Literature Review - UMS

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Literature Review

Mohd Dahlan A. Malek 2016

Sinopsis kursus 

Ringkasan sinopsis kursus

O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

2

Philosophy of Research 

Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language

Research 



Research can be defined as the search for knowledge or any systematic investigation to establish facts. The originality of work

What is literature?????

FRGS  MA  PhD  Process  Sample 

 

Sample UTM Sample UTM2 6

Working with Literature What should I be reading and what do I do with it all? Lecture note 7

Isu 





Menulis sorotan literatur bukanlah sesuatu yang mudah. Ini kerana penulisan sorotan kajian memerlukan anda membahaskan kajian-kajian lepas bagi menjelaskan kedudukan kajian anda dalam konteks semasa. Anda perlu mengkritik kajian-kajian lepas untuk memberikan laluan kepada kajian anda mengisi gap yang belum terjawab sepenuhnya oleh kajian-kajian tersebut. O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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Structure of the thesis     

INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH TOPIC LITERATURE REVIEW OBJECTIVES/ RESEARCH QUESTIONS METHODOLOGY RESULTS

O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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 

A literature review IS NOT a straightforward summary of everything you have read on the topic and it is not a chronological description of what was discovered in your field. Combines both summary and synthesis O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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LITERATURE REVIEW: WHAT IT IS? 



     

AN EXAMINATION OF RESEARCH THAT HAS BEEN CONDUCTED IN A PARTICULAR FIELD OF STUDY MORE THAN THE SEARCH FOR INFORMATION, AND GOES BEYOND BEING DESCRIPTIVE EVALUATING AND SYNTHESISING AVAILABLE INFORMATION RELATED TO YOUR STUDY ALL WORKS INCLUDED IN THE REVIEW ALL WORKS INCLUDED IN THE REVIEW MUST BE READ, EVALUATED AND ANALYSED O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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 







ILLUSTRATE HOW THE SUBJECT HAS BEEN STUDIED PREVIOUSLY GIVE READER/EXAMINERS AN OVERVIEW OF SOURCES YOU HAVE EXPLORE TO DEMOSTRATE HOW YOUR RESEARCH FITS INTO THE LARGER FIELD OF STUDY AVOID DUPLICATION / AVOIDING FROM MAKING THE SAME MISTAKES AS OTHERS

O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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POSITIONING YOURWORK IN THE CONTEXTOF PREVIOUS RESEARCH CREATING ‘RESEARCH SPACE’ FOR YOUR WORK /TO IDENTIFYGAPS IN THE LITERATURE TO PROVIDE INTELECTUALL CONTEXT FOR YOURWORK

O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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TO CARRY ON FROM WHERE OTHERS HAVEALREADY REACHED / BUILD ON THE PLATFORM OF EXISTING KNOWLWDGE AND IDEAS TO PROVIDE RATIONALE / JUSTIFICATION FOR YOUR STUDY IDENTIFY KEY CONTACT / TO IDENTIFY OTHER PEOPLE WORKING IN THE SAME FIELDS / NETWORKINGAMONG RESEARCHERS

O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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WHAT YOU NEED TO DO?  

 



READING BROADLY ON THE TOPIC REFINING TOPIC AND ESTABLLISH THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE IDENTIFY YOUR RESEARCH QUESTION/S IDENTIFY EXTENT AND QUALITY OF WORK ALREADY CARRIED OUT INTHE SUBJECT AREA O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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WHAT YOU NEED TO DO? 









DESCRIBE, SUMMARISE, EVALUATE AND CLARIFY THESE LITERATURE READ AND CRITICALLY EVALUATE THE INFORMATION THAT YOUR LOCATE PLAN, ORGANISE AND WRITE CRITICALLY ABOUT THE LITERATUTE FILE AND STORE YOUR READINGS AND NOTES ADDING AND REWRITE LITERATURE REVIEW O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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Plagiarism includes 





Using another writer’s words without propercitation Using another writer’s ideas without proper citation Citing a source but reproducing the exact word without quotation marks



O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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Borrowing the structure of another author’s phrases/sentences without giving the source Using paper-writing service or having a friend write the paper

O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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STRUCTURING LITERATURE REVIEW    

IT IS A SYSTEMATIC WRITE-UP LITERATURE REVIEW HAS A LOGICAL AND COHERENT STRUCTURE THIS STRUCTURE IS CLEARLY APPARENT TO THE READER

O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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Timbul persoalan!!!!! 





Siapalah saya untuk mengkritik kajian lepas oleh pakar-pakar? Mampukan saya untuk menganalisis dan seterusnya mensintesis kajian oleh pakar-pakar tersebut? Ini belum termasuk lagi sungutan pelajar seperti berikut: O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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Bagaimana hendak memulakan sorotan literatur ? Apa yang perlu ditulis dalam sorotan literatur ? Berapa banyak artikel yang perlu di baca?

O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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Bagaimana hendak menyusun kandungan sorotan literatur? Bagaimana hendak mengetahui bahawa kajian ini belum dilakukan di manamana di dunia ini? Macamana hendak mengkritik kajian lepas? Bagaimanakah cara untuk mengemukakan hujah? O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan mensintesis kajian lepas? Bagaimana hendak mengulas pendapat yang berbeza-beza dalam artikel-artikel yang berbeza? Apakah kerangka teoritikal dan konseptual yang digunakan dalam bidang yang anda kaji?

