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Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

NCES 2016-079 NCJ 249758

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OFFICE OF JUSTICE PROGRAMS

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015 MAY 2016

Anlan Zhang American Institutes for Research Lauren Musu-Gillette Project Officer National Center for Education Statistics Barbara A. Oudekerk Bureau of Justice Statistics

NCES 2016-079 NCJ 249758

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OFFICE OF JUSTICE PROGRAMS

U.S. Department of Education John B. King, Jr. Secretary

U.S. Department of Justice Loretta E. Lynch Attorney General

Institute of Education Sciences Ruth Neild Deputy Director for Policy and Research Delegated Duties of the Director

Office of Justice Programs Karol V. Mason Assistant Attorney General

National Center for Education Statistics Peggy G. Carr Acting Commissioner

Bureau of Justice Statistics Jeri M. Mulrow Acting Director

The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) is the primary federal entity for collecting, analyzing, and reporting data related to education in the United States and other nations. It fulfills a congressional mandate to collect, collate, analyze, and report full and complete statistics on the condition of education in the United States; conduct and publish reports and specialized analyses of the meaning and significance of such statistics; assist state and local education agencies in improving their statistical systems; and review and report on education activities in foreign countries. The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) is the primary federal entity for collecting, analyzing, publishing, and disseminating statistical information about crime, its perpetrators and victims, and the operation of the justice system at all levels of government. These data are critical to federal, state, and local policymakers in combating crime and ensuring that justice is both efficient and evenhanded. May 2016 This report was prepared for the National Center for Education Statistics under Contract No. ED-IES12-D-0002 with American Institutes for Research. Mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. Suggested Citation Zhang, A., Musu-Gillette, L., and Oudekerk, B.A. (2016). Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015 (NCES 2016-079/NCJ 249758). National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Washington, DC. This publication can be downloaded from the World Wide Web at http://nces.ed.gov or http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov. Contact at NCES Lauren Musu-Gillette 202-245-7045 [email protected] Contact at BJS Barbara A. Oudekerk 202-616-3904 [email protected]

Executive Summary Introduction Our nation’s schools should be safe havens for teaching and learning, free of crime and violence. Any instance of crime or violence at school not only affects the individuals involved, but also may disrupt the educational process and affect bystanders, the school itself, and the surrounding community (Brookmeyer, Fanti, and Henrich 2006; Goldstein, Young, and Boyd 2008). Establishing reliable indicators of the current state of school crime and safety across the nation and regularly updating and monitoring these indicators are important in ensuring the safety of our nation’s students. This is the aim of Indicators of School Crime and Safety. This report is the 18th in a series of annual publications produced jointly by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), Institute of Education Sciences (IES), in the U.S. Department of Education, and the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) in the U.S. Department of Justice. This report presents the most recent data available on school crime and student safety. The indicators in this report are based on information drawn from a variety of data sources, including national surveys of students, teachers, principals, and postsecondary institutions. Sources include results from the School-Associated Violent Deaths Study, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education, the Department of Justice, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); the National Crime Victimization Survey and School Crime Supplement to that survey, sponsored by BJS and NCES, respectively; the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, sponsored by the CDC; the Schools and Staffing Survey, School Survey on Crime and Safety, Fast Response Survey System, EDFacts, and High School Longitudinal Study of 2009, all sponsored by NCES; the Supplementary Homicide Reports, sponsored by the Federal Bureau of Investigation; the Campus Safety and Security Survey and Civil Rights Data Collection, both sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education; and the Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Justice. The most recent data collection for each indicator varied by survey, from 2009 to 2014. Each data source has an independent sample design, data collection method, and questionnaire design, or is the result of a universe data collection. Findings described in this report with comparative language (e.g., higher, lower, increase, and decrease) are statistically significant at the .05 level. Additional information about methodology and the datasets analyzed in this report may be found in appendix A.

This report covers topics such as victimization, teacher injury, bullying and cyber-bullying, school conditions, fights, weapons, availability and student use of drugs and alcohol, student perceptions of personal safety at school, and criminal incidents at postsecondary institutions. Indicators of crime and safety are compared across different population subgroups and over time. Data on crimes that occur away from school are offered as a point of comparison where available.

Key Findings Preliminary data show that there were 53 schoolassociated violent deaths1 from July 1, 2012, through June 30, 2013  (Indicator 1). In 2014, among students ages 12–18, there were about 850,100 nonfatal victimizations at school,2 which included 363,700 theft victimizations3 and 486,400 violent victimizations (simple assault4 and serious violent victimizations5) (Indicator 2). During the 2013–14 school year, there were 1.3 million reported discipline incidents in the United States for reasons related to alcohol, drugs, violence, or weapons possession that resulted in a student being removed from the education setting for at least an entire school day (Indicator 19). Of the 781 total hate crimes6 reported on college campuses in 2013, the most common type of hate crime reported by institutions was destruction, damage, and vandalism (364 incidents), followed by intimidation (295 incidents) and simple assault (89 incidents; Indicator 23). 1

A “school-associated violent death” is defined as “a homicide, suicide, or legal intervention (involving a law enforcement officer), in which the fatal injury occurred on the campus of a functioning elementary or secondary school in the United States, while the victim was on the way to or from regular sessions at school or while the victim was attending or traveling to or from an official school-sponsored event.” Victims of school-associated violent deaths include students, staff members, and others who are not students or staff members. 2 “At school” includes inside the school building, on school property, or on the way to or from school. 3 “Theft” includes attempted and completed purse-snatching, completed pickpocketing, and all attempted and completed thefts, with the exception of motor vehicle thefts. Theft does not include robbery, which involves the threat or use of force and is classified as a violent crime. 4 “Simple assault” includes threats and attacks without a weapon or serious injury. 5 “Serious violent victimization” includes the crimes of rape, sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated assault. 6 A hate crime is a criminal offense that is motivated, in whole or in part, by the perpetrator’s bias against the victim(s) based on their race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, gender, or  disability.

