Chapter – 2
Review of Literature
Review of Literature CHAPTER- 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE This chapter gives details of a number of studies which have been carried out to explore the Human Resource Management practices related to the Hospitality industry and its classification in accordance with the conceptualization of the research. The current literature provides adequate information of the HRM practices adopted by the sector. This chapter includes three sections:
The first section consists of the introduction and importance of HRM practices in the Hospitality sector.
The second section discusses the various HRM practices adopted by the Hospitality industry.
The third section provides a summary of the Review of Literature and addresses the likely contribution of the study to the Hospitality industry.
INTRODUCTION TO THE REVIEW OF LITERATURE:
A review of literature was carried out on studies focusing on the Human Resource Management practices related to the Hospitality sector. This chapter highlights the conceptual discussions and the literature review along with the identification of research gaps.
Studies focus on the HR policies, practices and challenges with regards to management of employees in general in the Hospitality sector. Studies have been conducted on the following HRM practices in general, but not from the housekeeping employee‟s satisfaction point of view in particular: Recruitment and selection, Training, Performance evaluation, Motivation, Empowerment, Recognition and rewards, Job Enlargement through Multi-skilling, Job enrichment, Teamwork, Career progression, Conflict management, Employee Involvement and productivity, Work safety, Employee welfare, Employee turnover, Strategic HRM, Job satisfaction.
The Hospitality Industry faces a most significant challenge as it depends mainly on people to carry out basic functions, like, greeting and serving guests. It is the quality 19
Review of Literature of these functions, as perceived by the customer that will determine the success of the hospitality business. (Bettencourt & Gwinner, 1996) The Management must therefore not only lay stress on managing employees in the organization (Groonroos, 2000), but also on all other Human Resource functions, like, attracting, selecting, training, motivating and rewarding them to keep them engaged.
Globally, all Hospitality organizations agree to the fact that HR concerns are a major concern for Hotel and Restaurant operations (Enz 2004). The Human resources of an organization will give an edge to the firm in a competitive environment, as competitors cannot match the service quality standards offered by engaged, committed and loyal employees.(Hitt, Bierman, Shimizu & Kochar, 2001)
Although the Hospitality Industry is people- intensive, it does not provide for growth options for its employees and faces high employee turnover. The reality is that employees who are directly dealing with customers are the ones who are paid the least. Presently, most of the employees working in the Hospitality industry belong to Gen Y. Gen Y‟s characteristics and attitudes towards the job are extremely different from employees of the previous generations. (McGuire, Tadnem By & Hutchings, 2007) Making changes in the existing HRM strategies to meet the motivation, training and development needs of Gen Y employees is a challenge for the hospitality industry in the future. With changing employee demographics, growth in the hospitality industryand growing demand for workforce, new standards for understanding employee values, attitudes and behaviors are needed.
RESEARCH DONE BY PREVIOUS AUTHORS WITH REGARD TO HRM PRACTICES IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY:
Strategic Human Resource Management in the Hospitality Industry:
Michael C.G. Davidson, Ruth McPhail & Shane Barry (2010), state the past, current and future trends in HRM in the hospitality industry with a specific focus on International hotels. The study identifies steps required to meet future challenges in the industry. Training and skills development and Service quality are important issues to be addressed in the future as in the past. They state that use of casual labor,
Review of Literature outsourcing and strategic HRM with emphasis on talent, knowledge and management of human resources will be the future of HRM practices.
Dr. Hui-O-Yang, (2010), addresses the most important issues in HRM in the hotel industry- shortage of suitable employees, lack of training and development opportunities, difficulties with job placements of interns and high levels of employee turnover. The issues include the effective use of outsourcing, flexible and casual employees. Dr. Yang states that Strategic HRM, adequate communication with employees and organization of skills training will help to overcome the challenges faced by the industry.
Andrew Orr Headman (2008) identifies several attitudinal, motivational and behavioral employee effects, like, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, selfefficacy, teamwork and organizational behavior; which co-relate the human resource system‟s practices and organizational outcomes. HR procedures, principles, practices and views are constituents of a Strategic HRM system, which co-relate effective HR practices and organizational performance results.
Dr. Hui-O-Yang (2009) states that the hotel industry focuses on dealing with operational challenges, like, shortages of skilled staff, training and development issues, dealing with outsourcing and casual labor and high rate of employee turnover. He states that a Strategic HRM approach is a solution to sustain in a competitive market and provide high standards of service quality. High levels of employee turnover are more expensive for luxury than lower budget hotels, due to their refined operation and training systems. He suggests that Empowerment of employees should be used as a strategic approach, as it helps in motivation and job satisfaction and thus, reduces employee turnover. Ying Hong, (2009), studied the capability- based outlook of Strategic Human resource management. He states that emphasis on efficient, reliable back-of-the-house employees is critical to hotels that focus on operational excellence and help them to become leaders in the market.
