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Wednesday, August 30, 2006


Anthrax What causes anthrax? Anthrax is caused by the organism Bacillus anthracis. In some parts of the world, this can be found in cattle or other hoofed mammals. It is infrequent in western Europe and the US, and is more likely to be found in animals in south and central America, south and east Europe, Asia and Africa. This bacteria can form spores which can either be eaten in contaminated meat, breathed in, or simply infect the skin directly through human to animal contact. Those at highest risk in the UK are those who directly handle dead animals, such as abattoir workers and tanners. An infected patient cannot pass on the disease to other people.

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What are the symptoms? What makes anthrax dangerous is that the symptoms are often difficult to distinguish from other, less serious infections. There are three types of anthrax, depending on where the infectious spore has arrived on the patient. The first, cutaneous anthrax, is the least serious of the three, and produces a skin lesion, which is rarely painful. However, if left untreated, the infection can spread and cause blood poisoning, which is fatal in one in 20 cases. The second type is intestinal anthrax, caused by the consumption of contaminated meat. This produces severe food-poisoning type symptoms, leading to fever and blood poisoning. It is frequently fatal. The third is respiratory anthrax, which happens when spores are breathed in by the patient and lodge in the lung. Symptoms of this disease start out as similar to simple flu, but respiratory symptoms rapidly worsen and the patient usually goes into some kind of shock between two and six days later. Again, this is frequently fatal. Symptoms of anthrax normally develop within two days of exposure. Can anthrax be treated? Giving antibiotics to anthrax patients can cure the disease, particularly the cutaneous variety. However, unless they are given swiftly after intestinal or respiratory infection, the chances of cure are greatly reduced. There is a vaccine against anthrax, but this is not recommended except for those at high risk, such as meat industry workers and laboratory scientists handling the disease. posted by Den Mase at 10:23 AM | 0 comments

SARS What is Sars? Sars stands for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. It is a new illness that emerged in the Far East early in 2003, first in southern China, then spreading to Hong Kong, Vietnam, Singapore, Canada and more than 20 other countries. It is believed to be caused by a new strain of Corona virus - a family of viruses which has been linked to the common cold. By the middle of April, it had killed more than 150 people worldwide and infected more than 3,000 more. What are the symptoms, and how is it treated? The most obvious symptoms of Sars are breathing problems. Patients develop a high temperature (more than 38 degrees), dry cough, and severe respiratory symptoms follow swiftly. Some patients need to be put on a ventilator to keep them breathing while their bodies fight the infection. Four in every hundred people who develop Sars do not survive. Most of those who have died have been older, or had pre-existing health problems which increased their vulnerability - but some younger, healthy people have died. Patients suspected of having Sars are given a combination of antibiotics and antiviral drugs, which have produced an improvement in some patients, although their precise effectiveness is uncertain. There is no vaccine for the virus that causes Sars, although a diagnostic test has been developed. How can I catch it? The virus appears to be transmitted less easily than conventional influenza although the resulting illness can become more severe. It appears to be passed on by "close contact" with an infected person, perhaps carried in large droplets thrown out when the infected person sneezes or coughs. There has been concern about transmission within passenger aircraft. The latest advice suggests that those at risk of infection would need to be seated within a couple of rows of the infected person, with no evidence of risk to people sitting elsewhere on the plane. People in the Far East have attempted to protect themselves by wearing face masks - it is uncertain how much genuine protection these offer against the virus. Should I avoid any particular areas? The areas worst hit by Sars are Hong Kong, and the Guangdong province of southern China. In late March 2003, the World Health Organization advised people to restrict non-essential travel to Hong Kong or Guangdong. The UK government agreed with this advice. This was only intended to be temporary advice until outbreaks in these locations were under control. Travellers should check the websites of the World Health Organization and, in the UK, either the Health Protection Agency or Foreign and Commonwealth Office for the latest advice. All travellers to areas heavily affected by Sars should be aware of this and take account of the problem in their travel plans. Some countries have been screening passengers arriving from Sars-hit areas for early signs of the illness. posted by Den Mase at 10:14 AM | 0 comments

