0 warships.
T h e second g r o u p operated east o f M a l t a under the c o m m a n d of Vice-Admiral A. M . Lewis flying his flag in H . M . S . Hampshire. It consisted of ships f r o m the British. F r e n c h , G r e e k and Italian navies; it carried out surface a n d air g u n nery exercises, including the b o m bardment o f the r o c k of Filfola, the well known gunnery target off Malta.
John Bush (Allied Eastern
missile destroyers, two destroyers, eight frigates, four patrol submarines and five R.F.As. In addition. Buccaneers. Sea Vixens and G a n n e t s f r o m Eagle, w h o is refitting, were deployed to M a l t a and S a r d i n i a a n d carried out strikes a n d air-defence missions.
who is seen here (right) introducing miral
Sotgui, N a v a l
Forces, under his overall command.
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Swedes Build Underground Base Stockholm's new naval base, on the island of M u s k o in the capital's southern archipelago, will be inaugurated in the autumn of 1969. it was announced last week. I he $60,000,000 project includes a complex system of docks, depots, workshops and offices blasted out of the solid granite to form a selfcontained. nuclear bomb proof base for a staff of 1.250 military and civil personnel.
While few facts have so far been released about the size and design of this base, which is claimed to be one of the best-equipped and safest of its kind in the world, it is understood that it has accommodation for underground basing and overhaul of a wide range of ships, including destroyers, submarines and torpedo boats. About a million cubic metres of rock have been blasted away to make adequately-sized funnels and other service facilities. For communications with the mainland, the military authorities have built a three-kilometer underwater tunnel, which was opened for traffic a few years ago.
ESCON CHEMICALS ABBOTT ROAD, SEVEN HILLS, N.S.W., AUSTRALIA Cables: RESINS, Sydney
Compliments to the Navy from . . .
J. R. VERNON 77 AUSTRAL STREET, PENSHURST, N.S.W. TELEPHONE:
NEW BRITISH FAST PATROL BOAT IS FAST AND HARD-HITTING A new fost patrol boat — mor* powerfully armed than any other vessel of its sixe — has been designed by a British Company. It will be more effective at a greatly increased range, with better sea keeping abilities and longer endurance, and will be on trials early in the summer of 1969. With an overall length of 142 feet and top speed of about 40 knots, the boat is available in both Rolls-Royce gas turbine and diesel engine versions. Armament includes modern, highly accurate light guns and 5 guided missiles both controlled by equipment which incorporates search and tracking radar for operating them separately or simultaneously by day or night. These weapons make the boot effective ogafcst both aircraft and major fleet units. The steel hull is basically a round bilge form, wi h a spray deflecting chine extending from forward to aft of admidships, and a flat run aH. The superstructure is of aluminium alloy ond the displacement of the craft is about 200 tons. Accommodation can vary according to the power fitted, but each arrangement provides for a captain and two or three other officers, 4-6 petty officers and 20-24 junior ratings.
. . .
BELL & ORDERS ELECTRICAL
95-97 CHETWYND STREET,
This class was foreshadowed in ihe 1967 Supplementary Statement on Defence Policy and is a smaller version of the original Type 82 design, of which only one ship. H.M.S. Bristol, has been ordered. I h e Type-42 will have Seadart surface-to-air missiles—as will the Bristol—but will substitute a helicopter for the Ikara anti-submarine system. I h e ship will be a fast, all-gasturbine ship with the principal task of providing air defence for the fleet. In addition she will have useful anti-submarine and surface gunnery armament and will be able to perform the wide range of normal peace-time duties required by warships.
P.O. Box 10, Seven Hills
First Type 42 ordered The first of the Type-42 guidedmissile destroyers was ordered from Vickers. Barrow-in-Furness, on 14th November.
I he Seadart will be fired from an improved type launcher, forward of the bridge. Further forward will be a new type of 4.5-in. gun. with a high automatic rale of fire. Both Seadart and the gun will be linked to two tracker-illuminator radars and a controlling computer. N o r m a l air surveillance radar will also be carried. The helicopter will be the new Anglo-French WGI3. a twinengined machine which is being developed jointly by Sud Aviation and Westland. It will carry an airto-surface weapon for use against lightly defended surface ship targets, such as fast patrol boats. The W G 1 3 will be larger than the singleengined W a s p now carried by most frigates in the R.N. The main propulsion will he provided by flexible gas turbines; RollsRoyce Olympus engines providing full power for high speeds, and the smaller Tyne engines being used for cruising. The twin screws will have reversible pitch for manoeuvring. Accommodation is being provided for a crew of 300. though the planned complement—thanks to intense study of this aspect—will be very much fewer than this. Page
C o m p l i m e n t s to all R . A . N . Personnel a n d H . M . A . S .
— c h e m i c a l o r b i o l o g i c a l — i s not yet possible, but the wearing o f s i m i l a r protective c l o t h i n g a n d respirators is n o w the accepted g u a r d against both types o f attack.
from . . .
FLINDERS HOTEL WEST HEAD,
of the nuclear-powered
Counter Lunch S e r v e d
R e m e m b e r C h a p s w h e n at the G u n n e r y Call in for a C o l d
Britain has developed an early w a r n i n g device for the detection of chemical or biological attack. K n o w n as L I D A R . it operates in conjunction with early warning radar a n d utilises a r u b y laser beam w h i c h projects its light o n to any radar-detected aircraft to reflect f r o m a n y chemical or biological c l o u d emitted by the e v a d i n g aircraft. T h i s development, still in the experimental stage, but showing
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s u b m a r i n e s a n d both the N a v y
C o n g r e s s have expressed c o n c e r n as to whether this n u m b e r is sufficient for the l o n g term future. A t present only
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T h e U . S . N a v y is at present limited
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"distinct possibilities", was disclosed for the first time late in O c t o b e r at a n " o p e n d a y " held at the U . K . m i c r o - b i o l o g i c a l station at P o r t o n . It is explained that t h o u g h the minute d r o p l e t s of such a c l o u d are too s m a l l to reflect a radar beam, the m u c h shorter wave length o f a laser b e a m satisfactorily reflects its light f r o m them, to be collected by a N e w t o n i a n telescope a n d focused on a photo-electric cell which w o r k s o n oscillograph. Differentiation between the two types o f c l o u d
T h e U . S . N a v y is g i v i n g serious consideration to the future role of the s u b m a r i n e . G e n e r a l D y n a m i c s has been g i v e n a study contract to investigate the future of the nuclear powered attack submarine. The study is to cover both the design a n d system engineering aspects a n d its operational use.
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lion for the development of a m a n n e d underwater station a mile beneath the o c e a n surface. I he Naval Civil Engineering l a b o r a t o r y ( N C E I . ) scientific station will provide a shirtsleeve e n v i r o n m e n t for five scientists at depths o f m o r e than 1.700 meters in the o p e n ocean. It will be an operating platform from which scientists can accomplish w o r k o n the bottom and in the water column.
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I he station will be c o m p o s e d o f two vertical cylinders resulting in a vehicle 12 meters long. 14 meters high, a n d 8.6 meters wide. O n e o f the cylinders will house a power plant using an umbilical cable to the shore o r surface. 1 he scientists will live a n d w o r k in the other cylinder.
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L a b o r a t o r y space will be provided o n two decks, a n d a third deck will be used for berthing a n d living quarters. A fourth deck is p r o v i d e d for station operation and control.
F r o m the station, scientists will be able to observe undersea e n v i r o n ments either directly t h r o u g h viewports o r indirectly by closed circuit television. T h e y will be able to collect s a m p l e s with a m a n i p u l a t o r and b r i n g them into the station's pressure envelope t h r o u g h a l o c k in/lock-out system.
I n use. the station will be
168 F R A N K L I N
U . S . N a v y was expected earlier this year to m a k e a decision between G r u m m a n Aircraft E n g i n e e r ing C o r p o r a t i o n and McDonnell Douglas as the selected prime
February-March-April. Poge Fourteen
This new jungle penetrating rescue device has a five-foot u m brella that pops out to protect two m e n f r o m the jungle foliage d u r i n g hoisting. T h e 21-foot long shield is lowered f r o m rescue helicopters to retrieve d o w n e d airmen. It is scheduled for delivery to the Fleet this year.
tively b u o y a n t a n d tethered f r o m a n
contractor to develop the F-14 long range supersonic naval fighter ( f o r m e r l y the V F X - I ) . w h i c h is designed to replace the cancelled naval version of the F - l l l . and expected to enter p r o d u c t i o n about 1973. It will incorporate the powerplant. a d v a n c e d navigational and other systems of the a b a n d o n e d F - I I I B . a n d c a r r y the P h o e n i x missile system also designed for it. Navy
Laboratory A conceptual contract h a s been awarded to the Electric Boat D i v i sion of General D y n a m i c s CorporaTHE
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T h e G e a r P r o d u c t s Department o f A F . I T u r b i n e - G e n e r a t o r s Ltd. has completed works-testing at R u g b y o f the first o f 11 sets o f p r o p u l s i o n gearing for U . S . N a v y P . G . M . class patrol boats. O u r picture (above) s h o w s the single reduction p r i m a r y gearbox. T h i s divides the input f r o m a single 13.500 h.p. gas turbine between two oulput shafts which provide the input drive to the port and starboard secondary gearboxes. T h e ratio is 5.500 2.400 r.p.m. T h e dicsel drive is taken to its o w n pinion in each secondary gearbox. S.S.S. clutches at both turbine and diesel inputs to the secondary gearbox provide automatic transfer of drive f r o m one power source to the other.
The USS DOLPHIN (AOSS-555), launched at Portsmouth. N.H., on Juno t , 1968, is the world's deepest diving operational submarine. The ship Is 150 feet long, has a beam of 18 foot, displaces 900 tons and can carry 12 font of oceanographic equipment. Capable of operating without the support of a mother ship, the DOLPHIN will be used for development and test of naval equipment and basic oceanographic research.
N a v y Develops ' D o g Fight' Missile Control and propulsion subsystems for the N a v y ' s short-range, air-to-air, " d o g fight" missile arc being developed in-house, while an all-aspect infrared seeker is under study at Hughes Aircraft. The
" d o g fight" missile is c o m p a r a b l e to the A I M - 8 2 short-range missile ( S R M ) A i r F o r c e plans to begin studies o n this s u m m e r . B o t h m i s siles are intended for use at ranges of between 1.000 feel a n d two miles. They would replace either the S i d e w i n d e r o r F a l c o n heat-seeking missiles n o w in the inventory.
Poseidon S e c o n d test launch of a L o c k h e e d Poseidon l o n g range ballistic missile — t h e m u l t i - w a r h e a d nuclear F . B . M . planned to replace Polaris missiles in 31 of the U . S . N . ' s s u b m a r i n e s f r o m early in the 1 9 7 0 s — w a s carried out b y the N a v y f r o m C a p e K e n n e d y in late N o v e m b e r , three m o n t h s after the first test launching. T h e two-stage, solid-fuel missile, measuring 34 ft. long x 6 ft. diameter, was r a m p - l a u n c h e d to splash d o w n in an Atlantic O c e a n target area. ->ut results o f the test were not tnnounced. Sixteen o f the missiles will be carried in each s u b m a r i n e , tnd the 3 ft. greater length a n d 1.5 ft. bigger diameter o f the Poseilon will require modifications in the u b m a r i n e s to carry it. E a c h w a r nead c a n be i n d i v i d u a l l y targeted, vith greater accuracy than the i'olaris system permits.
This ASW student bottle simulator, patterned after the attack centre on destroyers, brings together in a tactical sitwoion information from sonar and radar to create a realistic situation. The $2.4 million device sots up two target submarines and a U.S. destroyer equipped with ASSOC missiles, supported by two other destroyers or cruisers and three fixed-wing or helicopter aircraft. THE
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It is difficult to see h o w a 300mile missile could be a i m e d against a ship target, unless the latter were k n o w n to be entirely o n its o w n . The missile's homing device, whether radar or infra-red. w o u l d find it difficult to select the right target after a 300-mile journey.
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T h e Soviet missiles d o not appear to be very fast and. as they will have to fly high, will be easily detectable by i««dar and a sitting duck for E C M or ship-to-air missiles. It is difficult, therefore, to see exactly h o w the R u s s i a n s intend to use these expensive weapons.
The Cruiser Helicopter Carrier "MOSKVA". abaft the funnel, p r o b a b l y quite large e n o u g h to take V T O L aircraft and. although one photograph s h o w e d a helicopter o n deck, it seems likely that the ship was designed with V T O L aircraft in mind. T h e s h i p has two. 12 barrel anti-submarine missile launchers forward, p r o b a b l y to launch G o a ship-to-air missiles, and a further
missile launcher of a slightly different type right forward. T h e latter c o u l d well be for some f o r m o f rocket-propelled depth-charge or torpedo, rather like the A u s t r a l i a n — I k a r a , particularly as it has been reported that the s h i p was designed as an anti-submarine vessel. F o u r guns, perhaps 3-inch, rest in twin m o u n t s o n the 0 1 level.
The editor invites persons to submit articles a n d p h o t o g r a p h s for inclusion in the m a g a z i n e , but regrets that no p a y m e n t can be m a d e for contributions submitted. Contributions should be addressed: The Editor, " T h e N a v y " , Box C I 7 8 , Clarence Street Post Office, Sydney, N . S . W . , 2 0 0 0 , Australia.
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It w o u l d seem m o r e probable that an aircraft w o u l d be used to guide the missile in the final stages of its flight: in w h i c h case it w o u l d have to sit somewhere in sight of its target and probably maintain a fairly steady course. T h i s again seems unlikely as it w o u l d be so vulnerable to the target's antiaircraft armament or to fighters.
Helicopter C a r r i e r ? A n u m b e r o f p h o t o g r a p h s have n o w been published of the latest R u s s i a n ship to appear in the M e d i t e r r a n e a n — t h e Moskva (Moscow). T h e s h i p gives the appearance of a cruiser with a large flight deck
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U.S.S.R. Ship-to-ship missiles Considerable publicity has recently been g i v e n to the R u s s i a n Shaddock a n d Strela ship-to-ship cruise missiles. T h e former is reported to have a range o f 3 0 0 miles a n d the latter 100 miles. Whilst it is k n o w n that the K rest a and Kynda class of large guidedmissile destroyers are fitted with S h a d d o c k , a n d the smaller Krupny and Kildin class with Strela. it is not absolutely certain that they are intended for use against ships: they might equally be intended for bombardment.
The editor does not hold himself responsible for manuscripts, t h o u g h every effort will be m a d e to return those with which a stamped a n d addressed envelope is enclosed.
