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Ratios, Rates, and Proportions

5-1 5-2 5-3

Ratios Rates Identifying and Writing Proportions Solving Proportions Customary Measurements Generate Formulas to Convert Units

5-4 5-5 LAB

5B

Proportions in Geometry

LAB 5-6

Make Similar Figures Similar Figures and Proportions Using Similar Figures Scale Drawings and Scale Models

5-7 5-8

KEYWORD: MS8CA Ch5

You can use ratios and proportions to describe the relationship between this binoculars-shaped building and an actual pair of binoculars.

Main Street Venice, California

228

Chapter 5

Vocabulary Choose the best term from the list to complete each sentence. a

1. A(n) __?__ is a number in the form b, where b 0.

common denominator

2. A closed figure with three sides is called a(n) __?__. 3. Two fractions are __?__ if they represent the same number.

equivalent

4. One way to compare two fractions is to first find a(n) __?__.

quadrilateral

fraction triangle

Complete these exercises to review skills you will need for this chapter.

Write Equivalent Fractions Find two fractions that are equivalent to each fraction. 7 6. 1 1

2 5. 5 5 9. 1 7

25 7. 100

15 10. 2 3

4 8. 6

24 11. 7 8

150 12. 325

Compare Fractions Compare. Write ⬍ or ⬎. 5 13. 6 8 17. 9

2 3 12 13

3 14. 8

2 5

5 18. 1 1

7 21

6 15. 1 1 4 19. 1 0

1 4 3 7

5 16. 8 3 20. 4

11 12 2 9

Solve Multiplication Equations Solve each equation. 21. 3x 12

22. 15t 75

23. 2y 14

24. 7m 84

25. 25c 125

26. 16f 320

27. 11n 121

28. 53y 318

Multiply Fractions Solve. Write each answer in simplest form. 2 5 29. 3 7

12 3 30. 1 6 9

4 18 31. 9 2 4

1 50 32. 5 6 200

1 5 33. 5 9

7 4 34. 8 3

25 30 35. 100 90

46 3 36. 9 1 6

Proportional Relationships

229

The information below “unpacks” the standards. The Academic Vocabulary is highlighted and defined to help you understand the language of the standards. Refer to the lessons listed after each standard for help with the math terms and phrases. The Chapter Concept shows how the standard is applied in this chapter.

California Standard NS1.2 Interpret and use ratios in different contexts (e.g., batting averages, miles per hour) to show the relative sizes of two quantities, using appropriate notations ( ab , a to b, a:b). (Lessons 5-1, 5-2, 5-3)

NS1.3 Use proportions to solve problems (e.g., determine the value of N if 74 2N1, find the length of a side of a polygon similar to a known polygon ). Use cross-multiplication as a method for solving such problems, understanding it as the multiplication of both sides of an equation by a multiplicative inverse.

Academic Vocabulary

Chapter Concept

interpret to understand and explain the meaning of You understand and can explain the meaning of ratios. You write context in this case, a real-world situation ratios in different forms. relative sizes sizes that are compared to each other Example: A recipe calls for Example: A distance of 1 mile is large relative to a 2 oranges and 3 lemons. distance of 1 inch. The ratio of oranges to lemons notation a way of writing or representing something can be written as 2, 2 to 3, 3 Example: The ratio 3 to 4 can also be written using or 2:3. the notation 3:4. polygon a closed plane figure formed by line segments that meet only at their endpoints Examples: triangles, squares, rectangles known polygon a polygon whose side lengths and angle measures are known

You solve proportions by finding the value of a variable that makes the proportion true. Example: 74 2N1 4 21 7 N 84 7N 12 N You use proportions to find unknown side lengths in similar figures.

(Lessons 5-4, 5-5, 5-6, 5-7, 5-8) (Lab 5-6)

AF2.2 Demonstrate an understanding that rate is a measure of one quantity per unit value of another quantity. (Lessons 5-2, 5-3, 5-4)

unit value 1 unit of a unit of measurement Examples: The unit value of distances measured in feet is 1 foot. The unit value of time measured in seconds is 1 second.

You determine rates and use rates to solve problems. Example: A printer prints a 20-page report in 5 minutes. 20 pages 5 4 pages 5 minutes 5 1 minute

The printer prints at a rate of 4 pages per minute.

AF2.3 Solve problems involving rates, average speed , distance, and time. (Lessons 5-2, 5-4)

average speed the distance traveled by an object divided by the time taken to travel that distance

Example: A car travels 135 miles in 3 hours. 135 miles 3 4 5 miles 3 hours 3 1 hour

The average speed is 45 mi/h.

Standard AF2.1 is also covered in this chapter. To see this standard unpacked, go to Chapter 4, p. 168.

230

Chapter 5

California Standards

Writing Strategy: Use Your Own Words

English-Language Arts Reading 6.2.4

Using your own words to explain a concept can help you understand the concept. For example, learning how to solve equations might seem difficult if the textbook does not explain solving equations in the same way that you would. As you work through each lesson: • Identify the important ideas from the explanation in the book. • Use your own words to explain these ideas.

What Sara Reads

What Sara Writes

An equation is a mathematical statement that two expressions are equal in value.

An equation has an equal sign to show that two expressions are equal to each other.

When an equation contains a variable, a value of the variable that makes the statement true is called a solution of the equation.

The solution of an equation that has a variable in it is a number that the variable is equal to.

If a variable is multiplied by a number, you can often use division to isolate the variable. Divide both sides of the equation by the number.

When the variable is multiplied by a number, you can undo the multiplication and get the variable alone by dividing both sides of the equation by the number.

Try This Rewrite each sentence in your own words. 1. When solving equations containing addition and integers, isolate the variable by adding opposites. 2. When you solve equations that have one operation, you use an inverse operation to isolate the variable. Proportional Relationships

231

5-1

Ratios Who uses this? Basketball players can use ratios to compare the number of baskets they make to the number they attempt.

California Standards NS1.2 Interpret and use ratios in different contexts (e.g., batting averages, miles per hour) to show the relative sizes of two quantities, using appropriate notations ( ab, a to b, a:b).

Vocabulary ratio

In basketball practice, Kathlene made 17 baskets in 25 attempts. She compared the number of baskets she made to the total number of attempts she made by using the ratio 1275 . A ratio is a comparison of two numbers or quantities. Kathlene can write her ratio of baskets made to attempts in three different ways.

to

EXAMPLE

1

Writing Ratios A basket of fruit contains 6 apples, 4 bananas, and 3 oranges. Write each ratio in all three forms. bananas to apples 4 number of bananas 6 number of apples

There are 4 bananas and 6 apples.

The ratio of bananas to apples can be written as 46, 4 to 6, or 4:6. bananas and apples to oranges 46 10 number of bananas and apples 3 3 number of oranges

The ratio of bananas and apples to oranges can be written as 130 , 10 to 3, or 10:3. oranges to total pieces of fruit 3 3 number of oranges 643 13 number of total pieces of fruit

The ratio of oranges to total pieces of fruit can be written as 133 , 3 to 13, or 3:13.

232

Chapter 5 Proportional Relationships

Sometimes a ratio can be simplified. To simplify a ratio, first write it in fraction form and then simplify the fraction.

EXAMPLE

2

Writing Ratios in Simplest Form At Franklin Middle School, there are 252 students in the sixth grade and 9 sixth-grade teachers. Write the ratio of students to teachers in simplest form.

A fraction is in simplest form when the GCD of the numerator and denominator is 1.

students 252 ⫽ teachers 9 252 9 ⫽ 99 28 ⫽ 1

See Lesson 3-4, p. 142

Write the ratio as a fraction. Simplify. For every 28 students, there is 1 teacher.

The ratio of students to teachers is 28 to 1.

To compare ratios, write them as fractions with common denominators. Then compare the numerators.

EXAMPLE Reasoning

3

Comparing Ratios Tell whether the wallet size photo or the portrait size photo has the greater ratio of width to length. Width (in.)

Length (in.)

3.5

5

Personal

4

6

Desk

5

7

Portrait

8

10

Wallet

Wallet:

width (in.) 3.5 length (in.) 5

Portrait:

width (in.) 8 4 length (in.) 10 5

Write the ratios as fractions with common denominators.

Because 4 ⬎ 3.5 and the denominators are the same, the portrait size photo has the greater ratio of width to length.

Think and Discuss 1. Explain why you think the ratio 130 in Example 1B is not written as a mixed number. 2. Tell how to simplify a ratio. 3. Explain how to compare two ratios.

5-1 Ratios

233

5-1

Exercises

California Standards Practice NS1.2

KEYWORD: MS8CA 5-1 KEYWORD: MS8CA Parent

GUIDED PRACTICE See Example 1

Sun-Li has 10 blue marbles, 3 red marbles, and 17 white marbles. Write each ratio in all three forms. 1. blue marbles to red marbles

2. red marbles to total marbles

See Example 2

3. In a 40-gallon aquarium, there are 21 neon tetras and 7 zebra danio fish. Write the ratio of neon tetras to zebra danio fish in simplest form.

See Example 3

4. Tell whose DVD collection has the greater ratio of comedy movies to adventure movies.

Joseph

Yolanda

Comedy

5

7

Adventure

3

5

INDEPENDENT PRACTICE See Example 1

See Example 2

See Example 3

A soccer league has 25 sixth-graders, 30 seventh-graders, and 15 eighth-graders. Write each ratio in all three forms. 5. 6th-graders to 7th-graders

6. 6th-graders to total students

7. 7th-graders to 8th-graders

8. 7th- and 8th-graders to 6th-graders

9. Thirty-six people auditioned for a play, and 9 people got roles. Write the ratio in simplest form of the number of people who auditioned to the number of people who got roles. 10. Tell whose bag of nut mix has the greater ratio of peanuts to total nuts.

Dina

Don

Almonds

6

11

Cashews

8

7

Peanuts

10

18

PRACTICE AND PROBLEM SOLVING Extra Practice See page EP10.

Use the table for Exercises 11–13. 11. Tell whether group 1 or group 2 has the greater ratio of the number of people for an open-campus lunch to the number of people with no opinion.

Opinions on Open-Campus Lunch Group 1

Group 2

Group 3

For

9

10

12

Against

14

16

16

No Opinion

5

6

8

12. Which group has the least ratio of the number of people against an open-campus lunch to the total number of survey responses? 13. Estimation For each group, is the ratio of the number of people for an opencampus lunch to the number of people against it less than or greater than 12?

234

Chapter 5 Proportional Relationships

Science The pressure of water at different depths can be measured in atmospheres, or atm. The water pressure on a scuba diver increases as the diver descends below the surface. Use the table for Exercises 14–20. Write each ratio in all three forms.

Pressure Experienced by Diver

14. pressure at 33 ft to pressure at surface

Depth (ft)

Pressure (atm)

15. pressure at 66 ft to pressure at surface

0

1

16. pressure at 99 ft to pressure at surface

33

2

17. pressure at 66 ft to pressure at 33 ft

66

3

18. pressure at 99 ft to pressure at 66 ft

99

4

19. Tell whether the ratio of pressure at 66 ft to pressure at 33 ft is greater than or less than the ratio of pressure at 99 ft to pressure at 66 ft. 20.

Challenge The ratio of the beginning pressure and the new pressure when a scuba diver goes from 33 ft to 66 ft is less than the ratio of pressures when the diver goes from the surface to 33 ft. The ratio of pressures is even less when the diver goes from 66 ft to 99 ft. Explain why this is true. KEYWORD: MS8CA Pressure

NS1.2, NS2.1, NS2.2,

AF1.1

21. Multiple Choice Johnson Middle School has 125 sixth-graders, 150 seventh-graders, and 100 eighth-graders. Which statement is NOT true? A

The ratio of sixth-graders to seventh-graders is 5 to 6.

