Nine Characteristics of High-Performing Schools - OSPI

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Nine Characteristics  of High‐Performing Schools  Second Edition ‐‐ Resource List  Becoming a high-performing school takes many years of hard work. There is no silver bullet--no single thing a school can do to ensure high student performance. Research has found that highperforming schools have a number of common characteristics. A school may be doing well in some areas but need help in others. The second edition of the Nine Characteristics of High-Performing Schools maintains the original characteristics and definitions. It adds information from about 120 new research and professional references, as well as relevant OSPI documents, to help educators deepen their understanding of the characteristics, and it provides additional strategies for expanding implementation. This resource list provides the names of key websites, books, reports, and articles that can be used to help schools improve in each of the characteristics of high-performing schools. Information about various characteristics is often embedded throughout these resources. After assessing the areas that need the most attention, review and then discuss the materials mentioned in this resource list in order to focus your school improvement efforts. Good luck! G. Sue Shannon, Ed. D. Senior Researcher Assessment and Student Information Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction

Contents  Introduction Starting Points

Characteristics  1. A Clear and Shared Focus 2. High Standards and Expectations for All Students 3. Effective School Leadership 4. High Levels of Collaboration and Communication 5. Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessments Aligned with State Standards 6. Frequent Monitoring of Learning and Teaching 7. Focused Professional Development 8. Supportive Learning Environment 9. High Levels of Family and Community Involvement Appendix A: Bibliography and analysis matrix National Research Reports Washington State Research Reports

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Introduction  The second edition expands and deepens the discussion of the Nine Characteristics. The introduction provides an overview of several concepts: Effective processes for improving schools Expanded perspectives on effective leadership Relational trust (i.e., trusting relationships among person in an organization) Quality instruction, grading practices, and monitoring Professional learning communities Cultural competence and culturally responsive teaching Family and community engagement in schools High school improvement District improvement Need-based allocation of resources (funding, staffing, and support)

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References    Banks, J., Cochran-Smith, M., Moll, L., Richert, A., Zeichner, K., LePage, P., Darling-Hammond, L., Duffy, H., with McDonald, M. (2005). Teaching Diverse Learners. In Darling-Hammond, L., Bransford, J., LePage, P., Hammerness, K., & Duffy, H. (Eds.). Preparing Teachers for A Changing World: What Teachers Should Learn and Be Able to Do. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Blankstein, A.M. (2004). Failure is NOT an Option: Six Principles that Guide Student Achievement in High-Performing Schools. Thousand Oaks, Ca: Corwin Press and HOPE Foundation. Bryk. A.S. & Schneider, B. (2002). Trust in Schools: A Core Resource for Improvement. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Carey, K. (2004). The Real Value of Teachers: Using New Information about Teacher Effectiveness to Close the Achievement Gap. Thinking K-16. Washington DC: The Education Trust. Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: A Review of State Policy Evidence. Education Policy Analysis Archives. 8(1). http://epaa.asu.eduepaa/v8n1 Darling-Hammond, L., Bransford, J., with LePage, P., Hammerness, K., & Duffy, H. (Eds.). (2005). Preparing Teachers for a Changing World: What Teachers Should Learn and Be Able to Do. Sponsored by the National Academy of Education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Demmert, W.G. Jr. (2001). Improving Academic Performance among Native American Students: A Review of the Research Literature. Charleston, WV: ERIC. Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools. Appalachian Educational Laboratory. http://www.ael.org/snaps/Demmert.pdf DuFour, R., Eaker, R., & DuFour, R. (Eds.). (2005). On Common Ground: The Power of Professional Learning Communities. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service. Edmonds, R. (1979). Effective Schools for the Urban Poor. Educational Leadership. 37. Education Trust. (2006). Funding Gaps 2006. Washington DC: The Education Trust. Elmore, R.E. (2000). Building a New Structure for School Leadership. Washington, DC: The Albert Shanker Institute. Fullan, M. (2005). Leadership & Sustainability: System Thinkers in Action. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Fullan, M. (2006). Turnaround Leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Gay, G. (2000). Culturally Responsive Teaching: Theory, Research, and Practice. New York: Teachers College Press. George, P.S., McEwin, C.K., & Jenkins, J.M. (2000). The Exemplary High School. New York: Harcourt College Publishers. Goode, T., Jones, W., & Mason, J. (2002). A Guide to Planning and Implementing Cultural Competence Organization Self-assessment. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Cultural Competence. Georgetown University. Child Development Center.

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Goodlad, J.I. (1984). A Place Called School: Prospects for the Future. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. Hargreaves, A. & Fink, D. (2006). Sustainable Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Henchey, N. with Dunnigan, M., Gardner, A., Lessard, C., Muhtadi, N., Raham, H., & Violato, C. (2001). Schools that Make a Difference. Final Report: Twelve Canadian Secondary Schools in Low-Income Settings. Kelowna, B.C.: Society for the Advancement of Excellence in Education. http://www.saee.ca/publications/A_012_IIH_MID.php King, M.A., Sims, A., & Osher, D. (nd). How is Cultural Competence Integrated in Education. http://cecp.air.org/cultural/Q_integrated.htm#def. Retrieved 12/1/2006. Langer, J.A. (2004). Getting to Excellent: How to Create Better Schools. New York: Teachers College Press. Lezotte, L.W. (1991). Correlates of Effective Schools: The First and Second Generation. Effective Schools Products, Ltd., Okemos, MI. http://www.effectiveschools.com/freestsuff.asp Little, J.W. (1990). The Persistence of Privacy: Autonomy and Initiative in Teachers’ Professional Relations. Teachers College Record. 91(4). Lobdell, G. (2007, Feb. 8). Personal communication. Center for Educational Effectiveness. http://www.effectiveness.org/ Lockwood, A.T. & Secada, W.G. (1999). The Hispanic Dropout Problem and Recommendations for Its Solution. In Transforming Education for Hispanic Youth: Exemplary Practices, Programs, and Schools. NCBE Resource Collection Series, No. 12. http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/pubs/resource/hispanicyouth/ Marzano, R.J. (2003). What Works in Schools: Translating Research into Action. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Marzano, R.J., Waters, T., & McNulty, B.A. (2005). School Leadership that Works. From Research to Results. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Aurora, CO: McREL McKinley, J. (2005). Effective Teaching Strategies for High Performing African American Students in an Urban District. Paper presented at American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting in Montreal. McLaughlin, M.W. & Talbert, J.E. (2006). Building School-Based Teacher Learning Communities: Professional Strategies to Improve Student Achievement. New York: Teachers College Press. Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. (2005). Research You Can Use to Improve Results. http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/re-engineering/rycu/index.shtml Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. ___ Grade Level Expectations; On-Line Grade Level Resources. Olympia, WA. ___ (2007). Washington State Guidance for Selection of Instructional Materials to Meet District and State Standards. Olympia, WA. ___ (2005). Washington State Professional Development Planning Guide IN ACTION: Linking Professional Development to Improved Student Learning. Olympia, WA. ___ (2004). Washington State K-12 Reading Model: Implementation Guide. Olympia, WA. ___ (2006). Using Response to Intervention (RTI) for Washington’s Students. Olympia, WA.

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___ (2007). Washington State Transitional Bilingual Instructional Program Guidelines. ___ (2005). Washington State English Language Development Instructional Materials Review ___ Washington State English Language Development (ELD) Content Standards ___ (2005) School Improvement Process Guide. Olympia, WA. ___ (2005). School System Improvement Resource Guide. with Washington Association of School Administrators. Olympia, WA. Peske, H.G. & Haycock, K. (2006). Teaching Inequality: How Poor and Minority Students Are Shortchanged on Teacher Quality. Washington DC: The Education Trust. Reeves, D. (2007). Closing the Implementation Gap. Educational Leadership. 64(6). Rice, J.K. (2003). Teacher Quality: Understanding the Effectiveness of Teacher Attributes. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute. Roza, M. (2006). How Districts Shortchange Low-income and Minority Students. Funding Gaps 2006. Washington, DC: The Education Trust. Roza, M., Guin, K., & Davis, T. (2007). What is the Sum of the Parts: How Federal, State, and District Funding Streams Confound Efforts to Address Different Student Types. School Finance Redesign Project. Center on Reinventing Public Education. Seattle, WA: University of Washington. Shannon, G.S. & Bylsma, P. (2002). Addressing the Achievement Gap: A Challenge for Washington Educators. Olympia, WA: OSPI Shannon, G.S. & Bylsma, P. (2004). Characteristics of Improved School Districts: Themes from Research. Olympia, WA: OSPI. Shannon, G.S. & Bylsma, P. (2006). The High Schools We Need: Improving an American Institution. Olympia, WA: OSPI. Schmoker, M. (2005). Here and Now: Improving Teaching and Learning. In DuFour, R., Eaker, R., & DuFour, R. (Eds.). On Common Ground: The Power of Professional Learning Communities. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service. Spillane, J.P. (2006). Distributed Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Tschannen-Moran, M. (2004). Trust Matters: Leadership for Successful Schools. Jossey-Bass. Wagner, T., Kegan, R., Lahey, L., Lemons, R.W., Garnier, J., Helsing, D., Howell, A., Rasmussen, H.T. (2006). Change Leadership: A Practical Guide to Transforming Our Schools. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Waters, J.T. & Marzano, R.J. (2006). School District Leadership that Works: The Effect of Superintendent Leadership on Student Achievement. A Working Paper. Denver, Co: McREL. Zurawski, C. (2004). Teachers Matter: Evidence from Value-Added Assessments. Research Points. Essential Information for Education Policy. Washington DC: American Educational Research Association.