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O f the three small frigates or corvettcs in the Irish N a v y , Maev (ex-H.M.S. O.xlip) has been taken out of commission and placed in a state of preservation, and her two sister ships. Cliona (ex-H.M.S. Bellwort) and Macliu (ex-H.M.S. Borage), have been largely disarmed. refitted and relegated to fishery protection duties. Each of the two latter has lost her twopounder gun. two 20 mm. Oerlikon anti-aircraft guns. 'Hedgehog' multiple anti-submarine mortar and depth charges. This is not very surprising, since these former corvettes of the Royal N a v y (re-rated as frigates after the war) were of the well-known 'Flower' class hurriedly designed on the outbreak of the Second W o r l d War, having been laid down in 1940. launched in 1941 and completed in 1941-42. and could fairly be described as somewhat ancient. A span of 26 to 27 years is fair enough for ships of this type. Maev was built by A . & J. Inglis Ltd.. Pointhouse. Glasgow, and Cliona and Macha by George Brown & C o . ( M a r i n e ) Ltd.. Greenock. O f 1,020 tons standard and tons full load displacement, all ships were also armed with guns in addition to the
1,280 three 4-in. other
weapons mentioned above. Their propelling machinery comprises two boilers and triple-expansion steam reciprocating engines originally designed for a speed of 16 knots, but the best sea speed in latter years was about 14 knots and it is understood that none of them can now make more than a bare 10 knots. Their normal complement in full commission was 78 officers and ratings. This laying up and demilitarization of the 'Flower' class virtually spells goodbye to the Irish Navy, for apart from these three old corvettcs there arc only three small tenders used as service craft, ferries and general utility, namely the John Adams, of 94 tons gross, launched
in 1934. General Mi Hardy, of 100
tons gross, launched in 1928; and Wyndham. of 93 tons gross, launched as long ago as 1903. The last is non-operational and quotations for the purchase of this vessel have been invited. A few years ago the Irish Naval Service comprised three frigates, five motor torpedo boats and three other naval vessels, but the M T B s . numbered M l . M 2 , M 3 . M 4 and M 5 . all built by John I. Thornycroft & C o . Ltd.. Southampton, with a dis-
placement of 32 tons, an armament of two 21-in. torpedoes, two antiaircraft machine guns and depth charges, and a speed of 40 knots, were discarded one by one. The name of the Commanding Officer of the Irish Naval Service, a Captain, appears right at the bottom of the Irish list of Principal Military Appointments including two generals and 15 colonels, which is not surprising as his command at present appears to be very thin. The formerly important naval base at Hawlbowline Island off Quecnstown in C o r k Harbour, which has two large dry drocks, now derelict. but built to take big British battleships, and which in more halcyon days used to cater for a large squadron of the Royal N a v y , is now a collection of practically empty or thinly stored buildings. A n d with the preservation, reclassification or sale of the naval ships it looks very much like approaching finis for the Irish Navy. Ireland would, no doubt, be the last to admit that the naval defence of Ireland now devolves upon the Royal Navy, but that is what it boils down to. for the defence of the British Isles, necessarily, logically and integrally, includes them all.
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636-646 W H I T E H O R S E MITCHAM,
T h i s news w a s read in T s i n g t a u is indicating the thin e n d of the wedge w h i c h w o u l d split E u r o p e into t w o c a m p s , a n d a c c o r d i n g l y o n
of A u s t r a l : a ,
Rt. H o n .
His Excellency w a s a n officer of the First Contingent, Australian the Australian troopship O R V I E T O , b o u n d for Port Said
O n 28 J u l y 1914. the C a p t a i n o f the Emden received orders f r o m the G e r m a n G o v e r n m e n t in K i a o c h a u to clear for action. O n this date it will be remembered, affair* in F.urope were i n a very unsettled c o n d i t i o n but a state o f war had not yet been declared between G e r m a n y a n d a n y other nation. O n the f o l l o w i n g d a y news came to Tsingtau b y cable s a y i n g that w a r had been declared between A u s t r i a tnd Servia a n d that R u s s i a h a d started m o b i l i s i n g her troops o n the G e r m a n border.
U n t i l 28 July the Emden lay i n T s i n g t a u h a r b o u r , the naval base o f the G e r m a n N a v y in the Fast and the C a p i t a l of the State of K i a o chau. S h e was a light a r m o u r e d cruiser o f about 3.500 tons displacement. carried ten 4.1 inch g u n s a n d t w o 18 inch torpedo tubes, and was painted a light grey colour. S h e h a d three funnels a n d two masts, and was described b y those w h o saw her as " a very pretty little s h i p " . H e r speed was 23-25 knots.
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T h i s account o f the cruise of Ihe Em Jen is gathered f r o m the translation o f a private d i a r y in shorth a n d belonging to a Petty Officer w h o . in the capacity of Signaller, w a s o n the bridge o f the Emutn throughout her three m o n t h s raiding. T h e bald facts set d o w n in his d i a r y have been supplemented by conversation with those officers and m e n o f the Emden w h o were conveyed as prisoners of w a r f r o m C o l o m b o to Port S a i d o n the A u s t ralian troopship A 3 .
Helena Rubinstein, Dorothy G r a y , O l d
His Excellency, b e i n g one of the f e w officers on b o a r d the O R V I E T O speaking a little G e r m a n , w a s put in charge of the prisoners. D u r i n g this time, he h a d considerable opportunity to discuss their recent a n d very successful r a i d i n g cruise in the Bay of Bengal a n d elsewhere.
141 STATION STREET ASPENDALE, VIC.
After the n o w historic battle between the E M D E N a n d H . M . A . S . SYDNEY, the captain of E M D E N a n d a n u m b e r of his officers were transferred to the ORVIETO, for transport to Suez or Port Said as prisoners of w a r .
DISPENSING C H E M I S T
the G o v e r n o r
W. F. B I C K E R S ft
(JULY — OCTOBER, 1914)
31 J u l y at dusk the Emden put out to sea. h a v i n g taken o n board her full s u p p l y o f food, a m m u n i t i o n a n d coal. S h e steamed out of h a r b o u r with all lights out and her war g u a r d posted, and for three d a y s steamed between N a g a s a k i a n d Shanghai, keeping out o f sight of vessels o f all sorts in the endeavour to keep her position u n k n o w n . S h e was waiting for definite news b y wireless f r o m her base, of war declared between G e r m a n y a n d Russia. T h i s arrived o n the m o r n i n g o f 3rd A u g u s t , a n d with it the news that France was m o b i l i s i n g and that E n g l a n d w o u l d p r o b a b l y be d r a w n into the conflict. O n 4 A u g u s t , the Emden sailed t h r o u g h the Straits o f K o r e a into the Sea o f J a p a n passing N a g a s a k i a n d the island of T s u s u n a just off the Japanese coast. Several steamers were seen o n the h o r i z o n but as her objective at the m o m e n t was the R u s s i a n cruiser Askold she d i d not interfere with merchant s h i p p i n g — but o n the other h a n d tried to keep her identity hidden. T h e Askold had been lying i n S h a n g h a i h a r b o u r previous to the outbreak o f war. but the C a p t a i n o f the Emden c o n c l u d e d that she w o u l d n o w m a k e for the R u s s i a n port o f V l a d i v o s t o c k . A f t e r waiting for several h o u r s i n the track w h i c h the Askold w o u l d p r o b a b l y t a k e — a n d seeing n o signs o f a n y warship, the Emden steamed south, passing between the I s l a n d o f T s u s u n a a n d the m a i n land of Japan. H e r e s m o k e w a s seen o n the h o r i z o n a n d it was evident that s o m e vessel was b o u n d for Vladivostock. The Emden gave THE
chase w h e r e u p o n the strange vessel m a d e straight for land. G r a d u a l l y gaining o n her. the Emden fired blank ammunition w h e n at a range o f about 3 i miles i n hopes o f stopping her. T h e steamer however, believed the Emden to be a s m a l l gunboat o f inferior speed, and kept o n her course. T h e Emden n o w closed in to I J miles a n d fired a d o z e n shots across her b o w s and. o n seeing the shells fall in the water, the steamer stopped a n d was eventually boarded b y an a r m e d party consisting o f an officer a n d ten men. T h e boat turned out to be the Riusan. a R u s s i a n auxiliary cruiser but she h a d not yet been fitted with her g u n s a n d carried n o a m m u n i tion. a n d m o r e o v e r carried m a i l s consigned to Vladivostock. The b o a r d i n g party remained o n b o a r d as a prize crew and took the vessel to T s i n g t a u . all lights being extinguished o n the voyage. O n 5 A u g u s t , whilst o n her w a y to port, a c c o m p a n i e d b y her prize, the Emden received wireless news that " E n g l a n d h a d declared w a r o n Germany" ( s i c ) . S h e replied to T s i n g t a u that she was returning a n d instructed the forts that she w o u l d arrive at 4 a.m. next d a y a c c o m panied b y another s h i p a n d that she was to be allowed to pass into the h a r b o u r . S h e arrived at the appointed time o n 6 A u g u s t a n d leaving the Rjasan lying at a n c h o r in the h a r b o u r , the Emden went alongside the pier where she was again coaled a n d p r o v i s i o n e d to her full capacity. A t 7 p.m. o n the same d a y she again put to sea a c c o m p a n i e d b y Pofe
late then to make any attempt at escape.
Brave the waves in Nylex 'Wavelock' (KEEPS BOATS, S H I P S H A P E ,
The first boat captured was the Greek steamer Pontoporos from Calcutta, which had coal on board for British firms. Six men boarded her and she was made to accompany the Emden. but was subsequently lost, being believed to have been retaken by a British cruiser. O n the same day (10 September) the British steamer lndu.\ was captured. She had been fitted up for the transportation of Indian troops.
K e e p d r y , a n d w a r m , in a N y l e x ' W a v e l o c k ' s p r a y jacket. C u t for c o m f o r t a n d action — with h o o d attached. W a v e l o c k is the i d e a l b o a t c o v e r i n g , too, for, u n l i k e other m a t e r i a l s , it c a n t rot or m i l d e w . Is s h r i n k p r o o f . W a t e r p r o o f . And — t h a n k s to its u n i q u e c o n s t r u c t i o n of n y l o n m e s h l a m i n a t e d b e t w e e n t w o l a y e r s of s t r o n g v i n y l — N y l e x ' W a v e l o c k is m u c h lighter a n d lasts m u c h l o n g e r , too. It's a v a i l a b l e in a r a n g e of c o l o u r s i n c l u d i n g the safety c o l o u r , y e l l o w . As a c o v e r i n g for y o u r b o a t . . . a n d for y o u r o w n p r o t e c t i o n . . . y o u c a n ' t b e a t N y l e x 'Wavelock'. It s h r u g s off salt a n d s p r a y !
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the German collier Mariomunnia carrying 6.000 Ions of coal and a large store of provisions. I he collier carried a crew of 48 officers and men and had a speed of ten knots. From now onwards throughout her three months cruise the Emden showed no lights at night and seldom exceeded an average speed of ten knots.
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From 7 to 12 August the Emden cruised round the China and Japan Seas. She held up the Japanese mail steamer hound from Hong K o n g to Nagasaki but released her as war had not been declared with Japan.
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This circuitous route via Timor was taken to avoid the British China Squadron in the China Sea and also to avoid the possibility of being seen going through the Malay Straits.
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She now commenced her journey southward to the Indian Ocean, a stop being made at the Marianne Islands where she coaled for the first time from her own collier. She then continued southwards arriving at the Island of Arigaur on the morning of the 13th, where she again coaled and set out for Timor. Their object at this stage was to keep concealed and reach the Bay of Bengal without it being known that a German cruiser was in the vicinity.
259 W I L L I A M
S.M.S. (Seiner Majestats Schiff) EMDEN
Timor was reached on 24 August. Here she again coaled and sailed westward the same evening through the Flores Sea where on the 1st
September she held up the Dutch steamer / r o m p . Being a neutral vessel she was allowed to go. and the Emden carried on through the l.ambok Straits between some islands off the coast of Java. She now passed well to the south of Java in order to avoid all shipping, as neutral vessels when set free would convey the news of her whereabouts to the nearest port. O n reaching the northern shores of Sumatra she closed in to land and coaled from the Marcimiannia in smooth water. From here on 6 September she sailed straight into the Bay of Bengal to start her crusade against merchant shipping, starting on the trade route between Colombo and Calcutta, some 250 miles to the South East of Madras. It must be remembered that up till this moment there was no indication of any hostile vessel being in these seas. A n d moreover a notice had been issued by the Indian Government to the effect that the Bay of Bengal was clear of the enemy's ships. For this reason no merchant vessel when ordered to halt by the Emden made any attempt to escape, thinking presumably that she was some British cruiser and that the quickest way of being allowed to continue on her course was to heave to and be examined. When within 600 or 700 yards the German flag was invariably hoisted, it being too THE NAVY
Her crew were given opportunity of taking off all their personal gear and were transferred to the collier. Five shots were now put into the Indus making a large rent in her water line and she turned over on her side and sank. Still keeping to the trade route in a northerly direction the British steamer Lovat was met with on the 11 September. She had been also intended for the transport ot troops and horses. She was treated in the same way as the Indus and her crew put aboard the collier. O n 12 September they met the British steamer Kabinga bound from Calcutta to New Y o r k with general merchandise consigned to American firms. O n this account she was made to accompany the Emden in the same way as the Pontoporos. It was the custom of the Captain of the Emden to place a prize crew of an officer and ten men on all vessels which were captured but which for some reason it was thought inadvisable to sink. This prize crew always contained at least one engineer. O n the same day (11 September) the British steamer Killin was captured bound for Calcutta with a full cargo of iron. She was sunk in the usual manner and her crew transferred to the collier. O n the 13th whilst still steaming northwards in company with the Marcomannia, the Pontoporos and the Kabinga, the British steamer Diplomat was sighted. She had on board a cargo of tea from Calcutta bound for England. Page Twenty-Five
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Her crew were transferred to the Kubingu and the vessel was sunk. It was now decided to transfer the crews of the Indus and Killin from the collier on to the Kubingu. presumably with the idea of despatching this vessel to the nearest port as the collier was becoming uncomfortably crowded and was a drag on the movements of the
Emden. The operation of transferring the crews was interrupted by the appearance of another vessel on the horizon. The Emden made off to intercept her and on finding her to be the Italian steamer Loredumt brought her back to the scene of operations and asked her if she would undertake to take off all the crews which had now been collected on the Kubingu and transfer them to the nearest port. The Loreduno refused to do this and the Captain of the Emden was obliged to release her. A s the Loreduno was bound for Calcutta it was now realised that only a very short time would elapse before the news of the Emden's presence would be announced all over the Bay of Bengal. They afterwards read in Indian newspapers taken from captured steamers that on arriving at the mouth of the Ganges the pilot was informed of the presence of the hostile cruiser, and he. in turn, informed the Light Ship which sent on the news to Calcutta. This was the first intimation at the ports of the cruiser's presence in the Bay.
F e b r u a r y - M a r c h - A p r i l , 1969
got the British steamer small unloaded freight crew were put aboard and the vessel sunk in way.
The Kubingu now having the crews of four vessels on board besides her own. was sent off to Calcutta, the assembled crews giving the Emden three cheers as she sailed off. O n the same evening the Clun Mutheson was captured. She was from England bound for Calcutta and carried a valuable cargo amongst which were several motor cars, various articles of machinery and a racehorse. The horse was shot, the crew transferred to the collier and the vessel sunk. O n the 15th. Emden, still keeping her northward course, steamed to within 40 miles of Calcutta and then, altering her course sailed South East in the direction of Rangoon. O n the 18th. the Norwegian steamer Dove was held up. and the Captain given $100 (Mexican dollors current in Tsingiau) to transfer the crew of the Clun Mutheson to Rangoon. O n the arrival of the Dove in Rangoon it was realised that the whole of the Bay of Bengal would be ringing with the news of the presence of the Emden. This was soon an accomplished fact as the
Emden picked up several wireless messages to this effect including one
to the Humpsliire.