B

The ratio of eighth-graders to seventh-graders is 3:2.

C

The ratio of sixth-graders to students in all three grades is 1:3.

D

The ratio of eighth-graders to students in all three grades is 4 to 15.

22. Short Response A pancake recipe calls for 4 cups of pancake mix for every 3 cups of milk. A biscuit recipe calls for 2 cups of biscuit mix for every 1 cup of milk. Which recipe has a greater ratio of mix to milk? Explain. Solve. (Lesson 4-10) 23. 1.23 x 5.47 1

24. 3.8y 27.36

25. v 3.8 4.7 1

26. How many 22-yard pieces can be cut from 172 yards of string? (Lesson 4-5) 5-1 Ratios

235

5-2

Rates Why learn this? You can use rates to determine a driver’s average speed. (See Example 2.)

California Standards AF2.2 Demonstrate an understanding that rate is a measure of one quantity per unit value of another quantity. Also covered: NS1.2,

AF2.3

Vocabulary rate unit rate

The Lawsons are driving 288 miles to a campground. They would like to reach the campground in 6 hours of driving. What should their average speed be in miles per hour? Recall that a ratio is a comparison of two numbers or quantities. A rate is a special type of ratio that compares two quantities measured in different units. In order to answer the question above, you need to find the family’s rate of travel. 288 miles

. Their rate is 6 hours

A unit rate is a rate whose denominator is 1. To change a rate to a unit rate, divide both the numerator and denominator by the denominator. Dividing the numerator and denominator of a rate by the same number does not change the value of the rate.

EXAMPLE

1

Finding Unit Rates During exercise, Sonia’s heart beats 675 times in 5 minutes. How many times does it beat per minute? 675 beats 5 minutes

Write a rate that compares heart beats and time.

675 beats 5 5 minutes 5

Divide the numerator and denominator by 5 to get an equivalent rate.

135 beats 1 minute

Simplify.

Sonia’s heart beats 135 times per minute.

Batting averages are usually written as decimals without a zero to the left of the decimal point.

A batting average compares number of hits to number of times at bat. A baseball player has 69 hits in 250 times at bat. What is the player’s batting average? 69 hits 250 at bats

Write a rate that compares hits and at bats.

69 hits 250 250 at bats 250

Divide the numerator and denominator by 250 to get an equivalent rate.

0.276 hits 1 at bat

Simplify.

The player’s batting average is .276.

236

Chapter 5 Proportional Relationships

An average rate of speed is the ratio of distance traveled to time. The ratio is a rate because the units in the numerator and denominator are different. Speed is usually expressed as a unit rate.

EXAMPLE

2

Finding Average Speed The Lawsons want to drive the 288 miles to a campground in 6 hours. What should their average speed be in miles per hour? 288 miles 6 hours

Write the rate.

288 miles 6 48 miles 6 hours 6 1 hour

Divide the numerator and denominator by 6 to get an equivalent rate.

Their average speed should be 48 miles per hour.

A unit price is the price of one unit of an item. The unit used depends on how the item is sold. The table shows some examples. Type of Item

EXAMPLE

3

Examples of Units

Liquid

Fluid ounces, quarts, gallons, liters

Solid

Ounces, pounds, grams, kilograms

Any item

Bottle, container, carton

Consumer Math Application The Lawsons stop at a roadside farmers’ market. The market offers lemonade in three sizes. Which size lemonade has the lowest price per fluid ounce? Divide the price by the number of fluid ounces (fl oz) to find each unit price. $0.89 $0.07 ⬇ 12 fl oz fl oz

$1.69 $0.09 ⬇ 18 fl oz fl oz

Size

Price

12 fl oz

$0.89

18 fl oz

$1.69

24 fl oz

$2.09

$2.09 $0.09 ⬇ 24 fl oz fl oz

Since $0.07 ⬍ $0.09, the 12 fl oz lemonade has the lowest price per fluid ounce.

Think and Discuss 1. Explain how you can tell whether an expression represents a unit rate. 2. Suppose a store offers cereal with a price of $2.40 per box. Another store offers cereal with a price of $2.88 per box. Before determining which is the better buy, what variables must you consider?

5-2 Rates

237

5-2

California Standards Practice NS1.2, AF2.2, AF2.3

Exercises

KEYWORD: MS8CA 5-2 KEYWORD: MS8CA Parent

GUIDED PRACTICE See Example 1

1. A faucet leaks 668 milliliters of water in 8 minutes. How many milliliters of water does the faucet leak per minute? 2. A recipe for 6 muffins calls for 360 grams of oat flakes. How many grams of oat flakes are needed for each muffin?

See Example 2

3. An airliner makes a 2,748-mile flight in 6 hours. What is the airliner’s average rate of speed in miles per hour?

See Example 3

4. Consumer Math During a car trip, the Webers buy gasoline at three different stations. At the first station, they pay $28.98 for 14 gallons of gas. At the second, they pay $18.99 for 9 gallons. At the third, they pay $33.44 for 16 gallons. Which station offers the lowest price per gallon?

INDEPENDENT PRACTICE See Example 1

5. An after-school job pays $116.25 for 15 hours of work. How much money does the job pay per hour? 6. It took Samantha 324 minutes to cook a turkey. If the turkey weighed 18 pounds, how many minutes per pound did it take to cook the turkey?

See Example 2

7. Sports The first Indianapolis 500 auto race took place in 1911. The winning car covered the 500 miles in 6.7 hours. What was the winning car’s average rate of speed in miles per hour?

See Example 3

8. Consumer Math A supermarket sells orange juice in three sizes. The 32 fl oz container costs $1.99, the 64 fl oz container costs $3.69, and the 96 fl oz container costs $5.85. Which size orange juice has the lowest price per fluid ounce?

PRACTICE AND PROBLEM SOLVING Extra Practice See page EP10.

Find each unit rate. Round to the nearest hundredth, if necessary. 10. $207,000 for 1,800 ft2

11. $2,010 in 6 mo

12. 52 songs on 4 CDs

13. 226 mi on 12 gal

14. 324 words in 6 min

15. 12 hr for $69

16. 6 lb for $12.96

17. 488 mi in 4 trips

18. 220 m in 20 s

19. 1.5 mi in 39 min

20. 24,000 km in 1.5 hr

9. 9 runs in 3 games

21. In Grant Middle School, each class has an equal number of students. There are 38 classes and a total of 1,026 students. Write a rate that describes the distribution of students in the classes at Grant. What is the unit rate? 22. Estimation Use estimation to determine which is the better buy: 450 minutes of phone time for $49.99 or 800 minutes for $62.99.

238

Chapter 5 Proportional Relationships

Find each unit price. Then decide which is the better buy. $2.52 $3.64 or 23. 42 oz 52 oz

$28.40 $55.50 or 24. 8 yd 15 y d

$8.28 $13.00 or 25. 0.3 m 0.4 m

26. Sports In the 2004 Summer Olympics, Justin Gatlin won the 100-meter race in 9.85 seconds. Shawn Crawford won the 200-meter race in 19.79 seconds. Which runner ran at a faster average rate? 27. Social Studies The population density of a country is the average number of people per unit of area. Write the population densities of the countries in the table as unit rates. Round your answers to the nearest person per square mile. Then rank the countries from least to greatest population density. Population

Land Area (mi2)

France

60,424,213

210,669

Germany

82,424,609

134,836

Poland

38,626,349

117,555

Country

28. Reasoning A store sells paper towels in packs of 6 and packs of 8. Use this information to write a problem about comparing unit rates. 29. Write About It Michael Jordan has the highest scoring average in NBA history. He played in 1,072 games and scored 32,292 points. Explain how to find a unit rate to describe his scoring average. What is the unit rate? 30. Challenge Mike fills his car’s gas tank with 20 gallons of regular gas at $2.87 per gallon. His car averages 25 miles per gallon. Serena fills her car’s tank with 15 gallons of premium gas at $3.16 per gallon. Her car averages 30 miles per gallon. Compare the drivers’ unit costs of driving one mile.

NS1.2, NS2.1,

NS2.4, AF2.1,

AF2.2

31. Multiple Choice What is the unit price of a 16-ounce box of cereal that sells for $2.48? A

$0.14

B

$0.15

C

$0.0155

D

$0.155

32. Short Response A carpenter needs 3 minutes to make 5 cuts in a board. If each cut takes the same length of time, at what rate is the carpenter cutting? 33. Julita’s walking stick is 323 feet long, and Toni’s walking stick is 338 feet long. Whose walking stick is longer and by how much? (Lesson 4-3) Compare. Write ⬍, ⬎, or . (Lesson 4-9) 34. 600 mL

5L

35. 0.009 mg

8.91 g

36. 254 cm

25.4 mm 5-2 Rates

239

Identifying and Writing Proportions

5-3

Why learn this? You can determine whether two ratios of length to width are equivalent.

California Standards NS1.2 Interpret and use ratios in different contexts (e.g., batting averages, miles per hour) to show the relative sizes of two quantities, using appropriate notations ( ab, a to b, a:b).

Vocabulary

equivalent ratios proportion

Students are measuring the width w and the length ᐉ of their heads. The ratio of ᐉ to w is 10 inches to 6 inches for Jean and 25 centimeters to 15 centimeters for Pat.

Calipers have adjustable arms that are used to measure the thickness of objects.

These ratios can be written as the fractions 160 and 2155. Since both ratios simplify to 35, they are equivalent. Equivalent ratios are ratios that name the same comparison. If two ratios are equivalent, they are said to be proportional to each other, or in proportion.

EXAMPLE

An equation stating that two ratios are equivalent is called a proportion . The equation, or proportion, below states that the ratios 160 and 2155 are equivalent.

10 25 6 15

1

Comparing Ratios in Simplest Form Determine whether the ratios are proportional. 2 6 , 7 21 2 2 is already in simplest form. 7 7 6 63 2 6 . Simplify 21 21 21 3 7 2 2 Since 7 7, the ratios are proportional. 8 6 , 24 20 8 88 1 24 24 8 3 6 62 3 20 20 2 10 1

3

8

. Simplify 24 6

Simplify 2 . 0

Since 3 1 , the ratios are not proportional. 0

240

Chapter 5 Proportional Relationships

EXAMPLE

2

Comparing Ratios Using a Common Denominator Use the data in the table to determine whether the ratios of oats to water are proportional for both servings of oatmeal.

Servings of Oatmeal

Cups of Oats

Cups of Water

8

2

4

12

3

6

Write the ratios of oats to water for 8 servings and for 12 servings. 2

Ratio of oats to water, 8 servings: 4 3

Ratio of oats to water, 12 servings: 6 2 26 12 4 46 24 3 34 12 6 64 24

Write the ratio as a fraction. Write the ratio as a fraction.

Write the ratios with a common denominator, such as 24. 12

Since both ratios are equal to 2 , they are proportional. 4

You can find an equivalent ratio by multiplying or dividing the numerator and the denominator of a ratio by the same number.

EXAMPLE

3

Finding Equivalent Ratios and Writing Proportions Find a ratio equivalent to each ratio. Then use the ratios to write a proportion.

Math Builders

For more on proportions, see the Proportion Builder on page MB2.

8 14 8 8 20 160 14 14 20 280 8 160 14 280 4 18 4 42 2 18 18 2 9 4 2 18 9

Multiply both the numerator and denominator by any number, such as 20. Write a proportion.

Divide both the numerator and denominator by a common factor, such as 2. Write a proportion.