O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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 



Mana satukah metodologi yang penting? Siapakan penulis utama kerana terlalu banyak yang menulis isu yang sama? Mengapa ada artikel-artikel yang mempunyai dapatan yang bercanggah

O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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questions  







How much literature do I need to look at? How far back do I need to go in reviewing the literature? What related ideas do I need to explore (subtopics or overarching ideas) What literature provides a framework for my research? Why use a particular instrumens for my study O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

26

Isu utama 



Menjadi asas kepada anda (dan pembaca) mengetahui kedudukan kajian anda dalam perkembangan pengetahuan dan kajian-kajian lepas dalam bidang yang sama sejak dulu hingga sekarang. Menjadi asas penentuan skop dan fokus kajian anda kerana bidang yang anda kaji adalah luas. Penentuan ini dilakukan dengan mengambil teori tertentu sahaja, menghadkan pemilihan variabel, penggunaan sampel tertentu, pemilihan metodologi kajian dan teknik analisis data. O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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A literature review is a body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. Literature reviews are secondary sources, and as such, do not report any new or original experimental work.



 





A literature review is an account of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers. We will be required to write a chapter on literature review. In writing the literature review, our purpose is to convey to our reader what knowledge and ideas have been established on the topic you have chosen, and what their strengths and weaknesses are. As a piece of writing, the literature review must be defined by a guiding concept (e.g., your research objective, the problem or issue you are discussing, or your argumentative thesis). It is not a descriptive list of the material available, or a set of summaries 29

Purpose to discover what is known about a certain topic We should look for 4 things about the topic:  Theory  Facts  Opinions  Method 

purpose 





Established what is already known about a particular topic and what methods have been used in researching the topic Prevents you from reprodusing what is already known Exposes gaps in literature and help you in position your research O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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example  A physiotherapist wanting to treat patients with continuous passive motion (CPM) needs to know:  Theories about how CPM works  Facts about protocols and results  Opinions of therapists on the future of clinical use of CPM  Methods that others used to assess effects of CPM

O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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Types of literature 



Primary sources: original reports of research (journal articles, theses and dissertations, conference abstracts and proceedings) Secondary sources: in which authors summarize their own work and the work of others (book chapters, review articles)

Evaluating the literature     



1.Classify the variables 2.Compare purposes and conclusions 3.Describe design and control elements 4.Identify threats to validity 5.Compare the study with other research (does it add new information?) 6.Evaluate the utility of the study

Conducting a Literature Review 





  

Obtain a “relatively”complete set of articles on the topic Decide which articles are relevant to your research question Identify the designs and variables used previously to address the question Determine the validity of the studies Make comparisons across studies Specify problems that need further study 36

Finding the literature 

 

Consult your subject specialist reference librarian Check cited by list in Google Scholor Previous thesis (pro Quest )

O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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The Importance of Working with Literature Working with literature is an essential part of the research process that:   

generates ideas helps form significant questions is instrumental in the process of research design

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Working with literature Working with Literature

Find it!

Manage it!

Use it!

Review it!

Knowing the literature types

Reading efficiently

Choosing your research topic

Understanding the lit review’s purpose

Using available resources

Keeping track of references

Developing your question

Ensuring adequate coverage

Honing your search skills

Writing relevant annotations

Arguing your rationale

Writing purposefully

Informing your work with theory

Working on style and tone

Designing method

O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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Important   

Plan Systematic search Timeline

O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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Finding literature Finding relevant literature can be made easier if you are able to readily access and draw on a wide variety of resources such as:      

reference materials books journals grey literature official publications archives 41

Grey literature 

Grey literature is informally published written material (such as reports) that may be difficult to trace via conventional channels such as published journals and monographs because it is not published commercially or is not widely accessible.

O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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Finding literature Don’t go it alone!! When looking for literature be sure to call on the experts such as:    

librarians supervisors other researchers practitioners 43

Intersecting Areas of Literature BODY PIERCING

▪ 



 FOUCAULT



▪ 

 



TEENAGERS

▪ 

RITES OF PASSAGE





 



background literature moderate relevance

high relevance highest relevance

O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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Managing the literature It also pays to be organized and diligent when it comes to keeping references. 

Keep and file copies of relevant books, articles, etc.