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SELECTED RESOURCES AS STARTING POINTS  Some resources discuss several of the nine characteristics of high-performing schools. The books in the following list provide an effective starting point for busy educators who have limited time for reading. These resources are also useful for school study groups. Barth, R. S. (1990). Improving Schools from Within: Teachers, Parents, and Principals Can Make the Difference. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Blankstein, A.M. (2004). Failure is Not an Option: Six Principles that Guide Student Achievement in High-Performing Schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press and HOPE Foundation. Bryk, A.S. & Schneider, B. (2002). Trust in Schools: A Core Resource for Improvement. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Copland, M.A., & Knapp, M.S. (2006). Connecting Leadership with Learning: A Framework for Reflection, Planning, and Action. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD). Cotton, K. (1995). Research You Can Use to Improve Results. Alexandria, VA: ASCD and Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Cotton, K. (2000). The Schooling Practices that Matter Most. Alexandria, VA: ASCD and Portland, OR: NWREL. Daniels, H., Bizar, M., & Zemelman, S. (2001). Rethinking High School: Best Practice in Teaching, Learning, and Leadership. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. DuFour, R. & Eaker, R. (1998). Professional Learning Communities at Work: Best Practices for Enhancing Student Achievement. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service and Alexandria, VA: ASCD. DuFour, R., DuFour, R., Eaker, R., & Karhanek, G. (2004). Whatever it Takes: How Professional Learning Communities Respond When Kids Don’t Learn. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service. Fouts, J. (2003). A Decade of Reform: A Summary of Research Findings on Classroom, School, and District Effectiveness in Washington State. Lynnwood, WA: Washington School Research Center. Glickman, C.D. (1993). Renewing America’s Schools: A Guide for School-Based Action. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Holcomb, E.L. (2001). Asking the Right Questions: Techniques for Collaboration and School Change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Langer, G.M., Colton, A.B., Goff, L.S. (2003). Collaborative Analysis of Student Work: Improving Teaching and Learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Langer, J.A. (2004). Getting to Excellent: How to Create Better Schools. New York: Teachers College Press. Columbia University. Marzano, RJ. (2003). What Works in Schools: Translating Research into Action. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

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Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D. J., & Pollock, J. E. (2001). Classroom Instruction that Works: ResearchBased Strategies For Increasing Student Achievement. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Marzano, R.J., Waters, T., & McNulty, B.A. (2005). School Leadership that Works: From Research to Results. Alexandria, VA: ASCD and Aurora, CO: McREL Murphy, P.K. & Alexander, P.A. (2006). Understanding How Students Learn: A Guide for Instructional Leaders. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. National Research Council Institute of Medicine. (2004). Engaging Schools: Fostering High School Students’ Motivation to Learn. Washington DC: The National Academies Press. Newmann, F. M. & Associates. (1996). Authentic Achievement: Restructuring Schools for Intellectual Quality. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Reeves, D.B. (2006). The Learning Leader: How to Focus School Improvement for Better Results. Alexandria, WA: ASCD. Schlechty, P.C. (2001). Shaking Up the School House: How to Support and Sustain Educational Innovation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Schmoker, M. (1999). Results: The Key to Continuous School Improvement. (2nd Ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Schmoker, M. (2006). Results Now: How We Can Achieve Unprecedented Improvements in Teaching and Learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Stiggins, R.J. (2005). Student-Involved Assessment for Learning. (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall. Tschannen-Moran, M. (2004). Trust Matters: Leadership for Successful Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Zemelman, S., Daniels, H., & Hyde, A. (2005). Best Practice: Today’s Standards for Teaching & Learning in America’s Schools. (3rd Ed.). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

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1. A clear and shared focus  Everybody knows where they are going and why. The focus is on achieving a shared vision, and all understand their role in achieving the vision. The focus and vision are developed from common beliefs and values, creating a consistent direction for all involved.

References  (* indicates those cited in the complete Resource) http://www.k12.wa.us/ SchoolImprovement/sipguide.aspx

*School Improvement Planning Process Guide

http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/ reengineering/keyissues/leadership.shtml

Leadership and Organizational Vitality

http://www.effectiveschools.com http://www.prrac.org/ pubs_aiu.php

Add It Up: Using Research to Improve Education for Low-Income and Minority Students

Barth, R. S. (1990). Improving Schools from Within: Teachers, Parents, and Principals Can Make the Difference. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. See Chapter 11, Visions of Good Schools. *Calhoun, E.F. (1994). How to Use Action Research in the Self-Renewing School. Alexandria, VA: ASCD *Collins, J. (2001). Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap... and Others Don’t. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. Conzemius, A. & O’Neill, J. (2001). Building Shared Responsibility for Student Learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. See Chapter 2, Focus. Cunningham, W.G. & Gresso, D.W. (1993). Cultural Leadership: The Culture of Excellence in Education. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. See Chapter 4, Vision, Not Criticism, Supports Excellence. *DuFour, R. & Eaker, R. (1998). Professional Learning Communities at Work: Best Practices for Enhancing Student Achievement. Bloomington, IN.: National Educational Service and Alexandria, VA:ASCD. See Chapters 4-5 on Mission and Vision/ Values and Goals. *Glickman, C.D. (1993). Renewing America’s Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. See Chapter 2, The Covenant: Establishing Common Principles of Teaching and Learning.

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Holcomb, E.L. (2001). Asking the Right Questions: Techniques for Collaboration and School Change. (2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press. *Knapp, M.S., Copland, M.A., Ford, B., Markholt, A., McLaughlin, M.W., Milliken, M., & Talbert, J.E. (2003). Leading for Learning Sourcebook: Concepts and Examples. Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy. Seattle, WA: University of Washington. Louis, K.S. & Miles, M.B. (1990). Improving the Urban High School: What Works and Why. New York: Teachers College Press. See Chapter 9, Vision Building in School Reform. Newmann, F.M & Associates. (1996). Authentic Achievement. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. *Newmann, F.M., Smith, B.A., Allensworth, E. & Bryk, A.S. (2001, January). School Instructional Program Coherence: Benefits and Challenges. Chicago, IL: Consortium on Chicago School Research. *Peters, T.J. & Waterman, Jr., R.H. (1982). In Search of Excellence. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. *Rosenholtz, S.J. (1989). Teachers’ Workplace: The Social Organization of Schools. White Plains, NY: Longman, Inc. *Sagor, R. (1996). Local Control and Accountability: How to Get It, Keep It and Improve School Performance. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. See Chapter 3, The Three Building Blocks of Accountability: Vision Setting, Action Research, and Performance Assessment. Schlechty, P.C. (2001). Shaking Up the School House: How to Support and Sustain Educational Innovation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. *Schmoker, M. (1999). Results: The Key to Continuous School Improvement (2nd Ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Schmoker, M. (2006). Results Now: How We Can Achieve Unprecedented Improvements in Teaching and Learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. *Senge, P. M. (1990). The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. New York: Doubleday Currency. See Part III, The Core Disciplines: Building the Learning Organization. Senge, P., Cambron-McCabe, N., Lucas, T., Smith, B., Dutton, J., & Kleiner, A. (2000). Schools That Learn: A Fifth Discipline Fieldbook for Educators, Parents, and Everyone Who Cares about Education. New York: Doubleday Currency. See Part IX, School Vision. *Woods, D. (2002). Moving Forward: From Where You are to School Improvement that Lasts. A Research-Based Guide. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.

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2. High standards and expectations  for all students  Teachers and staff believe that all students can learn and meet high standards. While recognizing that some students must overcome significant barriers, these obstacles are not seen as insurmountable. Students are offered an ambitious and rigorous course of study.

References  (* indicates those cited in the complete Resource) http://www.rand.org/ multi/achievementforall/

Research Areas – Education

http://www.mcrel.org/ topics/products/105

Raising the Achievement of Low Performing Students

http://www.goodschools. gwu.edu/

NCCSR publications. Issue Briefs. April 2001. A Brief on Turning Around Low Performing Schools

http://www.wcer.wisc.edu/ archive/cors/Issues_in_ Restructuring_Schools/ ISSUES_NO_8_SPRING_1995.pdf

Issue Reports. No. 8. Spring 1995 “Issues in Restructuring Schools”

http://www2.edtrust.org/ edtrust/dtm/

Dispelling the Myth: High Poverty Schools Exceeding Expectations

http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/ v5n10.html

Cultural Differences and the Construction of Meaning: Implications for the Leadership and Organizational Context of Schools, Robert A. Pena, Arizona State University.

http://www.naec.org/ achieve/2.html

Improving Black Student Achievement. See chapter 2: School-Related Factors and Teacher Behavior that Contribute to Low Self-Image in Students, and worksheet B: Teacher Behaviors That Support a Positive Self-Concept among Minority Students.