Think and Discuss 1. Explain why the ratios in Example 1B are not proportional. 2. Describe what it means for ratios to be proportional. 3. Give an example of a proportion. Then tell how you know it is a proportion.

5-3 Identifying and Writing Proportions

241

5-3

California Standards Practice NS1.2, AF2.2

Exercises

KEYWORD: MS8CA 5-3 KEYWORD: MS8CA Parent

GUIDED PRACTICE See Example 1

See Example 2 See Example 3

Determine whether the ratios are proportional. 2 4 1. 3, 6

5 8 2. 1 , 0 18

9 15 3. 1 , 2 20

3 8 4. 4, 1 2

10 15 5. 1 , 2 18

6 8 6. 9, 1 2

3 5 7. 4, 6

4 6 8. 6, 9

Find a ratio equivalent to each ratio. Then use the ratios to write a proportion. 9 10. 2 1

1 9. 3

8 11. 3

10 12. 4

INDEPENDENT PRACTICE See Example 1

Determine whether the ratios are proportional. 5 7 13. 8, 1 4

8 10 14. 2 , 4 30

18 81 15. 2 , 0 180

15 27 16. 2 , 0 35

See Example 2

2 4 17. 3, 9

18 15 18. 1 , 2 10

7 14 19. 8, 2 4

18 10 20. 5 , 4 30

See Example 3

Find a ratio equivalent to each ratio. Then use the ratios to write a proportion. 5 21. 9

27 22. 6 0

6 23. 1 5

121 24. 9 9

11 25. 1 3

5 26. 2 2

78 27. 104

27 28. 7 2

PRACTICE AND PROBLEM SOLVING Extra Practice See page EP10.

Complete each table of equivalent ratios. 29.

angelfish tiger fish

4

8 6

20 18

30. squares circles

2

4 16

6

8

Find two ratios equivalent to each given ratio. 31. 3 to 7

32. 6:2

5 33. 1 2

34. 8:4

35. 6 to 9

10 36. 5 0

37. 10:4

38. 1 to 10

39. Ecology If you recycle one aluminum can, you save enough energy to run a TV for four hours. a. Write the ratio of cans to hours. b. Marti’s class recycled enough aluminum cans to run a TV for 2,080 hours. Did the class recycle 545 cans? Justify your answer using equivalent ratios. 40. Reasoning The ratio of girls to boys riding a bus is 15:12. If the driver drops off the same number of girls as boys at the next stop, does the ratio of girls to boys remain 15:12? Explain.

242

Chapter 5 Proportional Relationships

41. Critical Thinking Write all possible proportions using only the numbers 1, 2, and 4. 42. School Last year in Kerry’s school, the ratio of students to teachers was 22:1. Write an equivalent ratio to show how many students and teachers there could have been at Kerry’s school. 43. Science Students in a biology class surveyed four ponds to determine whether salamanders and frogs were inhabiting the area. a. What was the ratio of salamanders to frogs in Cypress Pond?

Pond

Number of Salamanders

Number of Frogs

Cypress Pond

8

5

Mill Pond

15

10

Clear Pond

3

2

Gill Pond

2

7

b. In which two ponds was the ratio of salamanders to frogs the same? 44. Marcus earned $230 for 40 hours of work. Phillip earned $192 for 32 hours of work. Are these pay rates proportional? Explain. 45. What’s the Error? A student wrote the proportion 1230 2660 . What did the student do wrong? 46. Write About It Explain two different ways to determine if two ratios are proportional. 47. Challenge A skydiver jumps out of an airplane. After 0.8 second, she has fallen 100 feet. After 3.1 seconds, she has fallen 500 feet. Is the rate (in feet per second) at which she falls the first 100 feet proportional to the rate at which she falls the next 400 feet? Explain.

NS1.2,

NS2.3, AF1.2

32

48. Multiple Choice Which ratio is NOT equivalent to 4 ? 8 A

2 3

B

8 12

C

64 96

128 144

D

5

49. Multiple Choice Which ratio can form a proportion with 6? A

13 18

B

25 36

C

70 84

95 102

D

Evaluate a b for each set of values. (Lesson 2-3) 50. a 6, b 12

51. a 8, b 13

52. a 10, b 4

53. A file drawer holds 28 binders and 1,400 sheets of paper. Write the ratio of binders to sheets of paper in simplest form. (Lesson 5-1)

5-3 Identifying and Writing Proportions

243

5-4

Solving Proportions Who uses this? Bicyclists can solve proportions to find out how long it will take them to finish a race. (See Example 2.)

California Standards NS1.3 Use proportions to solve problems (e.g., determine the value of N if 74 2N1, find the length of a side of a polygon similar to a known polygon). Use crossmultiplication as a method for solving such problems, understanding it as the multiplication of both sides of an equation by a multiplicative inverse. AF2.2, Also covered:

For two ratios, the product of the numerator in one ratio and the denominator in the other is a cross product .

6 2 15 5

56 2 15

If two ratios form a proportion, then the cross products are equal. c a d b

AF2.3

1

1

a d Ⲑc b c Ⲑd

Vocabulary

1

cross product

A number multiplied by its multiplicative inverse is equal to 1. See Lesson 4-5, p. 192.

冫 d 冫c 1

Write a proportion, where a, b, c, and d are not equal to 0. Multiply each side by d , the multiplicative c inverse of c. d

ad 1 bc

Simplify each side. c

adbc

a d The fraction is equal to 1, so the bc numerator must equal the denominator

d

dc = 1

CROSS PRODUCT RULE Words In a proportion, the cross-products are equal.

Algebra

Numbers 2 6 ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ 5 15

c ᎏ ᎏᎏ, where b 0 If ᎏa b d

2 15 5 6

and d 0, then a d b c.

30 30

You can use the cross product rule to solve proportions with variables.

EXAMPLE

1

Solving Proportions Using Cross Products p

10

Use cross products to solve the proportion 6 3. p 10 3 6

p 3 6 10 3p 60 3p 60 3 3

p 20

244

Chapter 5 Proportional Relationships

The cross products are equal. Multiply. Divide each side by 3.

It is important to set up proportions correctly. Each ratio must compare corresponding quantities in the same order. Suppose a boat travels 16 miles in 4 hours and 8 miles in x hours at the same speed. Either of these proportions could represent this situation. 16 mi 8 mi 4 hr x hr

Trip 1

Califor nia

Sports

2

Trip 2

Trip 2

Sports Application The graph shows the time and distance Sunee rode her bike during training. She plans to enter a 54-mile race. If Sunee rides at the same rate she rode during training, how long will it take her to finish the race? The labeled point on the graph shows that Sunee rode 36 miles in 2 hours. Let t represent the time in hours it will take Sunee to finish the race.

Practice Ride 50

Distance (miles)

EXAMPLE

Trip 1

16 mi 4 hr 8 mi x hr

40 30

(2, 36)

20 10

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

Time (hours)

Method 1 Set up a proportion in which each ratio compares distance to the time needed to ride that distance. The Tour of California is an approximately 600-mile bicycle race that takes place over an 8-day period. In 2006, the winning time was 22 hours, 46 minutes, 46 seconds.

36 mi 54 mi 2 hr t hr

Distance Time

36 t 2 54

The cross products are equal.

36t 108

Multiply.

36t 108 36 36

Divide each side by 36.

t3 Method 2 Set up a proportion in which one ratio compares distance and one ratio compares time. 36 mi 2 hr 54 mi t hr

Training Race

36 t 54 2

The cross products are equal.

36t 108

Multiply.

36t 108 36 36

Divide each side by 36.

t3 Both methods show that it will take Sunee 3 hours to finish the race if she rides at her training rate. 5-4 Solving Proportions

245

EXAMPLE

3

PROBLEM SOLVING APPLICATION Density is the ratio of a substance’s mass to its volume. The density of ice is 0.92 g/mL. What is the mass of 3 mL of ice? 1

Reasoning

Understand the Problem

Rewrite the question as a statement. • Find the mass, in grams, of 3 mL of ice. List the important information: mass (g)

• density volume (mL) 0.92 g 1 mL

• density of ice 2 Make a Plan 2. Set up a proportion using the given information. Let m represent the mass of 3 mL of ice. 0.92 g m 3 mL 1 mL

mass volume

3 Solve Solve the proportion. 0.92 m 1 3

Write the proportion.

1 m 0.92 3 The cross products are equal. m 2.76 Multiply. The mass of 3 mL of ice is 2.76 g. 4

Look Back

Since the density of ice is 0.92 g/mL, each milliliter of ice has a mass of a little less than 1 g. So 3 mL of ice should have a mass of a little less than 3 g. Since 2.76 is a little less than 3, the answer is reasonable.

Think and Discuss 1. Explain how the term cross product can help you remember how to solve a proportion. 2. Describe the error in these steps: 23 1x2; 2x 36; x 18. 3. Show how to use cross products to decide whether the ratios 6:45 and 2:15 are proportional.

246

Chapter 5 Proportional Relationships

5-4

California Standards Practice NS1.3, AF2.2, AF2.3

Exercises

KEYWORD: KEYWORD: MS8CA MS7 5-5 5-4 KEYWORD: KEYWORD: MS8CA MS7 Parent Parent

GUIDED PRACTICE Use cross products to solve each proportion. 6 36 x 1. 1 0

See Example 2

See Example 3

5 4 2. 7 p

5. The graph shows the time and distance that a horse ran around a track. If the horse runs at that same speed, how long will it take the horse to run 1.5 miles? 6. A stack of 2,450 one-dollar bills weighs 5 pounds. How much does a stack of 1,470 one-dollar bills weigh?

75 12.3 3. m 100

t 1.5 4. 4 3 2

Horse’s Speed

Distance (mi)

See Example 1

0.24

(20, 0.2)

0.16 0.08

0

8

16

24

32

40

Time (s)

INDEPENDENT PRACTICE Use cross products to solve each proportion. 4 x 7. 3 6 180 45 15 11. x 3

See Example 2

See Example 3

7 12 8. 8 h 4 t 96 12. 6 1 6

15. The graph shows the relationship between the weight and cost of peaches at a grocery store. At this rate, how much would 3.5 pounds of peaches cost? 16. There are 18.5 ounces of soup in a can. This is equivalent to 524 grams. If Jenna has 8 ounces of soup, how many grams does she have? Round to the nearest whole gram.

3 r 9. 2 52 4

5 12 10. 140 v

s 2 13. 5 1 2

14 5 14. n 8

Cost of Peaches 3

Cost ($)

See Example 1

2

(0.8, 2)

1

0

0.4

0.8

1.2

1.6

2.0

Weight (lb)

PRACTICE AND PROBLEM SOLVING Extra Practice See page EP10.

Solve each proportion. Then find another equivalent ratio. 4 12 17. h 2 4 y

1 21. 3 25.5

x 12 18. 15 9 0

t 39 19. 4 1 2

5.5 16.5 20. 6 w

18 1 22. x 5

m 175 23. 4 2 0

8.7 24. 2 4

q

25. Sandra drove 126.2 miles in 2 hours at a constant speed. Use a proportion to find how long it would take her to drive 189.3 miles at the same speed. 26. Multi-Step In June, a camp has 325 campers and 26 counselors. In July, 265 campers leave and 215 new campers arrive. How many counselors does the camp need in July to keep an equivalent ratio of campers to counselors? 5-4 Solving Proportions

247

27. Science On Monday a marine biologist took a random sample of 50 fish from a pond and tagged them. On Tuesday she took a new sample of 100 fish. Among them were 4 fish that had been tagged on Monday. 4 a. What comparison does the ratio 100 represent?

b. What is the ratio of the number of fish tagged on Monday to n, the estimated total number of fish in the pond? c. Use a proportion to estimate the number of fish in the pond. 28. Chemistry The table shows the type and number of atoms in one molecule of citric acid. Use a proportion to find the number of oxygen atoms in 15 molecules of citric acid.