It was now probable that the mouth of the Bay of Bengal would be patrolled by British cruisers to prevent the escape of the Emden. but notwithstanding this, the Captain decided on the daring feat of a raid on the oil tanks at Madras. This was made possible by one of his crew having been employed in Madras and thus having an intimate knowledge of the situation of the tanks and the fact that the fort guns were old and that there were no searchlights. The ruse of employing a dummy fourth funnel to hide her identity was employed for the first time on this occasion, but as its usefulness on this particular escapade was doubtful, the method employed will be described later, when, during the Penang raid it secured the success of the undertaking. At 9.30 on the evening of 22 September, the Emden had reached a position some three miles from the oil tanks at the entrance to the harbour without being challenged. She immediately used her searchlights to get the exact position of the tanks, fired a couple of ranging broadsides, extinguished her searchlights and poured salvo after salvo into the tanks, the shells bursting well—soon converting the tanks into a blazing mass.
A s state'd above the Diplomat was sunk on the night of 13 September in a position about 300 miles south of Calcutta. After despatching her another light was seen on the horizon. The Emden asked her who she was by means of Morse signalling with a lamp at the masthead. Reply came that she was the Italian steamer Dandolo—and the Emden bade her goodnight. O n the 14th the Captain decided that his best method of evading pursuit was to adopt the unexpetced course of steaming northwards towards Calcutta, and this was done still in company with the collier, the
Pontoporos and the Kabinga, to a point about Calcutta.
Page T h i r t y - t w o
Here they Trabbocli. a steamer. Her the Kubingu the ordinary
^bruary-March-April. 1 9 6 9
of H.M.A.S. SYDNEY, taken in 1913 THE N A V Y
prize crew were put o n board and she was made to accompany the Emden. her coal being a welcome addition to their o w n supply.
O n the night of the same day. whilst steaming in a westerly direction the British steamer, Ribera was captured. She was bound from Port Said to C o l o m b o . Shortly afterwards, o n the same night, the British steamer Eoyle was also captured. Both these steamers were sunk and their crews transferred to
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A third steamer was sighted and stopped o n the night of 27 Septemmer. but as she turned out to be the Dutch steamer Djocja. she was at once liberated.
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125 shells were tired in all. some of ihe ranging shots hitting some ships in the harbour and. it is said, sonic houses on land.
Colombo harbour, as the fort searchlights swept the horizon all night and the fort guns were far superior to his own.
I h e Emden now left the harbour at full speed in a N o r t h Easterly direction, coming under the fire of the forts, all of whose shells fell short leaving the Emden untouched.
His decision was to cruise about some distance outside and intercept all shipping bound for or leaving C o l o m b o . Acting o n this, in his position 40 miles out from Colombo, and whilst the fort searchlights were visible o n the horizon, he captured the British steamer Tymerik with a cargo of sugar from C o l o m b o bound for England.
The men o n the Emden say that the glare of the burning tanks could be distinctly seen 100 miles away. O n the 23rd the Emden was still steaming in a N o r t h Easterly direction to create the impression that she was making for Calcutta, but when out of sight of all shipping she turned south and passed round the east coast of Ceylon. I; was here that the Greek steamer Pontoporos. which had, been accompanying the Emden since she was captured, was lost sight of. The inhabitants of Gallc. in the South East of Ceylon, o n learning of the approach of the Emden fled inland, fearing a raid similar to that o n Madras. O n 25 September at a point about 130 miles south of C o l o m b o , the small British freight steamer King Lud was captured and sunk, her crew being transferred to the collier. She had come from Suez and was without cargo. O n the night of the next day (26 September), the Emden took up a position 4 0 miles west of C o l o m b o . T h e Captain told the writer that he considered that it would have been courting disaster for h i m to have attempted to raid Februory-Morch-April,
She was sunk and the crew placed on the collier. The collier was again becoming crowded and the Captain had some anxieties as to the disposal of the accumulated crews. O n sailing a little closer to C o l o m b o o n the 26th. the British steamer Gryfevale was captured. She carried no cargo and was made to accompany the Emden. subsequently serving the purpose of ridding the Captain o f the Emden of the accumulated crews of 5 vessels. O n 27 September, after having reached a position some 300 miles west of Colombo, the British steamer Buresk was captured. She was laden with 6,000 tons of Cardiff coal for Singapore. Leaving the Captain's steward, two engineers and some Chinese stokers o n board, the remainder of the crew were tranferred to the Gryfevale. T h e men left o n the Buresk were paid at their usual rate by the Captain of the Emden. A THE NAVY
O n 28 September, the Gryfevale was released and told to proceed to C o l o m b o with the crews of five captured vessels on board. Realising that the arrival of the Gryfevale at C o l o m b o would be the signal for a thorough search for the Emden o n the part of whatever warships might be available, the Captain decided that the time had come for him to make for the open seas. He accordingly steamed practically due south towards the C h a g o s Archipelago, accompanied by the British collier Buresk and his own collier Marcomannia. The latter was now sent off to some u n k n o w n destination. presumably having transferred all her coal and thus being no longer of any assistance to
H a v i n g successfully avoided all shipping en route, the Emden and the Buresk arrived off the Island of D i e g o Garcia on 10 October. T h e island is inhabited by only a few European families and had not yet heard of the outbreak of war, owing to their communication with the world being limited to a steamer calling every three months with supplies. Here the Emden coaled all day from the Buresk. She got into the good graces of the inhabitants by reason of her engineers having repaired a motor boat belonging to the island, in return for which baskets of coconuts and supplies o f fish were sent aboard the Emden. F r e s h provisions of this character were much appreciated, and with every expression of goodwill the Page Twenty-nine
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Emden sailed the same evening, steaming to a position about 500 miles west of C o l o m b o . She arrived at this point at midnight o n 14 October and at 12.50 a.m. o n Ihe 15th she intercepted the British freight steamer Clan Cram bound for C o l o m b o with a cargo of general merchandise. She was temporarily manned with a prize crew but during the transference of her o w n crew to the Buresk. smoke was again seen o n the horizon and the Emden went to investigate. The newcomer in the distance had the appearance of a war vessel, but turned out to be
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The Captain of the Emden frequently cited the 7 roilus as an example of the difficulty of quickly sinking a merchant vessel fitted with good watertight compartments. Putting aside the use of torpedoes against merchant vessels, the usual means taken to sink a ship was to open the vessel's valves and. standing ofT about 400 yards, pour half a dozen shots into her o n the water line. The case of the Troilus was one in which shot after shot had to be put into her at various points along her line so as to puncture each compartment. Even with such treatment as this, she took a comparatively long time to sink.
dredge built to order of the Tasmanian Government. She was captured and her crew as well as that of the Clan Gram put aboard the collier Bure.sk. when both captured vessels were sunk, the dredge turning turtle completely before s i n k i n g — a n d . it was said by one of the Emden s officers, presenting a very curious appearance.
O n 19 October, steaming a little south, the Emden captured the British collier Ex ford bound from England to Singapore. She was made to accompany the Emden for a day and then as the Emden was not in need of her coal and as it was ascertained that her cargo of coal was for G e r m a n Agents in Singapore, she was released.
Shortly afterwards the British steamer Benmolir was sighted, captured and sunk.
A l s o on 19 October, the Emden captured the British freight steamer
Her crew went o n board the Buresk. The Spanish mail steamer Fernando Po was held up o n 16 October and of course at once released. Steaming in a northerly direction the Emden o n 18 October encountered the Blue Funnel liner Troilus o n her maiden voyage from H o n g K o n g to England. The Troilus was regarded ( by the Captain of the Emden as undoubtedly his best 'bag' as she was estimated to be worth with her cargo about £1.000.000. She carried a valuable cargo of copper, tin and general mechandise from the East. T h e Troilus carried about a dozen passengers amongst w h o m were some ladies, one of w h o m was ill. F o r this reason 1t was decided to have the Troilus accompany the Emden for the present as accommodation on the collier Buresk was limited. H o w ever. a few hours later the British freight steamer Saint Egbert appeared carrying cargo bound for America. T h e passengers and crew of the Troilus numbering about 200 were now transferred to the Saint Egbert and the Troilus was sunk. February-March-April,
Chilkunu. She was fitted with wireless which she attempted to use. but o n being threatened by the Emden. she had no option but be captured in the usual way and sunk. Her crew were transferred to the Saint Egbert where those of the Troilus were now quartered—and the Saint Egbert despatched to Quilon. a small town o n the South West coast of India. This town was closer than C o l o m b o and was safer, as far as the Emden
was concerned, N a v a l Station.
The Emden was now nearing the end of her raid on merchant shipping. She had up till this time intercepted 26 vessels in Indian seas, of which she had sunk 14 and released the remainder either o n the ground of their neutrality or for the purpose of ridding her of the crews of sunken vessels. She was now free of all encumb r a n c e s — a n d with the Buresk. she steamed for Penang. taking a good southerly course to avoid hostile war vessels. It was again her plan to avoid being sighted by any shipping. to steam with no lights visible at night and when smoke was sighted o n the horizon to avoid recognition by flight even if her course was thereby lengthened. It seems that the success of this great raiding cruise was due to the ability of the Emden to move quickly from one point, where she was k n o w n to an unexpected quarter without the knowledge of those at whose door the safety of merchant shipping lay. The objective of the Emden was now a raid o n Penang harbour where she expected to fall unawares on the British and Japanese cruisers which, she learnt from newspapers, had been intercepting G e r m a n merchant shipping in the vicinity of Penang at the beginning of the war. The Buresk was left to wait for the Emden in a position midway between Penang and Ceylon, since her limited speed of 10 knots might hamper the Emden in any action
The EMDEN ashore at North Keeling Island THE NAVY
range which struck a point just below the bridge. The first torpedo caused the Russian to sink several feet deeper in the water, and the second caused a terrific explosion and heeled the vessel over o n one side. The Emden was during this time pouring broadsides into the Russian, sweeping her decks at point blank range. 100 shots in all were fired by the Emden. The few shots fired by the Russian had no effect on the Emden.
Wherever there's fire PYRENE controls it.
I h e account of the engagement which appeared in the Ceylon Observer is as follows: " T h e Emden . . . . had been lying outside Penang on Tuesday. 27 October, and about 5 a.m. the following morning when the light was still faint and deceptive, steamed into the man-o'-war anchorage and took up position. She was seen by the Jemtchug but as the morning light was still faint and as she had rigged a d u m m y fourth funnel, she passed for the British ship Yarmouth just long enough to enable her to manoeuvre into position for a sudden and effective attack o n the Russian. Just as the latter became aware of the Emden's identity, a torpedo from that vessel struck her and the G e r m a n s swept her decks with a terrific broadside f r o m about 300 yards range. Wreckage on the decks of the EMDEN
T h e d a n g e r of fire a n y w h e r e c a n n o t b e over-estimated. For a b s o l u t e safety, i n s u r a n c e a g a i n s t e v e r y t y p e of fire is essential, a n d that's w h e r e P y r e n e c o m e s in. P y r e n e m a n u f a c t u r e a n d s u p p l y chemical F o a m C o m p o u n d a n d D r y P o w d e r to m a n y G o v e r n m e n t Departments includi n g the D e p a r t m e n t of N a v y , Civil A v i ation a n d R . A . A . F . for fire f i g h t i n g purposes, at airports and airfields t h r o u g h o u t Australia. THE PYRENE COMPANY
in which she might be engaged. The success of this raid may be said to be due to the ruse of rigging a fourth 'funnel' of canvas in addition to the three funnels which she carried. The purpose of the -*xtra funnel was in order to disguise the distinctive 'three funnel' ippearance of the Emden that she A-ould in the distance or in uncertain light be mistaken for the British cruisers Newcastle. Yarnouth or Hampshire, all of which vere in these waters. T h i s d u m m y funnel was of canvas : nd of the same dimensions as the i ;al f u n n e l s — 3 0 feet high by 101 fiet o n the longest diameter of the oval. The oval shape was kept by v ooden hoops at intervals, and the ' unnel' was 'hoisted* by a block and pjlley attached to a rope stretched between the aft funnel and the Tainmast, the base being attached to the deck.
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Arriving at 4 a.m. on 28 October at a point 10 miles outside Penang. the extra funnel was rigged and the G e r m a n flag hoisted. The Captain of the Emden strongly denies that anything but his own flag was hoisted o n this occasion. Steaming up to the northern entrance of the Penang Roadstead at 5 a.m., the Captain of the Emden could see that a good deal of shipping was lying there and in the forefront a cruiser whose nationality he could not yet distinguish. Approaching to a range of about 600 yards he found that she was the Russian cruiser Jemtchug. She showed no signs o f life and it appeared that all her crew must be asleep. H a v i n g manoeuvred into good position, the Emden fired a torpedo a* a range of 400-500 yards hitting the Russian just beneath the aft funnel. T h i s was quickly followed by another at even closet
" T h e Jemtchug had no chance of defending herself, but replied gamely. It was no use. for it could be seen through the flames and smoke, that she was listing so badly as to make her replies futile. T w o other broadsides followed from the Emden and a terrific explosion ensued. A second torpedo having been successfully launched from the Emden, great rents were torn in the doomed Russian vessel, and she sank amidst a great cloud of black smoke. "Just 15 minutes elapsed f r o m the opening of the cannonade to the sinking. About 100 men went down out of 355. Several French torpedo boats were close in but like the Jemtchug had no steam up. " H a v i n g sunk the Jemtchug, the Emden moved slowly round and opened fire o n the oil t a n k s — n o n e of which were hit. " T h e Emden left the harbour by the N o r t h Channel." Page
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The Jemtchug was a superior ship to the Emden and. if an efficient look-out had been kept, the Penang raid might have had a different ending. A s mentioned above, the Emden left the harboui at full speed after destroying the Jemtchug. She was fired at from an unknown quarter whilst leaving—possibly a shot from one of the several small French boats in harbour, but as the shots did no harm and as the Emden could not readily make out the position of the hostile craft, he continued on his way.
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The Captain of the Emden denies having fired on the oil tanks as he was unaware of their existenceOtherwise—as he said—he would certainly have bombarded them.
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When some little distance outside Penang. the Emden met a strange vessel which as he approached hoisted the red flag, indicating that •she was a powder steamer—and which turned out to be the British ship Glen Turret. She had signalled to land for a pilot and he had just reached the Glen Turret when the Emden appeared.
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O n the approach of the cruiser, he returned to his launch which made off at full speed for Penang. The Emden did not interfere with him in any way but proceeded to transfer the crew of the Glen Turret
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The Emden opened fire at this ange and struck the engine room vith her opening shots.