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The following key findings are drawn from each section of the report.

between July 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013, there were 41  homicides, 11 suicides, and 1  legal intervention death.7  Of these 53 deaths, there were 31 homicides, 6  suicides, and 1 legal intervention death of school-age youth (ages 5–18) at school (Indicator 1).

Spotlights

x

The percentage of students who had ever been suspended or expelled was higher for fall 2009 ninth-graders who did not complete high school by 2013 than for fall 2009 ninth-graders who did complete high school by 2013 (54 vs. 17 percent; Spotlight 1).

x

A higher percentage of Black students (36 percent) than of Hispanic (21 percent), White (14  percent), and Asian students (6 percent) had ever been suspended or expelled from school (Spotlight 1).

x

A greater percentage of students of low socioeconomic status (SES) than of students of middle SES had ever been suspended or expelled (29 vs. 17 percent), and both of these percentages were greater than the percentage of high-SES students who had ever been suspended or expelled (9 percent; Spotlight 1).

x

The percentage of students with low school engagement who had ever been suspended or expelled (28 percent) was higher than the percentage of students with middle or high levels of school engagement who had ever been suspended or expelled (21 percent and 9 percent, respectively). Similarly, the percentage of students with a low sense of school belonging who had ever been suspended or expelled (28 percent) was higher than the percentage of students with a middle or high sense of school belonging who had ever been suspended or expelled (16 percent and 15 percent, respectively; Spotlight 1).

x

Between 1997 and 2013, the 1-day count of juvenile offenders in residential placement facilities that house such offenders fell by nearly 50 percent, from approximately 105,000 to 54,000 (Spotlight 2).

x

The rate of residential placement for Black male juvenile offenders in 2013 was 1.6 times the rate for American Indian/Alaska Native males, 2.7 times the rate for Hispanic males, 5 times the rate for White males, and over 16 times the rate for Asian males (Spotlight 2).

x

In 2013, 32 percent of juvenile offenders were housed in state-run residential placement facilities, with an additional 32  percent in private facilities and 36 percent in local facilities (Spotlight 2).

Violent Deaths

x

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Of the 53 student, staff, and nonstudent school-associated violent deaths occurring

Executive Summary

x

During the 2012–13 school year, 31 of the 1,186 homicides among school-age youth occurred at school. 8 During the same period, there were 6  suicides of school-age youth at school, compared with 1,590 total suicides of schoolage youth that occurred in calendar year 2012 (Indicator 1).

Nonfatal Student and Teacher Victimization

x

In 2014, among students ages 12–18, there were about 850,100 nonfatal victimizations at school,9 which included 363,700 theft victimizations10 and 486,400 violent victimizations (simple assault11 and serious violent victimizations12) (Indicator 2).

x

In 2014, students ages 12–18 experienced 33  nonfatal victimizations per 1,000 students at school and 24 per 1,000 students away from school (Indicator 2).

x

In 2014, students residing in rural areas had higher rates of total victimization at school (53  victimizations per 1,000 students) than students residing in suburban areas (28  victimizations per 1,000 students). These differences were primarily driven by higher rates of violent victimization at school among students living in rural areas. In the same year, the rate of total victimization at school for students residing in urban areas was 32 victimizations per 1,000 students (Indicator 2).

7

A legal intervention death is defined as a death caused by police and other persons with legal authority to use deadly force, excluding legal executions. 8 This finding is drawn from the School-Associated Violent Deaths Study (SAVD), which defines “at school” for survey respondents as on school property, on the way to or from regular sessions at school, and while attending or traveling to or from a school-sponsored event. 9 This finding is drawn from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), which defines “at school” for survey respondents as inside the school building, on school property, or on the way to or from school. 10 “Theft” includes attempted and completed purse-snatching, completed pickpocketing, and all attempted and completed thefts, with the exception of motor vehicle thefts. Theft does not include robbery, which involves the threat or use of force and is classified as a violent crime. 11 “Simple assault” includes threats and attacks without a weapon or serious injury. 12 “Serious violent victimization” includes the crimes of rape, sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated assault.

x

x

x

x

x

x

13

Between 1992 and 2014, the total victimization rate at school declined 82 percent, from 181 victimizations per 1,000 students in 1992 to 33 victimizations per 1,000 students in 2014. The total victimization rate away from school declined 86 percent, from 173 victimizations per 1,000 students in 1992 to 24 victimizations per 1,000 students in 2014 (Indicator 2). In 2013, approximately 3 percent of students ages 12–18 reported being victimized at school during the previous 6 months. Two percent of students reported theft, 1 percent reported violent victimization, and less than one-half of 1 percent reported serious violent victimization (Indicator 3). Between 1995 and 2013, the percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being victimized at school during the previous 6 months decreased overall (from 10 to 3 percent), as did the percentages of students who reported theft (from 7 to 2 percent), violent victimization (from 3 to 1 percent), and serious violent victimization (from 1 percent to less than one-half of 1 percent; Indicator 3). About 7 percent of students in grades 9–12 reported being threatened or injured with a weapon such as a gun, knife, or club on school property13 in 2013. The percentage of students who reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property has decreased over the last decade, from 9 percent in 2003 to 7 percent in 2013 (Indicator 4). In each survey year from 1993 to 2013, a higher percentage of males than of females in grades 9–12 reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property. In 2013, approximately 8 percent of males and 6 percent of females reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property. The percentage of males who reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property was lower in 2013 than in 2011 (8 vs. 10 percent); however, the percentages for females were not measurably different between these two years (Indicator 4). In 2013, a higher percentage of students in grades 9–12 reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property 1 time (3 percent) than reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property 2 or 3 times (2 percent), 4 to 11 times (1 percent), or 12 or more times (1 percent; Indicator 4). “On school property” was not defined for survey respondents.