HIV drug can stop cervical cancer A commonly used HIV drug could be used to prevent cervical cancer, UK researchers believe. Early lab tests show the antiviral drug lopinavir attacks the virus that causes cervical cancer - HPV - as well as HIV. The University of Manchester team envisage that the oral drug could be made into a simple cream or pessary to apply to the cervix. This would mean thousands of women could avoid surgery to remove early cancers, they told Antiviral Therapy. Cervical cancer vaccines are already being developed, but these will only be effective in people who have not already caught the HPV virus. Women who already have the virus currently have to have regular checks for cancer. If there are very early warning signs of a possible tumour, doctors advise a 'watch and wait' policy because many of these abnormalities disappear on their own. However, some progress to become cancerous and have to be cut out. Each year in the UK alone about 50,000 women have early cervical cancers removed, say the researchers. In the laboratory study, small doses of the liquid protease inhibitor selectively killed HPV-infected cervical cancer cells. Dr Ian Hampson and his team are hopeful that the HIV drug will do the same in real life and plan to carry out clinical trials in women soon. The test treatment will be a cream or a pessary because the doses that reach the cervix after passing through the body when lopinavir is taken orally would not be strong enough. Fast-track However, the actual concentration needed in the lab was a millionth of that used orally to treat HIV. And because the drug has already been approved and checked for treating HIV, the researchers believe it could be available as a treatment for HPV in a few years. Dr Hampson's team tested the drug against the most common cancercausing strain of human papilloma virus, HPV 16. They are confident that it will also work against other HPV strains that cause cervical cancer. Dr Hampson explained: "The drug works as a selective proteosome inhibitor. It allows cellular proteins that are detrimental to the virus to persist." Normally, HPV would remove these from the cell so it could flourish, he said. "At the moment, we can't really offer anything to women with HPV and lowgrade cervical disease. "We are talking about 200,000 women in the UK alone. This treatment, if it works, could provide an alternative," he said. Future hope Michael Carter, of the HIV organisation Aidsmap, said: "This latest finding is extremely welcome. Many HIV-positive individuals are infected with high-risk strains of HPV. Anal and cervical cancer caused by HPV is a real concern for people with HIV." He said other research suggested certain anti-HIV drugs could be used to treat hepatitis B. HIV makes people susceptible to HPV-related cancers and many other diseases because it attacks the body's immune system. A spokesman from the HIV charity Avert said: "Cervical cancer kills 250,000 people each year, and most of these deaths occur in developing countries where there is little access to surgery. "The prospect of a simple, non-surgical treatment for HPV is very exciting. However, we'll have to wait for the results of human trials." Dr Laura-Jane Armstrong of Cancer Research UK said: "This is an interesting study but the research has only been done on cells in the laboratory and we don't yet know if it will work in humans. "Currently, the best thing women can do to prevent cervical cancer developing is to go for regular cervical smear tests when invited." posted by Den Mase at 10:11 AM | 0 comments

Dengue fever How would I get dengue fever? Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne infection, which annually affects about 20 million people. It is also nicknamed "break bone fever". About 24,000 people worldwide die from dengue each year. It is now endemic in more than 100 countries in Africa, Southern America, the Eastern Mediterranean, South-east Asia and the Western Pacific. What are the symptoms? Dengue fever has symptoms which can be very similar initially to flu. Most people who get it will suffer from headaches and fever. Some get rashes, aches and pains and their symptoms usually last for two or three days. An infected person can feel tired for up to three months, but will not usually need treatment. Could I die? It particularly affects young children and adults, but is rarely fatal. But there is one form of the disease, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) that can be a fatal complication. DHF is often characterised by a high fever, a bleeding and often enlarged liver and in the most severe cases circulatory fever. How can I avoid it? Unlike most mosquitoes, the Ades species, which transmits Dengue fever bites during the day. Travellers in infected areas should protect themselves during the day by wearing long-sleeved shirts and trousers. Travellers should also use insect repellents and mosquito coils. There is currently no vaccine for the disease. What do I do if I get it? Travellers who get dengue fever are advised to get plenty of rest and to seek medical help if their condition worsens. But people who have got the disease once should find that they are unlikely to get reinfected within the year. posted by Den Mase at 10:09 AM | 0 comments

Tuesday, August 29, 2006

Food as Medicine Food as Medicine If you have something problem about your health, please try this food at home... HEADACHE? EAT FISH! Eat plenty of fish -- fish oil helps prevent headaches. So does ginger, which reduces inflammation and pain. HAY FEVER? EAT YOGURT! Eat lots of yogurt before pollen season. Also-eat honey from your area (local region) daily.