Composition of Citric Acid Type of Atom

Number of Atoms

Carbon

6

Hydrogen

8

Oxygen

7

29. Earth Science You can find your distance from a thunderstorm by counting the number of seconds between a lightning flash and the thunder. For example, if the time difference is 21 s, then the storm is 7 km away. How far away is a storm if the time difference is 9 s? 30. Reasoning Use a multiplicative inverse to show that the cross product rule is true for the proportion 6r 5s. 31. What’s the Question? There are 20 grams of protein in 3 ounces of sautéed fish. If the answer is 9 ounces, what is the question? 32. Write About It Give an example from your own life that can be described using a ratio. Then tell how a proportion can give you additional information. 33. Challenge Determine whether the proportion ab dc is equivalent to the proportion da bc, where b 0 and d 0. Use the cross product rule to explain your answer.

NS1.3,

NS2.4,

AF2.2, AF2.3

34. Multiple Choice A jet traveled 1,710 miles in 3 hours. At this rate, how long would it take the jet to travel 855 miles? A

1

12 hr

B

2 hr

C

1

42 hr

D

x

6 hr

18

true? 35. Gridded Response What value of x makes the proportion 30 2 0 Find the greatest common divisor (GCD). (Lesson 3-2) 36. 40, 68

37. 5, 25, 125

38. 24, 48, 60

40. 9 books in 6 weeks

41. $114 in 12 hours

Find each unit rate. (Lesson 5-2) 39. 128 miles in 2 hours

248

Chapter 5 Proportional Relationships

5-5

Customary Measurements Why learn this? You can use customary measurements to describe lengths, weights, and capacity.

California Standards AF2.1 Convert one unit of measurement to another (e.g., from feet to miles, from centimeters to inches). Also covered: NS1.3

Just 2 fluid ounces of a king cobra’s venom is enough to kill a 2-ton elephant. You can use the following benchmarks to help you understand fluid ounces, tons, and other customary units of measure. Customary Unit Length

Weight

Capacity

EXAMPLE

1

Benchmark

Inch (in.)

Length of a small paper clip

Foot (ft)

Length of a standard sheet of paper

Mile (mi)

Length of about 18 football fields

Ounce (oz)

Weight of a slice of bread

Pound (lb)

Weight of 3 apples

Ton

Weight of a buffalo

Fluid ounce (fl oz)

Amount of water in 2 tablespoons

Cup (c)

Capacity of a standard measuring cup

Gallon (gal)

Capacity of a large milk jug

Choosing the Appropriate Customary Unit Choose the most appropriate customary unit for each measurement. Justify your answer. the length of a rug Feet—the length of a rug is similar to the length of several sheets of paper. the weight of a magazine Ounces—the weight of a magazine is similar to the weight of several slices of bread. the capacity of an aquarium Gallons—the capacity of an aquarium is similar to the capacity of several large milk jugs. 5-5 Customary Measurements

249

The following table shows some common equivalent customary units. You can use equivalent measures to convert units of measure. Length

Weight

12 inches (in.) 1 foot (ft) 16 ounces (oz) 1 pound (lb) 3 feet 1 yard (yd) 2,000 pounds 1 ton 5,280 feet 1 mile (mi)

EXAMPLE

2

Capacity 8 fluid ounces (fl oz) 2 cups 2 pints 4 quarts

1 cup (c) 1 pint (pt) 1 quart (qt) 1 gallon (gal)

Converting Customary Units Convert 19 c to fluid ounces. Method 1: Use a proportion. Write a proportion using a ratio of equivalent measures. fluid ounces cups

x 8 19 1

8 19 1 x 152 x

Method 2: Multiply by 1. Multiply by a ratio equal to 1, and cancel the units. 19 c

8 fl oz

19 c 1 1c 19 8 fl oz

1 152 fl oz

Nineteen cups is equal to 152 fluid ounces.

EXAMPLE Reasoning

3

Converting Between Metric and Customary Units One inch is about 2.54 centimeters. A bookmark has a length of 18 centimeters. What is the length of the bookmark in inches, rounded to the nearest inch? inches centimeters

1 x 2.54 18

1 18 2.54 x 18 2.54x 18 2.54x 2.54 2.54

Write a proportion using 1 in. 艐 2.54 cm. The cross products are equal. Multiply. Divide each side by 2.54.

7⬇x Round to the nearest whole number. The bookmark is about 7 inches long.

Think and Discuss 1. Describe an object that you would weigh in ounces. 2. Explain how to convert yards to feet and feet to yards.

250

Chapter 5 Proportional Relationships

5-5

California Standards Practice NS1.3, AF2.1

Exercises

KEYWORD: MS8CA 5-5 KEYWORD: MS8CA Parent

GUIDED PRACTICE See Example 1

See Example 2

See Example 3

Choose the most appropriate customary unit for each measurement. Justify your answer. 1. the width of a sidewalk

2. the amount of water in a pool

3. the weight of a truck

4. the distance across Lake Erie

Convert each measure. 5. 12 gal to quarts

6. 8 mi to feet

7. 72 oz to pounds

8. 3.5 c to fluid ounces

9. One gallon is about 3.79 liters. A car has a 55-liter gas tank. What is the capacity of the tank in gallons, rounded to the nearest tenth of a gallon?

INDEPENDENT PRACTICE See Example 1

See Example 2

See Example 3

Choose the most appropriate customary unit for each measurement. Justify your answer. 10. the weight of a watermelon

11. the wingspan of a sparrow

12. the capacity of a soup bowl

13. the height of an office building

Convert each measure. 14. 28 pt to quarts

15. 15,840 ft to miles

16. 5.4 tons to pounds

17. 614 ft to inches

18. A 1-pound weight has a mass of about 0.45 kilogram. What is the mass in kilograms of a sculpture that weighs 570 pounds? Round to the nearest tenth of a kilogram.

PRACTICE AND PROBLEM SOLVING Extra Practice See page EP11.

Compare. Write ⬍, ⬎, or . 19. 6 yd

20. 80 oz

5 lb

21. 18 in.

12,000 lb

23. 8 gal

30 qt

24. 6.5 c

52 fl oz

2 mi

26. 20 pt

40 c

27. 1 gal

18 c

12 ft

22. 5 tons 25. 10,000 ft

3 ft

28. Literature The novel Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea was written by Jules Verne in 1873. One league is approximately 3.45 miles. How many miles are in 20,000 leagues? 29. Earth Science One meter is about 3.28 feet. The average depth of the Pacific Ocean is 12,925 feet. How deep is this in meters, rounded to the nearest meter? 5-5 Customary Measurements

251

Order each set of measures from least to greatest.

Califor nia

Agriculture

30. 8 ft; 2 yd; 60 in.

31. 5 qt; 2 gal; 12 pt; 8 c

1 32. 2 ton; 8,000 oz; 430 lb

33. 2.5 mi; 12,000 ft; 5,000 yd

34. 63 fl oz; 7 c; 1.5 qt

35. 9.5 yd; 32.5 ft; 380 in.

36. Agriculture In one year, the United States produced nearly 895 million pounds of pumpkins. How many ounces were produced by the state with the lowest production shown in the table?

In 2005, the Grand Champion pumpkin at California’s Half Moon Bay Art and Pumpkin Festival weighed 1,229 pounds.

U.S. Pumpkin Production State

Pumpkins (million pounds)

California Illinois New York Pennsylvania

180 364 114 109

37. Multi-Step A marathon is a race that is 26 miles 385 yards long. What is the length of a marathon in yards? 38. In 1998, a 2,505-gallon ice cream float was made in Atlanta, Georgia. How many 1-pint servings did the float contain? 39. Reasoning Explain why it makes sense to divide when you convert a measurement to a larger unit. 40. What’s the Error? A student converted 480 ft to inches as follows. What did the student do wrong? What is the correct answer? 1 ft x 12 in. 480 ft

41. Write About It Explain how to convert 1.2 tons to ounces. 42. Challenge A dollar bill is 6.125 in. long. A radio station gives away a prize consisting of a mile-long string of dollar bills. What is the approximate value of the prize?

NS1.2, NS2.1,

NS2.4, AF2.1

43. Multiple Choice Which measure is the same as 32 qt? A

64 pt

B

128 gal

C

16 c

D

512 fl oz

44. Multiple Choice One fluid ounce is about 30 milliliters. A juice box holds 250 milliliters. About how many fluid ounces does the box hold? A

8 fl oz

B

12 fl oz

C

22 fl oz

D

75 fl oz

45. James used 34 cup of white flour and 23 cup of wheat flour for a muffin recipe. How many cups of flour did James use in all? (Lesson 4-2) Determine whether the ratios are proportional. (Lesson 5-3) 20 8 46. 4 , 5 18

252

6 5 47. 5, 6

Chapter 5 Proportional Relationships

11 7 48. 4 , 4 28

9 27 49. 6, 2 0

Generate Formulas to Convert Units

5-5

Use with Lesson 5-5

California Standards Practice Extension of AF2.1 Convert one unit of measurement to

KEYWORD: MS8CA Lab5

another (e.g., from feet to miles, from centimeters to inches).

Activity Publishers, editors, and graphic designers measure lengths in picas. Measure each of the following line segments to the nearest inch, and record your results in the table.

1 2

Segment

Length (in.)

Length (picas)

1

6

2

12

3

24

4

30

5

36

Ratio of Picas to Inches

3 4 5

Think and Discuss 1. Make a conjecture about the relationship between picas and inches. 2. Use your conjecture to write a formula relating inches n to picas p. 3. How many picas wide is a sheet of paper that is 812 in. wide?

Try This Using inches for x-coordinates and picas for y-coordinates, write ordered pairs for the data in the table. Then plot the points and draw a graph. 1. What shape is the graph? 2. Use the graph to find the number of picas that is equal to 3 inches. 3. Use the graph to find the number of inches that is equal to 27 picas. 4. A designer is laying out a page in a magazine. The dimensions of a photo are 18 picas by 15 picas. She doubles the dimensions of the photo. What are the new dimensions of the photo in inches? 5-5 Hands-On Lab

253

Quiz for Lessons 5-1 Through 5-5 5-1

Ratios

A bouquet has 6 red, 8 pink, 12 yellow, and 2 white flowers. Write each ratio in all three forms. 1. pink flowers to yellow flowers

2. red flowers to total flowers

3. A concession stand sold 14 strawberry, 18 banana, 8 grape, and 6 orange fruit drinks during a game. Tell whether the ratio of strawberry to orange drinks or the ratio of banana to grape drinks is greater.

5-2

Rates

4. A 5-gallon jug is 41.5 pounds heavier when it is full of water than when it is empty. How much does the water weigh per gallon? 5. Shaunti drove 621 miles in 11.5 hours. What was her average speed in miles per hour? 6. A grocery store sells a 7 oz bag of raisins for $1.10 and a 9 oz bag of raisins for $1.46. Which size bag has the lowest price per ounce?