x

During the 2011–12 school year, a higher percentage of public than private school teachers reported being threatened with injury (10 vs. 3 percent) or being physically attacked (6 vs. 3 percent) by a student from their school (Indicator 5).

x

Ten percent of elementary teachers and 9 percent of secondary teachers reported being threatened by a student from their school in 2011–12. The percentage of elementary teachers who reported being physically attacked by a student was higher than the percentage of secondary teachers (8 vs. 3 percent; Indicator 5).

School Environment

x

During the 2013–14 school year, 65 percent of public schools recorded that one or more incidents of violence had taken place, amounting to an estimated 757,000 crimes. This figure translates to a rate of approximately 15 crimes per 1,000 students enrolled in 2013–14 (Indicator 6).

x

In 2013–14, about 58 percent of public schools recorded one or more incidents of a physical attack or fight without a weapon, 47 percent of schools recorded one or more incidents of threat of physical attack without a weapon, and 13 percent of public schools recorded one or more serious violent incidents (Indicator 6).

x

Primary schools recorded lower percentages of violent incidents in 2013–14 (53 percent) than middle schools (88 percent) and high schools and combined elementary/secondary schools (referred to as high/combined schools) (78 percent; Indicator 6).

x

The percentage of public schools that reported student bullying occurred at least once a week decreased from 29 percent in 1999–2000 to 16 percent in 2013–14. Similarly, the percentage of schools that reported the occurrence of student verbal abuse of teachers decreased from 13 percent in 1999–2000 to 5 percent in 2013–14 (Indicator 7).

x

The percentage of public schools reporting student harassment of other students based on sexual orientation or gender identity was lower in 2013–14 (1 percent) than in 2009–10 (3 percent; Indicator 7).

x

During the 2013–14 school year, the percentage of public schools that reported student bullying occurred at least once a week was higher for middle schools (25 percent) than high schools/combined schools (17 percent), and the percentages for both of these school levels was higher than the percentage of primary schools (12 percent; Indicator 7).

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

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x

The percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported that gangs were present at their school decreased from 18 percent in 2011 to 12 percent in 2013. A higher percentage of students from urban areas (18 percent) reported a gang presence than students from suburban (11 percent) and rural areas (7 percent) in 2013 (Indicator 8).

x

A higher percentage of students attending public schools (13 percent) than of students attending private schools (2 percent) reported that gangs were present at their school in 2013 (Indicator 8).

x

In 2013, higher percentages of Hispanic (20  percent) and Black (19 percent) students reported the presence of gangs at their school than White (7 percent) and Asian (9 percent) students (Indicator 8).

x

The percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported that illegal drugs were made available to them on school property increased from 1993 to 1995 (from 24 to 32 percent), but then decreased to 22 percent in 2013 (Indicator 9).

x

In 2013, lower percentages of Black students (19 percent) and White students (20 percent) than of Hispanic students (27 percent) and students of Two or more races (26 percent) reported that illegal drugs were made available to them on school property (Indicator 9).

x

x

x

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During the 2013–14 school year, the rate of illicit drug-related discipline incidents was 394 per 100,000 students in the United States. The majority of states had rates between 100 and 1,000 illicit drug-related discipline incidents per 100,000 students during the 2013–14 school year. Five states had rates of illicit drug-related discipline incidents per 100,000 students that were below 100: Wyoming, Texas, Tennessee, Virginia, and Michigan, while two states had rates above 1,000: Kentucky and New Mexico (Indicator 9). The percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being the target of hate-related words decreased from 12 percent in 2001 (the first year of data collection for this item) to 7 percent in 2013. The percentage of students who reported being the target of hate-related words in 2013 was lower than the percentage in 2011 (9 percent; Indicator 10). The percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported seeing hate-related graffiti at school decreased from 36 percent in 1999 (the first year of data collection for this item) to 25 percent in 2013. The percentage of students who reported seeing hate-related graffiti in 2013 was lower than the percentage in 2011 (28 percent; Indicator 10).

Executive Summary

x

In 2013, a lower percentage of White students than students of any other race/ethnicity reported being called a hate-related word during the school year. About 5 percent of White students reported being called a hate-related word, compared with 7   percent of Hispanic students, 8 percent of Black students, 10 percent of Asian students, and 11 percent of students of other races/ethnicities. There were no measurable differences by race/ ethnicity, however, in the percentages of students who reported seeing hate-related graffiti at school in 2013 (Indicator 10).

x

In 2013, about 22 percent of students ages 12–18 reported being bullied at school during the school year. Higher percentages of females than of males reported that they were made fun of, called names, or insulted (15 vs. 13 percent); were the subject of rumors (17 vs. 10 percent); and were excluded from activities on purpose (5 vs. 4 percent). In contrast, a higher percentage of males (7 percent) than of females (5 percent) reported being pushed, shoved, tripped, or spit on (Indicator 11).

x

In 2013, approximately 7 percent of students ages 12–18 reported being cyber-bullied anywhere during the school year. A higher percentage of female students than of male students reported being victims of cyber-bullying overall (9 vs. 5  percent; Indicator 11).