TO PREVENT STROKE DRINK TEA! Prevent buildup of fatty deposits on artery walls with regular doses of tea. (actually, tea suppresses my appetite and keeps the pounds from invading....Green tea is great for our immune system)!

INSOMNIA (CAN'T SLEEP?) HONEY! Use honey as a tranquilizer and sedative. ASTHMA? EAT ONIONS!!!! Eating onions helps ease constriction of bronchial tubes. (when I was young, my mother would make onion packs to place on our chest, helped the respiratory ailments and actually made us breathe better). ARTHRITIS? EAT FISH, TOO!! Salmon, tuna, mackerel and sardines actually prevent arthritis. (fish has omega oils, good for our immune system)

UPSET STOMACH? BANANAS - GINGER!!!!! Bananas will settle an upset stomach. Ginger will cure morning sickness and nausea. BLADDER INFECTION? DRINK CRANBERRY JUICE!!!! High-acid cranberry juice controls harmful bacteria. BONE PROBLEMS? EAT PINEAPPLE!!! Bone fractures and osteoporosis can be prevented by the manganese in pineapple. PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME? EAT CORNFLAKES!!!! Women can ward off the effects of PMS with cornflakes, which help reduce depression, anxiety and fatigue. MEMORY PROBLEMS? EAT OYSTERS! Oysters help improve your mental functioning by supplying much-needed zinc. COLDS? EAT GARLIC! Clear up that stuffy head with garlic. (remember, garlic lowers cholesterol, too.) COUGHING? USE RED PEPPERS!! A substance similar to that found in the cough syrups is found in hot red pepper. Use red (cayenne) pepper with caution-it can irritate your tummy. BREAST CANCER? EAT Wheat, bran and cabbage Helps to maintain estrogen at healthy levels. LUNG CANCER? EAT DARK GREEN AND ORANGE AND VEGGIES!!! A good antidote is beta carotene, a form of Vitamin A found in dark green and orange vegetables. ULCERS? EAT CABBAGE ALSO!!! Cabbage contains chemicals that help heal both gastric and duodenal ulcers.

DIARRHEA? EAT APPLES! Grate an apple with its skin, let it turn brown and eat it to cure this condition. (Bananas are good for this ailment) CLOGGED ARTERIES? EAT AVOCADO! Mono unsaturated fat in avocados lowers cholesterol. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE? EAT CELERY AND OLIVE OIL!!! Olive oil has been shown to lower blood pressure. Celery contains a chemical that lowers pressure too. BLOOD SUGAR IMBALANCE? EAT BROCCOLI AND PEANUTS!!! The chromium in broccoli and peanuts helps regulate insulin and blood sugar.

