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The Design of half-subtractor Logic Function Based on Nonlinear Directional Coupler L. A.Bakhtiar1, E. Yaghoubi2, A. Adami2, S. M. Hamidi3, M. Hosseinzadeh2 (1) Arak branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran (2) Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran (3) Laser and Plasma Research institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C. Tehran, Iran [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected] Received:2011/02/18 ;Accepted: 2011/04/20

Pages: 13-20

Abstract

In this paper a novel design of all-optical half-subtractor based on nonlinear directional coupler is proposed. By using four waveguides and appropriately adjusting the refractive indices and selecting the proper length of waveguides, halfsubtractor function can be obtained. The operation of this function is simulated by RSoft CAD-Layout (BeamPROP) simulator. The simulation results confirm the alloptical half-subtractor circuit without any optoelectronic conversions. Keywords: all-optical half subtractor, coupling, nonlinear directional coupler, refractive index, waveguide.

1. Introduction In conventional optical communication and computation which is still performing in the electrical domain, optoelectronic conversion is inevitable. Optoelectronic conversion not only requires extra power, but also induces speed bottleneck in data transmission [1]. In recent years, the requirement for high speed and high bandwidth information processing has provided more attention to the all-optical devices and circuits. An all-optical signal processing has capability of handling large bandwidth signals and large information flows and it is able to work with transmissions rates up to hundreds Gb.s-1. According to these advantages, all-optical signal processing is expected to have many applications such as binary addition, header recognition, parity checking, addressing, demultiplexing, regenerating and switching with very high speed [2]. Many researches propose various schemes for implementing of all-optical devices by means of semiconductor optical amplifier [3], Mach-Zehnder Interferometer, micro-ring resonators [4], Ultra Nonlinear Interferometer [5], cross gain modulation (XGM), fourwave mixing and Kerr effect at high-Q cavity [6]. Many all-optical logic gates and alloptical arithmetic circuits have been proposed using above mentioned methods. Among these arithmetic circuits, a binary half-subtractor is one of the most importance operations of two digits. The half-subtractor can be implementing a full subtractor. In electrical domain this circuit constructed by use of AND, XOR and NOT gates. Figure 1 illustrated a particular half-subtractor circuit. 13

L. A.Bakhtiar, E. Yaghoubi, A. Adami, S. M. Hamidi, M. Hosseinzadeh

The Design of half-subtractor …

Figure 1. Half-subtractor

All-optical half-subtractor reported in the literatures could be achieved with a Darkbright Soliton [7], Phase Encoding principle [8], PPLN waveguides [9, 10] and high-Q bacteriorhodopsin [11]. However, the searching of new techniques remain, in this paper we propose the operation of half-subtractor based on nonlinear directional coupler and use of linear and nonlinear mediums. 2. Design and Simulation Results

a. Basic Review of Half-Subtractor The half-subtractor is a combinational circuit which is used to perform subtraction of two bits (A-B). It has two inputs, A (minuend) and B (subtrahend) and two outputs D (difference) and B-OUT (borrow). The borrow bit is a ‘1’ when subtraction ‘1’ from ‘0’ otherwise is ‘0’. The difference bit is ‘1’ if either but not both inputs are ‘1’ and is ‘0’ if the inputs are both ‘0’ or both ‘1’. The truth table of the half-subtractor function is shown in Table 1. Table 1. Truth table of half subtractor function Input A 0 0 1 1

Output D 0 1 1 0

B 0 1 0 1

B-OUT 0 1 0 0

b. Coupled-Mode Theory In this section, nonlinear directional coupler theory is presented and discussed using mathematical principles. If two waveguides are sufficiently close each other, light beam can be coupled between the waveguides and total power or partial power can be exchanged between them. Figure 2 illustrated this state of coupled mode theory.