x

In 2013, about 33 percent of students who reported being bullied at school indicated that they were bullied at least once or twice a month during the school year, and about 27 percent of students who reported being cyber-bullied anywhere indicated that they were cyber-bullied at least once or twice a month. A higher percentage of students reported notifying an adult after being bullied at school than after being cyber-bullied anywhere (39 vs. 23 percent; Indicator 11).

x

The percentage of students who reported being bullied was lower in 2013 (22 percent) than in every prior survey year (28 percent each in 2005, 2009, and 2011 and 32 percent in 2007). The same pattern was observed across many of the student and school characteristics examined (Indicator 11).

x

In 2011–12, about 38 percent of teachers agreed or strongly agreed that student misbehavior interfered with their teaching, and 35 percent reported that student tardiness and class cutting interfered with their teaching. Sixty-nine percent of teachers agreed or strongly agreed that other teachers at their school enforced the school rules, and 84 percent reported that the principal enforced the school rules (Indicator 12).

x

x

The percentage of teachers who reported that student misbehavior interfered with their teaching fluctuated between 1993–94 and 2011–12; however, the percentage of teachers reporting that student tardiness and class cutting interfered with their teaching increased over this time period (from 25 to 35 percent). Between 1993–94 and 2011–12, the percentage of teachers who reported that school rules were enforced by other teachers fluctuated between 64 and 73 percent, and the percentage who reported that rules were enforced by the principal fluctuated between 82 and 89 percent (Indicator 12). A higher percentage of public school teachers (41 percent) than of private school teachers (22 percent) reported that student misbehavior interfered with their teaching in 2011–12. In addition, 38 percent of public school teachers reported that student tardiness and class cutting interfered with their teaching, compared with 19 percent of private school teachers. During the same year, lower percentages of public school teachers than of private school teachers agreed that school rules were enforced by other teachers (68 vs. 77 percent) and by the principal in their school (84 vs. 89 percent; Indicator 12).

more times during the previous 12 months. About 7  percent of students in these grades reported being in a physical fight on school property 1 to 3 times, 1 percent reported being in a physical fight on school property 4 to 11 times, and less than 1 percent reported being in a physical fight on school property 12 or more times during the 12-month period (Indicator 13).

x

The percentage of students who reported carrying a weapon on school property in the previous 30 days declined from 12 percent in 1993 to 5 percent in 2013. The percentage of students carrying weapons anywhere was lower in 2013 (18 percent) than in 1993 (22 percent; Indicator 14).

x

During the 2013–14 school year, there were 1,501 reported firearm possession incidents at schools, and the rate of firearm possession incidents was 3 per 100,000 students. Three states had rates above 10: Louisiana, Arkansas, and Vermont (Indicator 14).

x

The percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported that they had access to a loaded gun without adult permission, either at school or away from school, during the current school year decreased from 7 percent in 2007 to 4 percent in 2013 (Indicator 14).

x

Between 1993 and 2013, the percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported having at least one drink of alcohol during the previous 30 days decreased from 48 to 35 percent (Indicator 15).

x

In 2013, about 47 percent of 12th-graders reported consuming alcohol on at least 1 day during the previous 30 days. This percentage was higher than the percentages for 9th-graders (24  percent), 10th-graders (31 percent), and 11th-graders (39 percent; Indicator 15).

x

During the 2013–14 school year, the rate of alcohol-related discipline incidents was 48 per 100,000 students in the United States. The majority of states had rates between 10 and 100 alcohol-related discipline incidents per 100,000 students during the 2013–14 school year. Texas and Wyoming had rates of alcohol-related discipline incidents per 100,000 students that were at or below 10. Tennessee, Montana, and Washington had rates above 100 (Indicator 15).

x

In 2013, some 23 percent of students in grades 9–12 reported using marijuana at least one time in the previous 30 days, which was a higher percentage than that reported in 1993 (18 percent) but not measurably different from that reported in 2011 (Indicator 16).

Fights, Weapons, and Illegal Substances

x

In 2013, about 25 percent of students in grades 9–12 reported that they had been in a physical fight anywhere during the previous 12 months, and 8 percent reported that they had been in a physical fight on school property during this time period (Indicator 13).

x

The percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported being in a physical fight anywhere decreased between 1993 and 2013 (from 42 to 25 percent), and the percentage of students in these grades who reported being in a physical fight on school property also decreased during this period (from 16 to 8 percent; Indicator 13).

x

x

In 2013, a lower percentage of 12th-graders than of 9th-, 10th-, and 11th-graders reported being in a physical fight, either anywhere or on school property during the previous 12 months. Higher percentages of Black students than of students of Two or more races, Hispanic students, Pacific Islander students, White students, and Asian students reported being in a physical fight anywhere or on school property during this time period (Indicator 13). In 2013, about 19 percent of students in grades 9–12 reported being in a physical fight anywhere 1 to 3 times, 4 percent reported being in a physical fight anywhere 4 to 11 times, and 2 percent reported being in a physical fight anywhere 12 or

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x

x

x

In every survey year between 1993 and 2011, higher percentages of male students than of female students reported using marijuana at least one time in the previous 30 days; in 2013, however, there was no measurable difference in the percentages reported by male and female students (25 and 22 percent, respectively; Indicator 16). In 2013, the percentages of Asian students (16  percent) and White students (20 percent) who reported using marijuana at least one time during the previous 30 days were lower than the percentages reported by Hispanic students (28 percent), Black students and students of Two or more races (29 percent each), and American Indian/Alaska Native students (36 percent; Indicator 16). In 2011, some 6 percent of students reported using marijuana at least one time on school property, which was not measurably different from the percentage in 1993. In every survey year between 1993 and 2011, higher percentages of male students than of female students reported using marijuana on school property at least one time in the previous 30 days (Indicator 16).