posted by Den Mase at 10:23 PM | 0 comments

Manuver Heimlich Kontroversi Manuver Heimlich

Untuk anda yang pernah belajar tentang bantuan hidup dasar atau pelatihan kegawatdaruratan lain tentu pernah mendengar tehnik manuver Heimlich atau Abdominal Thrust . Jika anda masih asing tentunya anda pernah melihat orang tersedak misalnya di film atau tv dan didorong perut untuk mengeluarkan sumbatan. Tehnik ini sangat terkenal dan ditemukan oleh Dr. Henry Heimlich sampai sekarang masih dipakai sebagai protokol terhadap tersedak dalam bantuan hidup dasar yang dipakai di seluruh dunia. Namun yang menjadi kontroversi adalah penggunaan manuver Heimlich untuk orang tenggelam. Sering kita lihat di film bahkan di indonesia orang memakai tehnik ini untuk mengeluarkan air bahkan mendahului resusitasi jantung paru. Kenapa tehnik ini berkembang luas sebagai protokol untuk menyelamatkan korban tenggelam? Tidak lain karena lobi dr Heimlich yang kuat ke organisasi penyelamatan, disisi lain pendapatnya tidak diterima misalnya oleh the American Heart Association and the Canadian Medical Association karena ineefektif dan berpotensi menimbulkan bahaya. Hal ini juga didukung oleh Amerika Red Cross dan United States Lifesaving Association (USLA). Bahaya adalah jika yang ia tenggelam karena air laut, atau isi lambung (yang asam) akan menggangu bahkan merusak saluran pernafasan dan paru-parunya sendiri. Anggapan bahwa tehnik ini mengeluarkan air adalah pemahaman yang salah bisa dilihat bahwa air yang keluar berasal dari lambung. "Yang pertama dipelajari dalam kedokteran adalah "do no harm". Manuver Heimlich "do harm,” demikian dikatakan Dr. Alan Steinman dalam rapat panel American Heart Association/American Red Cross. Steinman mengatakan tidak ada studi klinik epidemologi bahkan hewan untuk melihat bahwa tehnik ini efektif untuk meresusitasi korban tenggelam. Seluruh premis yang digunkan Heimlich bahwa tehnik ini mengeluarkan air adalah salah karena paru dan jalan nafas tidak terisi semua oleh air. Ada beberapa kasus tentang ini salah satunya di publikasikan di salah satunya di musim panas ini seorang anak 8 tahun meninggal setelah tenggelam karena tindakan resusitasi jantung paru yang dilakukan lifeguard yang belum berpengalaman di suruh nenek anak tersebut melakukan manuver Heimlich di saluran pernafasanya ditemukan muntahan dari lambung yang malah menyumbat jalan nafas. Sebenarnya manuver Heimlich yang malah menimbulkan vomit (muntah) sudah dipublikasikan di The Journal of the American Medical Association sejak tahun 1987. Sebenarnya masih banyak kontroversi mengatasi asma dengan Manuver Heimlich, menggantikan cpr dengan Manuver Heimlich, data penelitian dan laporan yang dipalsukan yang semua bisa dibaca di sebagai tandingan situs Disadur dari Deadly Medicine?: A safety debate over the Heimlich maneuver has local repercussions. Steve Volk Heimlich's Maneuver.Thomas Francis 13 Oct 2004: admin I dikomentari 0 orang.

posted by Den Mase at 10:07 PM | 0 comments

World First Aid Day World First Aid Day Geneva, 10 September 2004 The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies estimates that tens of millions of lives are saved each year by first aid techniques applied by neighbours or bystanders to victims of accidents or disasters. Although Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies care for millions of people and train millions more in first aid, the International Federation has been active in promoting and developing life-saving practices across the world, in order to increase the proportion of families where at least one member has been trained in first aid. In the context of these efforts, and to mark World First Aid Day (11 September), the International Federation is launching the first-ever recommendations on the international harmonization of life-saving practices. The document presents a set of common principles to apply in specific situations, such as the emergency removal of a casualty, or caring for a person suffering from severe external bleeding, skin burns or a fracture. These recommendations are intended as a guide for people in charge of the development of first aid training, and can be adapted to disasters or mass casualty situations, such as the Bam earthquake in Iran or the Madrid bombings. They are also meant to facilitate the dissemination of life-saving practices, since it has been proven that fatalities and the severity of accidents significantly decrease with widespread public knowledge of first aid. “Harmonization does not mean standardization. The intention is not to impose one technique per situation, but rather to present common principles to be respected in each life-threatening situation. This guide is meant to be further developed and added to and ultimately lead to the creation of an International First Aid Certificate,” says Federation Secretary general Markku Niskala. The process of harmonization of first aid practices and techniques has been conducted methodically by the International Federation, using existing scientific evidence, field experiences and inputs from experts from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Committee of the Red Cross, among others. In 1996, The Federation and the WHO organized the first seminar ever to bring together first aid experts from around the world to compare existing techniques. It was hosted in Lyon by the French Red Cross. It was found that although first aid techniques differ, common principles are always applied – for example, there are more than 10 methods to stop simple bleeding from a skin wound, but all use local pressure. Since 2003, regional first aid certifications have been adopted in Europe. These allow people who hold a Red Cross first aid certificate from one country to have it recognised by other countries in the region. Other regions are expected to follow suit in 2005. “The harmonization of techniques facilitates the work of rescuers who are called in from abroad in case of a major crisis, since they can perform common life-saving techniques with their colleagues,” points out Markku Niskala. “But we must remember that first aid is more than a technique, it is also an essential expression of solidarity, which protects and saves lives.” This year, more than 110 Red Cross and Red Crescent National Societies across the world will organise events under the theme “First Aid – a gesture of humanity which makes the difference” to mark World First Aid Day, which is celebrated on the second Saturday of September. Events will highlight the importance that simple practices can make, in saving lives and building safer and more humane communities. For more information or to arrange interviews, please call: Suzanne Charest Communications Officer Tel: (613) 740-1928 Cel: (613) 222-6196 12 Oct 2004: admin I dikomentari 0 orang.