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Figure 2. Coupling between two waveguides

The coupled equations for the field amplitude in each waveguide can be derived as follows [12]:

da1 = - jk 21 exp( j Db z )a 2 ( z ) dz da 2 = - jk 12 exp( - j Db z )a1 ( z ) dz

(1) (2)

β is the phase mismatch per unit length and In the above equations, β β and are amplitudes of the modes of waveguides 1 and 2 respectively, also , are coupling coefficients in each waveguide (equations (3), (4)): 2 1 2 2 k0 k 21 = (n 2 - n ) 2 b1

k 12

ò

2 1 2 2 k0 = ( n1 - n ) 2 b2

a +d

a

ò

u1 ( y )u 2 ( y )dy

-a

- a -d

(3)

u 2 ( y )u 1 ( y )dy

(4)

In which n1 and n2 are refractive indices embedded for each waveguide in a medium with refractive index n. A power transfer ratio is expressed as a P2/P1, which written as equation (5): 1 ì 2 2ü é ù D b L P2 p ï1 ï æ 0 ö = ( ) 2 sin c 2 í ê1 + ç ÷ ú ý P1 2 ï 2 êë è p ø úû ï î þ

(5)

Where P1 and P2 are powers at the end of waveguides 1 and 2 respectively and L0 is coupling length. This term depends on the phase mismatch parameter, ΔβL0, so the power transfer ratio decreases with increasing in ΔβL0 as shown in Figure 3. 15

The Design of half-subtractor …

L. A.Bakhtiar, E. Yaghoubi, A. Adami, S. M. Hamidi, M. Hosseinzadeh

Figure 3. Power transfer ratio vs. Phase mismatch

In a Kerr-type material the refractive index, n, is described by the Kerr law, n=n0+n2I where n0 is the linear refractive index, n2 is the third-order nonlinear coefficient, and I is the field intensity.

c. Operation Principles Of Half-Subtractor The proposed structure for an all-optical half-subtractor circuit is depicted in Figure 4. This scheme consists of four waveguides, (I1, I2) are input channels and (O1, O2) are output ports. The value of refractive indices is shown in Table 2. In fact the refractive index of linear mediums set to this value by the aid of equivalent layers theory [13] and the used material for input channels is polydiacetylene PTS with n0 = 1.66 that have the kerr nonlinearity about 2 ×10-4 μm2/W [14]. Table2. The value of refractive indices of waveguides Waveguides I1 I2 O1 O2

Refractive Index 1.66 1.664 1.66 1.664

Behavior Nonlinear Nonlinear Linear Linear

Actually, operation of the circuit is done based on changing the refractive index by applying optical input signals to the nonlinear waveguides. As the input power increases, the nonlinear contribution to the refractive index increases and the phase match between the input channels and their corresponding output will be destroyed. In this scheme 3Watt in power considered as logic one and no light in inputs considered as zero logic. In half-subtractor function the sequence of operands is considerable. The Boolean functions for the two outputs can be obtained directly from the truth table (Table 1) as:

D = AÅB B - Out = A.B If the second operand greater than the first one, the borrow bit must be set, because of that we propose to inject the second operand to the both input channels.

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Journal of Advances in Computer Research

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Figure 4. Proposed structure for all optical half-subtractor

In first state, when there is no light in inputs, no signal emeregs from the output ports, D and B-out, obviosly. In the second state, when the value of subtrahend is logic one (B=1) and the minuend value is zero (A=0), the beam with 3Watt in power is launched into the both input channels. Since the entrance power is insufficient, the refractive indices of input channels will not change significantly, therefore the input light will be coupled from I1 and I2 to the port D and B-out, respectivly (Figure 5).

Figure 5. Output power of port O1 and O2 when (A=0 , B=1)

For the third state, only the minued is logic one (A=1) and the second operand is zero (B=0). In this case I2 channel is empty and the signal beam is launched to the I1 channel. As well as first state, the power of the input is not sufficient to change the refractive index of input guide, hence the majority of the power will be coupled to O1 port and exit from D output. On the other hand the input power can not compensate the difference 17

The Design of half-subtractor …

L. A.Bakhtiar, E. Yaghoubi, A. Adami, S. M. Hamidi, M. Hosseinzadeh

between index profile of I1 and I2 guides. Therefore, the optical power is not transffered between the input channels and so, B-out port which shows borrow bit has no light. This situation reperesented by Figure 6. In these two states when the incident power is low, it means that only one operand is logic one, no nonlinearities are excited and only linear coupling is present. Therefore, acoording to equation (5), the optical power can transport between input channels and output ports.