Rashmi Biswas, Catherine Cassell, (1996) state that Strategic HRM involves the use of approaches, like, the Instrumental approach, which focuses on Human resource 21
Review of Literature planning aspects and the Humanistic approach, which emphasizes on organizational culture and employee commitment towards the job. Apart from selection, training and rewards, a HRM system includes employee welfare, role of trade unions, performance evaluation, employee involvement and equal opportunities for both the genders of employees. They recommend that sex and occupational discrimination in the Hospitality industry needs to be tackled. Maxwell, Watson, Quail (2004) reveal that the “Esprit” human resource quality initiative of Hilton International promotes a strategic approach to human resource development. This initiative involves the HR principles of employee recognition, respect and reward as integral components. It keeps employees in the forefront, as there can be no guest satisfaction without employee satisfaction. Employees in the organization have their own expectations from a job, like, more training and development opportunities, a good working environment and not just the job itself. This Esprit workshop imbibes in employees the values, brand standards and moments of Hilton. The completion of this workshop makes the employees members of the Esprit club, which entitles them to various employee benefits.
Employee Turnover in the Hospitality Industry:
Monica Nyamusa Tembi (1991), identified reasons for employee turnover in the housekeeping department of Rochester Hotels. Most housekeeping employees left their job due to poor wages. Other dis satisfiers include lack of promotions, poor quality of supervision, job insecurity and working weekends. She suggests that employee satisfaction would increase if they worked with departmental colleagues who they liked, leading to better inter-personal relations within the housekeeping department. The staff would be better equipped and satisfied with the working conditions in the job if they were provided with adequate supplies and if the management would have more regard for their work-related problems and issues. These work conditions and human resource practices have an impact on the job satisfaction levels of housekeeping employees in the hotel.
Michael. C.G.Davidson, Nils Timo, Ying Wang (2010), studied that employee turnover costs in four and five star Luxury hotels in Australia include pre-departure expenses, recruitment, selection, orientation and training costs; as well as an 22
Review of Literature important aspect of lost employee productivity which needs to be measured as an expense. The Food & Beverage department, followed by housekeeping, has the highest employee turnover rate. Solutions for employee turnover include - Investment in training of staff, provision of organizational support, offering growth opportunities through career path options and adopting innovative recruitment and selection processes.
Multi-Skilling in the Hospitality Industry:
Li Cheng Chen & Michelle Wallace, (2011), studied that multi-skilling of frontline managers in five star hotels in Taiwan, like Front Office and F&B manager helps to improve service quality standards in the hotel, as it helps to increase employee jobsatisfaction and retention. Multi-skilling results in the employee earning higher remuneration and vertical mobility in the form of promotions. It helps to reduce the deficiency in availability of the required employee-skills and also to reduce high employee turnover rate. This finally contributes to the economic success of the organization through cost-reduction and increased productivity of the staff. It is a strategic Human resource development tool to increase the effectiveness of employees through job-enlargement, enrichment, rotation and cross-training.
Training and Development of Human Resources in the Hospitality Industry:
Sonia Bharwani, Neetu Butt, (2012), investigated and revealed that Hospitality organizations should respond to the new challenges faced by the industry, caused due to changes in technology as well as changes in global trends. This can be done by introducing Human resource interventions, like, improving the quality and quantity of manpower through training and development practices and by adopting employee commitment and motivation initiatives, improved work-life balance, training and development, career progression and growth opportunities.
Alessandra Lazazzara, Maria Cristina Bombelli, (2011),explored the impact of training on an elderly workforce in the Italian Hospitality industry. They found that organizational culture negatively affects the work-related behavior of older employees. Training & development practices need to be used for improving their work performance. Newly- designed jobs and career paths and transfer of their learnt 23
Review of Literature and valued technical knowledge to the younger staff is a successful human resource management strategy to keep the older staff engaged.
Adams, Bruce, (2003), studied that the use of handheld devices in the Hospitality sector centers round guest management services, such as communication among housekeeping employees, intra-departmental communication and restaurant Point-of Sale billing systems. At the Pacific Terrace Hotel in San Diego, housekeepers use pocket PC‟s to communicate with the front desk and Head housekeeper, telling them when the rooms are done and ready for sale. A module is used for mini-bar inventory control. Another module is used for guest and maintenance requests to be communicated from the housekeeping to Engineering departments. This use of technology has resulted in reduction of the cost of staffing. It is suggested that the use of computer technology requires training of employees to be carried out in the housekeeping as well as other related departments in the hotel.
Andreas Putra, (2004), states that evaluation of employee training and performance on the job is essential for knowing their learning outcomes through job-knowledge transfer. This reflects the impact of training on the employee‟s job performance. Enhanced
organization and planning of the training program facilitate transfer of learning. Training of employees helps to improve the overall organizational performance due to better service quality and productivity of employees.
Diane Seymour & Peter Sandiford, (2005), discuss ways in which employees learn to use their emotions required in guest-service interactions, their responses to work stimuli, organizational monitoring and control. This is also learned through informal social interactions with departmental colleagues, superiors, managers and customers. The focus on customer- orientation in the hospitality sector leads to a crucial linkage between the selection process of employees and their training aspects, from the point of view of anticipating customer requirements, handling customer complaints, etc.