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*ACT, Inc. & The Education Trust. (2004). On Course for Success: A Close Look at Selected High School Courses that Prepare All Students for College and Work. http://www.act.org/path/policy/reports/index.html *American Diploma Project. (2004). Ready or Not: Creating a High School Diploma That Counts. Executive Summary. Achieve, Inc. http://www.achieve.org/node/552 *Bamburg, J.D. (1994). Raising Expectations to Improve Student Learning. NCREL Monograph. http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/educatrs/leadrshp/le0bam.htm *Banks, J., Cochran-Smith, M., Moll, L., Richert, A., Zeichner, K., LePage, P., Darling-Hammond, L., Duffy, H., with McDonald, M. (2005). Teaching Diverse Learners. In Darling-Hammond, L., Bransford, J., LePage, P., Hammerness, K., & Duffy, H. (Eds.). Preparing Teachers for A Changing World: What Teachers Should Learn and Be Able to Do. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Carey, K. (2004). The Real Value of Teachers: Using New Information about Teacher Effectiveness to Close the Achievement Gap. Thinking K-16. Washington DC: The Education Trust. Cole, R.W. (Ed.). (1995). Educating Everybody’s Children: Diverse Teaching Strategies for Diverse Learners. What Research and Practice Say About Improving Achievement. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Improving Student Achievement Research Panel. *Conley, D.T. (2005). College Knowledge: What It Really Takes for Students to Succeed and What We Can Do to Get Them Ready. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Cotton, K. (1995). Research You Can Use to Improve Results. Alexandria, VA: ASCD and Portland, OR: NWREL. See Chapter 4, Interactions. *Daniels, H., Bizar, M., & Zemelman, S. (2001). Rethinking High School: Best Practice in Teaching, Learning, and Leadership. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. *Darling-Hammond, L., Bransford, J., LePage, P., Hammerness, K., & Duffy, H. (Eds.). (2005). Preparing Teachers for a Changing World: What Teachers Should Learn and Be Able to Do. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons. DuFour, R., DuFour, R., Eaker, R., & Karhanek, G. (2004). Whatever It Takes: How Professional Learning Communities Respond When Kids Don’t Learn. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service. *Ferguson, R. (1998). Teachers’ Perceptions and Expectations and the Black-White Test Score Gap. In Jencks, C. & Phillips, M. (Eds.). The Black-White Test Score Gap. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute Press. *Good, T.L. & Brophy, J.E. (2000). Looking in Classrooms. (8th Ed.). New York: Longman. Haycock, K., Jerald, C., & Huang, S. (2001, Spring). Closing the Gap: Done in a Decade. Thinking K16. The Education Trust. 5(2). http://www.edtrust.org/main/main/reports.asp *Henderson, A.T., Mapp, K.L., Johnson, V.R., & Davies, D. (2007). Beyond the Bake Sale: The Essential Guide to Family-School Partnerships. New York: The New Press. *Langer, J.A. (2004). Getting to Excellent: How to Create Better Schools. New York: Teachers College Press. *Langer, G.M., Colton, A.B., & Goff, L.S. (2003). Collaborative Analysis of Student Work: Improving Teaching and Learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

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*Lee, V.E. & Burkam, D.T. (2001). Dropping Out of High School: The Role of School Organization and Structure. American Educational Research Journal. 40(2). *McTighe, J., Seif, E., & Wiggins, G. (2004). You Can Teach for Meaning. Educational Leadership. 62(1). Means, B., Chelemer, C., & Knapp, M. S. (1991). Teaching Advanced Skills to At-Risk Students: Views from Research and Practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. National Commission on the High School Senior Year. (2001). Raising Our Sights: No High School Senior Left Behind. Princeton, NJ: The Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation. *Newmann, F.M. & Associates. (1996). Authentic Achievement: Restructuring Schools for Intellectual Quality. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. *Newmann, F.M. & Wehlage, G.G. (1995). Successful School Restructuring: A Report to the Public and Educators by the Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools. Wisconsin Center for Education Research. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Madison. School of Education. Payne, R.K. (1998). A Framework for Understanding Poverty. Baytown, TX: RFT Publishing Co. *Peske, H.G. & Haycock, K. (2006). Teaching Inequality: How Poor and Minority Students are Shortchanged on Teacher Quality. Washington, DC: The Education Trust. Renzulli, J.S. & Reis, S.M. (1985). The Schoolwide Enrichment Model: A Comprehensive Plan for Educational Excellence. Mansfield Center, CT: Creative Learning Press, Inc. *Rosenthal, R. & Jacobsen, L. (1968/1992). Pygmalion in the Classroom: Teacher Expectation and Pupils Intellectual Development. (Expanded Ed.). Norwalk, CT: Crown House Publishing. *Roza, M., Guin, K., & Davis, T. (2007). What is the Sum of the Parts? How Federal, State, and District Funding Streams Confound Efforts to Address Different Student Types. School Finance Redesign Project. Center on Reinventing Public Education. Seattle, WA: University of Washington. Roza, M. (2006). How Districts Shortchange Low-income and Minority Students. Funding Gaps 2006. The Education Trust. *Saphier, J. (2005). Masters of Motivation. In DuFour, R., Eaker, R., & DuFour, R. (Eds.). On Common Ground: The Power of Professional Learning Communities. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service. Shannon, G.S. & Bylsma, P. (2002). Addressing the Achievement Gap: A Challenge for Washington Educators. Olympia, WA: OSPI. *Schmoker, M. (2006). Results Now: How We Can Achieve Unprecedented Improvements in Teaching and Learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. *Wagner, T. (2002). Making the Grade: Reinventing America’s Schools. New York: RoutledgeFalmer. Williams, B. (Ed.). (1996). Closing the Achievement Gap: A Vision for Changing Beliefs and Practices. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. http://www.ascd.org/readingroom/books/williams96book.html *Zemelman, S., Daniels, H., & Hyde, A. (2005). Best Practice: Today’s Standards for Teaching & Learning in America’s Schools. (3rd Ed.). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

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3. Effective school leadership  Effective instructional and administrative leadership is required to implement change processes. Effective leaders are proactive and seek help that is needed. They nurture an instructional program and school culture conducive to learning and professional growth. Effective leaders have different styles and roles -teachers and other staff, including those in the district office, often have a leadership role.

References   (* indicates those cited in the complete Resource) http://www.naesp.org/comm Leading Learning Communities: What Principals Should /prss10-29-01.htm Know and Be Able to Do http://www.mcrel.org/ toolkit/systems

Leadership and Change Process, “Asking the Right Questions.”

http://www.nwrel.org/ scpd/reengineering/ keyissues/leadership.shtml

Leadership and organizational vitality

http://www.wasa-oly.org/

Washington Association of School Administrators

http://www.awsp.org/

Association of Washington School Principals

http://www.aasa.org/

American Association of School Administrators

http://www.naesp.org/

National Association of Elementary School Principals

http://www.nassp.org/

National Association of Secondary School Principals

http://www.nhsa.net/

National High School Association

http://www.nmsa.org/

National Middle School Association

http://www.pdkintl.org/

Phi Delta Kappa International

http://www.nea.org/

National Education Association

http://www.aft.org/

American Federation of Teachers

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*Barth, R.S. (1990). Improving Schools from Within: Teachers, Parents, and Principals Can Make the Difference. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Blankstein, A.M. (2004). Failure is Not an Option: Six Principles that Guide Student Achievement in High-Performing Schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press and HOPE Foundation. *Blase, J. & Kirby, P.C. (2000). Bringing Out the Best in Teachers: What Effective Principals Do. (2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press Inc. Bolman, L.G. & Deal, T.E. (1995). Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey of Spirit. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. *Bryk, A.S. & Schneider, B. (2002). Trust in Schools: A Core Resource for Improvement. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. *Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper Row Publishers. Center for Educational Effectiveness, Inc. (2001-2006). Educational Effectiveness Survey. A Formative View of the Nine Characteristics of High-performing Schools with supplemental views of Organizational Trust, Cultural Responsiveness, and District Support for Improving Schools. http://www.effectiveness.org/samples.htm or http://www.effectiveness.org *Collins, J. (2001). Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap... and Others Don’t. New York: HarperBusiness. Conley, D.T. & Goldman, P. (1994). Facilitative Leadership: How Principals Lead without Dominating. Oregon School Study Council. 37(9). Copland, M.A. & Knapp, M.S. (2006). Connecting Leadership with Learning: A Framework for Reflection, Planning, and Action. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Cunningham, W.G. & Gresso, D.W. (1993). Cultural Leadership: The Culture of Excellence in Education. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. *Elmore, R.F. (2000, Winter). Building a New Structure for School Leadership. The Albert Shanker Institute. Fullan, M. (2001). Leading in a Culture of Change. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. *Fullan, M. (2005). Leadership & Sustainability: System Thinkers in Action. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. *Fullan, M. (2006). Turnaround Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. *Galford, R. & Drapeau, A.S. (2002). The Trusted Leaders: Bringing Out the Best in Your People and Your Company. New York: The Free Press. *Galford, R. & Drapeau, A.S. (2003, February). The Enemies of Trust. Harvard Business Review. *Hargreaves, A. & Fink, D. (2006). Sustainable Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Irvin, J.L. (Ed.). (1997). What Current Research Says to the Middle Level Practitioner. Columbus, OH. National Middle School Association. See section VII, Leadership. Kaplan, L.S. & Owings, W.A. (2001). Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: Recommendations for Principals. National Association of Secondary School Principals Bulletin. 85(628). http://www.nassp.org/news/bltn_tch_qul_stdnt_ach1101.html

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Keefe, J.W., Valentine, J., Clark, D.C., & Irvin, J.L. (1994). Leadership in Middle Level Education: Leadership in Successfully Restructuring Middle Level Schools. Columbus, OH: National Association of Secondary School Principals. *Knapp, M.S., Copland, M.A., Ford, B., Markholt, A., McLaughlin, M.W., Milliken, M., & Talbert, J.E. (2003). Leading for Learning Sourcebook: Concepts and Examples. Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Louis, K.S. & Miles, M.B. (1990). Improving the Urban High School: What Works and Why. New York: Teachers College Press. See Chapter 2, Making Change Happen: Leading and Managing. Marzano, R.J., Waters, T., & McNulty, B.A. (2005). School Leadership that Works: From Research to Results. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. *McLaughlin, M.W. & Talbert, J.E. (2006). Building School-Based Teacher Learning Communities: Professional Strategies to Improve Student Achievement. New York: Teachers College Press. National Association of Secondary School Principals. (1996). Breaking Ranks: Changing an American Institution. Report of NASSP in partnership with the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching on the High School of the 21st Century. Alexandria, VA: NASSP. National Association of Secondary School Principals. (2004). Breaking Ranks II: Strategies for Leading High School Reform. Reston, VA: National Association of Secondary School Principals. Newmann, F.M., Smith, B.A., Allensworth, E., & Bryk, A.S. (2001, January). School Instructional Program Coherence: Benefits and Challenges. Chicago, IL: Consortium on Chicago School Research. Schlechty, P.C. (2001). Shaking Up the School House: How to Support and Sustain Educational Innovation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc. See Part Three, Transformational Leadership. Senge, P., Cambron-McCabe, N., Lucas, T., Smith, B., Dutton, J., & Kleiner, A. (2000). Schools that Learn: A Fifth Discipline Fieldbook for Educators, Parents, and Everyone Who Cares about Education. New York: Currency / Doubleday. See Chapter XII, Leadership. *Sergiovanni, T.J. (1990). Value-Added Leadership: How to Get Extraordinary Performance in Schools. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers. *Spillane, J.P. (2006). Distributed Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. *Tschannen-Moran, M. (2004). Trust Matters: Leadership for Successful Schools. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Wagner, T., Kegan, R., Lahey, L., Lemons, R.W., Garnier, J., Helsing, D., Howell, A., & Rasmussen, H.T. (2006). Change Leadership: A Practical Guide to Transforming Our Schools. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass. *Waters, J.T. & Marzano, R.J. (2006). School District Leadership that Works: The Effect of Superintendent Leadership on Student Achievement. A Working Paper. Denver, CO: McREL.