the previous school year because they feared being attacked or harmed.16 Specifically, 2 percent of students reported avoiding at least one school activity or class, and 4 percent reported avoiding one or more places in school (Indicator 18).

x

Discipline, Safety, and Security Measures

x

During the 2011–12 school year, 3.4 million public school students in the United States received in-school suspensions and 3.2 million received out-of-school suspensions (Indicator 19).

x

During the 2011–12 school year, the percentage of Black students receiving out-of-school suspensions (15 percent) was higher than the percentages for students of any other racial/ ethnic group. In contrast, a lower percentage of Asian students (1 percent) received out-of-school suspensions than students from any other racial/ ethnic group (Indicator 19).

x

During the 2013–14 school year, there were 1.3 million reported discipline incidents in the United States for reasons related to alcohol, drugs, violence, or weapons possession that resulted in a student being removed from the education setting for at least an entire school day. About 78 percent of these discipline incidents were violent incidents with or without physical injury, 15 percent were illicit drug related, 5 percent were weapons possessions, and 2 percent were alcohol related (Indicator 19).

x

Higher percentages of high/combined schools and middle schools than of primary schools reported the enforcement of a strict dress code; a requirement that students wear badges or picture IDs; and the use of random metal detector checks in 2013–14. Additionally, a higher percentage of high/combined schools reported the use of security cameras to monitor the school (89  percent) than middle schools (84 percent), and both these percentages were higher than the percentage of primary schools (67 percent) that reported the use of security cameras (Indicator 20).

Fear and Avoidance

x

x

x

The percentage of students who reported being afraid of attack or harm at school or on the way to and from school decreased from 12 percent in 1995 to 3 percent in 2013, and the percentage of students who reported being afraid of attack or harm away from school decreased from 6 percent in 1999 to 3 percent in 2013 (Indicator 17). In 2013, higher percentages of Black and Hispanic students than of White students reported being afraid of attack or harm both at school and away from school. Additionally, higher percentages of students in urban areas than of students in suburban areas reported being afraid of attack or harm both at school and away from school (Indicator 17). In 2013, about 5 percent of students reported that they avoided at least one school activity or class14 or one or more places in school15 during

14 “Avoided school activities or classes” includes student reports of three activities: avoiding any (extracurricular) activities, avoiding any classes, or staying home from school. Before 2007, students were asked whether they avoided “any extracurricular activities.” Starting in 2007, the survey wording was changed to “any activities.” Caution should be used when comparing changes in this item over time. 15 “Avoiding one or more places in school” includes student reports of five activities: avoiding the entrance, any hallways or stairs, parts of the cafeteria, restrooms, and other places inside the school building.

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Executive Summary

A higher percentage of Hispanic students (5 percent) than of White students (3 percent) reported avoiding one or more places in school in 2013. In addition, a higher percentage of public school students (4 percent) than of private school students (1 percent) reported avoiding one or more places in school (Indicator 18).

16

For the 2001 survey only, the wording was changed from “attack or harm” to “attack or threaten to attack.” See appendix A for more information.

x

From 1999–2000 to 2013–14, the percentage of public schools reporting the use of security cameras increased from 19 percent to 75 percent. Similarly, the percentage of public schools reporting that they controlled access to school buildings increased from 75 percent to 93 percent during this time (Indicator 20).

x

In the 2013–14 school year, about 88 percent of public schools reported they had a written plan for procedures to be performed in the event of a shooting, and 70 percent of those schools with a plan had drilled students on the use of the plan (Indicator 20).

x

In 2013, nearly all students ages 12–18 reported that they observed the use of at least one of the selected security measures at their schools. Most students ages 12–18 reported that their schools had a written code of student conduct and a requirement that visitors sign in (96 percent each). Approximately 90 percent of students reported the presence of school staff (other than security guards or assigned police officers) or other adults supervising the hallway, 77 percent reported the presence of one or more security cameras to monitor the school, and 76 percent reported locked entrance or exit doors during the day. Eleven percent of students reported the use of metal detectors at their schools, representing the least observed of the selected safety and security measures (Indicator 21).

x

However, the number of reported forcible sex crimes on campus increased during this period, from 2,200 in 2001 to 5,000 in 2013 (a 126 percent increase; Indicator 22).

x

The number of disciplinary referrals for drug law violations reported by postsecondary institutions increased between 2001 and 2013 (from 23,900 to 54,100 for a 127 percent increase). The number of referrals for liquor law violations also increased from 130,000 in 2001 to 190,900 in 2013 (a 47 percent increase). The number of referrals for illegal weapons possession was lower in 2013 (1,400) than in 2006 (1,900), but it was higher than the number of such referrals in 2001 (1,300; Indicator 22).

x

The number of arrests for illegal weapons possession reported by postsecondary institutions was 3 percent lower in 2013 than in 2001 (1,000 vs. 1,100). Arrests for drug law violations increased by 70 percent during this period, from 11,900 in 2001 to 20,100 in 2013. The number of arrests for liquor law violations in 2013 (26,600) was lower than in any year between 2001 and 2012 (Indicator 22).

x

Of the 781 total hate crimes reported on college campuses in 2013, the most common type of hate crime reported by institutions was destruction, damage, and vandalism (364   incidents; also referred to as “vandalism”), followed by intimidation (295 incidents), simple assault (89 incidents), larceny (15 incidents), forcible sex offenses (7 incidents), aggravated assault (6 incidents), burglary (4 incidents), and robbery (1 incident). Similarly, vandalism, intimidation, and simple assault were the three most common types of hate crimes reported by institutions from 2009 to 2012 (Indicator 23).

x

Race-related hate crimes accounted for 41 percent of reported vandalisms classified as hate crimes, 37 percent of reported intimidations, and 38 percent of reported simple assaults in 2013. Additionally, 31 percent of vandalism hate crimes, 23 percent of intimidations, and 29 percent of simple assaults were associated with sexual orientation as the motivating bias (Indicator 23).