posted by Den Mase at 10:01 PM | 0 comments

Serba-serbi Transfusi Darah SERBA SERBI TRANSFUSI DARAH 1. DONOR DARAH a. Syarat-syarat Teknis Menjadi Donor Darah : Umur 17 - 60 tahun

( Pada usia 17 tahun diperbolehkan menjadi donor bila mendapat ijin tertulis dari orangtua. Sampai usia tahun donor masih dapat menyumbangkan darahnya dengan jarak penyumbangan 3 bulan atas pertimbangan dokter ) Berat badan minimum 45 kg Temperatur tubuh : 36,6 - 37,5o C (oral) Tekanan darah baik ,yaitu:

Sistole = 110 - 160 mm Hg Diastole = 70 - 100 mm Hg Denyut nadi; Teratur 50 - 100 kali/ menit Hemoglobin

Wanita minimal = 12 gr % Pria minimal = 12,5 gr % Jumlah penyumbangan pertahun paling banyak 5 kali, dengan jarak

penyumbangan sekurang-kurangnya 3 bulan. Keadaan ini harus sesuai dengan keadaan umum donor. b. Seseorang tidak boleh menjadi donor darah pada keadaan: Pernah menderita hepatitis B Dalam jangka waktu 6 bulan sesudah kontak erat dengan penderita

hepatitis Dalam jangka waktu 6 bulan sesudah transfusi Dalam jangka waktu 6 bulan sesudah tattoo/tindik telinga Dalam jangka waktu 72 jam sesudah operasi gigi Dalam jangka wktu 6 bulan sesudah operasi kecil Dalam jangka waktu 12 bulan sesudah operasi besar Dalam jangka waktu 24 jam sesudah vaksinasi polio, influenza, cholera,

tetanus dipteria atau profilaksis Dalam jangka waktu 2 minggu sesudah vaksinasi virus hidup parotitis

epidemica, measles, tetanus toxin. Dalam jangka waktu 1 tahun sesudah injeksi terakhir imunisasi rabies

therapeutic Dalam jangka waktu 1 minggu sesudah gejala alergi menghilang. Dalam jangka waktu 1 tahun sesudah transpalantasi kulit. Sedang hamil dan dalam jangka waktu 6 bulan sesudah persalinan. Sedang menyusui Ketergantungan obat. Alkoholisme akut dan kronik. Sifilis Menderita tuberkulosa secara klinis. Menderita epilepsi dan sering kejang. Menderita penyakit kulit pada vena (pembuluh darah balik) yang akan

ditusuk. Mempunyai kecenderungan perdarahan atau penyakit darah, misalnya,

defisiensi G6PD, thalasemia, polibetemiavera. Seseorang yang termasuk kelompok masyarakat yang mempunyai resiko

tinggi untuk mendapatkan HIV/AIDS (homoseks, morfinis, bergantiganti pasangan seks, pemakai jarum suntik tidak steril) Pengidap HIV/ AIDS menurut hasil pemeriksaan pada saat donor darah.