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4. High levels of collaboration  and communication  There is strong teamwork among teachers across all grades and with other staff. Everybody is involved and connected to each other, including parents and members of the community, to identify problems and work on solutions.

References   (* indicates those cited in the complete Resource) http://www.naesp.org/ comm/prss10-29-01.htm

Leading Learning Communities: What Principals Should Know and Be Able to Do

http://www.sedl.org/ change/issues/ issues61.html

Professional Learning Communities, “Constructing communities of cooperation”

http://www.sedl.org/ change/issues/ issues91/4.html

Addressing the Challenges, What are we learning?

http://www.prrac.org/ additup.pdf

Add It Up: Using Research to Improve Education for LowIncome and Minority Students.

*Barott, J.E. & Raybould, R. (1998). Changing Schools into Collaborative Organizations. In Pounder, D.G. (Ed.). Restructuring Schools for Collaboration: Promises and Pitfalls. New York: State University of New York. *Barth, R.S. (1990). Improving Schools from Within: Teachers, Parents, and Principals Can Make the Difference. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. See Chapter 3, Becoming Colleagues; and Chapter 4, Building a Community of Learners. Bryk, A.S. & Schneider, B. (2002). Trust in Schools: A Core Resource for Improvement. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Conzemius. A. & O’Neill, J. (2001). Building Shared Responsibility for Student Learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. See Chapter 4, Collaboration. *Constantino, S.M. (2005). Engaging All Families: Creating a Positive School Culture by Putting Research into Practice. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Education. DuFour, R. & Eaker, R. (1998). Professional Learning Communities at Work: Best Practices for Enhancing Student Achievement. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service. See Chapter 2, A New Model: The Professional Learning Community.

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*DuFour, R., Eaker, R., & DuFour, R. (Eds). (2005). On Common Ground: The Power of Professional Learning Communities. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service. *Elmore, R.F. (2002). Hard Questions about Practice. Educational Leadership. 59(8). Epstein, J. L., Sanders, M.G., Simon, B.S., Salinas, K.C., Jansorn, N.R., & Van Voorhis, F.L. (2002). School, Family, and Community Partnerships: Your Handbook for Action. (2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. *Evans-Stout, K. (1998). Implications for Collaborative Instructional Practice. In Pounder, D.G. (Ed.). Restructuring Schools for Collaboration: Promises and Pitfalls. New York: State University of New York. Glickman, C.D. (1993). Renewing America’s Schools: A Guide for School-Based Action. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. See Chapter 6, Becoming an Educative Community. *Hall, G.E. & Hord, S.M. (2001). Implementing Change: Patterns, Principles, and Potholes. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Henderson, A.T., Mapp, K.L., Johnson V.R., & Davies, D. (2007). Beyond the Bake Sale: The Essential Guide to Family-School Partnerships. New York: The New Press. Hord, S.M. (1997). Professional Learning Communities: Communities of Continuous Inquiry and Improvement. (Rev. Ed.). Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. Jensen, J.L. (2002). Creating Time for Professional Learning Teams. Implementing Professional Learning Teams Process Guide. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Johnson, B.L. (2000). Organizing for Collaboration: A Reconsideration of Some Basic Organizing Principles. In Pounder, D.G. (Ed.). Restructuring Schools for Collaboration. New York: State University of New York Press. *Knapp, M.S., Copland, M.A., Ford, B., Markholt, A., McLaughlin, M.W., Milliken, M., & Talbert, J.E. (2003). Leading for Learning Sourcebook: Concepts and Examples. Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy. Seattle, WA: University of Washington. *Langer, G.M., Colton, A.B., & Goff, L.S. (2003). Collaborative Analysis of Student Work: Improving Teaching and Learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. *Langer, J.A. (2004). Getting to Excellent: How to Create Better Schools. New York: Teachers College Press. Lieberman, A. (Ed.). (1995). The Work of Restructuring Schools: Building from the Ground Up. New York: Teachers College Press. *Lieberman, A. & Miller, L. (1999). Teachers Transforming Their World and Their Work. New York: Teachers College Press and Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Lawrence-Lightfoot, S. (2003). The Essential Conversation: What Parents and Teachers can Learn from Each Other. New York: Ballantine Books. *McLaughlin, M.W. & Talbert, J.E. (2006). Building School-Based Teacher Learning Communities: Professional Strategies to Improve Student Achievement. New York: Teachers College Press. Merenbloom, E.Y. (1990). The Team Process: A Handbook for Teachers. (3rd Ed.). Columbus, OH: National Middle School Association. Murphy, C. (1997, Summer). Finding Time for Faculties to Study Together. Journal of Staff Development. http://www.nsdc.org/library/publications/jds/murphy202.cfm

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*Newmann, F.M. & Wehlage, G.G. (1995). Successful School Restructuring: A Report to the Public and Eductors by the Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools. School of Education. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Madison. Patterson, K., Grenny, J., McMillan, R., & Switzler, A. (2002). Crucial Conversations: Tools for Talking When Stakes are High. New York: McGraw-Hill. *Rosenholtz, S.J. (1989). Teachers’ Workplace: The Social Organization of Schools. White Plains, NY: Longman, Inc. Schmoker, M. (1999). Results: The Key to Continuous School Improvement. (2nd Ed.). Alexandria, VA. ASCD. See Chapter 1, Teamwork. http://www.ascd.org/readingroom/books/schmoker99book.html *Schmoker, M. (2005). Forward. Here and Now: Improving Teaching and Learning. In DuFour, R., Eaker, R., & DuFour, R. (Eds.). On Common Ground: The Power of Professional Learning Communities. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service. *Schmoker, M. (2006). Results Now: How We Can Achieve Unprecedented Improvements in Teaching and Learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Singleton, G.E. & Linton, C. (2005). Courageous Conversations about Race: A Field Guide for Achieving Equity in Schools. Newbury Park, CA: Corwin Press. Stigler, J.W. & Hiebert, J. (1999). The Teaching Gap: Best Ideas from the World’s Teachers for Improving Education in the Classroom. New York: The Free Press. *Wagner, T. (2002). Making the Grade: Reinventing America’s Schools. New York: RoutledgeFalmer.

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5. Curriculum, instruction and assessments  aligned with state standards  The planned and actual curricula are aligned with the essential academic learning requirements (EALRs). Research-based teaching strategies and materials are used. Staff understands the role of classroom and state assessments, what the assessments measure, and how student work is evaluated.

References   (* indicates those cited in the complete Resource) http://www.k12.wa.us/

Washington State Guidance for Selection of Instructional Materials to meet District and State Standards

http://www.nwrel.org/ scpd/sirs

Research you can use.

http://www.bercgroup.com/

Baker, D. (2005). BERC STAR Search.

http://www.mcrel.org/ products/diversity/

A report from McREL’s diversity roundtable. Including at-risk students in standards-based reform.

http://www.wested.org/ http://www.wested.org/cs/ we/print/docs/we/home.htm http://www.goodschools. gwu.edu

Brief for Practitioners: Turning Around Low Performing Schools --Implications at the School, District, and State Levels.

http://www.wcer.wisc.edu/ archive/cors/Issues_in_ Restructuring_Schools/ISSUES_ NO_8_SPRING_1995.pdf

Authentic Pedagogy: Standards that Boost Student Performance

http://www.wcer.wisc.edu/ archive/cors/Issues_in_ Restructuring_Schools/ ISSUES_NO_9_FALL_1995.pdf

Another look at high school restructuring

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http://www.cresst96.cse.ucla. edu/index.htm http://www.cse.ucla.edu/ products/newsletters/ polbrf4web.pdf