About 76 percent of students ages 12–18 reported observing locked entrance or exit doors during the day in 2013, representing an increase from 65 percent in 2011 as well as an overall increase from 38 percent in 1999 (Indicator 21).

Postsecondary Campus Safety and Security

x

In 2013, there were 27,600 criminal incidents on campuses at postsecondary institutions that were reported to police and security agencies, representing an 8 percent decrease from 2012 (29,800 incidents). The number of on-campus crimes per 10,000 full-time-equivalent students also decreased, from 19.8 in 2012 to 18.4 in 2013 (Indicator 22).

x

Between 2001 and 2013, the overall number of crimes reported by postsecondary institutions decreased by 34 percent, from 41,600 to 27,600.

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Foreword Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015 provides the most recent national indicators on school crime and safety. The information presented in this report serves as a reference for policymakers and practitioners so that they can develop effective programs and policies aimed at violence and school crime prevention. Accurate information about the nature, extent, and scope of the problem being addressed is essential for developing effective programs and policies. This is the 18th edition of Indicators of School Crime and Safety, a joint publication of the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) and the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). This report provides detailed statistics to inform the nation about current aspects of crime and safety in schools. The 2015 edition of Indicators of School Crime and Safety includes the most recent available data, compiled from a number of statistical data sources supported by the federal government. Such sources include results from the School-Associated Violent Deaths Study, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education, the Department of Justice, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); the National Crime Victimization Survey and School Crime Supplement to the survey, sponsored by BJS and NCES, respectively; the Youth

Risk Behavior Survey, sponsored by the CDC; the Schools and Staffing Survey, School Survey on Crime and Safety, Fast Response Survey System, EDFacts, and High School Longitudinal Study of 2009, all sponsored by NCES; the Supplementary Homicide Reports, sponsored by the Federal Bureau of Investigation; the Campus Safety and Security Survey and Civil Rights Data Collection, both sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education; and the Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Justice. The entire report is available on the Internet (http:// nces.ed.gov/programs/crimeindicators/). The Bureau of Justice Statistics and the National Center for Education Statistics continue to work together in order to provide timely and complete data on the issues of school-related violence and safety. Peggy G. Carr Acting Commissioner National Center for Education Statistics Jeri M. Mulrow Acting Director Bureau of Justice Statistics

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

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Acknowledgments The authors are grateful to the sponsoring agencies, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), for supporting this report. From BJS, we wish to thank Allen Beck, Gerard Ramker, Howard Snyder, Michael Planty, Doris James, and Jill Thomas, who served as reviewers, and Rachel Morgan, who verified data from the

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Acknowledgments

National Crime Victimization Survey. Outside of NCES and BJS, Nancy Brener, Mark Anderson, Jeffrey Hall, and Kristin Holland of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention generously provided data and performed a review of data documentation. We also value the review of this report and the continued support provided by the Office of Safe and Healthy Students.

Contents Executive Summary .................................................................................................................................... iii Foreword .....................................................................................................................................................xi Acknowledgments ......................................................................................................................................xii List of Tables ............................................................................................................................................. xiv List of Figures..........................................................................................................................................xviii Introduction................................................................................................................................................ 1 Spotlights .................................................................................................................................................... 7 Spotlight 1: Suspension and Expulsion by Student, Family, and Academic Characteristics ......................... 8 Spotlight 2: Juveniles in Residential Placement: Youth and Facility Characteristics ................................... 14 Violent Deaths .......................................................................................................................................... 19 Indicator 1: Violent Deaths at School and Away From School.................................................................. 20 Nonfatal Student and Teacher Victimization ............................................................................................ 23 Indicator 2: Incidence of Victimization at School and Away From School ................................................ 24 Indicator 3: Prevalence of Victimization at School.................................................................................... 30 Indicator 4: Threats and Injuries With Weapons on School Property........................................................ 34 Indicator 5: Teachers Threatened With Injury or Physically Attacked by Students .................................... 38 School Environment ................................................................................................................................. 41 Indicator 6: Violent and Other Criminal Incidents at Public Schools, and Those Reported to the Police......................................................................................................................................... 42 Indicator 7: Discipline Problems Reported by Public Schools................................................................... 46 Indicator 8: Students’ Reports of Gangs at School .................................................................................... 52 Indicator 9: Illegal Drug Availability and Drug-Related Discipline Incidents ........................................... 54 Indicator 10: Students’ Reports of Being Called Hate-Related Words and Seeing Hate-Related Graffiti ........................................................................................................................... 58 Indicator 11: Bullying at School and Cyber-Bullying Anywhere ............................................................... 62 Indicator 12: Teachers’ Reports on School Conditions ............................................................................. 70 Fights, Weapons, and Illegal Substances .................................................................................................... 73 Indicator 13: Physical Fights on School Property and Anywhere .............................................................. 74 Indicator 14: Students Carrying Weapons on School Property and Anywhere and Students’ Access to Firearms................................................................................................................................ 78 Indicator 15: Students’ Use of Alcohol and Alcohol-Related Discipline Incidents..................................... 82 Indicator 16: Students’ Use of Marijuana on School Property and Anywhere ........................................... 86 Fear and Avoidance ................................................................................................................................... 91 Indicator 17: Students’ Perceptions of Personal Safety at School and Away From School .......................... 92 Indicator 18: Students’ Reports of Avoiding School Activities or Classes or Specific Places in School ................................................................................................................................... 94 Discipline, Safety, and Security Measures .................................................................................................. 97 Indicator 19: Serious Disciplinary Actions Taken by Public Schools ......................................................... 98 Indicator 20: Safety and Security Measures Taken by Public Schools ...................................................... 102 Indicator 21: Students’ Reports of Safety and Security Measures Observed at School ............................. 108 Postsecondary Campus Safety and Security ............................................................................................. 111 Indicator 22: Criminal Incidents at Postsecondary Institutions............................................................... 112 Indicator 23: Hate Crime Incidents at Postsecondary Institutions .......................................................... 116 References ............................................................................................................................................... 121 Supplemental Tables ............................................................................................................................... 125 Appendix A: Technical Notes.................................................................................................................. 195 Appendix B: Glossary of Terms ............................................................................................................... 213 Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