Lisa M. Lynch, Sandra E.Black (1998) investigates the positive impact of employerprovided training on work-place practices and characteristics, capital investments and workers education level. Formal training programs were associated with 24
Review of Literature establishment size such as large industries, the presence of high-performance systems, like Total Quality Management, Benchmarking of employee and organizational performance or self-managed teams, capital-intensive production and enhanced worker education level.
Helen Dewhurst, Peter Dewhurst, Rachel Livesey, (2006) concluded from their study that small and medium Hospitality and tourism enterprises face several barriers which prevent them from providing training to their employees. Multi-skilled staff is in great demand in small firms in UK. Generic, Vocational, and job-specific skills are required, the most valued being, Generic skills. These Generic skills include soft skills, people skills, communication skills, etiquettes, etc. for which training needs to be imparted.
Occupational Safety in the Hospitality Industry:
Anthea Zacharatos, (2001), concluded that there is a strong co-relation between highly committed management practices and Occupational safety at the organizational level. Use of the following practices helps to increase work place safety: Selective hiring of educated and qualified staff, leadership which brings in change, enhanced job quality by adopting total quality management standards of service quality, a sense of job security, provision of training to employees on work systems, compensation provided to employees, information sharing amongst the management and lower-level employees on organizational matters, reduced gap between the management and lower level employees- distinction based on status of employee, self-managed teams, evaluation and measurement of criteria for organizational success, employee‟s trust in the management and safety climate in the organization.
John J.Kane & Martin, E. Personik (1993), assessed that hotels and motels reported many work-related injuries and illnesses, disabling incidents, resulting in lost work time and productivity of employees. Housekeeping employees, like Maids and Housemen were more than half the cases. The profiling of these safety and health hazards in this study will help the Hospitality Sector to take steps and precautions to prevent the occurrence of these incidents. Housekeeping staff is most prone to such casualties due to heavy-duty work. Prevention of such accidents will help to ensure employee safety and good health. 25
Review of Literature Pam Tau Lee, Niklas Krause, (2002), studied that a participatory research partnership of representatives from labor, academia and public health enabled union members of San Francisco hotels, specifically room cleaners to achieve important policy changes in workplace health and safety, as a part of a project called „Housekeeping Study‟. The study developed health data which enabled room cleaners and their union to formulate and justify a contract proposal calling for a reduction in housekeeping staff workloads from the assigned standard job of cleaning 15 guest rooms to 14 guest rooms in a shift, resulting in improvement of working conditions and reduced job stress. This set a new standard which can protect the health of room cleaners across the country and internationally in the future.
Human Resource and Organizational Performance:
Mohinder Chand, Anastasia. A.Katou, (2007), studied that hotel performance is positively related to HRM systems of Recruitment and Selection, Manpower planning, Job design, Training and development, Quality Circle and Pay systems. Hotels in India should focus on the „best‟ HRM practices, like, multi-skilling , career planning, use of flexible job descriptions to provide autonomy to employees, crosscultural job design to facilitate hiring of employees from various cultural backgrounds, formal induction of new employees, provision of need-based training, use of Attitude surveys to assess employees, social appreciation and recognition of good employee performance, staff kept informed about market conditions in the city and the resultant performance of the organization. They opined that the hotel‟s performance is positively associated with the star category of the hotel and type of hotel, i.e. whether it is a chain or an individual hotel. If hotels are to perform better, they should preferably belong to a Chain and strive to improve their star category. The management should focus on the „best‟ HRM practices to achieve optimum organizational performance.
Yoon Seonghee Cho, (2004), investigated the direct effects of HRM practices on Organizational performance in the Hotel Industry. Six domains of effective HRM were suggested: Right Staffing, Training and development opportunities, Performance Appraisals, Rewards and Recognitions to enhance employee performance, clear
Review of Literature organizational hierarchy and effective supervision and communication across the channels in the organization. Eleni T.Stavrou, (2005), explores the categorization of FWA‟s (Flexible Work Arrangements)
competitiveness. These bundles include: Non-standard work patterns, working away from the office premise, Non-standard work hours and outsourced work. FWA‟s include part-time work, job-sharing, shift and week-end work, overtime, annual hours, flexi-time schedules, temporary work, fixed-term contracts, sub-contracting, etc. This is a strategic HRM system to promote organizational flexibility through flexible work arrangements to take care of work and family provisions.
Paul Ingram, Peter.W.Roberts (2000), suggest that friendships with competitor hotels can improve the performance of organizations through the mechanisms of - better collaborations amongst competing hotels, reduced aggressive competition and better information exchange, which are best achieved when competing hotel managers are involved in a mutual, cohesive network of friendship.
Mukles Al-Ababneh,(2012), explores the impact of Critical Success Factors necessary for TQM implementation on organizational creativity in the hotel industry. The factors include: Top leadership and management, training of employees, employee relations-interpersonal, union relations, relationships with management.
Employee Involvement in Hospitality Industry:
Hussein Ismail (2013) studied that the management of hotels in Lebanon do not involve employees in decision-making and job-design. Employee involvement is not considered important. Employee inputs are not considered during performance appraisals. It is suggested that employee involvement in management aspects will help to increase employee motivation, work productivity, individual performance in the job, help in creating a positive attitude, increase work commitment and job satisfaction of the employees, making the employee feel valued in the organization. Employee involvement is a central element of the HRM paradigm.