Figure 6. Output power of port O1 and O2 when (A=1 , B=0)

For the case where both optical input signals are logic one (A=1 and B=1), the signal with 6Watt power enters the I1 and 3Watt power is applied to I2. For the nonlinear guides, when the input power is high enough the propagation constant mismatch (Δβ) is so large that power do not exchange between the two adjacent guides. In this state, the input light with 6Watt in power is sufficiently intense to change the refractive index of I1 channel to such an extent that no light can transmit to the O1 port. At this time, the increment of the refractive index of I1 leads to transfer the percentage of light from I1 to I2. This amount of power which disseminates to the I2 channel destroyed the equivalence of refractive indices between I2 and its corresponding output (O2) thus, no power transfer occurs and there is no light will appear in the B-out. Figure 7 is a graph of this case.

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Figure 7. Output power of port O1 and O2 when (A=1 , B=1)

The operation of this circuit is based on absence or presence of light in the output ports. However if the output optical signals could be managed in another fashion, cascading several optical logic of this circuit would be possible. For this aim we propose the use of SOA (Semiconductor Optical Amplifier) at the end of output ports to amplify power of output signals. 3. Conclusion This paper has proposed and simulated an all-optical half-subtractor function based on nonlinear directional coupler. This circuit is compact and potentially applicable for photonic integrated circuit. The operation speed of proposed scheme is faster than using the type of electrical in order to avoid inefficient optoelectronic conversion. References 1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

D. J. Blumenthal, "Photonic packet switching and optical label swapping," Opt. Net. Mag., pp. 1-12, November/December 2001. A.P. Kabilan, X. S. Christina, P. E. Caroline. “Realization Of Optical Logic Gates Using Photonic Crystal”. ICOP 2009-International Conference on Optics and Photonics Chandigarh,India,30 Oct.-1 Nov.2009. Kyoung Sun Choi Young Min Jhon Deok Ha Woo Seok Lee Sun Ho Kim Jinwoo Park , “All-Optical OR And NOR Logic Gates In Single Format By Using Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers” Lasers And Electro-Optics - Pacific Rim, 2007. Cleo/Pacific Rim, 26-31 Aug. 2007. Q. Xu and M. Lipson, “All-optical logic based on silicon micro-ring resonators”. Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 3, pp. 924-929 (2007). N. S. Patel, K. A. Rauschenbach, and K. L. Hall, "40-Gb/s Demultiplexing Using an Ultrafast Nonlinear Interferometer (UNIT)", IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 8(12), 1695- 1697 (1996). Y_ Jin Jung, S_ Lee, N_ Park , “All-Optical 4-Bit Gray Code To Binary Coded Decimal Converter”_Proc. Of Spie Vol. 6890, 68900s, (2008) Doi:10.1117/12.762429.

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S. Thongmee, P. P.Yupapinb. “All Optical Half Adder/Subtractor using Dark-bright Soliton Conversion Control”. 2nd International Science, Social-Science, Engineering and Energy Conference 2010. B. Chakraborty , S. Mukhopadhyay . “All-Optical Method of Developing a Half- Subtractor by the use of Phase Encoding Principle”. Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics. (2011). Bogoni, X. Wu, Z. Bakhtiari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner. “640 Gb/s All Optical Logic Functions in a PPLN Waveguide”. ECOC 2010, 19-23 September, 2010, Torino, Italy. Bogoni, X. Wu, I. Fazal, A. E. Willner. “160 Gb/s Time-Domain Channel Extraction/Insertion and All-Optical Logic Operations Exploiting a Single PPLN Waveguide.” JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 27, NO. 19, OCTOBER 1, 2009. S. Roy, M. Prasad, J. Topolancik, F. Vollmer. “All-optical switching with bacteriorhodopsin protein coated microcavities and its application to low power computing circuits.” JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 107, 053115 (2010). B.E.A.Saleh, M.C.Teich, "Fundamentals of photonics," A Wiley-Interscience publication, 1991. Bananej; S. M. Hamidi; W. Li; C. Li; M. M. Tehranchi. “A flexible design for one dimensional photonic crystals with controllable photonic bandgap width". Optical Materials 30 (2008) 1822–1827. Bahrami; A. Rostami And F. Nazari. “MZ-MMI-Based All-Optical Switch Using Nonlinear Coupled Waveguides”. Optik - International Journal For Light And Electron Optics (2010).

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