2. BAGAIMANA MENDAPATKAN DARAH a. Prosedur Permintaan Darah Dokter yang merawatlah yang menentukan pasien membutuhkan darah

atau tidak Membawa formulir khusus rangkap 4 atau 5 untuk permintaan darah yang

telah diisi oleh dokter yang merawat disesrtai contoh darah pasien dengan identitas yang jelas. Formulir dan contoh darah tersebut dikirim ke Bank Darah di rumah sakit

atau laboratorium UTDC PMI setempat. Untuk Daerah Jakarta, darah dapat diperoleh di UTDD PMI DKI Jakarta, Jl. Kramat Raya No.47, apabila persediaan darah yang diminta oleh dokter tidak ada di bank darah rumah sakit tmaka bawalah donor pengganti ke UTDC setempat. Atas dasar permintaan dokter di RS tersebut UTDC melakukan

pemeriksaan reaksi silang antara contoh darah donor dengan contoh darah pasien, yang memakan waktu lebih kurang 1,5 jam. Pemeriksaan ini mutlak harus dilakukan walaupun golongan darah pasien

dengan golongan darah donor sama. Bila dalam pemeriksaan silang tidak terdapat kelainan maka barulah darah donor diberikan kepada pasien. Bila pada pemeriksaan ditemukan kelainan atau ketidakcocokan perlu dilakukan pemeriksaan lanjutan untuk mencari sebab kelainan atau ketidakcocokan tersebut. b.Tempat Pengambilan Darah (Khusus wilayah Propinsi DKI Jakarta) UNIT TRANSFUSI DARAH DAERAH PMI DKI JAKARTA Jl. Kramat Raya No. 46, Jakarta Pusat. Telp. 327711,3906666,3909259 Buka 24 Jam BANK DARAH PMI di RS. HUSADA Jl. Mangga Besar 137 / 139 Jakarta Pusat, Telp. 6260108 BANK DARAH PMI di RS. SUMBER WARAS Jl. Kyai Tapa, Grogol. Jakarta Barat Tlp. 5682011 BANK DARAH PMI di RS. PERSAHABATAN Jl. Persahabatan. Jakarta Timur Telp. 4891708 ; 4711219 BANK DARAH PMI di RS. KOJA Jl. Deli No. 4, Tanjung Priok Jakarta Utara Tlp. 4352401, 496132, 498478 BANK DARAH PMI di RS FATMAWATI Jl. Raya Fatmawati Jakarta Selatan Telp. 7501524 MOBIL UNIT Untuk penyumbangan berkelompok, mobil unit baru dapat melayani permintaan untuk menjadi donor darah sukarela jika minimal ada 40 orang perkelompok. Wilayah di luar DKI Jakarta, dapat menghubungi Unit-Unit Transfusi Darah PMI Cabang , seperti berikut : Daftar Nomer Telpon UTD PMI Cabang No