Review of Literature 2.2.8
Human Resource Challenges in the Hospitality Industry:
Amrik Singh, (2014), evaluates the present challenges, best practices and new trends in hotel housekeeping, which can help reduce operating costs. Implementation of trends in housekeeping, such as, Outsourcing helps to reduce staffing costs. IT-savvy housekeeping involves the use of software for room status reports. This requires extensive computer training to be provided to housekeeping employees. Training of housekeeping staff on new practices, such as,use of Ergonomic techniques, ecofriendly practices and new standard operating procedures is a challenge. Retention of housekeeping employees, payroll performance and keeping the turnover rate low are challenges faced by the management.
The Editor, Clean India Journal, (2013), reported the viewpoint of housekeeping managers of various hotels. Engaging with guests and employees through communication and involvement is an essential aspect of the Executive Housekeeper‟s job. Reducing housekeeping employee attrition is a challenge faced by most housekeepers. Advancements in technology require housekeeping employees to be trained in its usage. Training, Cross-training and multi-skilling of housekeeping employees, performance measurement, environmental issues to be adopted, etc. are other challenges faced by Housekeepers in the hotels, which need to be resolved.
Meena Bhatnagar, Executive Housekeeper at Taj Lands End, Mumbai quotes„Today, housekeeping is no more a back-of-the-house department; most of the reputed hotel chains have chosen to raise their housekeepers as front runners and encourage them to interact with guests. With advancements in technology and modernization, the face of housekeeping has changed as per the latest trends in the hotel industry‟.
The Editor, hospitalitybiz.com, (2008), reported the challenges faced by housekeepers while maintaining hotels with extravagant designs, resulting in additional staff and time required to carry out the cleaning operation. Ways to have an organized workflow in the housekeeping department and increase employee efficiency, through the use of user-friendly ergonomic designs, is advised.
Joyce Gioia, (2009) has identified five of the biggest challenges faced in HRM in hotels- Hiring right, Bonding during the on-boarding process, Engaging long-tenured 28
Review of Literature employees, Retention of valued employees and Succession planning. She recommends adopting strategies to resolve these HR challenges in a hotel.
Liz Doherty, Anna Klenert, Simonetta Manfredi, (2007) analyzed the role of International Strategic HRM in multi-national hotel chains. Different approaches are adopted in the recruitment and retention of employees. An Ethnocentric approach involves recruiting and developing people from the organizations home country and deputing them to core positions around the world. A Polycentric approach involves local people in the host country. A Geocentric approach draws on the values and experiences of high –level employees from different countries.
Judie M.Gannon, Liz Doherty, Angela Roper, (2012), explores the challenges faced by International hotel companies in creating competitive advantage through Strategic HRM approach focusing on HR as a valuable resource. Use of Performance Appraisals, training programs, corporate communication mediums and specific HRM responses to cultural and internal organizational challenges were HRM strategies used to develop human resources.
Greg G.Wang, USA,(2012), researched and presented six ethnic HRM related local phenomena in Chinese organizations- distribution of non-cash benefits to all its employees; existence of union phenomenon; organization-sponsored entertainment activities for employees; triangular relationships between top management impacting governance; succession planning, employee compensation and factors affecting organizational performance as well as an integrated training system.
Liz Lycette, (2006), opines that a successful housekeeping team is equally responsible in generating profits for the hotel, yet its role and staff is looked down upon as „just a bunch of cleaners‟. Staffing level in Luxury hotels is decreasing with respect to staff to room ratio. The entire housekeeping team needs to be better trained and properly empowered to provide customer services. The physical demands of the job, low esteem along with low wages are reasons for people not joining housekeeping.
Review of Literature 2.2.9
Employee Motivation in the Hospitality Industry:
Douangphichit, N. (2015) identified the HRM functions that help to improve business and employee performance, profitability and productivity and help the hotel to maintain its competitive advantage in the hotel business in Laos. Amongst the motivation and job satisfaction factors; money, opportunity for growth and fairness are most influential.
Du Plessis, A J., Douangphichit, N., & Dodd, P. (2015) stated that most of the employees felt that their organizations create work conditions whereby they are motivated to work harder and recognize the importance of training to help them work better. But the main factor that brings about high level of job satisfaction and motivation is salary.
Solnet. David, Hood. Anna, (2008), studied the impact of the new generation of employees entering the Hospitality workforce, and the changes in management policies that will be required to successfully recruit, select, train, and motivate Gen Y to achieve organizational goals, which is a challenge.
Dilek Acar Gurel, (2013), studied the 5-S model, which is a Japanese business model based on a Continuous Improvement philosophy in hotels to improve their service quality standards. 5-S is treated as a “Housekeeping” technique due to the emphasis on Seiso (cleanliness), Seiton (order), Seiri (Organisation), Seiketsu (Standardisation) and Shitsuke (discipline). This philosophy needs to be inculcated amongst all employees through training and motivation techniques as a part of the organizational culture in the hotel.