5-3

Identifying and Writing Proportions

Determine whether the ratios are proportional. 3 9 7. 8, 2 4

11 17 8. 1 , 7 23

3 8 9. 4, 9

15 45 10. 2 , 2 66

Find a ratio equivalent to each ratio. Then use the ratios to write a proportion. 10 11. 1 6

5-4

21 12. 2 8

12 13. 2 5

40 14. 4 8

Solving Proportions

Use cross products to solve each proportion. n 15 15. 8 4

20 2.5 16. t 6

6 0.12 17. 1 z 1

x 15 18. 2 10 4

19. One human year is said to equal 7 dog years. If Cliff’s dog is 5.5 years old in human years, what is his dog’s age in dog years? 20. If 8 CDs take up 314 inches of shelf space, how many CDs will fit on 65 inches of shelf space?

5-5

Customary Measurements

Convert each measure.

254

21. 7 lb to ounces

22. 15 qt to pints

23. 3 mi to feet

24. 20 fl oz to cups

25. 39 ft to yards

26. 7,000 lb to tons

Chapter 5 Proportional Relationships

California Standards MR3.2

Note the method of deriving the solution and demonstrate a conceptual understanding of the derivation by solving similar problems. Also covered: NS1.3, MR1.1,

Make a Plan

MR2.4

• Choose a problem-solving strategy The following are strategies that you might choose to help you solve a problem: • Make a table

• Draw a diagram

• Find a pattern

• Guess and check

• Make an organized list

• Solve a simpler problem

• Work backward

• Make a model

• Write an equation

Tell which strategy from the list above you would use to solve each problem. Explain your choice. 1 A recipe for blueberry muffins calls for 1 cup of milk and 1.5 cups of blueberries. Ashley wants to make more muffins than the recipe yields. In Ashley’s muffin batter, there are 4.5 cups of blueberries. If she is using the recipe as a guide, how many cups of milk will she need? 2 The length of a rectangle is 8 cm, and its width is 5 cm less than its length. A larger rectangle with dimensions that are proportional to those of the first has a length of 24 cm. What is the width of the larger rectangle?

3 Each of four brothers gets an allowance for doing chores at home each week. The amount of money each boy receives depends on his age. Jeremy is 13 years old, and he gets $12.75. His 11-year-old brother gets $11.25, and his 9-year-old brother gets $9.75. Determine a possible relationship between the boys’ ages and their allowances, and use it to determine how much money Jeremy’s 7-year-old brother gets. 4 According to an article in a medical journal, a healthful diet should include a ratio of 2.5 servings of meat to 4 servings of vegetables. If you eat 7 servings of meat per week, how many servings of vegetables should you eat?

Focus on Problem Solving

255

Make Similar Figures 5-6 Use with Lesson 5-6 KEYWORD: MS8CA Lab5

Similar figures are figures that have the same shape but not necessarily the same size. You can make similar figures by increasing or decreasing both dimensions of a rectangle while keeping the ratios of the side lengths proportional. Modeling similar figures using square tiles can help you solve proportions.

Activity

California Standards NS1.3 Use proportions to solve problems (e.g., determine the value of N N 4 if 7 21, find the length of a side of a polygon similar to a known polygon). Use cross-multiplication as a method for solving such problems, understanding it as the multiplication of both sides of an equation by a multiplicative inverse.

A rectangle made of square tiles measures 5 tiles long and 2 tiles wide. What is the length of a similar rectangle whose width is 6 tiles? 5 Use tiles to make a 5 2 rectangle.

2

Add tiles to increase the width of the rectangle to 6 tiles.

2 2

Notice that there are now 3 sets of 2 tiles along the width of the rectangle because 2 3 6.

2

The width of the new rectangle is three times greater than the width of the original rectangle. To keep the ratios of the side measures proportional, the length must also be three times greater than the length of the original rectangle. 5

5

5

2

5 3 15

2

Add tiles to increase the length of the rectangle to 15 tiles.

2 The length of the similar rectangle is 15 tiles.

256

Chapter 5 Proportional Relationships

To check your answer, you can use ratios. 15 5 2

2 ? 5 15 6 1 ? 1 ✔ 3 3

6

Write ratios using the corresponding side lengths. Simplify each ratio.

1 Use square tiles to model similar figures with the given dimensions. Then find the missing dimension of each similar rectangle.

a. The original rectangle is 4 tiles wide by 3 tiles long. The similar rectangle is 8 tiles wide by x tiles long. b. The original rectangle is 8 tiles wide by 10 tiles long. The similar rectangle is x tiles wide by 15 tiles long. c. The original rectangle is 3 tiles wide by 7 tiles long. The similar rectangle is 9 tiles wide by x tiles long.

Think and Discuss 1. Sarah wants to increase the size of her rectangular backyard patio. Why must she change both dimensions of the patio to create a patio similar to the original? 2. In a backyard, a plot of land that is 5 yd 8 yd is used to grow tomatoes. The homeowner wants to decrease this plot to 4 yd 6 yd. Will the new plot be similar to the original? Why or why not?

Try This 1. A rectangle is 3 feet long and 7 feet wide. What is the width of a similar rectangle whose length is 9 feet? 2. A rectangle is 6 feet long and 12 feet wide. What is the length of a similar rectangle whose width is 4 feet? Use square tiles to model similar rectangles to solve each proportion. 4 8 3. 5 x

h 5 4. 9 1 8

6 2 5. y 1 8

8 2 7. 3 m

9 8. 1 4 2

p

6 9. r 1 5

9

4 1 6. t 1 6 k

7

10. 1 6 2

5-6 Hands-On Lab

257

Similar Figures and Proportions

5-6 California Standards Preparation for NS1.3 Use proportions to solve problems (e.g., determine the value N 4 of N if 7 21, find the length of a side of a polygon similar to a known polygon). Use crossmultiplication as a method for solving such problems, understanding it as the multiplication of both sides of an equation by a multiplicative inverse.

Why learn this? You can use proportions to determine whether two photographs are similar. (See Exercise 10.)

Similar figures have the same shape but not necessarily the same size. The symbol ⬃ means “is similar to.” Corresponding angles of two or more figures are in the same relative position. Corresponding sides of two or more figures are between corresponding angles.

82° B

Vocabulary

38

similar corresponding sides corresponding angles

A 43°

E

Corresponding angles 32

55° C

46

82°

57 D

43°

48 55°

69

F

Corresponding sides

SIMILAR FIGURES Two figures are similar if • the measures of their corresponding angles are equal. • the ratios of the lengths of their corresponding sides are proportional.

EXAMPLE Reasoning

When naming similar figures, list the letters of the corresponding angles in the same order. In Example 1, 䉭DEF ⬃ 䉭QRS.

1

Determining Whether Two Triangles Are Similar S Tell whether the triangles are similar. 34° The corresponding angles of the figures have equal measures. 24 in. F D 苶E 苶 corresponds to Q 苶R 苶. 34° 12 in. E 苶F 苶 corresponds to R 苶S 苶. 8 in. 40° D 苶F 苶 corresponds to Q 苶S 苶. D E 106° 7 in.

DE ? EF ? DF QR RS QS 7 ? 8 ? 12 21 24 36 1 1 1 3 3 3

36 in.

R

106°

40° 21 in.

Q

Write ratios using the corresponding sides. Substitute the lengths of the sides. Simplify each ratio.

Since the measures of the corresponding angles are equal and the ratios of the corresponding sides are equivalent, the triangles are similar.

258

Chapter 5 Proportional Relationships

For triangles, if the corresponding side lengths are all proportional, then the corresponding angles must have equal measures. For figures that have four or more sides, if the corresponding side lengths are all proportional, then the corresponding angles may or may not have equal angle measures. 10 cm

Q 5 cm

ABCD and QRST are similar.

EXAMPLE

2

X

5 cm

C

8 cm

10 cm

W

4 cm

D

S

10 cm

B

4 cm

5 cm

T

8 cm

A

R

Z

5 cm 10 cm

Y

ABCD and WXYZ are not similar.

Determining Whether Two Four-Sided Figures Are Similar Tell whether the figures are similar.

Reasoning

F 15 ft 45° E

A side of a figure can be named by its endpoints, with a bar above. AB 苶 苶 Without the bar, the letters indicate the length of the side.

10 ft

G

135°

M 4 ft N 90° 6 ft 10 ft 90° 4 ft 45° L 90° 8 ft O H 20 ft

135° 90°

The corresponding angles of the figures have equal measures. Write each set of corresponding sides as a ratio. EF LM GH NO

苶F苶 corresponds to 苶LM E 苶. 苶H G 苶 corresponds to 苶 NO 苶.

FG MN EH LO

F苶G 苶 corresponds to 苶 MN 苶. 苶H E 苶 corresponds to 苶LO 苶.

Determine whether the ratios of the lengths of the corresponding sides are proportional. EF ? FG ? GH ? EH LM MN NO LO 15 ? 10 ? 10 ? 20 6 4 4 8 5 5 5 5 2 2 2 2

Write ratios using the corresponding sides. Substitute the lengths of the sides. Write the ratios with common denominators.

Since the measures of the corresponding angles are equal and the ratios of the corresponding sides are equivalent, EFGH ⬃ LMNO.

Think and Discuss 1. Identify the corresponding angles of 䉭JKL and 䉭UTS. 2. Explain whether all rectangles are similar. Give specific examples to justify your answer.

5-6 Similar Figures and Proportions

259

5-6

California Standards Practice Preparation for NS1.3

Exercises

KEYWORD: MS8CA 5-6 KEYWORD: MS8CA Parent

GUIDED PRACTICE See Example 1

Tell whether the triangles are similar. 1.

2.

B

30° 9m

12 m A 104° 46° C

6m

See Example 2

30° E 3m 4m 104° D 46° 2m F

V 15 in.

R 38° 3 in. 120° Q

7 in. 5 in.

44° 28 in.

T 105°

22°

31°

20 in.

S

W

Tell whether the figures are similar. 3.

50 m 90° 90° 80 m

4.

45 m 90° 90° 80 m

72 m

90° 90° 50 m

5 cm 72 m

7 cm 140° 90° 40° 90° 3.5 cm 11 cm 5 cm

90° 90° 45 m

11 cm 90° 140° 40° 90° 3.5 cm 15 cm

INDEPENDENT PRACTICE See Example 1

Tell whether the triangles are similar. 5.

Q 40°

K

18 cm 18 cm 70° 70° J L 12 cm

See Example 2

48 cm 73° P

6.

34°

56° L 40 in. 36 in. 24 in. 41° 83° 83° J E 30 in. K 50 in.

60 in.

48 cm

28 cm

56° D 41° C

73° R

Tell whether the figures are similar. 7.

14 ft 90° 90° 14 ft

14 ft 90° 90° 14 ft

8.

23 ft 90° 90°

23 ft

23 ft 90°

90° 23 ft

3m 40° 6m

4m 120° 60° 2 m 60° 120° 2 m 4m

140° 6m 40° 3m

140°

PRACTICE AND PROBLEM SOLVING Extra Practice See page EP11.

260

9. Tell whether the four-sided figures could be similar. Explain your answer.

Chapter 5 Proportional Relationships

120° 60°

60° 120°

120° 60°

120° 60°

10. Kia wants similar prints in small and large sizes of a favorite photo. The photo lab sells prints in these sizes: 3 in. 5 in., 4 in. 6 in., 8 in. 18 in., 9 in. 20 in., and 16 in. 24 in. Which could she order to get similar prints? Tell whether the triangles are similar. 11. A

36° 18 ft

9 ft 117° B

27° 12 ft

12.

36°

L

12 ft 27° 6 ft 117° N M 8 ft

32 m F G 28 m D 96° 35° 85° 34° 24 m 18 m 42 m 32 m 49° E 61° H C

C 12 ft

The figure shows a 12 ft by 15 ft rectangle divided into four rectangular parts. Explain whether the rectangles in each pair are similar.