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List of Tables Table

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Page

A.

Nationally representative sample and universe surveys used in this report..................................... 5

S1.1.

Number and percentage of fall 2009 ninth-graders who were ever suspended or expelled through spring 2012, by when student was suspended or expelled and selected student characteristics: 2013................................................................................................................. 126

S2.1.

Number of juvenile offenders in residential placement facilities, by selected juvenile and facility characteristics: Selected years, 1997 through 2013........................................................ 127

S2.2.

Residential placement rate (number of juvenile offenders in residential facilities) per 100,000 juveniles, by sex and race/ethnicity: Selected years, 1997 through 2013...................... 128

1.1.

School-associated violent deaths of all persons, homicides and suicides of youth ages 5–18 at school, and total homicides and suicides of youth ages 5–18, by type of violent death: 1992–93 to 2012–13............................................................................................................... 129

2.1.

Number of nonfatal victimizations against students ages 12–18 and rate of victimization per 1,000 students, by type of victimization, location, and year: 1992 through 2014............... 130

2.2.

Number of nonfatal victimizations against students ages 12–18 and rate of victimization per 1,000 students, by type of victimization, location, and selected student characteristics: 2014................................................................................................................. 131

3.1.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported criminal victimization at school during the previous 6 months, by type of victimization and selected student and school characteristics: Selected years, 1995 through 2013.................................................................... 132

4.1.

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property during the previous 12 months, by selected student characteristics and number of times threatened or injured: Selected years, 1993 through 2013........................................................................................................................... 134

4.2.

Percentage of public school students in grades 9–12 who reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property at least one time during the previous 12 months, by state: Selected years, 2003 through 2013........................................................... 135

5.1.

Number and percentage of public and private school teachers who reported that they were threatened with injury or physically attacked by a student from school during the previous 12 months, by selected teacher and school characteristics: Selected years, 1993–94 through 2011–12...................................................................................................... 136

5.2.

Percentage of public school teachers who reported that they were threatened with injury or physically attacked by a student from school during the previous 12 months, by state: Selected years, 1993–94 through 2011–12............................................................................... 137

6.1.

Percentage of public schools recording incidents of crime at school and reporting incidents to police, number of incidents, and rate per 1,000 students, by type of crime: Selected years, 1999–2000 through 2013–14........................................................................... 138

6.2.

Percentage of public schools recording violent incidents of crime at school, number of incidents, and rate per 1,000 students, by category of violent incident and selected school characteristics: 2009–10 and 2013–14.......................................................................... 139

6.3.

Percentage of public schools reporting incidents of crime at school to the police, number of incidents, and rate per 1,000 students, by type of crime and selected school characteristics: 2009–10........................................................................................................... 140

7.1.

Percentage of public schools reporting selected discipline problems that occurred at school, by frequency and selected school characteristics: Selected years, 1999–2000 through 2013–14..................................................................................................................... 141

List of Tables

Table

Page

7.2.

Percentage of public schools reporting selected types of cyber-bullying problems occurring at school or away from school at least once a week, by selected school characteristics: 2009–10 .......................................................................................................... 143

8.1.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported that gangs were present at school during the school year, by selected student and school characteristics and urbanicity: Selected years, 2001 through 2013 .......................................................................................... 144

9.1.

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported that illegal drugs were made available to them on school property during the previous 12 months, by selected student characteristics: Selected years, 1993 through 2013 ...................................................... 145

9.2.

Percentage of public school students in grades 9–12 who reported that illegal drugs were made available to them on school property during the previous 12 months, by state: Selected years, 2003 through 2013 ............................................................................ 146

9.3.

Number of discipline incidents resulting in removal of a student from a regular education program for at least an entire school day and rate of incidents per 100,000 students, by discipline reason and state: 2013–14................................................................................... 147

10.1.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being the target of hate-related words and seeing hate-related graffiti at school during the school year, by selected student and school characteristics: Selected years, 1999 through 2013 ........................................................ 148

10.2.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being the target of hate-related words at school, by type of hate-related word and selected student and school characteristics: 2013 ................................................................................................................ 149

11.1.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being bullied at school or cyber-bullied anywhere during the school year, by type of bullying at school, reports of injury, and selected student and school characteristics: 2013 ..................................................................... 150

11.2.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being bullied at school during the school year and, among bullied students, percentage who reported being bullied in various locations, by selected student and school characteristics: 2013 ..................................... 151

11.3.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being cyber-bullied anywhere during the school year, by type of cyber-bullying and selected student and school characteristics: 2013 ................................................................................................................ 152

11.4.