Paulina Bohdanowiez & Piotr Zientara, (2015), studied the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility adopted by hotels. To motivate and retain staff, CSR- oriented schemes, like, ensuring the material well-being of employees and the community, competency and skill development and lifestyle improvement are being introduced in the organization. CSR makes the hotel company a more attractive employer for local inhabitants and a partner in the development of the community.
Review of Literature Frederick Herzberg, (1968), advocated the motivation–hygiene theory of job attitudes in his study. This two-factor theory has important applications in designing jobenrichment programs for employees. This study investigates how employees in the organization can be motivated by making their jobs more meaningful. He states that there are two types of factors – Motivators and Hygiene factors. Extrinsic factors (Hygiene/Maintenance factors) such as salary, working conditions and job security lead to job dissatisfaction if they are not provided, but may not result in job satisfaction if they are provided. Motivators (Intrinsic factors), like, achievements, recognition, work itself, etc. motivate an employee as their psychological needs are fulfilled to achieve growth.
Kenneth Kovach, (1986) studied and ranked job factors according to their motivational impact. He concluded that all members of an organization may not place the same value on job factors and may rank them differently. Entry –level staff and Supervisory level staff prioritized these factors differently. The ten factors were: good wages, tactful discipline, job security, interesting work, feeling of being involved, sympathetic help with personal problems, opportunities for advancement and development, good working conditions, personal loyalty to employees, and appreciation for accomplishments.
Interesting work and good wages were important and ranked on top by most employees. Kovach suggested that companies should periodically administer attitude surveys to all its employees to understand what motivates them. Cathy A. Enz and Tony Simons,(1995), researched Kovach‟s study. 278 U.S. and Canadian hotel employees were asked to rank on the following motivating job factors of Kovach: Good wages, job security and opportunity for advancement. The housekeeping staff marked job security as the most important, money as second and good working conditions as the third priority in their job. This study assessed the factors that motivate hotel employees beyond the carrot and stick approach.
Vickie Siu, Nelson Tsang, Simon Wong, (1997), assessed the motivational factors for Hong Kong‟s hotel employees. Housekeeping staff ranked job security, loyalty to employees and good wages, as important. It was found that employee motivation is 31
Review of Literature greater if managers find out what their employees want from their jobs. There has to be increased communication and interaction between the management and employees. Pattarinee Petcharak, (2002), assessed the motivation factors of 365 employees of Saint Paul Hotel in Minnesota. The assessment revealed that the three most important motivation requirements of these employees included: Wages, job security and an interesting job.
Mary Jo Bitner, Bernard Brooms, (1990), assessed a critical incident classification system, formulated by a hotel for studying 700 favorable and unfavorable service encounters while dealing with customers. The study revealed that training of employees motivated them to deal with the unfavorable incidents and transform them into positive customer-encounters, resulting in customer satisfaction.
Candice Prendergast, (2008), explored the impact of intrinsic motivators as an incentive for employees. The researcher opines that if extrinsic motivators like, money does not act as an incentive, then allowing employees to use their individual preferences while on the job, might be an effective alternative. Employees were found to be motivated when given autonomy and freedom to exercise their preferences to execute work- related decisions.
Wynter-Palmer, (2011), conducted a study on 907 employees of 50 hotels in Jamaica to assess the incentives and motivation factors for employees to provide High - touch service to customers. 78% employees said they would leave the hotel industry for better pay! They were not satisfied with the pay received by them.
Masoud, Hmaneidan, (2013), studied the effect of the observed work environment of the organization on the service performance standards of the front line staff who interact with customers. They concluded that training, motivation and empowerment of employees are significant HR practices that impact service performance.
Jeffery Pfeiffer, (1998), explains the myths surrounding Pay received by employees in an organization. He reveals that it‟s a myth that employees work for money. They work even more for meaning in their lives and to have fun. Employees like to enjoy their job and derive satisfaction. 32
Review of Literature Alfie Kohn, (1993), explores the reasons as to why incentive plans cannot work towards motivating employees in an organization. Extrinsic motivators like cash incentives are a poor substitute for intrinsic characteristics such as a genuine interest in one‟s job.
Sturman, Ford, (2011), explored ways to motivate employees in an organization to provide outstanding service to its stakeholders. They suggested the following ways to do this: Make the job fun, Allocate rewards fairly, Respect, reward and recognize the employee. These factors are intrinsic motivations for an employee to perform better.
Ukandu, Ukpere, (2011), studied the HR strategies to improve the level of employee motivation in the fast food outlets in CapeTown, South Africa. The researchers suggest proper training and development, reduction of heavy work-loads, provision of incentive programs and adoption of an employee retention strategy.
Arash, Daskin, Saydam, (2014), studied the impact of Polychronicity and Intrinsic motivation as dispositional determinants on hotel frontline employee‟s job satisfaction levels. Polychronicity is the ability of the employee to carry out more than one job. This gives the employee a sense of achievement, which is intrinsically motivating. The study concludes that a positive significant relationship exists between intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction of a front line employee in a hotel.
Chowdhary, Amin, (2010), investigated the importance of employee values, attitudes and leadership behaviors in developing employee motivation, which produce a strong intrinsic motivation in the employee. Redesigning work parameters along key values and attitudes, such as, leadership qualities act as key motivators for an employee to excel in his performance on the job.