A

13. rectangle A and the original rectangle

B

5 ft

4 ft

14. rectangle C and rectangle B

C

15 ft D

15. the original rectangle and rectangle D Reasoning For Exercises 16–19, justify your answers using words or drawings. 16. Are all squares similar?

17. Are all 5-sided figures similar?

18. Are all rectangles similar?

19. Are all 6-sided figures similar?

20. Choose a Strategy What number gives the same result when multiplied by 6 as it does when 6 is added to it? 21. Write About It Tell how to decide whether two figures are similar. 22. Challenge Two triangles are similar. The ratio of the lengths of the corresponding sides is 54. If the length of one side of the larger triangle is 40 feet, what is the length of the corresponding side of the smaller triangle?

NS1.2,

NS1.3, NS2.1

NS2.4

23. Multiple Choice Luis wants to make a deck that is similar to one that is 10 feet long and 8 feet wide. If Luis’s deck must be 18 feet long, what must its width be? A

20 feet

B

16 feet

C

14.4 feet

D

22.5 feet

24. Short Response If a real dollar bill measures 2.61 in. by 6.14 in. and a play dollar bill measures 3.61 in. by 7.14 in., is the play money similar to the real money? Explain your answer. Multiply. Write each answer in simplest form. (Lesson 4-4) 3 25. 4 14

1

1 7 1 27. 4 18 35

26. 28 5

28. Tell whether 5:3 or 12:7 is a greater ratio. (Lesson 5-1)

5-6 Similar Figures and Proportions

261

5-7 California Standards NS1.3 Use proportions to solve problems (e.g., determine the N 4 value of N if 7 21, find the length of a side of a polygon similar to a known polygon). Use crossmultiplication as a method for solving such problems, understanding it as the multiplication of both sides of an equation by a multiplicative inverse.

Using Similar Figures Why learn this? You can use similar figures to determine the heights of totem poles and other tall objects.

Native Americans of the Northwest, such as the Tlingit tribe of Alaska, carved totem poles out of tree trunks. These poles, sometimes painted with bright colors, could stand up to 80 feet tall.

Measuring the heights of tall objects, like some totem poles, cannot be done by using a ruler or yardstick. Vocabulary indirect measurement Instead, you can use indirect measurement. Indirect measurement is a method of using proportions to find an unknown length or distance in similar figures.

EXAMPLE

1

Finding Unknown Lengths in Similar Figures 䉭ABC ⬃ 䉭JKL. Find the unknown length. B A

K

12 cm

8 cm 16 cm

C

x

56 cm

L

AB BC JK KL 8 12 28 x

8 x 28 12

Substitute the lengths of the sides. Find the cross products. Multiply.

8x 336 8 8

Divide each side by 8.

KL is 42 centimeters. Chapter 5 Proportional Relationships

J

Write a proportion using corresponding sides.

8x 336

x 42

262

28 cm

EXAMPLE

2

Measurement Application A volleyball court is a rectangle that is similar in shape to an Olympic-sized pool. Find the width of the pool.

9m

? 18 m 50 m

Let w the width of the pool. Write a proportion using corresponding side lengths.

9 18 w 50

18 w 50 9

Find the cross products.

18w 450

Multiply.

18w 450 18 18

Divide each side by 18.

w 25 The pool is 25 meters wide.

EXAMPLE

3

Estimating with Indirect Measurement Estimate the height of the birdhouse in Chantal’s yard, shown at right. h 15.5 5 3.75 h 16 ⬇ 5 4 h ⬇ 4 5 h 5 5 ⬇ 5 4

Write a proportion.

h

Use compatible numbers to estimate. Simplify.

15.5 ft

Multiply each side by 5.

h ⬇ 20 The birdhouse is about 20 feet tall.

5 ft

3.75 ft

Think and Discuss 1. Write another proportion that could be used to find the value of x in Example 1. 2. Name two objects that it would make sense to measure using indirect measurement.

5-7 Using Similar Figures

263

5-7

California Standards Practice NS1.3

Exercises

KEYWORD: MS8CA 5-7 KEYWORD: MS8CA Parent

GUIDED PRACTICE See Example 1

䉭XYZ ⬃ 䉭PQR in each pair. Find the unknown lengths. 1.

See Example 2

R

Y

12 cm X 8 cm

P

X

3. The rectangular gardens at right are similar in shape. How wide is the smaller garden?

Z

y

40 m

30 m P

Q

30 cm

64 m

48 m

9 cm Z

Q

Y

2.

a

20 cm

R

35 m

42 ft

? 36 ft

54 ft

See Example 3

4. A palm tree casts a shadow that is 130 inches long. A surfboard casts a shadow that is 105 inches long. Estimate the height of the palm tree.

h 84 in. 105 in. 130 in.

INDEPENDENT PRACTICE See Example 1

䉭ABC ⬃ 䉭DEF in each pair. Find the unknown lengths. 5.

6.

B 12 in. C

14 in. A

D 7.2 ft

18 in.

x D

See Example 2

E

9 in.

21 in.

A 12.96 ft

E

b 8 ft

14.4 ft

F

4 ft B

7. The two rectangular windows at right are similar. What is the height of the bigger window?

F

?

8. A cactus casts a shadow that is 14 ft 7 in. long. A gate nearby casts a shadow that is 5 ft long. Estimate the height of the cactus.

x 3 ft 4 in.

5 ft

264

Chapter 5 Proportional Relationships

3 ft

4 ft

5.2 ft

See Example 3

C

14 ft 7 in.

PRACTICE AND PROBLEM SOLVING Extra Practice See page EP11.

9. A building with a height of 14 m casts a shadow that is 16 m long while a taller building casts a 24 m long shadow. What is the height of the taller building? 1

1

1

10. Two common envelope sizes are 32 in. 62 in. and 4 in. 92 in. Are these envelopes similar? Explain. 11. Art An art class is painting a mural composed of brightly colored geometric shapes. The class has decided that all the right triangles in the design will be similar to the right triangle that will be painted fire red. Find the measures of the right triangles in the table. Round your answers to the nearest tenth.

Triangle Color

Length (in.)

Height (in.)

Fire Red

12

16

Blazing Orange

7

Grape Purple

4

Dynamite Blue

15

12. Reasoning Write a problem that can be solved using indirect measurement. 13. Write About It Assume you know the side lengths of one triangle and the length of one side of a second similar triangle. Explain how to use the properties of similar figures to find the unknown lengths in the second triangle. 14. Challenge 䉭ABE ⬃ 䉭ACD. What is the value of y in the diagram?

y

D (8, 6)

6

E (5, y)

4 2

B (5, 0)

A O

2

4

C (8, 0) x 6

8

NS1.3, AF1.2, AF2.1

15. Multiple Choice Find the unknown length in the similar figures. A

10 cm

C

15 cm

B

12 cm

D

18 cm

15 cm 11.25 cm

x 9 cm

16. Gridded Response A building casts a 16-foot shadow. A 6-foot man standing next to the building casts a 2.5-foot shadow. What is the height, in feet, of the building? Write each phrase as an algebraic expression. (Lesson 1-6) 17. the product of 18 and y

18. 5 less than a number

19. 12 divided by z

Convert each measure. (Lesson 5-5) 1

20. 42 feet to inches

21. 48 ounces to pounds

22. 2 quarts to cups

5-7 Using Similar Figures

265

Scale Drawings and Scale Models

5-8 California Standards NS1.3 Use proportions to solve problems (e.g., determine N 4 the value of N if 7 21, find the length of a side of a polygon similar to a known polygon). Use crossmultiplication as a method for solving such problems, understanding it as the multiplication of both sides of an equation by a multiplicative inverse.

Vocabulary

scale model scale factor scale scale drawing

Who uses this? Model builders use scale factors to create realistic models.

This HO gauge model train is a scale model of a historic train. A scale model is a proportional threedimensional model of an object. Its dimensions are related to the dimensions of the actual object by a ratio called the scale factor . The HO scale factor is 817. This means that each dimension of the model is 817 of the corresponding dimension of the actual train. A scale is the ratio between two sets of measurements. Scales can use the same units or different units. The photograph shows a scale drawing of the model train. A scale drawing is a proportional two-dimensional drawing of an object. Both scale drawings and scale models can be smaller or larger than the objects they represent.

EXAMPLE

1

Finding a Scale Factor Identify the scale factor.

Reasoning

Race Car

Model

Length (in.)

132

11

Height (in.)

66

5.5

You can use the lengths or heights to find the scale factor. A scale factor is always the ratio of the model’s dimensions to the actual object’s dimensions.

266

model length 11 1 132 12 race car length

Write a ratio. Then simplify.

model height 1 5.5 race car height 12 66

The scale factor is 112 . This is reasonable because 110 the length of the race car is 13.2 in. The length of the model is 11 in., which is less than 13.2 in., and 112 is less than 110 .

Chapter 5 Proportional Relationships

EXAMPLE

2

Using Scale Factors to Find Unknown Lengths A photograph of Vincent van Gogh’s painting Still Life with Irises Against a Yellow Background has dimensions 6.13 cm and 4.90 cm. The scale factor is Find the size of the actual painting, to the nearest tenth of a centimeter. photo

1 . 15

1

Think: painting 15 1 6.13 15 ᐉ

Write a proportion to find the length ᐉ.

ᐉ 6.13 15 Find the cross products. ᐉ 92.0 cm Multiply and round to the nearest tenth. 1 4.90 15 w

Write a proportion to find the width w.

w 4.90 15 Find the cross products. w 73.5 cm Multiply and round to the nearest tenth. The painting is 92.0 cm long and 73.5 cm wide.

EXAMPLE

3

Measurement Application On a map of Florida, the distance between Hialeah and Tampa is 10.5 cm. What is the actual distance d between the cities if the map scale is 3 cm 80 mi? map distance

3

Think: 80 actual distance 3 10.5 80 d

3 d 80 10.5

Write a proportion. Find the cross products.

3d 840 3d 840 3 3

Divide both sides by 3.

d 280 mi The distance between the cities is 280 miles.

Think and Discuss 1. Explain how you can tell whether a model with a scale factor of 35 is larger or smaller than the original object. 2. Describe how to find the scale factor if an antenna is 60 feet long and a scale drawing shows the length as 1 foot long.

5-8 Scale Drawings and Scale Models

267

5-8

California Standards Practice NS1.3

Exercises

KEYWORD: MS8CA 5-8 KEYWORD: MS8CA Parent

GUIDED PRACTICE See Example 1

Identify the scale factor. 1.

Grizzly Bear

Model

84

6

Height (in.)

2. Length (ft)

Moray Eel

Model

5

112

See Example 2

3. In a photograph, a sculpture is 4.2 cm tall and 2.5 cm wide. The scale factor is 116 . Find the size of the actual sculpture.

See Example 3

4. Ms. Jackson is driving from South Bend to Indianapolis. She measures a distance of 4.3 cm between the cities on her Indiana road map. What is the actual distance between the cities if the map scale is 1 cm 30 mi?

INDEPENDENT PRACTICE See Example 1

Identify the scale factor. 5. Wingspan (in.)

Eagle

Model

90

6

6. Length (cm)

Dolphin

Model

260

13

See Example 2

7. On a scale drawing, a tree is 634 inches tall. The scale factor is 210 . Find the height of the actual tree.

See Example 3

8. Measurement On a road map of Virginia, the distance from Alexandria to Roanoke is 7.6 cm. What is the actual distance between the cities if the map scale is 2 cm 50 mi?

PRACTICE AND PROBLEM SOLVING Extra Practice

The scale factor of each model is 1:12. Find the missing dimensions.

See page EP11.