Newsletters. Policy Brief 4: Assessment and accommodation for English language learners

http://www.nap.edu/ openbook/0309069955/html/

Adding It Up: Helping Children Learn Mathematics (2001)

http://www.ascd.org/

Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development

http://www.aera.net/

American Educational Research Association

http://www.ncss.org/

National Council of Social Studies

http://www.ncte.org/

National Council of Teachers of English

http://www.reading.org/

International Reading Association

http://www.nctm.org/

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

http://www.nsta.org/

National Science Teachers Association

http://www.tesol.org/

Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages

http://www.naeyc.org/

National Association of Education of Young Children

http://www.cec.sped.org/

Council for Exceptional Children

Abbott, M.L. & Fouts, J.T. (2003). Constructivist Teaching and Student Achievement: The Results of a School-level Classroom Observation Study in Washington. Lynnwood, WA: Washington School Research Center. http://www.spu.edu/wsrc *Ainsworth, L. (2003a). Power Standards: Identifying the Standards that Matter the Most. Englewood, CO: Advanced Learning Press. *Ainsworth, L. (2003b). “Unwrapping” the Standards: A Simple Process to Make Standards Manageable. Englewood, CO: Advanced Learning Press. *Banks, J., Cochran-Smith, M., Moll, L., Richert, A., Zeichner, K., LePage, P., Darling-Hammond, L., Duffy, H., with McDonald, M. (2005). Teaching Diverse Learners. In Darling-Hammond, L., Bransford, J., LePage, P., Hammerness, K., & Duffy, H. (Eds.). Preparing Teachers for A Changing World: What Teachers Should Learn and Be Able to Do. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Berliner, D.C. & Casanova, U. (1993). Putting Research to Work in Your School. New York: Scholastic. (1996). Arlington, Heights, IL: IRI Skylight Training and Publishing, Inc.). *Bransford, J.D., Brown, A.L., & Cocking, R.R. (Eds.). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. Washington DC: National Academy Press. *Brown, J.L. (2004). Making the Most of Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Carr, J.F. & Harris, D.E. (2001). Succeeding with Standards: Linking Curriculum, Assessment, and Action Planning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. *Carey, K. (2004). The Real Value of Teachers: Using New Information about Teacher Effectiveness to Close the Achievement Gap. Thinking K-16. Washington, DC: The Education Trust. *Cohen, S.A. (1987). Instructional Alignment: Searching for a Magic Bullet. Educational Researcher. 16(8). Cohen, D.K., Raudenbush, S.W., & Ball, D.L. (2003). Resources, Instruction, and Research. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis. 25(2). Cotton, K. (1995). Research You Can Use to Improve Results. Alexandria, VA: ASCD and Portland, OR: NWREL. *Council for Exceptional Children. (2005). Universal Design for Learning: A Guide for Teachers and Education Professionals. Arlington, VA: Author and Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall. Daniels, H. & Bizar, M. (1998). Methods that Matter: Six Structures for Best Practice Classrooms. York, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. *Danielson, C. (1996/2007). Enhancing Professional Practice: A Framework for Teaching. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. *Darling-Hammond, L. (2002). Redesigning Schools: What Matters and What Works. School Redesign Network at Stanford University. http://222.schoolredesign.net/srn/binary/schoolsBook.pdf *Darling-Hammond, L., Bransford, J., LePage, P., Hammerness, K., & Duffy, H. (Eds.). (2005). Preparing Teachers for a Changing World: What Teachers Should Learn and Be Able to Do. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: A Review of State Policy Evidence. Education Policy Analysis Archives 8(1). http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v8n1. *Darling-Hammond L. & Youngs, P. (2002). Defining “Highly Qualified Teachers:” What Does “Scientifically-Based Research” Actually Tell Us. Educational Researcher. 31(9). *Demmert, W.G., Jr. (2001). Improving Academic Performance among Native American Students: A Review of the Research Literature. Charleston, WV: ERIC. Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools Appalachian Educational laboratory. http://www.ael.org/snaps/Demmert.pdf DePorter, B., Reardon, M., & Singer-Nourie, S. (1999). Quantum Teaching: Orchestrating Student Success. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Drake, S.M. (1993). Planning Integrated Curriculum. The Call to Adventure. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. *English, F.W. (1992). Deciding What to Teach and Test: Developing, Aligning, and Auditing the Curriculum. Newbury Park, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.

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*English, F.W. & Steffy, B.E. (2001). Deep Curriculum Alignment, Creating a Level Playing Field for All Children on High-Stakes Tests of Educational Accountability. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, Inc. *Fullan, M., Hill, P., & Crevola, C. (2006). Breakthrough. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. *Gay, G. (2000). Culturally Responsive Teaching: Theory, Research, & Practice. New York: Teachers College Press. Columbia University. *Glickman, C. (1993). Renewing America’s Schools: A Guide for School-Based Action. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. *Guskey, T.R. (Ed.). (1996). Introduction. In Communicating Student Learning. 1996 ASCD Yearbook. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. *Guskey, T.R. (Ed.). (1996). Reporting on Student Learning: Lessons from the Past— Prescriptions for the Future. In Communicating Student Learning. 1996 ASCD Yearbook. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Hammerness, K. (2006). Seeing Through Teachers’ Eyes: Professional Ideals and Classroom Practices. New York: Teachers College Press. *Hill, J.D. & Flynn, K.M. (2006). Classroom Instruction that Works with English Language Learners. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Irvin, J.L. (Ed.). (1997). What Current Research Says to the Middle Level Practitioner. Columbus, OH: National Middle School Association. See Section III, Curriculum. *Jacobs, H.H. (1997). Mapping the Big Picture: Integrating Curriculum and Assessment K-12. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. *Langer, J.A. (2004). Getting to Excellent: How to Create Better Schools. New York: Teachers College Press. Lewin, L. & Shoemaker, B. J. (1998). Great Performances: Creating Classroom-Based Assessment Tasks. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Marzano, R.J. (2006). Classroom Assessment and Grading that Work. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Marzano, R.J. & Kendall, J.S. (1998). Implementing Standards-Based Education. Washington DC: National Education Association. *Marzano, R.J., Pickering, D.J., & Pollock, J.E. (2001). Classroom Instruction that Works: ResearchBased Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. *McKinley, J. (2005). Effective Teaching Strategies for High Performing African American Students in an Urban District. Paper presented at American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting in Montreal. McNeil, J. (1995). Curriculum: The Teacher’s Initiative. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill. McTighe, J. & Ferrara, S. (1998). Assessing Learning in the Classroom. Washington DC: National Education Association. *McTighe, J. & Wiggins, G. (1998). Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. *Murphy, P.K. & Alexander, P.A. (2006). Understanding How Students Learn: A Guide for Instructional Leaders. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

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*Newmann, F.M. & Wehlage, G.G. (1995). Successful School Restructuring: A Report to the Public and Educators by the Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Madison. Newmann, F.M. & Associates. (1996). Authentic Achievement: Restructuring Schools for Intellectual Quality. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. *Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. (No date). Key Principles that Support Learning. School Improvement Program, OTE II, unpublished document. *O’Connor, K. (2002). How to Grade for Learning: Linking Grades to Standards. 2nd Ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. *Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. Olympia, WA. ___ Grade Level Expectations; On-Line Grade Level Resources ___ (2005) Washington State K-12 Reading Model Implementation Guide ___ (2006) Response to Intervention (RTI) Manual: Using Response to Intervention (RTI) for Washington’s Students ___ (2007) Washington State Transitional Bilingual Instructional Program Guidelines ___ (2005) Washington State English Language Development Instructional Materials Review ___ English Language Development (ELD) Content Standards ___ (2007) Washington State Guidance for Selection of Instructional Materials To Meet District and State Standards ___ (2006). Washington State Professional Development IN ACTION: Linking Professional Development to Personalizing Student Learning. O’Neil, J. & Willis, S. (Eds.). (1998). Revitalizing the Disciplines. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. *Orkwis, R. (1999). Curriculum Access and Universal Design for Learning. Arlington, VA: Council for Exceptional Children. http://www.cec.sped.org/ *Padron, Y.M., Waxman, H.C., & Rivera, H.H. (2002). Issues in Educating Hispanic Students. In Educating At-Risk Students. 101st Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Part II. Chicago, IL: the University of Chicago Press. Perkins, D. (1992). Smart Schools: Better Thinking and Learning for Every Child. New York: Free Press. Popham, W.J. (1995). Classroom Assessment: What Teachers Need to Know. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. *Rice, J.K. (2003). Teacher Quality: Understanding the Effectiveness of Teacher Attributes. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute. *Rose, D.H. (2001). Universal Design for Learning: Deriving Guiding Principles from Networks that Learn. Journal of Special Education Technology. 16(1). *Schmoker, M. (2006). Results Now: How We Can Achieve Unprecedented Improvements in Teaching and Learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. *Stiggins, R.J. (2005). Student-Involved Assessment FOR Learning. (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Stigler, J.W. & Hiebert, J. (1999). The Teaching Gap: Best Ideas from the World’s Teachers for Improving Education in the Classroom. New York: The Free Press. Stronge, J.H. (2007). Qualities of Effective Teachers. (2nd Ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Tomlinson, C.A. (2001). How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms. (2nd Ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD. *Wayne, A.J. & Youngs, P. (2003). Teacher Characteristics and Student Achievement Gains: A Review. Review of Educational Research. 3(1). Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J. (1998). Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA. ASCD. *Willis, Judy, M.D. (2006). Research-Based Strategies to Ignite Student Learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Wilson, S.M. & Peterson, P.L. (1997, September). Theories of Learning and Teaching: What Do They Mean for Educators? U. S. Department of Education Blue Ribbon Schools Program. Excerpt on http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/re-engineering/keyissues/theories.shtml *Zemelman, S., Daniels, H., & Hyde, A. (2005). Best Practice: Today’s Standards for Teaching and Learning in America’s Schools. (3rd Ed.). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

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6. Frequent monitoring of learning  and teaching  A steady cycle of different assessments identifies students who need help. More support and instructional time are provided, either during the school day or outside normal school hours, to students who need more help. Teaching is adjusted based on frequent monitoring of student progress and needs. Assessment results are used to focus and improve instructional programs.

References   (* indicates those cited in the complete Resource) http://www.mcrel.org/products/ assessment/designing.asp

Designing a Sustainable Standards-Based Assessment System

*Bernhardt, V.L. (1998). Data Analysis for Comprehensive Schoolwide Improvement. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education, Inc. Bernhardt, V.L. (2000). Designing and Using Databases for School Improvement. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education, Inc. Conzemius, A. & O’Neill, J. (2001). Building Shared Responsibility for Student Learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. See Chapter 3, Reflection. Cotton, K. (1995). Research You Can Use to Improve Results. Alexandria, VA: ASCD and Portland, OR: NWREL. See Chapter 7, Assessment. *Darling-Hammond, L. (2002). Redesigning Schools: What Matters and What Works. School Redesign Network at Stanford University. http://222.schoolredesign.net/srn/binary/schoolsBook.pdf *Downey, C.J., Steffy, B.E., English, F.W., Frase, L.E., & Poston, W.K., Jr. (2004). Three- Minute Walk Through. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. DuFour, R. & Eaker, R. (1998). Professional Learning Communities at Work: Best Practices for Enhancing Student Achievement. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service. See Chapter 6, Sustaining the School Improvement Process. *DuFour, R., DuFour, R., Eaker, R., & Karhanek, G. (2004). Whatever It Takes: How Professional Learning Communities Respond When Kids Don’t Learn. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service. *Glickman, C. (1993). Renewing America’s Schools: A Guide for School-Based Action. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. *Good, T. L. & Brophy, J. E. (2000). Looking in Classrooms. (8th Ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman, Inc.