Becky Rader, (2012), conducted a study to identify some Non-Monetary strategies to retain key employees in an organization. The management should adopt practices like, maintaining clear and precise communication with employees, providing feedback on their role and performance, offering training opportunities and recognizing their work by offering praise.
Review of Literature Tremblay, Blanchard, (2009), formulated a 18-item Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale (WEIMS), which is a reliable and valid measure of work motivation. The scale included factors that employees rated, like, perceived organizational support, work climate, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, work strain and turnover intentions.
Charles- Trevor- Roper, (2008), studied motivational management of employees in the Hospitality and Tourism sector. They stated that excellence in service quality standards can be achieved through employee motivation. The management needs to design and develop a clearly outlined Incentive program for staff, with well-defined goals, provision of required materials and equipment to meet these goals. This will help achieve organizational standards, and consequential rewards and recognition for their work. Proper training modules should be framed to ensure that each employee is productively involved in the job.
The management must provide a highly inspiring and conducive work environment, develop innovative training and quality circle programs, increase employee involvement in the job, which can act as motivational tools to aid employee growth, leading to increased job commitment. In-house job promotions and internal transfers also create employee interest. Performance appraisals made on a periodic basis will help each employee to assess his standing in the job, become more aware, enthusiastic and be a team worker. The sense of belonging and loyalty towards the job increases, resulting in the employee valuing and becoming more respectful towards his job.
Vivien Sirotki, (2012), states that Housekeeping is the heart of hotels. She stresses on the importance of housekeeping department to start and fast-track a career. She states that motivating and managing a housekeeping team is crucial due to its persistently lowly “Cinderella” status within the industry. She also identifies the generic skills required to make a career in housekeeping.
2.2.10 Human Resource Practices in the Hospitality Industry: Hadyn Ingram and Terry Desombre, (2000), investigated the concept of teams and team-working in the Rooms division department of a hotel for continuous improvement. Traditional conflicts and barriers between departments like Front 34
Review of Literature Office and housekeeping, over room status are now being replaced by co-operation and co-ordination, team working, flattening of the chain of command for better communication and sharing of responsibilities among department heads. These HR practices will help resolve conflicts and aid inter-departmental co-ordination.
Nankervis R.Alan, (1995), explored the management strategies of a selection of S.E.Asia hotels in achieving service quality, productivity and the role of HRM practices in the hotels. He stated that customer orientation, recruitment strategies, motivation, multi-skilling, job-enlargement, training & development, appraisals, job rotation, employee empowerment and ownership, management styles, productivity issues, technological change, etc. are crucial to achieve improved service quality standards and profitability of hotels.
Charles G.Partlow, (1996), in his study on TQM hotels, concluded that specific HR practices are essential to a successful TQM programme-Communication, employee involvement, job design giving more focus on innovation, creativity, and problemsolving, training, performance review systems, reward and recognition programs, health and safety, selection, promotion and career development. The HR department plays the role of a Strategic partner, Quality manager, Change agent, and Employee advocate in TQM hotels.
David Ahlstrom, Sharon Foley, Michael N. Young, Eunice S.Chan, (2005), studied the HR Strategies in Post WTO China. Foreign firms growing in China in the changed economy are focusing on implementing successful HRM practices. Employee participation, empowerment, commitment, competence, innovation,
recruitment, internal promotions, alignment of HR practices with organizational strategy and business goals, nurturing an organizational culture that rewards flexibility and capacity to change will help these firms to grow in the economy. This study co-relates the economy with human resources.
Swee Hua Goh, B.S, (1989), undertook this study to examine the job satisfaction of hotel housekeeping staff, like, Room Attendants, with a focus on determining the individual abilities and job situations they prefer. Demographic criteria were used to assess their satisfaction levels with company policies and practices, extrinsic and 35
Review of Literature intrinsic factors. She states that a study of hotel policies and practices that are acceptable by the employees can help improve work conditions.
Chris Warhurst, Carolyne Lloyd, Eli Dutton, (2008), studied the case of Room Attendants with respect to the National Minimum Wage in the UK Hotel Sector. They state that Room Attendants receive the lowest total remuneration in a low-wage sector, wherein 95% of hotel cleaners are women. A striking feature in Southern midmarket hotels was that the pay was based on a rate per room cleaned. This could result in payment below the NMW, if the time needed to clean messy rooms was longer than that prescribed by management. Also, management sought to reduce labor costs by matching staffing patterns to fluctuating hotel occupancy rates.
Kirwin, Paul, (1990), evaluated the costs involved in hotel operations. A cost-saving tactic used to reduce labor costs in housekeeping was identified. Hotels have reduced labor shortages by using an attractive compensation plan- paying housekeepers by the room cleaned, instead of by the hour. This has resulted in better quality of work, increased productivity, cost control, employee retention and improved service quality.
Hartline and Ferrell, (1996), investigated the management of customer-contact service employees. They stated that Managers must increase employee‟s self-efficacy and job satisfaction levels. They should reduce employees‟ role conflict and uncertainty through job clarity.