Item

Actual Dimensions

Model Dimensions

Height:

Height: 113 in.

10. Couch

Height: 32 in. Length: 69 in.

Height: Length:

11. Chair

Height: 5112 in.

Height:

9. Lamp

12. A building shaped like a pair of binoculars is a scale model of an actual pair of binoculars. The scale is 9 ft 1 in. What is the height of the building if the height of the actual binoculars is 5 inches? 13. Critical Thinking A countertop is 18 ft long. How long is it on a scale drawing with the scale 1 in. 3 yd? 14. Write About It A scale for a scale drawing is 10 cm 1 mm. Which will be larger, the actual object or the scale drawing? Explain.

268

Chapter 5 Proportional Relationships

History Use the map for Exercises 15–16. 15. In 1863, Confederate troops marched from Chambersburg to Gettysburg in search of badly needed shoes. Use the ruler and the scale of the map to estimate how far the Confederate soldiers, many of whom were barefoot, marched. 16. Before the Civil War, the Mason-Dixon Line was considered the dividing line between the North and the South. If Gettysburg is about 8.1 miles north of the Mason-Dixon Line, how far apart in inches are Gettysburg and the Mason-Dixon Line on the map? 17. Reasoning Toby is making a scale model of the battlefield at Fredericksburg. The area he wants to model measures about 11 mi by 7.5 mi. He plans to put the model on a 3.25 ft by 3.25 ft square table. On each side of the model he wants to leave at least 3 in. between the model and the table edges. What is the largest scale he can use? 18.

Challenge A map of Vicksburg, Mississippi, has a scale of “1 mile to the inch.” The map has been reduced so that 5 inches on the original map appears as 1.5 inches on the reduced map. If the distance between two points on the reduced map is 1.75 inches, what is the actual distance in miles?

This painting by H.A. Ogden depicts General Robert E. Lee at Fredericksburg in 1862.

NS1.1,

NS1.3, AF2.1

19. Multiple Choice On a scale model with a scale of 116 , the height of a shed is 7 inches. What is the approximate height of the actual shed? A

2 feet

B

9 feet

C

58 feet

D

112 feet

20. Gridded Response On a map, the scale is 3 cm 75 mi. If the distance between two cities on the map is 6.8 cm, what is the distance between the actual cities in miles? Order the numbers from least to greatest. (Lesson 3-6) 4 21. 7, 0.41, 0.054

1 22. 4, 0.2, 1.2

7 7

23. 0.7, 9, 1 1

5

24. 0.3, 6, 0.32

Convert each measure. (Lesson 4-9) 25. 250 g to kilograms

26. 3.2 L to milliliters

27. 136 cm to meters

5-8 Scale Drawings and Scale Models

269

Quiz for Lessons 5-6 Through 5-8 5-6

Similar Figures and Proportions

1. Tell whether the triangles are similar. M 28 cm 14 cm 108° 22° 50° L 35 cm

4 cm N

Q

R 108° 8 cm 22° 50° S 10 cm

2. Tell whether the figures are similar. 84 ft 25 ft

53°

53°

127°

127° 48 ft

5-7

14 ft 53° 53° 25 ft 5 ft 127° 127° 5 ft 8 ft

Using Similar Figures

䉭ABC ⬃ 䉭XYZ in each pair. Find the unknown lengths. 3.

4.

Y B 32.5 m

A A 6m C

X

15 m

42 in.

14 in.

13 m

Z

X

C

12 in. z

10 m

B 8 in.

36 in. Z t Y

5. Reynaldo drew a rectangular design that was 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. He used a copy machine to enlarge the rectangular design so that the width was 10 in. What was the length of the enlarged design? 6. Redon is 6 ft 2 in. tall, and his shadow is 4 ft 1 in. long. At the same time a building casts a shadow that is 19 ft 10 in. long. Estimate the height of the building.

5-8

Scale Drawings and Scale Models

7. An actor is 6 ft tall. On a billboard for a new movie, the actor’s picture is enlarged so that his height is 16.8 ft. What is the scale factor? 8. On a scale drawing, a driveway is 6 in. long. The scale factor is 214 . Find the length of the actual driveway. 9. A map of Texas has a scale of 1 in. 65 mi. If the distance from Dallas to San Antonio is 260 mi, what is the distance in inches between two cities on the map?

270

Chapter 5 Proportional Relationships

Bug Juice

When campers get thirsty, out comes the well-known camp beverage bug juice! The recipes show how two camps, Camp Big Sky and Camp Wild Flowers, make their bug juice. Each camp has 180 campers. During a typical day, each camper drinks two 8-ounce cups of bug juice. 1. How many ounces of bug juice are consumed at each camp each day? 2. How much does it cost to make two quarts of bug juice at each camp? 3. Each camp has budgeted $30 per day for bug juice. Is $30 a day enough? How do you know? Show your work. 4. Campers begin to complain. They want their bug juice “buggier.” How could each camp change its recipe, continue to serve 180 campers two 8-ounce cups of bug juice daily, and not spend more than $40 per day for bug juice? Explain your reasoning.

Camp Big Sky ipe Bug Juice Rec

of mix A 0ne 4 oz packet to make 2 r Add tap wate ice. ju quarts of bug

• •

• • •

Camp W ild Bug Juic Flowers e Recipe 0ne 0.1

4o 4 oz suga z packet of mix B Add tap r w quarts of ater to make 2 bug juice .

Prices 4 oz packet of mix A $0.78 0.14 oz packet of mix B $0.20 1 lb of sugar $0.36

Concept Connection

271

Water Works You have three glasses: a 3-ounce glass, a 5-ounce glass, and an 8-ounce glass. The 8-ounce glass is full of water, and the other two glasses are empty. By pouring water from one glass to another, how can you get exactly 6 ounces of water in one of the glasses? The step-by-step solution is described below. 1 Fill the 5 oz glass using water from the 8 oz glass. 2 Fill the 3 oz glass using water from the 5 oz glass. 3 Pour the water from the 3 oz glass into the 8 oz glass.

You now have 6 ounces of water in the 8-ounce glass. Start again, but this time try to get exactly 4 ounces of water in one glass. (Hint: Find a way to get 1 ounce of water. Start by pouring water into the 3-ounce glass.) Next, using 3-ounce, 8-ounce, and 11-ounce glasses, try to get exactly 9 ounces of water in one glass. Start with the 11-ounce glass full of water. (Hint: Start by pouring water into the 8-ounce glass.) Look at the sizes of the glasses in each problem. The volume of the third glass is the sum of the volumes of the first two glasses: 3 5 8 and 3 8 11. Using any amounts for the two smaller glasses, and starting with the largest glass full, you can get any multiple of the smaller glass’s volume. Try it and see.

Concentration Concentration Each card in a deck of cards has a ratio on one side. Place each card face down. Each player or team takes a turn flipping over two cards. If the ratios on the cards are equivalent, the player or team can keep the pair. If not, the next player or team flips two cards. After every card has been turned over, the player or team with the most pairs wins. A complete copy of the rules and the game pieces are available online.

272

Chapter 5 Proportional Relationships

KEYWORD: MS8CA Games

Materials • 2 paper plates • scissors • markers

A PROJECT

Paper Plate Proportions

Serve up some proportions on this book made from paper plates. 1 Fold one of the paper plates in half. Cut out a narrow rectangle along the folded edge. The rectangle should be as long as the diameter of plate’s inner circle. When you open the plate, you will have a narrow window in the center. Figure A 2 Fold the second paper plate in half and then unfold it. Cut slits on both sides of the crease beginning from the edge of the plate to the inner circle. Figure B

B

C

3 Roll up the plate with the slits so that the two slits touch each other. Then slide this plate into the narrow window in the other plate. Figure C 4 When the rolled-up plate is halfway through the window, unroll it so that the slits fit on the sides of the window. Figure D

D

5 Close the book so that all the plates are folded in half.

Taking Note of the Math Write the number and name of the chapter on the cover of the book. Then review the chapter, using the inside pages to take notes on ratios, rates, proportions, and similar figures. It’s in the Bag!

273

Vocabulary corresponding angles . . 258 corresponding sides . . . 258

proportion . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

scale factor . . . . . . . . . . . 266 scale model . . . . . . . . . . . 266

cross product . . . . . . . . . 244 equivalent ratios . . . . . . 240

ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266

similar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 unit rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

indirect measurement . . 262

scale drawing . . . . . . . . . 266

Complete the sentences below with vocabulary words from the list above. 1. __?__ figures have the same shape but not necessarily the same size. 2. A(n) __?__ is a comparison of two numbers, and a(n) __?__ is a ratio that compares two quantities measured in different units. 3. The ratio used to enlarge or reduce similar figures is a(n) __?__ .

5-1 Ratios EXAMPLE ■

1 , 1 to 2, 1:2 2

5-2 Rates ■

EXERCISES

Write the ratio of 2 servings of bread to 4 servings of vegetables in all three forms. Write your answers in simplest form. 2 1 4 2

Write the ratio 2 to 4 in simplest form.

There are 3 red, 7 blue, and 5 yellow balloons. 4. Write the ratio of blue balloons to total balloons in all three forms. Write your answer in simplest form. 5. Tell whether the ratio of red to blue balloons or the ratio of yellow balloons to total balloons is greater.

NS1.2,

(pp. 236–239)

EXAMPLE

EXERCISES

Find each unit price. Then decide which has the lowest price per ounce.

Find each average rate of speed.

$2.70 $4.32 or 5 oz 12 oz $2.70 $0.54 $4.32 $0.36 and 5 oz oz 12 oz oz $4.32

has the lowest Since 0.36 ⬍ 0.54, 12 oz price per ounce.

274

NS1.2

(pp. 232–235)

Chapter 5 Proportional Relationships

6. 540 ft in 90 s

AF2.2, AF2.3

7. 436 mi in 4 hr

Find each unit price. Then decide which is the better buy. $56 $32.05 or 8. 25 gal 15 gal

$160 $315 or 9. 5g 9g

5-3 Identifying and Writing Proportions

EXERCISES

EXAMPLES ■

■

5

3

Determine whether 1 and 9 are 2 proportional.

Determine whether the ratios are proportional.

5 12

5 is already in simplest form. 12

9 6 , 10. 2 7 20

15 20 11. 2 , 5 30

3 1 9 3

3 Simplify . 9

21 18 12. 1 , 4 12

2 4 13. 5 , 7

5 1 12 3

The ratios are not proportional.

8 20 14. 1 , 0 25

18 24 15. 3 , 9 52

5

Find a ratio equivalent to 12 . Then use the ratios to write a proportion. 5 53 15 12 12 3 36 5 15 12 36

Write an equivalent ratio. Write a proportion.

5-4 Solving Proportions

45 17. 5 0

9 18. 1 5

4 19. 9

NS1.3,

AF2.2, AF2.3

p

10

Use cross products to solve 8 1 . 2

Use cross products to solve each proportion. 4 n 20. 6 3

2 5 21. a 1 5

p 12 8 10 12p 80

Multiply the cross products.

b 8 22. 1.5 3

16 96 23. 1 x 1

Divide each side by 12.

2 1 24. y0 50

7 70 25. 20 w0

12p 80 12 12 20 2 p 3, or 6 3

5-5 Customary Measurements EXAMPLES

■

10 16. 1 2

EXERCISES

p 10 8 12

■

Find a ratio equivalent to each ratio. Then use the ratios to write a proportion.

(pp. 244–248)

EXAMPLE ■

NS1.2

(pp. 240–243)

NS1.3, AF2.1

(pp. 249–252) EXERCISES

Choose the most appropriate customary unit for the weight of a mouse. Justify your answer.