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She fired several broadsides at the ' to usque t. practically all of which f m n d their mark. She then ceased Pre. expecting the Mousquet to be a total wreck and to surrender. She. rowever. gamely replied with about
While this operation was in progress. a war vessel of some description appeared on the horizon, making for Penang. The Emden at once recalled her boats which were in the act of transferring the crew of the Glen Turret, and made off to meet the approaching ship. At 6.000 yards she appeared much larger than she really was. owing to the deceptive early morning light, but as they closed in to 4,800 yards, they found her to be the French orpedo boat destroyer Mousquet.
ten shots, none of which reached
The Emden again opened fire and very shortly the Mousquet was seen to be sinking by the bow. The Captain of the Emden then ceased Are and stood by to pick up the survivors who numbered 36.—three of whom subsequently died of their wounds on the Emden. The French prisoners said that the Mousquet had fired two torpedoes but these were not seen by the Emden. They also said that they had seen the Emden the previous night when they were patrolling the coast, but believed her to be a British cruiser. The Emden. having lost a lot of valuable time on account of his engagement with the Mousquet, now saw another torpedo boat approaching from Penang. She at once set out for the Indian Ocean at full speed with the torpedo boat in chase but managed to elude her after a four hours run in heavy rain. Proceeding on the way to her collier Buresk, the Emden met with the British freight steamer Newhurn on 30 October. She was laden with general merchandise for Singapore. All the surviving French prisoners were placed on board and she was ordered to sail direct for Sabang in Sumatra. The Emden reached her collier on 31 October and then sailed in company with her to the Cocos Islands, which were reached on the evening of Sunday. 8 November. She sailed round the islands to see that all was clear and. at S.30 a.m. on Monday. 9 November, proceeded to Direction Island with her dummy funnel rigged for the third time. Her object was to destroy the wireless station and cut the cables — a n d with this in view, the Captain landed a force of four officers and about 40 men. taking with them 4 machine guns. It appears to the writer that the fatal mistake made by the Captain of the Emden was the unshipping of his dummy funnel before his landing party had actually landed. This gave the wireless operator on land the information that the vessel was in all probability a hostile one and gave him the requisite few THE NAVY
minutes grace necessary to send the S.O.S. signal which brought the Sydney to the spot. It is superfluous to give here a detailed account of the ensuing engagement as it has been described with great minuteness by people who were in a position to get all the details. A n account has. I believe, been published gi\ing the effect of practically every shot fired during the engagement. It has seldom been possible to get such a complete record of a naval fight as in the case of the duel between Sydney and the Emden. The quaint situation of the Captains of the two vessels conferring afterwards on board the Sydney and piecing together their relative positions and movements as the action proceeded, made it possible for a most detailed report of the fight to be arrived at. A few notes on aspects of the encounter which may not have been previously published may be of interest. Firstly, the presence of the Emden so close to the Australian Convoy was altogether fortuitous. Captain V o n Miiller told me that he knew that troops were to be sent from Australia to Europe but he could not find out their route or date of sailing. A s has been mentioned elsewhere, on the appearance of the Sydney on the horizon, the Emden was under the impression that it was the Newcastle and it was not discovered that the oncoming ship was not the Newcastle until it was so late that, in the words of Captain Von Miiller. ' I had no alternative but give battle*. The Emden's now famous first shot, fired at the Sydney at a range of 10.000 yards from one of her 4.1 inch guns, was naturally a shot at absolutely extreme range. This shot missed the Sydney, striking the water about 500 yards beyond her. The gun was elevated at the absurd angle of over 30° in order to throw her shells this distance—over 5 i miles. N o r m a l long range for the Emden's guns was 6.000 y a r d s — under 3 i miles. rage
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In describing the fight. Captain V o n Miiller expressed a rather depressed surprise that the Sydney had. when she returned from her chase after the collier, "opened fire again on our wreck".
which was o n the deck and which burned up in a blaze, doing very little other damage. Dr. Luther who was on the Emden told me that the condition of the men who swani ashore from the Emden to the Island was terrible. Their wounds were irritated by the salt water and those who were not drowned in the surf went through a night of agony on land, without shelter, water or food. The short intervening stretch of surf be-
tween the ship and the shore was rough and the bottom was sharpedged coral. Several attempts to get a line ashore were made but it was found impossible, with the result that many were drowned in attempting to swim the breakers in their weakened condition. The survivors were taken off the Emden and from the Island by the Sydney who transferred the unwounded to the Empress of Russia in mid-ocean. The latter boat had been called to the scene by the
A s a matter of fact I understood from the Captain of the Emden that, although it was not in the portion of the ship that was utterly destroyed, it was nevertheless put out of action and Lieutenant Prince V o n Hohenzollern. who was torpedo officer, took up his position with the Captain in the conning towrr half way through the engagement. It seems as if the Emden wished to capitulate, but wanted to avoid striking her flag and that her rather strange action was due to this and not to any sinister intention of torpedoing the Sydney when she approached to take off the survivors.
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The answer would secni to be a combination of two reasons—that the Emden's flag was still flying, and that the Sydney had no reason to believe that the torpedo flat o n the Emden was out of action.
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At no time during the fight did the Sydney allow the Emden to come closer to her than 5.000 yards—comfortable range for the Sydney, fairly extreme range for
The Captain said national C o d e Book and that he could the Sydney's signals Mirrender.
that his Interhad bee.i burnt not understand calling him to
Their flag was eventually hauled Jown by the Captain's servant. Werner, who at great personal risk nanaged to get over the intervening leek space under fire, climb the nasi and unwire the flag. The Captain denies that anything ike 1.500 shots were fired by the r.mden. as has been said in one account of the fight. His ammunit on supplying arrangements were amaged early in the fight, and he ' links it improbable that more than ' 00 shots could have been fired. Captain V o n Miiller says that in t »e whole engagement he could only v.*e the effect of one of his shots on the Sydney. T h i s was a shot * h i c h set fire to a heap of cordite February-March-April,
Copy of a sketch by THE NAVY
officer in the
Emden. Pag* Thirty-s*v*n
Nottinghill Joinery & Timber Company Pty. Ltd.
Mr. ROY HIGGINS Cheltenham Victoria
346 FERNTREE GULLY
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17 W H I T E H A L L
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W h e n it came to von Miiller and his officers leaving the Orvieto at Port Said, he asked me if he could have the privilege of leaving the ship in civilian clothes as he regarded it as contrary to his dignity as a G e r m a n officer to be photographed as a prisoner of war in uniform. I agreed and had some ready made clothes got quickly from a store in Port Said, which turned out to be abominably illfitting. and with a fancy felt hat and yellow boots. However it was the best that could be done in the circumstances."
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For All Enquiries Phone: 68-1263 or 317-9031
W h e n occasionally at meals one of von MUller's officers made a remark to or about me that von Miiller regarded as out of place in the circumstances, he would bark at him in rapid and corrosive G e r man and the officer subsided in embarrassment.
STREET M A I D S T O N E , VIC.
" I n finding this account of the cruise of the Emden that I wrote 55 years ago. I am reminded of what a fine person Captain V o n Miiller was. He was a gallant gentleman in the real sense. In all the seizures and sinkings that the Emden achieved I d o not believe a life was lost.
W e posted a guard o n the quarters in the Orvieto occupied by V o n MUller and his officers and men. T h e guards were all 6 ft. 3 ins. or more, which created the impression that all Australians were as tall and well built as this.
MEDWAY GOLF HOUSE
Y o u C a n ' t D o Better T h a n
David Brown (Vic.) Pty. Ltd.
522 LITTLE COLLINS ST.
The men. of course, gave no parole and were interned in a latticed off portion of the stern of the ship under a strong guard. They did physical drill twice daily on one of the lower decks under instruction from their Warrant Officers. Both officers and men expressed satisfaction at their treatment on board the troopship. T h u s ended what has been described as *a raiding episode such as Eastern waters have not witnessed since the days when these particular trade routes were subject to continual depredations.' The Emden has. this same source continues, created a bigger stir in British commercial circles than the rest of the G e r m a n Fleet put together.
For That Special Occasion
Sydney, as her own accommodation for the prisoners was altogether inadequate. Both vessels now made for C o l o m b o where the badly wounded were left in hospital and the remainder taken o n board the Australian troopships Orvieto. Omrah and the N e w Zealand ship Maunganui. on which they travelled to Port Said. At the latter port all the prisoners were transferred to the Hampshire in which they were taken to their place of internment. W h e n on the Sydney, the officers gave a limited parole on which they were allowed certain liberties on their word not to harm or attempt to injure Ihe ship in any way. The four officers who were on the Orvieto. the Captain (Frcgattencapitan K a r l V o n Miiller). Lieutenant Prince Franz Joseph V o n Hohenzollern. Dr. (Stabsartz) Martin Luther, and Lieutenant Z u r See Fickentcher. refused to give their parole and were consequently interned in four cabins on the promenade deck under an armed guard. They were given their meals in the Children's Saloon and exercised o n the deck, which was cleared for the purpose, for two hours daily.
OFFICIAL OPENING F T.S. PARRAMATTA Headquarters
of T S P A R R A M A T T A , was granted Naval
cognition in 1965, was officially opened on December
The G u a r d and ship's company were inspected by Admiral
H. A . Showers, State
Australia. He was escorted by Commander L. Mackay-Cruise, R.A.N.R.,
Naval Cadet Force. N e w South Wales,
Mrs. K. Graham;
Lt. A. Stevenson, C.O., TS Parramatta;
Sands; Alderman Wilde, Mayor of Parramatta;
The Official Opening Ceremony by Mrs. L. Mackay-Cruise. L. to R.: Lt.-CmdV. Page, Parramatta's
Mrs. L. Mackay-Q.
H. A. Showeripnd
K. Graham. M.B.E., R.A.N.
by M r s . L. Mackay-Cruise. Official Nigel
Member Mayor man
G r a h a m . M.B.E., R.A.N.. Staff Officer
dent and Committee
of Guildford R.S.L. The
Australian Naval Reserve. Sydney
parade. During unit's dinghy,
to the surprise and delight of the officers and cadets. Light served
mittee of T S Page Forty
accompanied by Lt.-Cmdr. L. Mackay-Cruise and Lt. A. Stevenson, February-March-April,
delivery of the Unit's first 14 It. tobruary-March-April,
PAGES G L U E D T O G E T H E R
The House of Hoig
BAR & M I X E D
C a p t a i n R . C . Savage, R . A . N . , w h o inspected the units, said:
F r e s h Fruit and Vegetables
for Victoria a n d Riverina
HAIG WHISKY I.OOK FOR IT O N T H E
Sweets and C o n f e c t i o n e r y Cnr. O ' S H A N N E S S Y
SEA CADET CORPS N E W S
Compliments from . . .
C o m p l i m e n t s to the R . A . N , f r o m
Compliments from . . .
TS MELBOURNE has been a w a r d e d t h e N a v y L e a g u e of A u s tralia A n n u a l Efficiency T r o p h y . T h e a w a r d is presented a n n u a l l y to the most efficient unit in the Commonwealth. TS MELBOURNE (Sea Cadet Lieutenant D . M c G i l l i v r a y ) is a Frigate class unit at A l b e r t P a r k a n d w a s recognised by the N a v a l B o a r d in 1951.
s^ivard It is the first o c c a s i o n that T S M E L B O U R N E h a s been selected as the most efficient unit i n V i c t o r i a . Units selected as the most efficient in other states were: T S P A L U M A , Queensland; T S T O B R U K , N . S . W . ; including the A . C . T . ; T S L E V E N . Tasmania; T S F L I N D E R S . S o u t h Australia; T S B E D F O R D . W e s t e r n Australia. T h e D i r e c t o r of N a v a l
" I was pleased indeed with the high standard of dress. I feel that each unit 1 inspected merited the h o n o u r of being custodian o f the Sea Cadet C o l o u r for that State. " T h e D a r w i n unit. T S W A R R A M U N G A , w a s considered o n the N a v a l Officer-in-Charge N o r t h A u s tralia A r e a ' s report, a n d merits special m e n t i o n o n this occasion. " I enjoyed inspecting the units a n d c o m m e n d all those responsible f o r their efficient organisation."
BRASS FORGINGS Pty. Ltd.
SEA C A D E T S JOIN SPECIALISING
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A c t i n g Cadet Petty Officer A n thony D r o v e r , formerly o f T S S y d ney.
Cadet L e a d i n g S e a m a n K e n n e t h John Hornery and Cadet A.B. D a v i d G o r d o n Street, f o r m e r l y o f T S Sirius.
Compliments from . . .
R. J. M A X E Y
N e w s of these successful applications must have been m o s t gratifying to the Senior Officer and Officers of the N . S . W . D i v i s i o n .
P r o m p t . Efficient Service At A l l Rear 2
ST. C O B U R G ,
Best W i s h e s to the N a v y from . . .
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T h r e e former Sea Cadets f r o m N e w S o u t h W a l e s units joined the R o y a l A u s t r a l i a n N a v a l C o l l e g e as C a d e t M i d s h i p m e n last J a n u a r y : —
M R O A X f - M'*C
F.bruory-March- April, 1949
Pog» Forty *H»r««
" T h e
C i v i l i a n
The principal objective of the Navy League of Australia is to stress the vital importance of Sea Power to the Commonwealth of Nations and the important role played by the Royal Australian Navy. The League, in conjunction with the Commonwealth Naval Board, administers the Australian Sea Cadet Corps, by providing finance and technical %ea training for boys who intend to serve in the Naval or Merchant Services, also to those sea-minded boys, who do not intend to follow a sea career, but who given this knowledge will form
a valuable reserve Service.
o f the
t h e
N a v y "
DIVISIONS New South Wales — Box 1719, G.P.O., Sydney, 2001. Victoria — Room 8, 8th Floor, 528 Collins Street, Melbourne, 3000.
We invite you to swell our ranks and so keep up to date with M a r i time Affairs to help to build an ever-increasing weight of informed public opinion. The Navy League will then become widely known and exercise an important influence in the life of the Australian Nation.
Queensland — Box 376E, G.P.O., Brisbane, 4001. Tasmania —
The League consists of Fellows and Associates. All British subjects who support the objectives of the League are eligible for membership Members receive copies of the League's magazine "The N a v y " .
Western Australia — 182 Coode Street, C o m o , 6152. Australian Capital Territory — 60 Limestone Avenue, Ainslie, 2602. Northern Territory — C / - K . M . A . S . Melville, Darwin, 5790.
THE N A V Y
South Australia — G.P.O., Adelaide.
Box 1 5 2 9 M , 5001.
LEAGUE OF A U S T R A L I A
Application for Membership To: The Secretary'. The N a v y League of Australia, (
Sir, I am desirous of becoming a Member of the Navy League of Australia with whose objects I am in sympathy. (Mr.) Name (Mrt. (Miss) (Rank) Please Print Clearly. Street
Enclosed is a remittance for $4.20 being my first annual subscription. AFTER
COMPLETION, THIS FORM SHOULD BE DISPATCHED TO YOUR IONAL SECRETARY - NOTE U S T OF ADDRESSES ABOVE.
Best wishes to the Navy from . . .