No Telpon

Banda Aceh




No Telpon



Kod Banda Aceh

0651-231 / 332281


Kod B Lampung

0721 702147


Kab Aceh Utara

0645 740202


Kab L Utara/Kota Bumi

0724 22095


Kab Aceh Timur/Langsa

0641 22051


Sumatera Utara



061 6621918


DKI Jakartra


021 3906666


Kod Medan

Jawa Barat


Kab Simalungun/P Siantar

0622 21856


Kod Bandung

022 4208677


Kab Tap Sel/ P Sidempuan

0634 23845


Kab Bandung/Soreang

022 5950035


Kod Asahan/Tj Balai

0623 92033


Kab Serang

0254 200724


Kod Tebing Tinggi

0621 22084


Kab Tangerang

021 5523582


Kab Deli Sedang

061 7953820


Kota Bogor

0251 342864


Kab Bogor

0251 29491


Sumatera Barat


Kod Padang

0751 31795


Kod Sukabumi

0266 225180


Kod Bukit Tinggi

0752 31605


Kab Sukabumi

0266 225343




Kab Garut

0262 233672


Kod Pakan Baru

0761 23126


Kab Tasimalaya

0265 331325


Kep Riau/Tj Pinang

0771 22734


Kab Karawang

0267 405190


Kotif Batam Sekupang

0778 450626


Kod Cirebon

0231 201003


Sumatera Selatan


Kab Cirebon

0231 207587


Kod Palembang

0711 356282


Kab Purwakarta

0264 200100


Kod Pangkal Pinang

0717 432467


Kab Bekasi

021 8855713


Kab Belitung/Tj Pandan

0719 21585


Kab Cianjur

0263 265167


Kab Lahat

0731 21798


Kab Subang

0264 91423


Kab Ogan Komering Ulu

0735 20298


Kab Lebak Rangkasbitung

0252 21087




Kab Majalengka

0233 22048


Kod Jambi


Kab Ciamis

0265 771405




Kab Sumedang

0261 81623


Kod Bengkulu


Kab Indramayu

0234 272324


Kab Kuningan

0232 81505

0741 61827

0736 27018

3. PENGELOLAAN DARAH & BIAYA PENGGANTIAN PENGELOLAAN (Service Cost ) Upaya kesehatan Transfusi Darah adalah upaya kesehatan yang bertujuan agar penggunaan darah berguna bagi keperluan pengobatan dan pemulihan kesehatan . Kegiatan ini mencakup antara lain :pengerahan donor,penyumbangan darah, pengambilan, pengamanan, pengolahan, penyimpanan, dan penyampaian darah kepada pasien. Kegiatan tersebut harus dilakukan dengan sebaik-baiknya sesuai standar yang telah ditetapkan, sehingga darah yang dihasilkan adalah darah yang keamanannya terjamin. Demikian juga dengan donornya, donor yang menyumbagkan darahnya juga tetap selalu sehat. Kelancaran pelaksanaan upaya kesehatan transfusi darah di atas sangat terkait dengan dukungan faktor ketenagaan, peralatan, dana dan sistem pengelolaannya yang hakikatnya kesemuanya itu memerlukan biaya. Biaya yang dibutuhkan untuk proses kegiatan tersebut diatas adalah biaya pengelolaan darah ( Service Cost) , yang pada prakteknya manfaatnya ditujukan kepada pengguna darah di rumah sakit. Penarikan service cost/biaya pengelolaan darah untuk pemakaian darah dilakukan sematamata sebagai penggantian pengelolaan darah sejak darah diambil dari donor sukarela sampai darah ditransfusikan pada orang sakit dan bukan untuk membayar darah.

Pengelolaan Darah Yang dimaksud dengan pengelolaan darah adalah tahapan kegiatan untuk mendapatkan darah sampai dengan kondisi siap pakai, yang mencakup antara lain : Rekruitmen donor. Pengambilan darah donor. Pemeriksaan uji saring. Pemisahan darah menjadi komponen darah. Pemeriksaan golongan darah. Pemeriksaan kococokan darah donor dengan pasien. Penyimpanan darah di suhu tertentu Dan lain-lain.

Untuk melaksanakan tugas tersebut dibutuhkan sarana penunjang teknis dan personil seperti : Kantong darah. Peralatan untuk mengambil darah. Reagensia untuk memeriksa uji saring, pemeriksaan golongan darah,

kecocokan darah donor dan pasien. Alat-alat untuk menyimpan dan alat pemisah darah menjadi komponen

darah. Peralatan untuk pemeriksaan proses tersebut. Pasokan daya listrik untuk proses tersebut dan Personil PMI yang melaksanakan tugas tersebut

Peranan ketersediaan prasarana di atas sangat menentukan berjalannya proses pengolahan darah. Untuk itu pengadaan dana menjadi penting dalam rangka menjamin ketersediaan prasarana tersebut, PMI menetapkan perlunya biaya pengolahan darah ( service cost). "Service Cost " Besarnya jumlah Service Cost yang ditetapkan standar oleh PMI adalah sebesar Rp 128.500,- Namun demikian dalam prakteknya di beberapa rumah sakit, terutama swasta, jumlahnya bisa disesuaikan dengan keadaan RSnya. oleh karena adanya kebijakan "subsidi silang". Bagi yang tak mampu, pembebasan service cost juga dapat dikenakan sejauh memenuhi prosedur administrasi yang berlaku. "Service cost" tetap harus dibayar walaupun pemohon darah membawa sendiri donor darahnya. Mengapa demikian? Karena bagaimanapun darah tersebut untuk dapat sampai kepada orang sakit yang membutuhkan darah tetap memerlukan prosedur seperti tersebut diatas.