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*Guskey, T.R. (Ed.). (1996). Communicating Student Learning ASCD Year Book 1996. Alexandria, VA: ASCD Hill, B.C., Ruptic, C., & Norwick, L. (1998). Classroom-Based Assessment. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers, Inc. Holcomb, E.L. (2001). Asking the Right Questions: Techniques for Collaboration and School Change. (2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Jenkins, L. (1997). Improving Student Learning: Applying Deming’s Quality Principles in Classrooms. Milwaukee, WI: American Society for Quality. See section II, Improving Learning; section IV, Enthusiasm Maintained; and section V, Decision Making for Improved Student Learning. Langer, G.M., Colton, A.B., & Goff, L.S. (2003). Collaborative Analysis of Student Work: Improving Teaching and Learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Marzano, R.J. (2006). Classroom Assessment and Grading that Work. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. *O’Connor, K. (2002). How to Grade for Learning: Linking Grades to Standards. (2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Sagor, R. (1996). Local Control and Accountability: How to Get It, Keep It, and Improve School Performance. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. See Chapter 9, Bringing Out the Best in Teachers and Programs. *Schmoker, M. (1996). Results: The Key to Continuous School Improvement. (2nd Ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD. http://www.ascd.org/readingroom/books/schmoker99book.html Schmoker, M. (2001). The Results Fieldbook: Practical Strategies from Dramatically Improved Schools. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. http://www.ascd.org/readingroom/books/schmoker01book.html *Stiggins, R.J. (2005). Student-Involved Assessment FOR Learning. (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall. *Wiggins, G. (1986). Honesty and Fairness: Toward Better Grading and Reporting. In Guskey, T. (Ed.). Communicating Student Learning. ASCD Yearbook 1996. Alexandria, VA: ASCD *Zemelman, S., Daniels, H., & Hyde, A. (2005). Best Practice: Today’s Standards for Teaching and Learning in America’s Schools. (3rd Ed.). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

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7. Focused professional development  A strong emphasis is placed on training staff in areas of most need. Feedback from learning and teaching focuses extensive and ongoing professional development. The support is also aligned with the school or district vision and objectives.

References   (* indicates those cited in the complete Resource) http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/ areas/pd0cont.htm

Finding Time For Professional Development; Evaluating Professional Growth And Development

http://www.nsdc.org

National Staff Development Council

http://www.ed.gov/policy/ elsec/leg/esea02/

No Child Left Behind

*http://www.nsdc.org/ educatorindex.htm

Standards For Staff Development (revised 2001)

http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/ areas/rpl_esys/pdlitrev.htm

Results-oriented professional development by Thomas Guskey

http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/ sirs/6/cu12.html

Staff development. Adult Learning and Change by Jocelyn Butler

http://www.teachers.net http://www.ncrel.org/pd/ toolkit/lftb/index.htm

Professional Development. Learning from the Best

Baker, D.B., Olzendam, A.M., Gratama, C.A., & Arington, S.R. (2005). The Powerful Teaching and Learning Project: How Teachers in Washington State Developed the Essential Components of Powerful Learning and Teaching. The BERC Group. http://www.bercgroup.com/document/BERC_PTL_Project_Report_FINALv3.pdf *Brown, C.J., Stroh, H.R., Fouts, J.T., & Baker, D.B. (2005). Learning to Change: School Coaching for Systemic Reform. Prepared for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Mill Creek, WA: Fouts & Associates, L.L.C.

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*Calhoun, E.F. (1994). How to Use Action Research in the Self-Renewing School. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Cunningham, W.G. & Gresso, D.W. (1993). Cultural Leadership: The Culture of Excellence in Education. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. See Chapter 8, Personal and Professional Development; Chapter 9, Employee Empowerment. *Danielson, C. (1996/2007). Enhancing Professional Practice: A Framework for Teaching. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. *Downey, C.J., Steffy, B.E., English, F.W., Frase, L.E., & Poston, W.K., Jr. (2004). Three Minute Walk Through. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. DuFour, R. & Eaker, R. (1998). Professional Learning Communities at Work: Best Practices for Enhancing Student Achievement. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service. See Chapter 12, Staff Development in a Professional Learning Community. DuFour, R., Eaker, R., & DuFour, R. (Eds.). (2005). On Common Ground: The Power of Professional Learning Communities. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service. Fullan, M. (1993). Change Forces: Probing the Depths of Educational Reform. New York: The Falmer Press. See Chapter 7, The Individual and the Learning Society. *Glickman, C.D. (1993). Renewing America’s Schools: A Guide for School-Based Action. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. *Guskey. T.R. (2000). Evaluating Professional Development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Hammerness, K. (2006). Seeing Through Teachers’ Eyes: Professional Ideals and Classroom Practices. New York: Teachers College Press. *Hawley, W.D. & Valli, L. (2000, August) Learner-Centered Professional Development. Research Bulletin # 27, Phi Delta Kappa. Available: http://www.pdkintl.org/research/rbulletins/resbul27.htm *Hawley, W.D. & Valli, L. (1999). The Essentials of Effective Professional Development: A New Consensus. In Darling-Hammond, L. & Sykes, G. (Eds.). Teaching as the Learning Profession: Handbook of Policy and Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Hord, S.M. (1997). Professional Learning Communities: Communities of Continuous Inquiry and Improvement. (Rev. Ed.). Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. Joyce, B. & Showers, B. (2002). Student Achievement through Staff Development. White Plains, New York: Longman, Inc. *Knapp, M.S., Copland, M.A., Ford, B., Markholt, A., McLaughlin, M.W., Milliken, M., & Talbert, J.E. (2003). Leading for Learning Sourcebook: Concepts and Examples. Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy. Seattle, WA: University of Washington. *Langer, G.M., Colton, A.B., & Goff, L.S. (2003). Collaborative Analysis of Student Work: Improving Teaching and Learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Lewis, C. (2002). Lesson Study: A Handbook of Teacher-Led Instructional Change. Philadelphia, PA: RBS Publications. *Lieberman, A. & Miller, L. (2001). Teachers Caught in the Action: Professional Development that Matters. New York: Teachers College Press.

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*Little, J.W. (1990). The Persistence of Privacy: Autonomy and Initiative in Teachers’ Professional Relations. Teachers College Record. 91(4). Lynn, L. (Ed.). (1999, Summer). Powerful Designs: New Approaches Ignite Professional Learning. National Staff Development Journal. 20(3). *McDonald, J.P. (2001). Students’ Work and Teachers’ Learning. In Lieberman, A. & L. Miller (Eds.). Teachers Caught in the Action. Professional Development that Matters. New York: Teachers College Press. *McLaughlin, M.W. & Talbert, J.E. (2006). Building School-Based Teacher Learning Communities: Professional Strategies to Improve Student Achievement. New York: Teachers College Press. *Miller, B., Campbell, J., with Leffler, J., & Hansen, B. (Eds.). (2005). A Field Guide for Change Facilitators Working with Low Performing Schools. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. *Murphy, K.P. & Alexander, P.A. (2006). Understanding How Students Learn: A Guide for Instructional Leaders. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. *National Staff Development Council. NSDC Standards for Staff Development. Available: http://www.nsdc.org/standards/index.cfm Newmann, F.M. & Associates. (1996). Authentic Achievement: Restructuring Schools for Intellectual Quality. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. See Chapter 7, Schoolwide Professional Community. *Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (2006). Washington State Professional Development IN ACTION: Linking Professional Development to Personalizing Student Learning. Olympia, WA. *Sagor, R. (1992). How to Conduct Collaborative Action Research. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. *Schen, M., Rao., S., & Dobles, R. (2005). Coaches in the High School Classroom: Studies in Implementing High School Reform. Prepared for Carnegie Corporation of New York. Schools for a New Society. Providence, RI: Annenberg Institute for School Reform at Brown University. http://www.annenberginstitute.org/images/ SNS_Coaches.pdf Senge, P., Cambron-McCabe, N., Lucas, T., Smith, B., Dutton, J., & Kleiner, A. (2000). Schools that Learn: A Fifth Discipline Fieldbook for Educators, Parents, and Everyone Who Cares About Education. New York: Currency/Doubleday. See Section XI, Development. *Sparks, D. & Hirsh, S. (1997). A New Vision for Staff Development. Alexandria, VA: ASCD and Oxford, CA: National Staff Development Council. Stepanek, J., Appel, G., Leong, M., Mangan, M.T., & Mitchell, M. (2007). Leading Lesson Study: A Practical Guide for Teachers and Facilitators. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. *Stigler, J.W. & Hiebert, J. (1999). The Teaching Gap. New York: The Free Press. Zepeda, S.J. (1999). Staff Development: Practices that Promote Leadership in Learning Communities. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.

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8. Supportive learning environment  The school has a safe, civil, healthy and intellectually stimulating learning environment. Students feel respected and connected with the staff and are engaged in learning. Instruction is personalized and small learning environments increase student contact with teachers.