AUSTRALIAN SIA CADET CORPS
South Australian Mortgage Investment Brokers FINANCE A N D INVESTMENT
If you are between the ages of 13 and 18 years The Australian Sea Cadet Corps is a voluntary organisation administered by the Commonwealth Naval Board and The N a v y League of Australia. The aim of the Australian Sea Cadet Corps is to provide for the spiritual, social and educational welfare of boys and to develop in them character, a sense of patriotism, self-reliance, citizenship and discipline.
FINANCE A R R A N G E D ON ALL TYPES OF SECURITIES
FLINDERS ADELAIDE. Phone
The interesting syllabus of training covers a wide sphere and includes seamanship, handling of boats under sail and power, navigation, physical training, rifle shooting, signalling, splicing of wire and ropes,
contact the DivMonal Senior Officer in your State, using the
N E W S O U T H W A L E S : " E l Abrigo", 4 Rangers Ave., Cremome, 2090. Q U E E N S L A N D : C / - Box 376E, G.P.O., Brisbane, 4001. SOUTH
Anzac Mcmoriums. Bouquets. Wreaths, Wedding Bouquets. Hospital Sheaths. Etc. SUBURBS
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TO: The Senior Officer, Australian Sea Cadet Corps
28a NORTH EAST RD„ WALKERVILLE, S.A.
Repairs Pty. Ltd.
Member of Teleflower
P h o n e s : 65-6375,
Parades are held on Saturday afternoons and certain Units hold an additional parade one night a week.
general sporting activities and other varied subjects. Instructional camps are arranged for Sea Cadets in Naval Establishments, and they are also given opportunities, whenever possible, to undertake training at sea in ships of the Royal Australian Navy. Cadets, if considering a sea career, are given every assistance to join the Royal Australian N a v y , the Mercantile Marine or the Royal Australian Naval Reserve, but there is no compulsion to join these Services.
Senior Officers, Australian Sea Cadet Corp*
DELIVERY TO ALL
For further information Form provided below.
Greetings to all N a v y Members from -
Cadets are not required lo undergo any medical examination and are fully insured against accident while on duty.
STATE OR T E R R I T O R Y
(Please print clearly) Please address your envelope to the Senior Officer in your State or Territory—see list of addresses above
THE NAVY Pciga Forty-six
The Beer Queenslanders Prefer! Call for Icy-Cold Sparkling Amber
By R. G. MILLAR
All t h r o u g h last year large numbers of Ihe new 100 feet patrol boats have joined the fleet a n d from every corner of the country there are screams for more of them to be m a d e available.
The P o p u l a r
"US QUALITY NEVER VARIES"
k xxxx (
• m i i A U
L. S. WAIKRNS PTY. LTD.
69 CEMETERY ROAD, IPSWICH, OLD. MONUMENTAL MASONS AND TERRAZZO WORKS TELEPHONE
MISSILE BOATS AND THE ROYAL AUSTRALIAN NAVY
Member Concrete Contractors Association (Qld.)
It is probably too late to ask this question, as it appears the full number of 20 will be completed, but. what naval advantage d o we gain by h a v i n g these vessels? T h e y are definitely g o o d patrol boats, their limited armament, g o o d seagoing ability and relatively fast speed, make them ideal for this type of w o r k , especially in protecting o u r c o u n t r y ' s fishing grounds, but if any major threat to A u s t ralia's security developed, all these vessels w o u l d be hard put defending themselves against any passing M I G let alone inflicting any d a m a g e o n the aggressor. At a time w h e n the Australian navy is hard put getting new vessels of any type, it is a crime to spend such large sums (over 4 0 0 . 0 0 0 dollars a boat) o n vessels of such limited use. Nevertheless, the boats arc with us to stay, but it is still interesting to examine one of the better w a y s this m o n e y could have been e m ployed or might in future be. I n October of last year the Israeli destroyer " F . L A T H " was sent to the bottom by f ' S t y x ' missiles ( 1 0 0 0 lb waihead. 15-18 miles r a n g e ) and if they are supplied to the N o r t h Vietnamese shore batteries, which it appears they will be. it is quite possible that all shore b o m b a r d ments will come to an end. as these missiles far outrange the standard destroyer g u n and the larger ships will be forced back to the limit of their range f r o m the coast. T h e r e are several other cases (North Vietnamese MTB's got within 3 miles of the U.S.S Waddox and U.S.S. Turner Joy in A u g u s t of 64. H a d they been irmed with m i s s i l e s ? ) w h i c h all loint to the effectiveness o f this veapon. and it cannot be argued hat the country possessing these •nissiles possesses a weapon of u n limited defence value. February-March-April,
P a g . Forty-eight
THE N A V Y
W h e n mounted o n their 2 0 0 ton 35 cwt launcher the " O s a C l a s s " patrol boat, are protected f r o m air attack by 4, 25 m m . fully automaticradar controlled guns, extra strike potential is gained through the
If they were obtained and operated in groups of four to five, they could be based in strength f r o m G e r a l d t o n to T h u r s d a y Island, a n d then up t h r o u g h N e w G u i n e a . T h i s w o u l d give us a shield right across o u r unprotected north and it s h o u l d remove the chances of the naked-
HMAS BAYONET, the last of 20 patrol boats to be launched for the R.A.N., moves down the slipway at the Maryborough shipyards of Walkers Ltd. She was launched during November by Mrs. Lillian Furves, wife of the Third Naval Member and Chief of Naval Technical Services, Rear Admiral F. W. Purves. THE N A V Y
. . . PHILLIPS &
AGMI CAMERA SERVICE CO. ALL P H O T O G R A P H I C
M e m b e r s of the Stock E x c h a n g e of Adelaide B r o o k m a n Buildings 35 G R E N F E L L S T R E E T A D E L A I D E . S.A. 5000 Telephone: 8-5511
EXPERTLY S E R V I C E D
AND Best W i s h e s to R . A . N . Personnel f r o m
ALBERTON 54 FLINDERS STREET
K. B R 1 F N .
HOTEL Proprietors HMAS ATTACK, 100 ft. patrol boat, Is stationed at Darwin.
W H E R E I H E B E E R IS C O L D A N D T H E W E L C O M E IS W A R M
In Cones and Cans or on a Stick
M e m b e r s of Ihe Stock E x c h a n g e of Adelaide 80 KING WILLIAM STREET A D E L A I D E . S.A. 5000 Telephone: 51-4939
Best W i s h e s to all N a v y Personnel f r o m
AMSCOL ICE CREAM
JACK & JILL FLORISTS (MISS RAILWAY
I h e N a v y missile boats and the A i r F o r c e M i r a g e s should be capable and in fact, must stop any aggression towards o u r shores before it has time to land. A n invasion force w o u l d have to come by sea (air drops a n d aircraft are still unable to move and land sufficient troops, large tanks etc. to defeat u s ) and they will certainly c o m e in larger .numbers* t h a n we c a n handle: and even if they did not the a r m y organised o n l y for tropical warfare and with o n l y one regiment o f C e n t u r i o n tanks for defence of the whole o f Australia, w o u l d have to fall back and defend an area similar to the Brisbane line of the last war. ( B r i s b a n e L i n e — d e f e n c e o f the industrial c o m plexes of S y d n e y . Newcastle etc. u p to the tropic o f C a p r i c o i n i n Q u e e n s l a n d , leaving the rest of A u s t r a l i a for the Japanese.) B o a t s o f this type c o u l d be m a n n e d b y naval Reserve forces f r o m the v a r i o u s towns or cities
Specialising in all W e d d i n g Bouquets.Wreaths. Sheaves and F l o . a l W o r k . Etc. Phone:
ncss feeling that was experienced in 1942 being repeated.
"Its a Food not a Fad"
* It mua be remembered that an army of 10 million men has a fighting potential of less than I per cent, when aboard ship. Febr jary-March-April,
f r o m w h i c h they were operating a n d this w o u l d result in the Reserve b e c o m i n g a first rate naval force, k n o w i n g a n d able to take a d v a n tage o f every natural advantage the stretch c f coastline they were responsible for offered. A g o o d point against these boats, w o u l d be the installing of the missiles ashore, thus r e m o v i n g the cost of the launch boat, but in the case o f A u s t r a l i a this is not valid. T h e vast stretches of coast require m o b i lity to ensure the full coverage and also protection of our fishing grounds, if they are to survive the poaching. F i n a l l y we come to the p o i n t — where w o u l d we obtain the vessels and missiles f r o m ? — C e r t a i n l y the Soviet U n i o n w o u l d not supply them to us, so we w o u l d have io look elsewhere, a n d this is not easy, as no W e s t e r n power possesses vessels o f this capability. T h e missiles c o u l d p r o b a b l y be obtained f r o m S A A B of Sweden, as they are believed to have developed a similar missile. I f not. we could build them ourselves. W h y not! W e helped develop a very crude type of w e a p o n of this type — t h e " M a l k a r a " anti-tank missile, a n d if we can construct such a complicated a n d deadly weapon THE NAVY
system as the I k a r a anti-submarine missile, w h y not a s h i p to s h i p missile. F o r launch vessels, big G e r m a n J a g u a r C l a s s M T B c o u l d be o b tained a n d converted to ship four of these missiles, but if we designed a n d built launch vessels i n o u r shipyards it w o u l d p r o b a b l y prove of more benefit to the shipb u i l d i n g industry o f Australia, a n d could also result in export orders. T h e shipyards have s h o w n they are capablc o f completing vessels of this type very q u i c k l y once they are tooled u p for their construction, and this w o u l d prove o f immense value i n strengthening the initial force, s h o u l d war develop. I f these missile boats are o b tained a n d if sufficient Airforce M i r a g e aircraft are available to operate with them, we p r o b a b l y can protect our country from i n v a s i o n n o matter what reverses o u r or our allies' troops suffer abroad. A s it stands n o w o u r n a v y can carry a very limited w a r to an e n e m y ' s shores but it cannot defend o u r shores. Failure t o take a realistic look at where A u s t r a l i a stands in A s i a , to count o n the might o f o u r allies to defend us can o n l y h a v e one end. W e will fight 1942 again. W h a t d o y o u t h i n k ? Page Fifty-one
R. O S S I >\
M I S S K U
Slock and Share Brokers 118 k i n g William Street A D E L A I D E . S.A. 5000 Telephone 8-5821 Members of the Slock Exchange of Adelaide
COMPARISON R A N ItK)' Patrol Boat
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Slock Share and Investment Brokers R. E . Korter, J. F. B. Porter, T. W. Bowen Members of the Stock Exchange of Adelaide Limited Brookman Building 35 Grenfell Street A D E L A I D E , S.A. 5000 Phone: 8-7521
WATERVALE - SOUTH AUSTRALIA Head Office 20 G I L B E R T P L A C E . A D E L A I D E
South Australian Sales Agents: R. W. CLAMPF.TT & CO. Fisher Terrace. MUe End 57-8011 Interstate Representatives: S Y D N E Y . H. G . BROWN & S O N S PTY. LTD. 5 Gibbes Street Chatswood M E L B O U R N E : M A C K E N Z I E , TOOTEI.L PTY. LTD. 19-21 Malmstoury Street. Hawthorn B R I S B A N E : N A T H A N & W Y E T H PTV. I.TD. 19-21 Whaft Street P E R T H : J O H N S O N , H A R P E R PTY. LTD. 61 Canning Highway. Victoria Park H O B A R T : E. C H A N C E L L O R PTY. LTD. 32 Davey Street, Hobart L A U N C E S T O N : JOHN M c K E N Z I E & CO. PTY. LTD. 63 Cameron Street, Ijiunceston
Russian Osa Class Patrol Boat
Displacement. Standard Full (runs Speed Range Engines ' Dimensions Crew
140 1 40/60 mm Bofors. 2-.5 Browning M G . I. 2in Rocket flare launcher. 27
160/200 4. 25mm Fully automatic radar controlled A A 35
2 dicsels 107)' x 20' x 7 ) ' 3 officers. 16 men
3 dicsels 1311' x 23' X 6.5' 5 officers, 20 men Able to perform each others jobs. 4. 15-25 mile range two stage solid propelled missile. 1.000 lb. warhead
R.A.N. CICCLES AND
68 OXFORD STREET, SYDNEY Telephone: 31-4473
Page Fifty three
Attention Navy Men
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Gavin F. Gardner & Co. Members of ihe Slock Exchange of Adelaide 68 G K E N F E I . I . S T R E E T A D E L A I D E . S.A. 5000 Telephone: 23*6388
A n u m b e r of S e a C a d e t U n i t s a r e in n e e d of a d d i t i o n a l a d u l t p e r s o n n e l w i t h S e r v i c e b a c k g r o u n d to instruct C a d e t s . A n y o n e w h o m a y be p r e p a r e d to g i v e of h i s time o n S a t u r d a y a f t e r n o o n s is a s k e d to p l e a s e c o n t a c t the C a d e t L i a i s o n Officer, L i e u t e n a n t M c P h e r s o n , H . M . A . S . W A T S O N , t e l e p h o n e 3 7 - 1 3 1 1 e x t e n s i o n 2 5 6 b e t w e e n 0 8 0 0 a n d 1 5 3 0 for further p a r t i c u l a r s .
W h o l e s a l e Tobacco a n d Fancy G o o d s Merchants
The U n i t s c o n c e r n e d
BeM Wishes lo all Naval Members from —
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When you obtain your wedding bouquets, wreaths sprays, posies and beautiful flowers, you are dealing with a Royal Show prize winner for 7 years FREF. D E L I V E R Y
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Modern Letterpress Plant. Small Offset Department and Bindery Travellers Calling to all Suburbs Weekly
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at N E W M A R I O N S H O P P I N G C E N T R E Phone 96-7739 — A.H. 53-2924
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82 DAYS ROAD, CROYDON PARK Telephone: 46-3191
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ANGASTON — Phone: 4-2472
(Popular Mine Host. J O H N
Information & Bookings Call or Telephone H O W A R D SMITH T R A V E L C E N T R E S Sydney: 269 George St. — Tel. 27-5611 Melbourne: S22 Collins S t — T e l . 62-3711 Port Adelaide: 3 Todd St. — T e l . 4-1461 Fremantle: I Mouatt S t — Tel. 5-1*71 Newcastle: 16 Watt S t — T e l . 2-4711 Cairns: 18 Abbott S t — Tel. 2115-6 Ballarat: Car. Lydiard * Malr Sis. — Tel. 2-5462
Icy Cold Tooths Beer at Its Best
Popular Snack Bar
BERRI— Phone: 558
Fthruory-Morch-April, 1 969
For Your Holiday Requirements
SEMAPHORE ROAD, EXETER, S.A. 5019
REYNELLA — Phone: 81-1351
ROBIN H O O D
Best Wishes from . . .