Trudy Brunot, (2016) addressed the Human resource issues in a hotel. She states that the housekeeping department in a hotel influences the guest experience. Manning the housekeeping department takes more than just hiring people who can clean bathrooms and dust furniture; it requires instilling a customer- oriented service culture. Housekeepers become brand ambassadors for hospitality-oriented facilities such as hotels and resorts. In his book, "Professional Management of Housekeeping Operations," Thomas J. A. Jones notes that the nature of the job and low pay attracts a work force with little or no formal education, and cannot speak English. In addition to dealing with a diverse workforce, housekeeping executives and human resource managers face recruitment, training and communication issues.
Review of Literature Recruitment issues in Housekeeping: The housekeeping department needs to maintain a staff-to-room ratio from the point of view of keeping labor costs in control. A high employee turnover is seen in the housekeeping departments of hotels. Last minute hiring reduces team morale and standards of quality. Initiating employee referral programs and promoting housekeeping as a stepping stone to making a career in hospitality can help attract better quality of housekeeping employees.
Training issues in Housekeeping: Customers in hotels rate the standards of the hotel based on the service quality offered by the housekeeping department. It is important that housekeeping staff should be trained in the standard operating procedures.
Communication issues in Housekeeping: Inter-personal communication amongst housekeeping employees needs to be smooth and efficient to aid guest services. HR may need to prepare a booklet of housekeeping-related phrases and terms in English and the local language along with Spoken English classes for the housekeeping staff.
Motivation issues in Housekeeping department: The Executive Housekeeper of a hotel faces a challenge of managing a staff of different age groups, cultural and economic backgrounds. The management can motivate the employees by instilling in the staff a sense of pride in their job and empower them to handle guest concerns or requests. The housekeeping staff should be provided with every tool and supplies needed to perform their jobs efficiently and be multi-skilled.
Regina Esslinger, (2015) has identified seven key goals for human resource management in a small business organization, which helps in improving the utilization, development, productivity and job satisfaction of employees as well as in achieving strategic goals. They also help to motivate employees and inculcate a team spirit. The key goals are: Human resource planning to reduce hiring and training costs, Recruitment and selection of personnel to hire capable employees who fit into the culture of the organization, Training and development of employees to enhance 37
Review of Literature their level of productivity and morale, Appraisal of performance of employees through feedback and providing an opportunity for improvement, adequate compensation of employees to ensure happy, productive and loyal employees, Setting management policies for the organization and communicating them through an employee handbook and motivating workers through incentives.
2.2.11 Employee Productivity in the Housekeeping department: Peter Jones and Abhijeet Siag, (2009), examined the level of productivity in the housekeeping departments of a chain of 45 hotels. Their study focuses on one specific measure of productivity- the number of rooms that can be cleaned by a room attendant. This is critical as the cost of labor is a significant proportion of the total cost of room provision and room sales revenue. This may be a challenge as reduction in the number of room attendants in order to reduce labor cost may affect service quality standards.
Worcester, Barbara. A, (1998), studied that global hotels like, Westin, Sheraton, Canadian Pacific, Inter-Continental and Shangri-la have improved their roomattendant productivity, linen & amenities control and guest floor operations, with a saving of 30-40 minutes per day for each attendant in the loading and handling of linen and supplies, by implementing the Pro-Host materials- handling and distribution system. This involves the use of a series of integrated carts, which are used to improve materials- handling efficiency and enhance guest-corridor appearance. Improved work- conditions help to boost employee productivity and morale. The use of this system helped to streamline housekeeping functions.
2.2.12 Employee Empowerment in the Hospitality Industry: Carol Jones, George Taylor and Dennis Nickson, (1997), advocate the use of Employee empowerment strategies for Total Quality Management and Customer satisfaction in International hotel chains, like Americo. For back of the house employees, like Housekeeping, empowerment is all about multi- tasking, teamworking and job satisfaction. The „internal customer‟ needs to be kept engaged through job enrichment and enlargement techniques, which enhance their chances of career progression.
Review of Literature Colin Hales, (2000), analyzed the meaning of empowerment and its purpose in the management of an organization. Empowerment is advocated as an essential component of introducing bigger changes in the organization, through practices like, TQM, Business process re-engineering, Team-working, and Organizational learning. Empowerment encourages workers to bring in line their actions with the interests of the organization.
Hui Lio and Aichia Chuang,(2004), investigated the factors influencing employee service performance and customer outcome. Conscientiousness and extraversion help the employee to be more diligent in his job and more sociable with customers and colleagues alike. Empowerment of employees and a conducive service climate in the organization enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty.
Mark Fulford, Cathy A. Enz, (1995), studied the impact of empowerment on employees in the service sector. They stated that empowerment improves job satisfaction, loyalty, performance, service delivery to the customer and concern for others in the organization as well as for customers.
Ford, Fottler, Millam, (1995), examined the use and impact of empowerment on employees in an organization. Empowerment is a new productivity and motivation tool. The only aspect to be considered is the extent to which empowerment is given to the employee for use in customer service.