References  (* indicates those cited in the complete Resource) http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/ reengineering/rycu/index.shtml

Research You Can Use to Improve Results

http://www.goodschools. gwu.edu/

NCCSR Publications. Bookmark. November 2001. Improving School Climate

http://www.learningfirst.org/ pdfs/safe-schools-report.pdf

Every Child Learning: Safe and Supportive Schools

http://www.wested.org/ policy/pubs/full_text/ pb_ft_csr23.htm

Policy Brief 23, Class Size Reduction: Lessons Learned from Experience

http://www.prrac.org/ additup.pdf

Add It Up: Using Research to Improve Education for Low-Income and Minority Students.

http://www.ed.gov/pubs/ ClassSize/practice. html#student

Class Size and Students at Risk – Instructional Practice and Student Behavior

http://staff.washington.edu/ sdrg/

Social Development Research Group, University of Washington, D. Hawkins & R. Catalano

http://www.nwrel.org/ http://www.safetyzone.org/

National Resource Center for Safe Schools; National Mentoring Center

http://smhp.psych. ucla.edu/

School Mental Health Project, H. Adelman & L. Taylor

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http://epaa.asu.edu/ epaa/v9n30.html

Committing to Class-Size Reduction and Finding the Resources to Implement It: A Case Study of Resource Reallocation

Adelman, H. & Taylor, L. (2005). The School Leader’s Guide to Student Learning Supports: New Directions for Addressing Barriers to Learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Adelman, H. & Taylor, L. (2005). The Implementation Guide to Student Learning Supports in the Classroom and Schoolwide: New Directions for Addressing Barriers to Learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Adelman, H. & Taylor, L. (1999). New Directions in Enhancing Educational Results: Policymaker’s Guide to Restructuring Student Support Resources to Address Barriers to Learning. The Center for Mental Health in Schools, Los Angeles, CA: UCLA. *Banks, J., Cochran-Smith, M., Moll, L., Richert, A., Zeichner, K., LePage, P., Darling-Hammond, L., Duffy, H., with McDonald, M. (2005). Teaching Diverse Learners. In Darling-Hammond, L., Bransford, J., with LePage, P., Hammerness, K., & Duffy, H. (Eds.). Preparing Teachers for a Changing World: What Teachers Should Learn and Be Able to Do. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. *Barth, R.S. (2005). Turning Book Burners into Lifelong Learners. In DuFour, R., Eaker, R., & DuFour, R. (Eds.). On Common Ground: The Power of Professional Learning Communities. Bloomington, IN: National Education Service. *Benard, B. (1996). Fostering Resiliency in Urban Schools. In Williams, B. (Ed.). Closing the Achievement Gap: A Vision for Changing Beliefs and Practices. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Bowen, E.R. (n.d.). Student Engagement and Its Relation to Quality Work Design: A Review of the Literature. Retrieved 4/16/07 from http://chiron.valdosta.edu/are/ebowenLitReview.pdf. Brandon, R. (2000). Impact of Peer Substance Use on Middle School Performance in Washington. Washington Kids Count, Human Services Policy Center, Evans School of Public Affairs, Seattle, WA: University of Washington. *Brophy, J. (1998). Motivating Students to Learn. New York: McGraw Hill. Cotton, K. (1995). Research You Can Use to Improve Results. Alexandria, VA: ASCD and Portland, OR: NWREL. See Chapter 2, Management and Organization. *Cotton, K. (2000). The Schooling Practices that Matter Most. Portland, OR: NWREL and Alexandria, VA: ASCD. *DePorter, B., Reardon, M., & Singer-Nourie, S. (1999). Quantum Teaching: Orchestrating Student Success. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. See Chapter 4, Orchestrating a Supportive Environment; Chapter 9, Orchestrating Life Skills. Dryfoos, J.G. (1998). Full-Service Schools: A Revolution in Health and Social Services for Children, Youth, and Families. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass Education Series. Dryfoos, J.G. (1998). Safe Passage: Making It Through Adolescence in a Risky Society. New York: Oxford University Press.

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*DuFour, R., DuFour, R., Eaker, R., & Karhanek, G. (2004). Whatever It Takes: How Professional Learning Communities Respond When Kids Don’t Learn. Bloomington, IN: National Education Service. *DuFour, R., Eaker, R., & DuFour, R. (Eds.). (2005). On Common Ground: The Power of Professional Learning Communities. Bloomington, IN: National Education Service. *Edmonds, R. (1979). Effective Schools for the Urban Poor. Educational Leadership. October. Elias, M. J., Zins, J.E., Weissberg, R.P., Frey, K.S., Greenberg, M.T., Haynes, N.M., Kessler, R., Schwab-Stone, M.E., & Shriver, T.P. (1997). Promoting Social and Emotional Learning: Guidelines for Educators. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Freiberg, J. (Ed.). (1999). School Climate: Measuring, Improving and Sustaining Healthy Learning Environments. New York: The Falmer Press. *Gay, G. (2000). Culturally Responsive Teaching: Theory, Research, and Practice. New York: Teachers College Press. Hawkins, J.D. (1999). Preventing Crime and Violence through Communities that Care. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research. 7. 443-458. Hawkins, J.D., Catalano, R. F., Kosterman, R., Abbott, R., & Hill, D. G. (1999). Preventing Adolescent Health-Risk Behaviors by Strengthening Protection during Childhood. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 153(3). Irvin, J. L. (Ed.). (1997). What Current Research Says to the Middle Level Practitioner. Columbus, OH: National Middle School Association. Section II, Teaching/Learning. Johnson, D.W. & Johnson, R.T. (1995). Reducing School Violence through Conflict Resolution. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Kohn, A. (1996). Beyond Discipline: From Compliance to Community. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Kushman, J. (Ed.). (1997). Look Who’s Talking Now: Student Views of Learning in Restructuring Schools. Portland. OR: Regional Educational Laboratory Network by the Restructuring Collaborative. *LePage, P., Darling-Hammond, L., Akar, H., with Gutierrez, C., Jenkins-Gunn, E., & Rosebrock, K. (2005). Classroom Management. In Darling-Hammond, L., Bransford, J., with LePage, P., Hammerness, K., & Duffy, H. (Eds.). Preparing Teachers for a Changing World: What Teachers Should Learn and Be Able to Do. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Marzano, R.J. with Marzano, J.S., & Pickering, D.J. (2003). Classroom Management that Works: Research-Based Strategies for Every Teacher. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Meier, D. (2002). In Schools We Trust: Creating Communities of Learning in an Era of Testing and Standardization. Boston: Beacon Press. National Association of Secondary School Principals. (1996). Breaking Ranks: Changing an American Institution. Report of NASSP in partnership with the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching on the high school of the 21st century. Alexandria, VA: NASSP. See Chapter Three. School Environment. Creating a Climate Conducive to Teaching and Learning. National Association of Secondary School Principals. (2004). Breaking Ranks II: Strategies for Leading High School Reform. Reston, VA: NAASP.

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National Research Council Institute of Medicine. (2004). Engaging Schools: Fostering High School Students’ Motivation to Learn. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Newmann, F. M. (Ed.). (1992). Student Engagement and Achievement in American Secondary Schools. New York: Teachers College Press. Payne, R.K. (1998). A Framework for Understanding Poverty. Baytown, TX: RFT Publishing Co. Payton, J. (Project Director). (2002, August). Safe and Sound: An Educational Leader’s Guide to Evidence-Based Social and Emotional Learning Programs. Chicago, Il: The Collaborative for Academic Social and Emotional Learning. *Ridnouer, K. (2006). Managing Your Classroom with Heart: A Guide for Nurturing Adolescent Learners. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. *Saphier, J. (2005). Masters of Motivation. In DuFour, R., Eaker, R., & DuFour, R. (Eds.). On Common Ground: The Power of Professional Learning Communities. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service. Shannon, G.S. & Bylsma, P. (2006). Helping Students Finish High School: Why Students Drop Out and How to Help them Graduate. Olympia, WA: OSPI. Shannon, G.S. & Bylsma, P. (2002). Addressing the Achievement Gap: A Challenge for Washington Educators. Olympia, WA: OSPI. Singleton, G.E. & Linton, C. (2005). Courageous Conversations about Race. A Field Guide for Achieving Equity in Schools. Newbury Park, CA: Corwin Press. Sowers, J. (2004). Creating a Community of Learners: Solving the Puzzle of Classroom Management. Creating Communities of Learning & Excellence. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Education Laboratory Starkman, N., Scales, P.C., & Roberts, C. (2006). Great Places to Learn: Creating Asset-Building Schools that Help Students Succeed. (2nd Ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Search Institute. http://www.search-institute.org/ Stockard, J. & Mayberry, M. (1992). Effective Educational Environments. Newbury Park, CA: Corwin Press, Inc. See Chapter 2, School and Classroom Climates; Chapter 3, School Resources and School and Classroom Size. *Waxman, H. C., Gray, J. P., & Padron, Y. N. (2002). Resiliency among Students at Risk of Academic Failure. In Stringfield, S. & Land, D. (Eds.). Educating At-Risk Students. National Society for the Study of Education Yearbook. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. *Wong, H.K. & Wong, R.T. (1998). The First Days of School: How to be an Effective Teacher. Mountain View, CA: Harry K. Wong Publications, Inc.

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9. High level of family and community  involvement  There is a sense that all have a responsibility to educate students, not just teachers and staff in schools. Families, as well as businesses, social service agencies, and community colleges/universities, all play a vital role in this effort.