Choose the most appropriate customary unit for each measurement. Justify your answer.

Ounces—the weight of a mouse is similar to the weight of a slice of bread.

26. the height of a giraffe 27. the capacity of a washing machine 28. the width of a cell phone

Convert 5 mi to feet. feet miles

x 5,280 5 1

x 5,280 5 26,400 ft

Convert each measure. 29. 32 fl oz to pints 30. 1.5 tons to pounds 31. 13,200 ft to miles

Study Guide: Review

275

5-6 Similar Figures and Proportions Tell whether the figures are similar.

Tell whether the figures are similar.

The corresponding angles of the figures have equal measures.

32.

50° 130° 5 cm 3 cm 130° 3 cm 50° 5 cm

5 ? 3 ? 5 ? 3 30 18 30 18 1 1 1 1 6 6 6 6

6 ft

8 ft 54° 46°

48 ft 46° 6 ft

150° 3 ft

6 ft

5-7 Using Similar Figures

18 ft

33. B

䉭ABC ⬃ 䉭LMN. Find the unknown length. 8 in. A

X

18 ft

7 in. 11 in.

F K J

C

Z

38° 12 m

18 ft 25 ft

L

x

72 ft

D 72 ft

28 in.

t L

44 in.

N

35. A tree casts a 3012 ft shadow at the time of day when a 2 ft stake casts a 723 ft shadow. Estimate the height of the tree.

5-8 Scale Drawings and Scale Models EXAMPLE

(pp. 266–269)

NS1.3

EXERCISES

A model boat is 4 inches long. The scale 1 factor is 2 . How long is the actual boat? 4

Write a proportion. Find the cross products. Solve.

The boat is 96 inches long.

276

60°

NS1.3

34.

M

352 11t 11 11

96 n

7.5 m

E

352 11t

4 24 n 1

C

䉭JKL ⬃ 䉭DEF. Find the unknown length.

B

8 44 t 11

1 model 24 boat 4 1 n 24

Y 82° 10.5 m

EXERCISES

AB AC LM LN 8 11 t 44

■

110°

54° 6 ft

(pp. 262–265)

EXAMPLE

32 in. t

150°

110°

7m 30 cm The ratios of the 82° 130° 50° corresponding 38° 5m 18 cm 18 cm sides are equivalent. 50° 130° 60° 8m 30 cm The figures are similar. A

■

NS1.3

Prep for

EXERCISES

EXAMPLE ■

(pp. 258–261)

Chapter 5 Proportional Relationships

36. The Wright brothers’ Flyer had a 484-inch wingspan. Carla bought a model of the plane with a scale factor of 410 . What is the model’s wingspan? 37. The distance from Austin to Houston on a map is 4.3 inches. The map scale is 1 inch 38 miles. What is the actual distance?

A soccer team has 4 sixth-graders, 5 seventh-graders, and 4 eighth-graders. Write each ratio in all three forms. 1. seventh-graders to sixth-graders

2. eighth-graders to total team members

3. Stan found 12 pennies, 15 nickels, 7 dimes, and 5 quarters. Tell whether the ratio of pennies to quarters or the ratio of nickels to dimes is greater. 4. Lenny sold 576 tacos in 48 hours. What was Lenny’s average rate of taco sales? 5. A store sells a 5 lb box of detergent for $5.25 and a 10 lb box of detergent for $9.75. Which size box has the lowest price per pound? Find a ratio equivalent to each ratio. Then use the ratios to write a proportion. 22 6. 3 0

7 7. 9

18 8. 5 4

10 9. 1 7

Use cross products to solve each proportion. 9 m 10. 1 6 2

x 18 11. 2 6

5 10 13. p 2

3 21 12. 7 t

14. A submarine travels 56 miles in 4 hours. At this rate, how many hours will it take the submarine to travel 700 miles? Convert each measure. 15. 13,200 ft to miles

16. 3.5 lb to ounces

17. 17 qt to gallons

Tell whether the figures are similar. 18.

99° C 9 ft 5 ft A 17 ft B 27° 11 ft 54° 29° E

19.

F 102°

10 cm 86° N

11 ft 49°

22 ft

O

10 cm M

D

101° 18 cm P

48° 15 cm 125°

101° S 10.8 cm 6 cm T 48° R 6 cm 9 cm 86° Q 125°

䉭WYZ ⬃ 䉭MNO in each pair. Find the unknown lengths. 20.

21.

M W 6 in. 3 in.

Y

4 in.

Z

Y N

33 m

10 in. 5 in. O

n

Z

N W

11 m O M 10 m

8m

24 m x

22. An 8-foot flagpole casts a shadow that is 6 feet long at the same time as a nearby tree casts a shadow that is 21 feet long. How tall is the tree? 23. A scale model of a building is 8 in. by 12 in. If the scale is 1 in. 15 ft, what are the dimensions of the actual building? 24. The distance from Portland to Seaside is 75 mi. What is the distance in inches between the two towns on a map if the scale is 114 in. 25 mi ? Chapter Test

277

Gridded Response: Write Gridded Responses When responding to a test item that requires you to place your answer in a grid, you must fill in the grid on your answer sheet correctly, or the item will be marked as incorrect.

1 . 1 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Gridded Response: Solve the equation 0.23 r 1.42. 0.23 r 1.42 0.23 0.23 r 1.19 • Using a pencil, write your answer in the answer boxes at the top of the grid. Put the first digit of your answer in the leftmost box, or put the last digit of your answer in the rightmost box. On some grids, the fraction bar and the decimal point have a designated box. • Put only one digit or symbol in each box. Do not leave a blank box in the middle of an answer. • Shade the bubble for each digit or symbol in the same column as in the answer box.

4

5 / 3

Gridded Response: Divide. 3 15 4

3

9

3 15 1 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

3

5

1 9 15

5

2

9 3 13 1.6 苶 5

2

The answer simplifies to 3, 13, or 1.6 苶. • Mixed numbers and repeating decimals cannot be gridded, so you must grid the answer as 53. • Write your answer in the answer boxes at the top of the grid. • Put only one digit or symbol in each box. Do not leave a blank box in the middle of an answer. • Shade the bubble for each digit or symbol in the same column as in the answer box.

278

Chapter 5 Proportional Relationships

Grid formats may vary from test to test. The grid in this book is used often, but it is not used on every test that has griddedresponse questions. Always examine the grid when taking a standardized test to be sure you know how to fill it in correctly.

Read each statement, and then answer the questions that follow.

Sample C

A student subtracted 12 from 5 and got an answer of 17. Then the student filled in the grid as shown.

Sample A

A student correctly solved an equation for x and got 42 as a result. Then the student filled in the grid as shown.

4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1. What error did the student make when filling in the grid? 2. Explain a second method of filling in the answer correctly.

Sample B

A student correctly multiplied 0.16 and 0.07. Then the student filled in the grid as shown.

. 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

3. What error did the student make when filling in the grid?

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

– 1 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

5. What error did the student make when finding the answer? 6. Explain why you cannot fill in a negative number on a grid. 7. Explain how to fill in the answer to 5 (–12) correctly. Sample D

A student correctly added 56 1112 and got 1192 as a result. Then the student filled in the grid as shown.

1 9 / 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

8. What answer is shown in the grid? 9. Explain why you cannot show a mixed number in a grid. 10. Write two equivalent forms of the answer 1192 that could be filled in the grid correctly.

4. Explain how to fill in the answer correctly.

Strategies for Success

279

KEYWORD: MS8CA Practice

Cumulative Assessment, Chapters 1–5 Multiple Choice 1. What is the unknown length b in similar triangles ABC and DEF?

5. Which value completes the table of equivalent ratios?

D A

9.2 ft

4 ft

16.56 ft

b

B

E

8 ft

18.4 ft

7.2 feet

C

B

6 feet

D 5.6 feet

4 feet

2. The total length of the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, California, is 8,981 feet. If a car is traveling at a speed of 45 miles per hour, how many minutes would it take the car to cross the bridge? A

0.04 minute

C

B

1.28 minutes

D 2.27 minutes

1.7 minutes

3. For which equation is x 25 the solution? A

25

5x 2

2 1 x 25 5 1 C x 2 5 1 D 5x 2 B

15

36

Karaoke Machines

3

?

12

1

A

5

C

8

B

7

D 9

6. On a baseball field, the distance from home plate to the pitcher’s mound is 6012 feet. The distance from home plate to second base is about 127274 feet. What is the difference between the two distances? 66 1294 feet

A

6113 feet

C

B

66 56 feet

D 66 254 feet

7. Which word phrase best describes the expression n 6? A

6 more than a number

B

A number less than 6

C

6 minus a number

D A number decreased by 6

4. A hot air balloon descends 38.5 meters in 22 seconds. If the balloon continues to descend at this rate, how long will it take to descend 125 meters?

280

9

C

F A

Microphones 3

A

25.25 seconds

C

71.43 seconds

B

86.5 seconds

D 218.75 seconds

Chapter 5 Proportional Relationships

8. A football weighs about 230 kilogram. If a coach has 15 footballs in a large bag, which estimate best describes the total weight of the footballs? A

Not quite 3 kilograms

B

A little more than 2 kilograms

C

Almost 1 kilogram

D Between 1 and 2 kilograms

9. What is the value of the expression 13 4 6 2? A

29

C

65

B

55

D 91

10. On a scale drawing, a cell phone tower 1 . is 1.25 feet tall. The scale factor is 150 What is the height of the actual cell phone tower? A

37.5 ft

C

148 ft

B

120 ft

D 187.5 ft

11. A box of trail mix includes 4 ounces of raisins, 8 ounces of granola, and 2 ounces of sunflower seeds. What is the ratio of the number of ounces of granola to ounces of trail mix? A

1:3

C

4:3

B

1:8

D 4:7

Short Response 16. Small posters cost $6.50 each, medium posters cost $10.00 each, and large posters cost $14.50 each. Write an algebraic expression that can be used to determine the cost of s small posters, m medium posters, and ᐉ large posters. Then evaluate the expression to determine how much Angel will pay for 3 small posters, 2 medium posters, and 1 large poster. Show your work. 17. A lamppost casts a shadow that is 18 feet long. At the same time of day, Alyce casts a shadow that is 4.2 feet long. Alyce is 5.3 feet tall. Draw a picture of the situation. Set up and solve a proportion to find the height of the lamppost to the nearest foot. Show your work.

Extended Response If a diagram or graph is not provided, quickly sketch one to clarify the information provided in the test item.

Gridded Response 12. The Liberty Bell, a symbol of freedom in the United States, weighs 2,080 pounds. How many tons does the Liberty Bell weigh? 13. Find the quotient of 104 (8). 14. A grasshopper is 134 inches long, and a cricket is 78 inch long. How many inches longer is the grasshopper than the cricket? 15. A florist is preparing bouquets of flowers for an exhibit. The florist has 84 tulips and 56 daisies. Each bouquet will have the same number of tulips and the same number of daisies. How many bouquets can the florist make for this exhibit?

18. Riley is drawing a map of the state of Virginia. From east to west, the greatest distance across the state is about 430 miles. From north to south, the greatest distance is about 200 miles. a. Riley is using a map scale of 1 inch 24 miles. Find the length of the map from east to west and the length from north to south. Round your answers to the nearest tenth. b. The length between two cities on Riley’s map is 9 inches. What is the distance between the cities in miles? c. If an airplane travels at a speed of 520 miles per hour, about how many minutes will it take for the plane to fly from east to west across the widest part of Virginia? Show your work.

Cumulative Assessment, Chapters 1–5

281

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