2.2.13 Employee Legislation in the Hospitality Industry: Angela Knox, (2007), analyzed the regulation reforms in the Luxury hotel sector. Regulatory reforms help to enhance organizational flexibility and efficiency in the service sector. This analysis focuses on the employer‟s bargaining arrangements in the luxury hotel sector. Factors, like HRM Strategy, organizational characteristics, finances, observed risk as well as administration issues influence the choices made.
2.2.14 Employee Competencies in the Hospitality Industry: Sarah W.Kamau and Judith Waudo (2012) studied the employer‟s expectation of employee‟s competencies in Nairobi hotels. The findings of the study suggest the establishment of Hospitality sector standards on employee competencies, which 39
Review of Literature should be communicated to all employers, employees and training providers. Professional behaviors, personal attributes, technical skills and good interpersonal skills are important in the provision of quality service in the Hospitality sector.
Berry and Parasuraman,(1994),in their study examined how to improve service quality in the American Hospitality sector. They assessed the criteria which impact customers in judging service quality standards: Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurance, Empathy, Tangibles. These traits help employees to be more understanding of customer needs, resulting in better quality service.
Michael C.G.Davidson, (2003), examined the impact of workplace climate and culture on service quality in hotels. There is a linkage between organizational environment and service quality standards, customer satisfaction and the overall performance of the hotel.
Julia Christensen Hughes, Evelina Rog (2008), studied the effect of Talent management as a HRM strategy for improving employee recruitment, retention and engagement in hospitality organizations. Employees with aptitude need to be cared for by the organization to keep them engaged. The benefits of a talent management strategy include improved employee recruitment and retention rates, employee engagement, operational and financial performance of the organization. It is essential that the management has a commitment for this approach.
Employment in the hospitality industry has a mixed image. There is an outward perception of glamour, presumably from the proximity of the „high life‟, which is contrasted to the notions of servitude and inferiority (Riley et al, 2002). The negative themes of employment include long and anti-social hours, low levels of pay, low status and high staff turnover (Woods, 1997). Excessive job demands, like, emotional labor, lack of training and dysfunctional customer behavior are also seen (Karatepe et al, 2006).
Review of Literature 2.3
SUMMARY OF REVIEW OF LITERATURE:
The review of literature undertaken has presented an overview of the various dimensions of the management of employees in the Hospitality sector, which is summarized as follows:
Studies focus on the HR policies, practices and challenges with regards to management of employees in general in the Hospitality sector.
Studies have been conducted on the following HR Dimensions in general, but not from the housekeeping employees satisfaction point of view in particular: Recruitment
Empowerment, Recognition and rewards, Job Enlargement through Multi-skilling, Job enrichment, Teamwork, Career progression, Conflict management, Employee Involvement and productivity, Work safety, Employee welfare, Employee turnover, Strategic HRM and Job satisfaction.
Most of the literature available was written by foreign researchers and a few Indian researchers on the above HRM practices in the Hospitality industry.
This study has been conducted from both the management and employee point of view.
The literature reviewed indicated the following research gaps:
There is a need for housekeeping employee-specific HR management practices in the Hospitality sector.
There is a need to find out ways in which to motivate dissatisfied employees of the housekeeping department of the Hospitality sector.
There has been no study on the overall management of housekeeping employees in the Hospitality sector, for which a framework of human resource practices needs to be developed.
Review of Literature 2.5
The study is conducted with the following objectives in order to address the research gaps:
To study the role of Housekeeping employees in Luxury hotels.
To study the demographic profile of housekeeping employees in Luxury hotels.
To identify and assess the different HRM practices adopted for housekeeping employees in Luxury hotels.
To study the challenges faced by Human Resource Managers in the management of Housekeeping employees in Luxury hotels.
To compare the different HRM practices for housekeeping employees across the different segments of Luxury hotels.
To suggest a suitable framework of Human Resource practices for the overall management of housekeeping employees in Luxury hotels.
2.6 Sr. No. 1. 2.
TRACEABILITY MATRIX: Objectives
To study the role of housekeeping employees in Luxury hotels. To study the demographic profile of housekeeping employees in Luxury hotels. To identify and assess the different HRM practices adopted for housekeeping employees in Luxury hotels. To study the challenges faced by Human Resource Managers in the management of housekeeping employees in Luxury hotels.
Review of Literature Part-I, Section-A: Demographic profile of housekeeping employees- Q.1-Q.9.
Part-I, Section-A: HRM practices for housekeeping employees- All questions on various parameters of HRM practices for housekeeping employees. Part-II, Section-A: Q. 2, 5, 6: Perceptions of HR Managers of Luxury hotels regarding HRM practices for housekeeping employees. Section-B: Q.4,5(Open-ended questions) To compare the different HRM Part-II, Section-A and B: All questions practices across the different on HRM practices for housekeeping segments of Luxury hotels. employees, as perceived by HR Managers. To suggest a suitable framework Data Analysis and Literature review. for the overall management of housekeeping employees in Luxury hotels.
Review of Literature 2.7
This chapter on the Review of literature undertaken presented an overview of the various Human Resource Management practices adopted for the management of employees of the Hospitality industry in general.
The next chapter on Research Methodology presents the problem statement, purpose of the study, with specific focus on the objectives of the research, hypotheses, scope of the study, sampling design and tools used for data collection and analysis.