References   (* indicates those cited in the complete Resource) http://www.k12.wa.us/cisl/

Center for Improvement of Student Learning

www.waparentlearn.org

Office of the Education Ombudsman, Office of the Governor

http://www. centerforparentleadership.org

Center for Parent Leadership at the Pritchard Committee

http://www.cipl.org

Institute for Parent Leadership

http://www.cppsofseattle. org/

Community & Parents for Public Schools of Seattle

http://www.gse.harvard.edu/ hfrp/projects/fine.html

The Family Involvement Network of Educators (FINE) Harvard Family Research Project

http://www. publiceducation.org

Public Education Network (PEN)

http://www.wssda.org/

Washington State School Directors Association

http://www.pta.org/

National Parent Teacher Organization

http://www.partnership 4learning.org

Partnership for Learning

http://www.pta.org/ parentinvolvement/ standards/index.asp

National Standards for Parent/Family Involvement Programs

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http://www.wastatepta.org/ resources/Family_involvement_ guide.PDF

Family Involvement Guide

http://www.ncrel.org/sdr/ areaspa0cont.htm

Family & Community Pathways

http://www.csos.jhu.edu/ p2000

Family, school, and community involvement.

http://www.edletter.org/ past/index.html

Harvard Education Letter, past issues. Of note: September/October 1997.

http://www.ed.gov/ pubs/Reform/

School based reform. Role of parents and community in school reform

http://www.ed.gov/pubs/ SER/ParentComm/index.html

Studies in Education Reform: Parent and Community Involvement in Education

http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/ reengineering/keyissues/ schoolfamily.shtml

Students at the Center. School, Family, and Community Partnerships

http://www.prrac.org/ pubs_aiu.php

Add It Up: Using Research to Improve Education for LowIncome and Minority Students

Baker, E., Herman, J., & Bain, J. What Makes a Good School? A Guide for Parents Seeking Excellence in Education. (n.d.). The Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards & Student Testing, Los Angeles, CA: UCLA. http://cresst96.cse.ucla.edu/products/reports_set.htm *Constantino, S.M. (2003). Engaging All Families: Creating a Positive School Culture by Putting Research into Practice. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Education. Cotton, K. (1995). Research You Can Use to Improve Results. Alexandria, VA: ASCD and Portland, OR: NWREL. See Chapter 8, Parent and Community Involvement. *Cotton, K. (2000). Schooling Practices that Matter Most. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. *Darling-Hammond, L. (1997). The Right to Learn: A Blueprint for Creating Schools that Work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc. Dietel, R. (2001, March). How is My Child Doing in School? Ten Research-Based Ways to Find Out. Our Children Magazine. National Parent Teacher Association. http://cresst96.cse.ucla.edu/products/reports_set.htm DuFour, R. & Eaker, R. (1998). Professional Learning Communities at Work: Best Practices for Enhancing Student Achievement. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service. See Chapter 11, The Role of Parents in a Professional Learning Community.

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Epstein, J.L. (2001). School, Family, and Community Partnerships: Preparing Educators and Improving Schools. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. *Epstein, J. L., Sanders, M.G., Simon, B.S., Salinas, K.C., Jansorn, N.R., & Van Voorhis, F.L. (2002). School, Family, and Community Partnerships: Your Handbook for Action. (2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. http://www.csos.jhu.edu/p2000/publications/manual.htm *George, P.S., McEwin, C.K., & Jenkins, J.M. (2000). The Exemplary High School. New York: Harcourt College Publishers. *Henderson, A.T. & Berla, N. (Ed.). (1994). The Family is Critical to Student Achievement: A New Generation of Evidence. (4th printing 1997) Washington DC: Center for Law and Education. *Henderson. A.T. & Mapp, K.L. (2002). A New Wave of Evidence: The Impact of School, Family, and Community Connections on Student Achievement. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. Henderson, A.T., Mapp, K.L., Johnson V.R., & Davies, D. (2007). Beyond the Bake Sale: The Essential Guide to Family-School Partnerships. New York: The New Press. *Knapp, M.S., Copland, M.A., Ford, B., Markholt, A., McLaughlin, M.W., Milliken, M., & Talbert, J.E. (2003). Leading for Learning Sourcebook: Concepts and Examples. Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy. Seattle, WA: University of Washington. *Langer, J.A. (2004). Getting to Excellent: How to Create Better Schools. New York: Teachers College Press. *Lewis, A.C. & Henderson, A.T. (1998). Urgent Message: Families Crucial to School Reform. Washington, DC: Center for Law and Education. Morrow, L.M. (Ed.). (1995). Family Literacy: Connections in Schools and Communities. Newark, DE: International Reading Association, Inc. Payne, R.K., DeVo, P., & Smith, T.D. (2001). Bridges Out of Poverty: Strategies for Professionals and Communities. Highlands, TX: aha! Process, Inc. Shockley, B., Michalore, B., & Allen, J.B. (1995). Engaging Families: Connecting Home and School Literacy Communities. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Stiggins, R. & Knight, T. (1997). But Are They Learning: A Commonsense Parents’ Guide to Assessment and Grading in Schools. Portland, OR: Assessment Training Institute. *Washington State PTA. Family Involvement Guide. http://www.wastatepta.org/ resources/parentresources.htm

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Appendix A: Bibliography and analysis matrix  Twenty-five national and Washington state research studies comprise the research base for the nine characteristics of high-performing schools. OSPI researchers reviewed and analyzed the studies to confirm the rigor of the nine characteristics. The appendix lists the bibliography of these studies. (A matrix that reflects the analysis follows in the complete Resource document.)

National Research Reports  Comprehensive School Reform: Five Lessons from the Field. Education Commission of the States, 1999. Dispelling the Myth: High Poverty Schools Exceeding Expectations, Education Trust, 1999. Educational Reform and Students at Risk, Vol. I-III, Robert Rossi and Samuel Stringfield, U.S. Department of Education, 1995. Hawthorne Elementary School: The University Perspective, Bruce Frazee (Trinity University, Texas), Journal of Education for Students Placed At Risk, 1(1), 25-31, 1996. Hope for Urban Education: A Study of Nine High-Performing, High-Poverty, Urban Elementary Schools, Charles A. Dana Center, University of Texas (Austin), U.S. Department of Education, 1999. Key High School Reform Strategies: An Overview of Research Findings, Mary Visher, David Emanuel, Peter Teitelbaum (MPR Associates), U.S. Department of Education, 1999. Leave No Child Behind: An Examination of Chicago’s Most Improved Schools and the Leadership Strategies Behind Them, Karen Carlson, Shobha Shagle-Shah, and Delia Ramiriz, Chicago Schools Academic Accountability Council, 1999. Organizational Characteristics of Schools that Successfully Serve Low-Income Urban African American Students. B. Cole-Henderson. Journal of Educational Students Placed at Risk, 5(1 & 2), 77-91. Profiles of Successful Schoolwide Programs, Volume 2: Implementing Schoolwide Programs, U.S. Department of Education, 1998 (http://www.ed.gov/pubs/idea_profiles/). Promising Practices Study of High-Performing Schools. Jerry Junkins Promising Practices Institute. Just for the Kids, July 2000. Promising Programs for Elementary and Middle Schools: Evidence of Effectiveness and Replicability, Olatokunbo Fashola and Robert Slavin (Johns Hopkins University), Journal of Education for Students Placed At Risk, 2(3), 251-307, 1997. Schooling Practices That Matter Most, Kathleen Cotton, Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, and Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2000. Schools that Make a Difference: Final Report. Twelve Canadian Secondary Schools in LowIncome Settings. N. Henchey, with M. Dunnigan, A. Gardner, C. Lessard, N. Muhtadi, H. Rahma, and C. Violato. Society for the Advancement of Excellence in Education, November 2001.

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Stories of Mixed Success: Program Improvement Implementation in Chapter 1 Schools, Catherine George, James Grisson, and Anne Just (California Department of Education), Journal of Education for Students Placed At Risk, 1(1), 77-93, 1996. Successful School Restructuring. A Report to the Public and Educators by the Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools, F. M. Newmann and G. G. Wehlage. University of Wisconsin, 1995. Toward an Understanding of Unusually Successful Programs for Economically Disadvantaged Students, Lorin Anderson and Leonard Pellicer, Journal of Education for Students Placed At Risk, 3(3), 237-263, 1998. Turning Around Low-Performing Schools: A Guide for State and Local Leaders, U.S. Department of Education, 1998.

Washington State Research Reports  Bridging the Opportunity Gap. How Washington Elementary Schools are Meeting Achievement Standards, J. T. Fouts, M. L. Abbott, and Baker, D.B. Washington School Research Center, May 2002. Making Standards Meaningful: High School Reform Efforts in Washington State, Sara Taggart and Mary Beth Celio, Center on Reinventing Public Education (University of Washington), October 2001. (A summary of this publication is published by the Partnership For Learning.) Making Standards Stick: A Follow-Up Look at Washington State’s School Improvement Efforts in 1999–2000, Robin Lake, Maria McCarthy, Sara Taggart, and Mary Beth Celio, Center on Reinventing Public Education (University of Washington), April 2000. (A summary of this publication is published by the Partnership For Learning.) Making Standards Work: Active Voices, Focused Learning, Robin Lake, Paul Hill, Lauren O’Toole, and Mary Beth Celio, Center on Reinventing Public Education (University of Washington), February 1999. (A separate publication with the same name is published by the Partnership For Learning.) Organizing for Success (Updated): Improving Mathematics Performance in Washington State, Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 2000. (This updated edition includes results from the original Organizing for Success published in July 1999.) Reality of Reform: Factors Limiting the Reform of Washington’s Elementary Schools, Jeffrey Fouts and Carol Stuen, Seattle Pacific Univ., Mary Alice Anderson, Yelm School District, and Timothy Parnell, Lake Washington School District, May 2000. School Restructuring and Student Achievement in Washington State: Research Findings on the Effects of House Bill 1209 and School Restructuring on Western Washington Schools, Jeffrey Fouts, Seattle Pacific University, January 1999. Washington State Elementary Schools on the Slow Track Under Standards-Based Reform, Maria McCarthy and Mary Beth Celio, Center on Reinventing Public Education (University of Washington), October 2001. (A summary of this publication is published by the Partnership for Learning.)

Nine Characteristics Resource List 

 

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Nine Characteristics of High-Performing Schools - OSPI

Nine Characteristics  of High‐Performing Schools  Second Edition ‐‐ Resource List  Becoming a high-performing school takes many years of hard work. Th...

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