NEWS FROM BRITAIN
Mitchell's Army & Navy Stores Pty. Limited Workwear —
Footwear a n d General
(The Editor is indebted to the officers of the Information Service of the British H i g h Commission in Australia for their ready assistance in the compilation of this article). ADVANCED
Large R a n g e of Disposal
RADARS Polentiul collision risks can n o w be evaluated with great speed a n d simplicity o n a true m o t i o n display by the use of new anti-collision radars w h i c h include for the first time ever, Relative M o t i o n M a r k e r systems. T h e unit offers the navigator a unique and practical means of simultaneously displaying relative inf o r m a t i o n o n a true m o t i o n presentation w h i c h s h o w s the overall navigational picture. B y superimposing 'electronic* m a r kers o n a true m o t i o n presentation it is possible to sec simultaneously the true and relative movement of other vessels in an encounter. K e y notes o f the system are its opera-
134 RUSSELL STREET, MELBOURNE Phone: 63-5785
tional a n d technical simplicity w h i c h have enabled h i g h reliability a n d low cost to be achieved. T h e s e advantages. c o m b i n e d with the advanced operational capability of the equipment, m a k e it suitable for all types of merchant a n d naval vessels. U p to five Relative M o t i o n M a r kers can be used simultaneously to monitor separate collision risks. T h e m a r k e r s arc painted continuously b y a new 'inter-scan' technique and are independent of the rotating m a i n scan paint o f the radar picture. E a c h m a r k e r is a one-inch long straight line with a bright spot at one end that can be used to position the marker o n an echo at a n y point o n the display. Fixed All
wards ' o w n ship' f r o m the bright spot, a n d once set. r e m a i n fixed at the same range and c o m p a s s bearing to ' o w n ship*, m o v i n g across the true motion display with it. I f a marker is positioned o n a n echo, a collision risk exists if the echo closes ' o w n ship' a l o n g the marker line of constant bearing. I f the echo m o v e s off the line, its relative m o t i o n is s h o w n f r o m the bright spot and its closest point o f approach can be seen. T h e five markers, w h i c h are e n tirely independent o f each other, are operated f r o m simple c o n t r o l s m o u n t e d o n the true m o t i o n panel. T h e controls include range a n d bearing adjustment, brightness, a n amber operating range indicator a n d five switches, one for each m a r k e r .
MARINE PLY for boatbuilding, oxterior paneling, gable andi, soffits, feature and garage doers, caravans. ANOTHER NUCLEAR-POWERED SUBMARINE JOINS BRITAIN'S ROYAL NAVY
HILL STOCKS AVAILABLE AT
Cullity Timbers 52 T O W E R S T R E E T I.EEDERYII.I.E. also P I C T O N J U N C T I O N Pag. Fifty-six
HMS Repulse, another of the nuclear-powered Polaris submarines to join Britain's Royal Navy, leaves Barrow-in-Fumass, north-west England, recently, having previously been commissioned into the 10th Submarine Squadron. After acceptance trials off Scotland and in the North AVlantic, the submarine—she carries 16 Polaris missiles and is also armed with six 21-inch torpedo tubes—will undergo a normal "work-up" period before crossing the Atlantic to test her missiles and Bring system on the Atlantic range. With a displacement of some 7,000 tons, the Repulse, one of the largest submarines In the world, was completed three months ahead of schedule by her British builders and should be fully operational by mid1969. Built by Vickers Ltd., Shipbuilding Group, Barrow-in-Fumess, Lancashire, England.
Phone: 28-1031 Phone: 5-4217
Australian Hydrographic Service Pty. Ltd.
SYDNEY SLIPWAY & ENGINEERING CO. PTY. LTD.
127/131 M A C Q U A R I E ST. SYDNEY
Limitless T h e aerial is particularly suited to lifeboats where a conventional w h i p aerial might h a m p e r helicopter rescue w o r k . It also suits pilot launches, fishing, a n d similar craft — b u t the range o f uses is limitless. W h e n deck mounted a special bracket is used o n lifeboats a n d pilot launches. It is o f especial use o n cargo boats where the lack o f superstructure makes the fitting of w h i p aerials impossible.
123 Darling Street, Balmain N.S.W.
Phone: 27-9016 Cables: Hydraustral Sydney
Specialists m oil forms of Hydrography Surveys. Equipped with 'he very latest instruments available from manufar turers throughout the world, including Europe. U S A . South Africa. Australia a n d Jr.pan. Instrumentation includes precision echo sounders, deep sea sounders. horizontal automatic sweeping sonar tellurometer. hydrod.sl, Decco Hi-Fix. Hastings-Roydist A full service of sub-seabed studies >s provided, using Kelvin Hughes Stratification Recorder a n d Hunter Hydrosonde with Bo • Compressed Air Gun. O n e ship fifed out for undersea mineral research with o n conditioned livir-.g space, laboratory control room a n d chart room equipped with h i g h speed winch, photograb. deep corers. dredge samplers, closed circuit television, electronic position finding. radar. photo processing . autopilot and bottom profiling gear Currently employed on undersea Phospha.e Research Spec ally designed stabilised crolt fitted with narrow b e a m echo sounder for measurement of Silting in dams. A long iist of satisfied clients, including the Commonwealth Government.
o n l y . T h e r e is virtually n o wastage in the f o r m o f harmonics.
S l i p w a y capable* of taking vessels lip to 8 5 0 tons, with tradesmen for any type of repairs. B o i l c r m a k i n g a n d Fabrications up to 20 tons. Pressure Vessels in accordance with I loyds a n d D.L..I. vV Sole manufacturers in Australia o f the ' V i c t o r ' O i l y W a t e r Separators. Facilities for M a c h i n i n g and Fitting of all I > pes. x Certified lesting of C a r g o Blocks, etc. Contractors to the A r m y and N a v y Departments. A l l E n q u i r i e s Q u i c k U Processed
THEY G O Captain
TO SEA O N
Telephone: 82-1506, 82-1482, 82-3267
claimed thai on he.
NICOL BROS. STEAM,
10-20 Weston Street, Bolmoin East, N.S.W. 82-0367 After 76-9485 —
THE NAVY'S FIGHTING
Decca Radar L t d . — D e c c a House. 9 Albert Embankment. London. S . E . I . A u s t r a l i a n A g e n t s : Electronic Industries Ltd.. C o m m u n i c a t i o n s & N a v i g a t i o n D i v i s i o n . 161-173 Sturt Street. S o u t h M e l b o u r n e . V i c . 3205. A l s o b r a n c h in Sydney.
T h e r e are four radars in the nev* 12 inch range, offering a choice of l O k W or 2 5 k W transceivers and 6 ft. or 9 ft. aerials.
ft. long oil tanker QUEENS
of this enormous vessel, prompted the ship's owners to buy
Relative m o t i o n markers can be used o n the three, six and 12 nautical mile range scales. T h e availability of the markers is s h o w n b y the operating range indicator which is illuminated w h e n one of these scales is in use.
These switches enable any marker to be brought up o n the display, and to be m o v e d to a n y range and bearing without affecting the position o f the others.
Cockatoo Docks &
DIESEL A N D
a fifth of a mile —
of the Y'ickers (.'roup
PTY. LTD. ALL CLASSES
by a few feet) e er to have entered British waters. The sheer length —
Boothroyo, try out a new idea for making their duties easier, by using suitably
FIBRE M A R I N E
A fibre glass variable frequency marine aerial developed by a British firm is claimed to have a unique construction which simulates an o d d n u m b e r of exact quarter waves o n selected frequencies. T h i s results in the signal c o m i n g out o f the T X at low impedance o n any selected frequency p r o v i d i n g the tank circuit is correctly tuned. T h e firm says that a very high ' 0 * value — r e s o n a n c e — i s achieved o n a n y selected frequency including the marine 2 megacycles band, m e d i u m frequency and into the high frequency bands. W h e n carefully tuned o n installation. the aerial gives a substantially complete transfer of radio frequency power o n the fundamental frequency
E x t r e m e l y compact and robust, the aerial is completely waterproof and connection is to a d o w n l e a d in a waterproofed compartment in the aerial base. U p to J k W of power can be used. I f necessary, two V . F . aerials can be used with less interaction. Length of the aerial, the Partridge M a r i n e Variable Frequency A e r i a l , is 8 ft. and diameter is 1} inches. N E W LIFEJACKET V A L V E IS SIMPLE, SAFE, ROBUST Sealing arrangements in a new inflating valve for lifejackets and similar devices arc of a design that greatly reduces the risk of blockages. T h e valve, called the C r e w s a v e r . is robust and simply constructed in chemically-inert and non-toxic materials and is intended for s h r i n k fitting into the P . V . C . tube o f a lifejacket. Its body houses a valve shuttle with a built-in sealing ring of synthetic rubber and an 18 8 stainless steel spring, all retained by a snaplock base cap. B o d y , valve shuttle and base cap are m o u l d e d f r o m polypropylene, w h i c h will not de teriorate or d e f o r m even under extreme tropical c o n d i t i o n s — 2 4 h o u r s at 55 degrees C . and at a relative humidity of 9 5 — a n d is unaffected b y sea water. Flutes o n the valve shuttle give it a self-centring action, and consequently the sealing ring built into it always locates correctly o n the valve seat. T h e position and shape of the ring tend to cause deflection o f a n y solid particles that enter the m o u t h o f the valve. Deflator
A dust c a p incorporating a deflator key is made of low-density
1 96< February-March-April,
PRINCE OF WALES Cnr. A C L A N D
ST. & FIT2ROY
F o r lhal C o l d C o n v i v i a l Excellent C o u n t e r Catering for
at Reasonable AMPLE
ALAN'S Licensed Grocer
James Munday & Co. Pty. Ltd. ENGINEERS
47-55 M A R K NORTH
Your Foodland Store
A U S T R A L I A N WIRE
ALL Y O U R
429 M T .
STEERING INDICATOR HELSMAN'S
A new steering indicator develop-
ed b y a British firm enables the h e l m s m a n o f a yacht o r power boat to steer a n accurate course with the m i n i m u m o f fatigue. T h e equipment, k n o w n as the " H e s t i a " , consists of three m a i n c o m p o n e n t s — a master compass, a control unit a n d an indicator. T h e indicator has a l o n g pointer and is m o u n t e d vertically close to the h e l m s m a n ' s line of sight. A f t e r the required course angle has been selected o n the master compass, the h e l m s m a n has simply to keep the pointer vertical against a bold lubber line. The pointer, representing the ship's heading in relation to the intended course, gives an easily read indication of a n y heading error. S h o u l d the craft wander off course to port, for example, the pointer will s w i n g to the left a n d the helmsm a n will apply starboard helm to correct the error. T h e m a k e r s say that trials have s h o w n that steering errors m a d e b y a h e l m s m a n o f average skill are considerably reduced with the aid
of the instrument. T y p i c a l l y a reduction o f m e a n steering error f r o m 12 degrees to 4 degrees saves two miles in distance r u n for every 1 0 0 miles sailed. It is said that in h i g h speed power boats, the c o m p a s s rem a i n s stable even w h e n the craft is p o u n d i n g heavily. Changing
T o meet c h a n g i n g sea a n d w i n d conditions, the a m o u n t b y w h i c h the pointer deflects can be adjusted f r o m the control panel. W i t h the • r o u g h " setting, the pointer's full scale deflection is to 4 0 degrees o n either side of the lubber line and at " c a l m " to 20 degrees. T h e master compass, h o u s e d i n a brass binnacle coated i n n y l o n , is 4 i inches in diameter and 6 inches high. It weighs 4 lb. T w o versions are available. One. for sailing yachts, is g i m b a l - m o u n t e d ; the other, for power boats, is o n a resilient m o u n t i n g to minimise the effects o f vibration. T h e control unit, connected electrically to the binnacle, measures 4 1
FREE D E L I V E R Y O F G R O C E R I E S
polyethylene and is attached to the b o d y b y an integral ring and band. Inside the cap there is a double labyrinth configuration that m a k e s a completely d u s t p r o o f and airtight seal without a rubbei washer. T h e valve is designed to retain pressures o f i lb./in. 3 to 6 lb./in.*. F l o w rate at 1 lb/in. 8 is not less than 3 ft.Vmin. T h e initial o p e n i n g pressure is between 0.07 lb./in. 2 and 0.36 lb./in. 2 w h e n measured with the valve open to atmosphere. Input pressures o f u p to 20-30 lb./in. 9 will not dislodge the base cap. F o r use with CO-. bottles the valve can be supplied with a threaded top. E . S. Perry Ltd. of H a m p s h i r e , w h o undertook the development of the valve at the request of a m a n u facturer o f lifejackets, is geared to cope with a wide range of special development projects in the same general field.
F o r a C o n v i v i a l A l e I n Pleasant C o m p a n y
THE R A I L W A Y COUNTER
M o d e r n L o u n g e — First C l a s s Entertainment Free Delivery of N i n e r s and Equipment CNR.
STREETS, W I N D S O R ,
(Opp. R a i l w a y Telephone:
THE N A V Y
FIFTY BRITISH WARSHIPS ATTEND WESTRN FLEET ASSEMBLY The guided missile destroyer HMS HAMPSHIRE (foreground) and the anti-submarine frigate HMS UNDAUNTED (upper right) lead two columns of worships of Britain's Western Fleet during a recent exercise off the coast of Scotland. Some 50 ships — about half the Royal Navy's Western Fleet — gathered at Rosyth for their annual assembly. The ships ranged from guided-missile destroyers, submarines and a commando ship, coastal minesweeper and small survey vessels to frigates, The purpose of the assembly is to allow Flag and Commanding Officers to meet and discuss current matters and for ships to take part in a very full training programme. ^bruary-March-April. 1969
THE N A V Y
THE F I N E S T
F O R T H E B E S T IN
2 Minutes to Tram
68 C L A R E N D O N
W Hiking D i s t a n c e T o City
T h e indicator, available in 4 inch or 21-inch diameter versions weighing 3 lb. and i lb. respectively, is fitted with Beta lights for nighttime illumination. MARINE
(Mr. L. a n d M r s . K. Quitt)
inches by 3£ inches b y 2 i inches and weighs l i lb. It is also connected to the ship's power supply and is available in 1 2 V , 2 4 V . 3 2 V o r 3 6 V D . C . versions.
A new marine water-cooled dicscl engine rated at 15 b.h.p. at 2.000 r.p.m. is a four stroke two cylinder unit suitable for a wide variety of commercial a n d pleasure craft, claim the British makers. C o o l i n g is n o r m a l l y by a thermostatically controlled direct raw water system, t h o u g h the engine can also be cooled by the keel pipe
S t a n d a r d equipment includes a manually-operated reverse gearbox, though a hydraulically - operated gearbox is available as an alternative. Lister Blackstone Pty. Ltd., I U n w i n s Bridge R o a d . St. Peters. N . S . W . 2044. ROTATABLE ENGINE WILL DRIVE A N D STEER CRAFT IN ALL DIRECTIONS A motorboat with a rotatable engine that will drive and steer the craft in all directions, even backwards, has been developed b y a British firm, Michaels Garade ( S c l b y ) Ltd. of Y o r k s h i r e . C l a i m e d to be unsinkable, it has a four-stroke, 2 h.p. engine w h i c h is encased in a cylindical glass fibre container that slides into a h o u s i n g in the stern, without any fastening.