Demikian pula Service Cost tetap ditarik walaupun PMI telah menerima sumbangan dari masyarakat karena hasil sumbangan masyarakat tersebut masih jauh dari mencukupi kebutuhan operasional Unit Darah Daerah PMI DKI Jakarta.

Penarikan service cost di Jakarta khususnya dapat dilakukan di : Rumah Sakit Rumah sakit yang sudah mempunyai Bank Darah atau yang belum mempunyai Bank Darah tetapi permintaan darahnya banyak. Kemudian UTDD PMI DKI akan menagih setiap bulan ke rumah sakit tersebut, berdasarkan jumlah pemakaian darah.

+ UTDD ( Unit Transfusi Darah Daerah ) PMI DKI Jakarta Untuk rumah sakit-rumah sakit yang letaknya jauh dari UTDD dan permintaan darahnya sedikit/jarang maka service cost akan ditarik langsung oleh UTDD. Setiap pembayaran service cost disertai tanda bukti pembayaran yang sah dari rumah sakit atau dari UTDD PMI DKI Jakarta. 4. PEMAKAIAN DARAH + Pemecahan Darah menjadi Komponen Darah terdiri dari bagian-bagian atau komponen darah dengan fungsinya masing-masing. Komponen-komponen darah yang penting adalah eritrosit, leukosit, trombosit, plasma dan faktor pembekuan darah. Dengan kemajuan teknologi kedokteran, komponen-komponen darah tersebut dapat dipisahpisahkan dengan suatu proses. + Pengguna Darah sesuai Komponen Keuntungan terapi komponen darah, bagi penderita jelas, oleh karena hanya menerima komponen darah yang dibutuhkan. Darah dapat pula disimpan dalam bentuk komponen-komponen darah yaitu: eritrosit, luekosit, trombosit, plasma dan faktor-faktor pembekuan darah dengan proses tertentu yaitu dengan Refrigerated Centrifuge. 5. GOLONGAN DARAH Apakah Golongan Darah itu? Golongan darah ditentukan adanya suatu zat/antigen yang terdapat dalam sel darah merah. Dalam system ABO yang ditemukan Lansteiner tahnu 1900, golongan darah dibagi: Gol

Sel Darah Merah



Antigen A

Antibodi B


Antigen B

antibodi A


Antigen A & B

tak ada antibodi


Tak ada antigen

Antibodi Anti A & Anti B

Siapa yang menemukan asal muasal golongan darah pada manusia? Landsteiner adalah orang yang menemukan 3 dari 4 golongan darah dalam ABO system pada tahun 1900 dengan cara memeriksa golongan darah beberapa teman sekerjanya. Percobaan dilakukan dengan melakukan reaksi antara sel darah merah dan serum dari donor. Hasilnya adalah dua macam reaksi dan dan satu macam tanpa reaksi. Kesimpulannya ada dua macam antigen A dan B di sel darah merah yang disebut golongan A dan B, atau samasekali tidak ada reaksi yang disebut golongan O. Lantas, siapa yang menemukan golongan darah AB? Von Decastello dan Sturli pada tahun 1901 yang menemukan golongan darah AB di mana kedua antigen A dan B ditemukan secara bersamaan pada sel darah merah sedangkan pada serum tidak ditemukan antibody.

Apakah Rh/Rhesus Faktor itu? Rh Faktor adalah juga semacam sistem golongan darah, dengan melihat ada/tidak adanya antigen Rh di dalam sel darah merahnya.

Apakah ada macam golongan darah lain? Selain ABO dan Rh, masih ada banyak sistem penggolongan darah menurut antigen yang terdapat dalam sel darah merah antara lain : MWSP, Lutheran, Duffy, Lewis, Kell dan sebagainya.

Berapa kalikah kita boleh menyumbangkan darah? Sebaiknya secara teratur, maksimal 4-6 kali setahun, atau 2-3 bulan sekali penyumbangan dengan jarak waktu sangat dekat adalah sangat berbahaya karena tidak baik untuk kesehatan. Palang Merah Indonesia. Copyright 2002 - developed by

posted by Den Mase at 9:53 PM | 0 comments

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