Avoid lending out your ‘only copies’





Find out about the recommended referencing style and use it from the start Consider using bibliographic file management software such as Procite, Endnote, or Reference

Manager

O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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Annotating Sources Annotating your sources provides you with a record of relevant literature. It should include:    



the citation articulation of the author and audience a short summary critical commentary notes on relevance that remind you of the significance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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Using the Literature Literature is used for disparate purposes throughout the research process. Whether it be:     

focusing interests defining questions arguing a rationale theoretically informing your study developing appropriate design, or writing a formal literature review

every stage of the research process demands literary engagement O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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The Formal Literature Review Most find the writing of a literature review a difficult task that takes patience, practice, drafts, and redrafts

O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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The Formal Literature Review The formal literature review is a very specific piece of writing designed to: 

inform your readers of your topic



establish your credibility as a researcher



argue the need for, and relevance of, your work O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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Reviewing the Literature vs. ‘The Literature Review’

O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

50

Writing your Literature Review A good literature review is an argument that is more purposeful than a simple review of relevant literature

51

Writing your Literature Review Writing a good review requires you to:        

read a few good reviews write critical annotations develop a structure write purposefully use the literature to back up your arguments review and write throughout the research process get feedback and be prepared to redraft

O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

52

Writing your Literature Review Style and Tone… 



Writing a good literature review can be likened to holding a good dinner party conversation They both require individuals who can engage, learn, debate, argue, contribute, and evolve their own ideas, without being hypercritical or sycophantic 53

A Good Literature Review is: 



  



Focused - The topic should be narrow. You should only present ideas and only report on studies that are closely related to topic. Concise - Ideas should be presented economically. Don’t take any more space than you need to present your ideas. Logical - The flow within and among paragraphs should be a smooth, logical progression from one idea to the next Developed - Don’t leave the story half told. Integrative - Your paper should stress how the ideas in the studies are related. Focus on the big picture. What commonality do all the studies share? How are some studies different than others? Your paper should stress how all the studies reviewed contribute to your topic. Current - Your review should focus on work being done on the cutting edge of your topic.

   

Research Problem Research question Definition –concept and operation Hypothesis/objectives

O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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Now you can start writing   

    



DECIDE ON A TOPIC NARROW YOUR TOPIC CREATE AN INTRODUCTION FOR YOUR LITERATURE REVIEW ORGANIZE THE BODY OF YOUR PAPER Scan each article to get an overview of each one. Group the articles by categories. Read each article carefully, taking notes on each one. WRITE THE BODY OF YOUR PAPER  Make the structure and organization of your write-up explicit.  Integrate the studies you summarize in your paper.  At the end of each section wrap up studies in a paragraph that tells the reader how the studies relate and address your topic.  Make sure you take note of key terms and definitions.  Identify landmark studies in your write-up  Identify major trends across the studies you are reading. WRAP THE PAPER UP  Present your conclusions.  Present implications.  Present suggestions for future research.

Persoalan yang dulu menghantui saya adalah:

  

Bagaimana nak tulis sorotan literatur - Apa isi sorotan literatur? - Bila nak kritik secara mendalam dan bila nak sekadar cite sahaja kajian lepas?

O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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Aspek penting dalam LR  



 



5 aspek sorotan literatur: (1) sejarah perkembangan / latarbelakang / epistemology berkaitan kajian anda (2) perbincangan berkaitan teori / konsep / variabel yang relevan yang mendasari kajian anda termasuk kerangka teoritikal (3) perbincangan kritis kajian lepas dalam bidang berkaitan (4) sorotan perkembangan terkini (jika boleh 5 tahun kebelakangan) berkaitan kajian yang melibatkan perbahasan / isu / persoalan / terminology baru yang timbul (5) bagaimana kajian anda mengisi ruang (gap) dari perkembangan terkini tersebut. O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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JANGAN menulis seperti membuat sebuah laporan sebab sungguh MEMBOSANKAN dan menjadikan anda sebagai seorang yang hanya meringkaskan kajian terdahulu. Ramai pelajar suka menulis seperti:

 

 



Suyansah (2008) menyatakan bahawa....Ini disokong oleh kajian Azizi Wafa (2009). Ismail Ali (2010) menambah bahawa....Seterusnya Suyansah (2008).... Azizi Wafa (2009) menegaskan bahawa.....Kajian ini selari dengan kajian Ismail Ali (2010).... Akhirnya yang ditulis adalah ringkasan kajian lepas.... bukannya kajian anda yang menjadikan kajian lepas sebagai sokongan....kerana suara anda tidak kedengaran dalam sorotan literatur !

Kalau setakat meringkaskan kajian lepas ”sesiapa pun boleh buat" ..... betul tak....ini yang membezakan kesarjanaan…. 

O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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 

Contoh sintesis Contoh kelemahan

O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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Final checklist         

  



 

Have I fulfilled the purpose of the literature review? Is it written at a level appropriate to its audience? Are its facts correct? Is all the information included relevant? Are the layout and presentation easy on the eye? Is the language clear, concise and academic? Does the abstract summarise the entire review? Does the introduction adequately introduce the topic? Is the body organised logically? Does the conclusion interpret, analyse and evaluate? Are the recommendations reasonable? Does the table of contents correspond with the actual contents? Are page numbers correct? Have I acknowledged all sources of information through correct referencing? Have I checked spelling, grammar and punctuation? Have I carefully proof-read the final draft? 61

tools  

 

Atlas.ti. http://www.atlasti.com/demo.html Mendeley http://www.mendeley.com/features/

O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: Sage Chapter Six

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Literature Review - UMS

Literature Review Mohd Dahlan A. Malek 2016 Sinopsis kursus  Ringkasan sinopsis kursus O'Leary, Z. (2004) The Essential Guide to Doing Research...

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