It can be rotated t h r o u g h 3 6 0 degrees o n its vertical axis, giving the boat great manoeuvrability. T h e fan-cooled engine unit is 31 inches high, weighs 28 lb. a n d h a s a triple-bladed propellor. fitted with a shear pin. Watersealed. it h a s twin d r i v i n g belts for reliability. Constructed in coloured fibreglass, and supplied with w o o d e n oars, the boat has built-in b u o y a n c y tanks filled with rigid polyurethane f o a m that incorporate seats. It is 8 feet long. 4 feet wide. 19 inches deep a n d seats two adults and two children in comfort. E a s i l y carried b y two people, it is ideal for transport o n a car r o o f rack. W h e n the boat is inverted like this, the engine can be slipped, right w a y up. into the housing, t h u s a v o i d i n g fuel leaks. T h e craft is called the Beetle M k . I I motorboat.
AUSTRALIAN SEA CADET CORPS & R.A.N.R. SCHOOL CADETS NEWS
NEW SOUTH WALES DIVISION Compliments from . . .
Compliments from . . .
H. J. & G. L. THIEL
G.F.C. Pty. Ltd.
Four Square Store
FOR O U R
FREE H O M E
59 K A T R I N A NORTH
Report on training a n d activities u n d e r t a k e n by the Australian Sea Cadet Corps a n d the R.A.N.R. School Cadets for the quarter e n d i n g 31st December, 1968.
84 HERBERT STREET NORTHCOTE, VIC. 489-1133
A continuous training period of 7 d a y s duration was carried out by T h e Scots College. R . A . N . R . S c h o o l Cadet U n i t in H . M . A . S . Creswell f r o m 24.11.1968 to 1.12.1968. W e e k e n d training for Sea Cadets a n d R . A . N . R . S c h o o l Cadets took place in the f o l l o w i n g ships a n d establishments. H.M.A.S. H.M.A.S. H.M.A.S. H.M.A.S. H.M.A.S. H.M.A.S. H.M.A.S. H.M.A.S. H.M.A.S. H.M.A.S. ber.
Vendetta, 11-13 October. Anzac. 18-20 October. Creswell, 18-20 October. Stalwart. 18-20 October. Vendetta. 25-27 October. Creswell. 8-10 N o v e m b e r . Watson. 15-17 N o v e m b e r . Creswell, 6-8 D e c e m b e r . Stalwart. 13-15 D e c e m b e r . Vendetta, 13-15 D e c e m -
Officers. Instructors a n d Cadets attended the services held at St A n d r e w s C a t h e d r a l anl St M a r y s C a t h e d r a l o n S u n d a y . 6 October to m a r k the conclusion of N a v y W e e k . February-March-April,
Cadets were used as ushers a n d to hand out the O r d e r o f Service. On Sunday 27 October. 100 Cadets played an active part in the A n n u a l Seafarer's Service held i n St A n d r e w s Cathedral in that they acted as flag bearers. T h e A n n u a l Sailing Regatta was held o n S u n d a y 17 N o v e m b e r and the courses were laid off Snapper Island. T.S. Sydney acted as the host U n i t . M a j o r trophies were w o n
by T.S. Sydney and T.S. Warrego.
A party of three f r o m the U . K . Sea Cadet U n i t T.S. Jervis Bay c o m p r i s i n g one Petty Officer I n structor a n d two Instructor Cadets arrived d u r i n g N o v e m b e r in the S h a w Savill M . V . Ionic. These personnel were billeted in H . M . A . S . Watson and the comprehensive prog r a m m e arranged for them included amongst other items a visit to H.M.A.S. Creswell. H.M.A.S. Nirimba and to the T o w n H a l l to meet the C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r . T i m e THE NAVY
was also f o u n d for them to v i e w some of the major tourist attractions i n N e w S o u t h Wales. A f t e r protracted negotiations, the M a n l y M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l has agreed to grant T.S. Condarnine (Manly U n i t ) the additional area of l a n d requested b y the S e n i o r Officer a n d the matter has n o w been finalised. A n Architect has offered his services free a n d is at present e n g a g e d in d r a w i n g u p plans for a b u i l d i n g commensurate to the attractive site. H o w e v e r , notwithstanding the m a n y offers of physical assistance there still remains the p r o b l e m of finding sufficient financial means to erect an adequate headquarters. T h e official o p e n i n g a n d dedication of T.S. Parramatta headquarters building took place o n S a t u r d a y 21 D e c e m b e r . L.
S e n i o r Officer. Page Sixty-three
DAY TO R E M E M B E R visit the
BRIDGE HOTEL —
MOW, T I T OUR P M T T KECI T.ur raver it* I
It's T h e Plate to G a t h e r Excellent Counter L u n c h and T e a D i n i n g R o o m O p e n 12-2 S u n d a y s L i q u o r Served with M e a l s G o o d C o m p a n y in C o n g e n i a l
W A T T O N STREET, W E R R I B E E P h o n e : W E R R I B E E 11
G r e e t i n g s to a P H . M . A . S . C e r e b u s and F a m i l i e s f r o m y o u r . . .
A Z A L E A S , FRUIT TREES, R O S E S ,
M e s s r s . A s h t o n and J o h n
RHODODENDRONS FOR MOSI
Their specialised training will m a k e them senior engineering sailors o n the d i v i s i o n ' s five A u s t r a l i a n built patrol boats.
Members of the Royal Malaysian Training Review Team called on the Chief of personnel, Royal Australian Navy, Rear Admiral R. I. Peek, O.B.E., D.S.C. (Centre) at Navy Office, Canberra, late in 1968. The team was led by Commodore G. R. Griffiths, R.A.N, (second from right), adviser to the Chief of the Malaysian Naval Staff. The visitors (L. to R): Lt. Cmdr. Soon Tet Loy, Lt. Cmdr. Mohamed Jais Bin Abdullah and Lt. Tan Wah Thong. The team spent two weeks in Australia studying R.A.N, training facilities and equipment.
Phone: 78-3-2822 U.S. PROJECT O N NORFOLK ISLAND
C o m p l i m e n t s to all M e m b e r s f r o m the . . .
BUSH I N N (Mine Hosts: G E O R G E
HOTEL & VI
EXCELLENT COUNTER LUNCH LATE LICENCE RECENTLY OBTAINED COLD, C R E A M Y ALE ALWAYS ON TAP Corner
HUNTER — H . M . A . S . CURLEW
The former mine-sweeper H . M . A S . Curlew c o m m i s s i o n e d last D e c e m b e r in her new role o f m i n e hunter, for w h i c h she w a s extensively modified at G a r d e n I s l a n d D o c k y a r d — t h e first mine-hunter i n the R . A . N . T h e mine-hunter is the latest advance i n mine countermeasures a n d is a significant addition to the A u s t r a l i a n Fleet.
ALL YOUR INSURANCE NEEDS LIFE FIRE — A C C I D E N T
12 RITCHIE STREET
N O T T I N G HILL, VIC.
hr Ml dfUHtKS
December, 1966, a n d began training at H . M . A . S . Tarangau, Manus Island in J a n u a r y , 1967. T h e r e they each completed six m o n t h s c o m m o n apprentice training plus 18 m o n t h s as engine r o o m artificer apprentices (see photo next page).
A u s t r a l i a ' s Largest Office A Purely M u t u a l Office where A l l Profits Belong to the Policy Holders
294 FERNTREE GULLY
A.M.P. Society Life Assurance Representatives
rHONE U S . . . WE DELIVER
The Australian Government has agreed to the U n i t e d States G o v e r n ment installing a passive receiving station o n N o r f o l k Island. W h e n operating, the station w i l l assist the U n i t e d States A i r F o r c e in a research p r o g r a m m e i n v o l v i n g the study o f ionospheric p r o p a g a tion i n relation to l o n g range r a d i o paths. T h e experiment is being c o n d u c ted b y the B a r r y R e s e a r c h C o r p o r a tion, P a l o A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a , under the s p o n s o r s h i p o f the U . S . A i r February-March-April, 1969
F o r c e i n co-operation with the A u s tralian D e p a r t m e n t of S u p p l y . PAPUA-NEW NAVY
T h e first four P a p u a - N e w G u i n e a sailors to train as apprentices in Australia arrived at H.M.A.S. Nirimba, the Navy's apprentice training establishment at Q u a k e r ' s H i l l , N . S . W . , last J a n u a r y , to start 18 m o n t h s o f a d v a n c e d technical training to graduate as engine r o o m artificers i n the T e r r i t o r y ' s patrol boats. Each joined the Papua-New G u i n e a D i v i s i o n o f the R . A . N , i n THE NAVY
U s i n g a h i g h definition s o n a r set, the vessel locates mines ahead o f the s h i p to clear a channel. C l e a r ance divers a b o a r d the mine-hunter are used to delouse or destroy m i n e s w h i c h are located. Vessels o f this type m a y also be used for locating crashed aircraft o r missiles. Other modifications made to Curlew are the fitting o f twin active power rudders w h i c h give her increased m a n o e u v r i n g capabilities at l o w speeds. T h e mine-sweeper H . M . A . S . Snipe is currently being converted to a mine-hunter. NEW
YEAR L O O K FOR R.A.N. SHIPS
F r o m 1 J a n u a r y all R . A . N , ships carried new-style hull n u m b e r s o n their b o w s a n d o n each quarter. T h e new f o r m of n u m b e r i n g requires that they be square instead of rounded, thus i m p r o v i n g visibility at sea: prefix letters h a v e been omitted except for a u x i l i a r y vessels w h i c h retain letters, but o f a smaller size. N u m b e r s h a v e been omitted Page Sixty-flve
Compliments from . . .
. . .
Pty. Ltd. Concessionaires
at the N e w
460 CITY STREET,
Petty Officer G. Cunnington, issues football boots to artificer apprentices A. Linga, R. Heni (centre) and G. Aiede.
. . .
DELMANS Pty. Ltd. Pheonix Biscuit Co. Pty. Ltd.
74 PIER STREET ALTONA,
Phone 398-2840 GROSVENOR
H.M.A.S. MELBOURNE RETURNS TO FLEET
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A t G a r d e n Island N a v a l D o c k y a r d o n F r i d a y . 14 F e b r u a r y , the R . A . N , welcomed back to the operational fleet, the flagship. H . M . A . S .
Our photograph shows HMAS YARRA receiving her final touches Page Sixty-six
SURVEY T E A M IN N E W PATROL B O A T I h e fifth patrol boat for service in the P a p u a - N e w G u i n e a D i v i s i o n of the K . A . N . . H . M . A . S . Madang. left S y d n e y o n 24 F e b r u a r y to join the P . N . G . patrol boat squadron. Madaiift carried a 7 m a n team of N a v y and A r m y s u r v e y o r s to survey the coastline o f the Territory. S u r v e y i n g of the north-coast o f P a p u a - N e w G u i n e a is to c o m m e n c e about 20 M a r c h . A party of staff and students f r o m the Indonesian N a v a l Staff and C o m m a n d S c h o o l arrived in A u s tralia o n Saturday. 22 F e b r u a r y , to visit A u s t r a l i a n Service Establishments. T h e visit was part of the S c h o o l ' s c u r r i c u l u m w h i c h enables a g r o u p of senior officers to familiarise themselves with conditions in Australia. T h e 4 2 officers, led b y R e a r A d m i r a l K . Djclani. C o m m a n d a n t o f the School, were accompanied b y the A u s t r a l i a n N a v a l Attache. D j a karta. C a p t a i n W . J. L o v e l l . R . A . N . T h e party c o m m e n c e d their tour o n 25 F e b r u a r y at the N a v a l A i r Station and Joint Anti-Submarine School. Nowra. N . S . W T h e r e followed visits to the training establishment H.M.A.S. Cerberus. the government A i r c r a f t factory. the A . C . T . . G a r d e n I s l a n d N a v a l D o c k y a r d and the apprentice training establishment. H.M.A.S.
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H.M.A.S. B A Y O N E T I h e last of the 20 fast patrol boats built for the R . A . N . . H . M . A . S . Bayonet, was commissioned at Urangan. Queensland o n 22 February.
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f r o m the stern and replaced by smaller n u m b e r s o n each quarter. T h e new n u m b e r i n g system follows the practice of the U.S.. C a n a d i a n and Pakistani navies (photo below).
I h e 20,000 ton aircraft carrier had completed a one-year m o d e r n i sation p r o g r a m m e a n d her operational squadrons of Skyhawks, T r a c k e r s and Wessex 3 1 B helicopPage Sixty-seven
MELBOURNE RETURNS TO FLEET Compliments
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ters flew above the ship d u r i n g the c o m m i s s i o n i n g ceremony. Melbourne is currently c a r r y i n g out flying exercises with her new aircraft (see p h o t o ) . N E W BARRELS FOR H.M.A.S. PERTH T h e barrels of both 5 inch auto-
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matic g u n s o n Perth were changed at the U . S . N a v a l Base in the Philippines ( S u b i c B a y ) . T h e old barrels had each fired s o m e 4,000 rounds a n d were 9 2 % w o r n (see photo). B y mid-January, Perth had destroyed or d a m a g e d 86 e n e m y b u n kers. 184 structures. 28 sampans,
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one small c a r g o vessel, four bridges, three trucks, killed six V i e t C o n g , cut o r d a m a g e d six roads a n d silenced three artillery sites. N o w switched to other duties with the U . S . Seventh Fleet, Perth is scheduled to complete her tour in Vietnamese waters at the end o f March.
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W h e n the R.N. Tactical School moves f r o m have a b r a n d
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ment at Ferranti Ltd. a n d was shown to the Press for the first time on 8th N o v e m b e r .
W i t h m o d e r n weapons, missiles a n d aircraft now c o m i n g into service the faithful old A . S . T . T . at W o o l w i c h has got out of date and indeed in m a n y cases is incapable o f simulating m o d e r n conditions. T h i s was realized some years ago and a staff requirement was raised for a m u c h m o r e sophisticated a n d versatile trainer. T h e D i g i t a l S y s tems Department o f Ferranti were awarded a contract to develop one in conjunction with the A d m i r a l t y Surface W e a p o n s Establishment a n d w o r k started in A u g u s t 1964. T h e designers were determined to come up with something which not o n l y met present day requirements. but which w o u l d be sufficiently versatile to meet all future requirements for at least the next 10 years, a n d they have produced a really first-class system w h i c h they claim is the most advanced tactical trainer in the world.
ber o f P.P.I. type of displays, which, although not identical with similar displays f o u n d in ships, between them produce to the Command exactly the same information that w o u l d be available in a m o d e r n operations r o o m of a ship. T h e r e is a large. 24-in. cathoderay tube o n which are displayed all the detections made, together with alphabetical-numerical s y m b o l s indicating their track number, category, speed, etc. I n addition there is a 'tote' display, very similar to that f o u n d in a ship, a n d one. or in some cases two. other filtered displays.
T h e core o f the whole trainer is three Ferranti digital F 1 6 0 0 c o m puters. These incredible machines can store up to 100.000 words, automatically p e r f o r m all the vario u s functions, produce the tracks of all the units taking part in a game a n d carry out a thousand other computations in a fraction of a second.
T h e cubicles are fitted with keyboards by means of w h i c h the students can give various instructions to the computer. F o r instance, if it is desired to alter course to 0 4 0 turning to port. TURN PORT 040 is typed o n the k e y b o a r d and an injection key pressed to feed the order to the computer. T h e ship then turns to the new course with all the correct delays for wheel-over. etc.. imposed. It is even possible to differentiate between ' h a r d over' and o n l y a few degrees of wheel; a rate of turn control being provided. C h a n g e s o f speed are similarly realistically simulated a n d it is possible to order a zigzag or to sinuate.
T h e trainer itself consists o f 2 0 cubicles, with p r o v i s i o n for a further four, each of which can be p r o g r a m m e d to represent any type o f unit, seaborne, airborne o r submerged. I n each cubicle are a n u m -
A complete H . F . a n d U . H . F . c o m munications system is provided to enable cubicles o n the same side to talk to each other, a n d there is also a phone system in each cubicle to enable the cubicle, w h i c h repre-
sents the operations r o o m , to talk to the bridge (represented by the directing staff) D a t a transmission of plot details can be simulated and made to appear automatically o n the 'tote' a n d the displays exactly as is d o n e w h e n data transmission between ships is in use. W h e r e this is not the case, voice plot information can also be passed between cubicles as if it was being sent b y voice radio. O n receipt it is inserted m a n u a l l y via the k e y b o a r d so that it s h o w s up o n the displays. T h e directing staff have a n u m ber of displays o n which they can either watch the whole tactical picture. a b l o w n - u p portion of it. o r a n y display in a n y cubicle. T h e y also have arrangements for d r i v i n g u p to 100 units themselves, but since 100 w o u l d be too m a n y for H»em to m a n o e u v r e all the time, they can p r o g r a m m e these units to d o what they require, press a switch a n d leave it to the computer to drive them. T h u s the directing staff can m a n o e u v r e a c o n v o y , insert a s u b marine. or an aircraft, o r shorebased missiles, i n fact a n y t h i n g that their ingenuity can devise. T h e whole playing area covers 2,048 square miles a n d is all displayed o n vertical panels where all the tactical movements are recorded so that spectators can watch the progress of the battle. A very useful innovation is a separate W a s h - u p R o o m where the Page Seventy-one
game can be replayed so that it can be seen by all the participants, thus a l l o w i n g the m a i n area to be used simultaneously for another game with a fresh lot of students.
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game to another takes only a few minutes. T h e r e is no doubt that the new A . S . T . T . is a great advance o n the existing one at W o o l w i c h . Ferranti claim that, in spite of its complexity, maintenance will be no problem, o n l y six maintenance engineers being required.
Considerable trouble has been taken to ensure that each ship's sensors detect realistically: horizon effect, jamming, size of target are all taken into account. I n addition it is possible to simulate any f o r m of e n e m y electronic countermeasure. The directing staff can insert various reductions in radar or sonar ranges obtainable, to represent adverse conditions, s i m p l y by m a k i n g a switch.
A s regards the remainder o f the staff, apart f r o m the directing staff itself, one W r e n will be required in each cubicle whose principal function will be to type into the c o m puter the various orders given her as to o w n s h i p movements by her 'captain*. Ferranti are naturally l o o k i n g for export sales and have already been in touch with two C o m m o n w e a l t h and two N A T O navies. Since the R . N . trainer started development the state of the computer art has steadily i m p r o v e d a n d Ferranti have n o w developed a m u c h smaller and cheaper computer using m i c r o m i n i a ture techniques. It is k n o w n as the F M I 6 0 0 B and it is their intention to e m b o d y this in all future A . S . T . T s for export. T h e computer has a
G a m e preparation of the directing staff is simple and needs no special skill. A l l that they have to d o is to complete a f o r m to define the units wanted in the game, their starting positions and the entry time and manoeuvres required by the units which they themselves are controlling. T h e f o r m s are converted onto tape, and fed to the computers which assemble them and print out a 'scenario' for use by the directing staff. C h a n g i n g f r o m one
bigger capacity, so fewer will be required, thus there will be a c o n siderable saving in space as well as cost. W h i l s t the R . N ' s 20-cubicle system is ideal for playing large games, it is not essential to have such an elaborate set-up and one can easily reduce the n u m b e r of cubicles and allow the directing staff to drive more units. Hence the system is extremely versatile and can be designed to suit any n a v y ' s requirements. T h e export versions are expected to cost anything between £100.000 and £ l m . . depending u p o n the c o m plexity required, but an average medium-sized trainer s h o u l d cost about £400.000. Tactical trainers fulfil a m u c h needed role in teaching naval officers h o w to handle their ships and squadrons in war: something w h i c h w o u l d cost a fortune to learn at sea in peacetime. W h e n one considers the large number of officers w h i c h can be put t h r o u g h a trainer in the course of a year, the initial outlay w o u l d appear well worth it.
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This article is a further reply to the feature by Mr. R. J. Hallett which appeared in the May-June-July, 1968 edition of "The Navy", page 25. Mr. John Mortimer also replied to the feature, see page 63, August-September-October, 1968 edition.
ENGINEERS A N D
In reply to M r R. J. Hallett's article on helicopter-destroyers for the R.A.N. I would like to make the following points and suggestions.
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M r Hallett assumes that the age of these ships is not too great to make such a conversion worthwhile. and it is here that my first doubts in this project exist. He is going to build virtually new ships from them, but is going to keep in them the machinery that has already gone through twenty years' service.
We are currently building ten 1(H) foot Patrol Boals for the Royal Australian Navy all ten have now been commissioned: H.M.A.S. A l l A P E ; H.M.A.S. A D V A N C E : H.M.A.S. 1 A E : H.M.A.S. A R C H E R : H . M . A . S A R R O W
Phones: Maryborough 2321
In addition he is going to alter their appearance dramatically, to make these vessels appear new and modern, but this expensive change achieves little in the way of their self defensive and detection capabilities. After all. the purpose of these conversions is to supply a relatively inexpensive source of new ships. He is devjting a very large amount of money to equipping his ships with the latest in submarine detection equipment and yet his armament lacks our best anti-submarine weapon, the I K A R A . Admittedly, he intends carrying helicopters, however these are not the effective weapon I K A R A is. especially in heavy seas. In addition, he hopes to carry two of these aircraft. large SeaKing helicopters, no mean task considering their size and the limited room available on these ships. O n re-reading his article I seriously doubt the feasibility and worth of such a conversion.
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If we are to refit these ships to such an extent, why not build new vessels altogether, a move that appears to me would cost little more and leave us with a far greater lifespan to expect of these
b y the
ships. If indeed we wish to make these vessels worthwhile submarine hunters we must make provision for the refit to include the fitting of the I K A R A system. We cannot possibly hope to carry two SeaKing helicopters and must either reduce this to one or adopt much smaller, less effective aircraft. A s to the problem of increasing the size of the R.A.N.. I can see several solutions. We could for instance order or build a number of the new escort ships such as the Leandcr Class frigates, ships which are ideal for anti-submarine work and more importantly, ships which meet our limited manning ability. O n the other hand, we could still modify to a limited degree our Battle class destroyers and type 15 frigates. Within these limited conversions I would have these vessels equipped with the I K A R A missile system and a helicopter. The modified ships could be expected to emerge from refit as follows: BATTLE CLASS DESTROYERS Dimensions: Length 379' Beam 40' Draught 13'6" Aircraft: 1 SeaKing Helicopter Weapons: 2 M K X Mortars 2 4.5" Dual purpose guns 1 Ikara launcher 2 Seacat launchers 2 40mm A . A . guns The Ikara launcher would be situated in B. gun position with its magazine below it. The seacat launchers would be on either side of the hangar with their director on top of the hangar and their magaTHE NAVY
zines below it. The M K X mortarswould be under a retractable section of flight deck and the two 40m m Bofors would be abaft the flight deck. T Y P E 15 F R I G A T E S Dimensions: Length 358' Beam 36' Draught 13' 6" Aircraft: 1 SeaKing Helicopter Weapons: 2 M K X Mortars 1 Ikara launcher 2 Seacat launchers 3 40mm A . A. guns The layout of the type 15 frigates would be very similar to that of the Battle class destroyers, except for the absence of the 4.5" gun. The third Bofor in this case would be located For'ard of the superstructure. The unfortunate fact about the type I5's is their lack of defensive armament in the way of guns and surface to surfacecapabilities. The three Bofors are hardly sufficient as defensive weapons. however, sacrifices must be made and calculated risks taken to ensure the maximum efficiency o f these ships as anti-submarine vessels. Whether or not the Australian N a v y needs expanding and whether or not these old ships are worth converting is a matter for the Naval Board and Government to decide but I do believe it is important for ships of today's navies to carry some system of long range detection, some of this in the form of helicopters, and the best the Allies can supply in the way of anti-submarine weapons. Page
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Italy is s h o w i n g quite a lot of interest in the Harrier, the w o r l d ' s first operational V T O L close-support fighter aircraft, designed and built by H a w k e r Siddeley. and. just as the Italian N a v y was the first navy in K u r o p e to have a cruiser armed with missile launchers, so it looks like being the first navy in F.uropc to have a ship capable of operating V I O L aircraft.
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Actually a bigger Italian guidedmissile-armed cruiser. Vitlorio I'eneto. is being completed, although at the time she was designed a n d laid d o w n V T O L aircraft i n ships of her size and type were hardly envisaged. W i t h a standard displacement of 7.500 tons increased to 8.850 tons at full load, she was designed to carry nine A / B 2 4 0 B ASW helicopters, with a consequently larger flight deck aft. sponsoned out f r o m her beam. She is o b v i o u s l y even more suitable to
T h i s Space has been made available
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handsome ships might be called portmanteaux of all the military propensities. I f ships of this size a n d conventional appearance can also operate a V T O L aircraft it wants little imagination to envisage o n l y a slightly larger ship with the capacity for carrying V T O L aircraft designed and built in f r o m the start.
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T h e Italian N a v y has already proved to its satisfaction that a VTOL aircraft can be operated f r o m quite a small cruiser. T h i s was when a H a r r i e r completed a twoday demonstration, watched by Italian Service chiefs, with a vertical landing o n the small helicopter platform of the Italian gt:ided-niissile-armed escort cruiser Andrea Doha, which has a displacement of o n l y 5,273 tons standard and 6.426 ions full load and the flight deck of which is o n l y 9 8 § by 5 2 } feet.
S h e and her sister ship. Caio Duilio. were designed to carry four A / B 2 0 4 B A S W helicopters, and in addition to the substantial hangar abaft the after funnel quite a lot was contrived o n ships of the size. W i t h an overall length of 4 8 9 i feet and a beam of 5 6 1 feet they are armed with a twin launcher f o r w a r d for Terrier surface-to-air guided missiles, eight 3-inch anti-aircraft g u n s and six 12-inch anti-submarine torpedoes in two triple banks. T h e i r propelling machinery comprises four Foster W h e e l e r boilers s u p p l y i n g high-pressure superheated steam to two sets of double-reduction geared turbines aggregating 60.000 shaft horse power and turning two shafts, equal to a speed of 31 knots. T h e y have a capacity o f 1.100 tons of oil fuel, giving them a range of 6.000 miles at a speed of 20 knots, and withal they have a c c o m m o d a t i o n for 53 officers and 4 2 5 men. These
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The HARRIER VTOL lands on ANDREA DORIA
operate V I O L aircraft than her smaller half-sisters. She has an overall length of 5571 feet with a beam of 631 feet, and has an extra deck from the break of the forecastle to the transom thus giving a higher flight deck which is also the deck-head of the hangar below and also of the quarter deck open to the counter and the stern on both sides. She has thus taken her helicopter stowage and servicing below decks like an aircraft carrier, instead of as an addition to the superstructure which is the usual practice in cruisers, destroyers and frigates. But from the after funnel to the forecastle she is still very much a cruiser, and she has the same punch a s — i n fact a little better t h a n —
Andrea Doria and Caio Duilio.
Vittorio Veneto is also very much a missile ship. In addition to her twin Terrier guided-missile launcher forward which is also capable of launching anti-submarine rockets (Asroc) (the combined mounting also being known as Aster), she is. according to official information, equipped with experimental arrange-
ments. similar to those in the larger cruiser Giuseppe Garibaldi, for launching medium-range ballistic missiles comparable with Polaris tubes of which provision has been made for four. She also mounts eight 3-inch single dual purpose guns and two triple tubes for antisubmarine torpedoes. Her propulsion plant is basically similar to that in the Andrea Doria class but with more powerful turbines of 73.000 shaft horse power designed for a speed of 32 knots. A n d the complement has been increased to 550 officers and men. First s u r f a c e - l a u n c h e d I.C.B.M. Giuseppe Garibaldi was converted from an orthodox cruiser into a surface-to-air guided-missile ship, with a twin Terrier launcher in ' X ' position, and she also has four large vertical tubes aft in 'Y* position for launching inter-continental ballistic missiles, the first ever mounted in a surface ship. But she is a bigger ship than Vittorio Veneto with a displacement of 9.800 tons standard and 11.335 tons full load with a
heavier battery comprising four 5.3inch guns and eight 3-inch antiaircraft pieces. A sister ship of Vittorio Veneto was projected, to have been named Trieste, but the plans were modified to provide for a better ship and later the specifications were changed to give a hybrid amphibious cruiser. The building of this ship has been halted for the time being, and taken out of the new-construction cruiser programme, while the design is being re-cast. It is said that if she materializes she will be even more of a carrier than Vittorio Veneto. She is expected to be a helicopter carrier and commando ship in the full sense, but with a missile armament. She will turn out at at least 10.000 tons and could possibly operate a flight of V T O L aircraft. Ihe potentialities of this type of helicopter-cruiser for operating V T O L aircraft have doubtless already been realized by the planners and constructors responsible for the conversion of the British Blake-class cruisers.
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Rough ond Dressed Hardwoods and
2 years 3 years
A P P L I C A T I O N S can o n l y be accepted o n the f o r m attached to, a n d referred to in, the P R O S P E C T U S w h i c h m a y b e o b t a i n e d f r o m : Any Branch of The Bank of N.S.W.; any member of The Stock Exchange; The Company's Office, Cambridge House, 440-442 Queen St., Brisbane
Unlimited Supplies of:
5% p.a. 6 % p.a.
UNSECURED NOTES month 3 months 6 months 1
IRONS & CO.
"MAGNETIC" 7he Man4 beautiful + Sunshine, Safe Swimming Shady Beaches Hayles Day and Half Day Cruises Vessels Depart Town:
M O N D A Y TO FRIDAY: 7 a.m., 9.30 a.m., 2 p.m., 4 p.m., 5.30
SATURDAY: 8 a.m., 9.30 a.m.,
12 noon, 2 p.m., 4 p.m., 6 p.m.
SUNDAY: 8 a.m., 9.30 a.m., 2 p.m., 4 p.m., 6 p.m.
SEE THE HARBOUR A N D BAY FROM HAYLES LAUNCH
Telephone: 2661 Printed o n d p u b l i s h e d by Perc.vol P u b l i s h i n g Co.
w i t h permission of the N a v y
phone 69 6231