Among students ages 12–18 who reported being bullied at school and cyber-bullied anywhere during the school year, percentage reporting various frequencies of bullying and the notification of an adult at school, by selected student and school characteristics: 2013 ................................................................................................................ 153

11.5.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being bullied at school during the school year, by type of bullying and selected student and school characteristics: Selected years, 2005 through 2013 .......................................................................................... 154

11.6.

Percentage of public school students in grades 9–12 who reported having been bullied on school property or electronically bullied during the previous 12 months, by state: Selected years, 2009 through 2013 .......................................................................................... 156

12.1.

Percentage of public and private school teachers who agreed that student misbehavior and student tardiness and class cutting interfered with their teaching, by selected teacher and school characteristics: Selected years, 1987–88 through 2011–12 ......................... 157

12.2.

Percentage of public and private school teachers who agreed that other teachers and the principal enforced school rules, by selected teacher and school characteristics: Selected years, 1987–88 through 2011–12............................................................................................ 158

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12.3.

Percentage of public school teachers who agreed that student misbehavior and student tardiness and class cutting interfered with their teaching and that other teachers and the principal enforced school rules, by state: 2011–12 ............................................................. 159

13.1.

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported having been in a physical fight at least one time during the previous 12 months, by location and selected student characteristics: Selected years, 1993 through 2013................................................................... 160

13.2.

Percentage distribution of students in grades 9–12, by number of times they reported having been in a physical fight anywhere or on school property during the previous 12 months and selected student characteristics: 2013 .............................................................. 161

13.3.

Percentage of public school students in grades 9–12 who reported having been in a physical fight at least one time during the previous 12 months, by location and state: Selected years, 2003 through 2013 .......................................................................................... 162

14.1.

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported carrying a weapon at least 1 day during the previous 30 days, by location and selected student characteristics: Selected years, 1993 through 2013........................................................................................................ 163

14.2.

Percentage distribution of students in grades 9–12, by number of days they reported carrying a weapon anywhere or on school property during the previous 30 days and selected student characteristics: 2013 ....................................................................................... 164

14.3.

Percentage of public school students in grades 9–12 who reported carrying a weapon at least 1 day during the previous 30 days, by location and state: Selected years, 2003 through 2013 .......................................................................................................................... 165

14.4.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported having access to a loaded gun, without adult permission, at school or away from school during the school year, by selected student and school characteristics: Selected years, 2007 through 2013..................................... 166

14.5.

Number of incidents of students bringing firearms to or possessing firearms at a public school and rate of incidents per 100,000 students, by state: 2009–10 through 2013–14 ............. 167

15.1.

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported using alcohol at least 1 day during the previous 30 days, by location and selected student characteristics: Selected years, 1993 through 2013 ................................................................................................................. 168

15.2.

Percentage distribution of students in grades 9–12, by number of days they reported using alcohol anywhere or on school property during the previous 30 days and selected student characteristics: Selected years, 2009 through 2013 ...................................................... 169

15.3.

Percentage of public school students in grades 9–12 who reported using alcohol at least 1 day during the previous 30 days, by location and state: Selected years, 2003 through 2013 .......................................................................................................................... 170

15.4.

Number of discipline incidents resulting in removal of a student from a regular education program for at least an entire school day and rate of incidents per 100,000 students, by discipline reason and state: 2013–14................................................................................... 171

16.1.

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported using marijuana at least one time during the previous 30 days, by location and selected student characteristics: Selected years, 1993 through 2013........................................................................................................ 172

16.2.

Percentage distribution of students in grades 9–12, by number of times they reported using marijuana anywhere or on school property during the previous 30 days and selected student characteristics: Selected years, 2009 through 2013 ...................................................... 173

List of Tables

Table

Page

16.3.

Percentage of public school students in grades 9–12 who reported using marijuana at least one time during the previous 30 days, by location and state: Selected years, 2003 through 2013 .......................................................................................................................... 174

17.1.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being afraid of attack or harm, by location and selected student and school characteristics: Selected years, 1995 through 2013 ................................................................................................................. 175

18.1.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported avoiding one or more places in school or avoiding school activities or classes because of fear of attack or harm, by selected student and school characteristics: Selected years, 1995 through 2013..................................... 176

19.1.

Number of students receiving selected disciplinary actions in public elementary and secondary schools, by type of disciplinary action, disability status, sex, and race/ethnicity: 2011–12 .......................................................................................................... 177

19.2.

Percentage of students receiving selected disciplinary actions in public elementary and secondary schools, by type of disciplinary action, disability status, sex, and race/ethnicity: 2011–12 .......................................................................................................... 178

19.3.

Percentage of students suspended and expelled from public elementary and secondary schools, by sex, race/ethnicity, and state: 2011–12 ................................................................... 179

19.4.

Number of discipline incidents resulting in removal of a student from a regular education program for at least an entire school day and rate of incidents per 100,000 students, by discipline reason and state: 2013–14................................................................................... 180

20.1.

Percentage of public schools with various safety and security measures, by school level: Selected years, 1999–2000 through 2013–14 .......................................................................... 181

20.2.

Percentage of public schools with various safety and security measures, by selected school characteristics: 2013–14 ............................................................................................... 182

20.3.

Percentage of public schools with one or more full-time or part-time security staff present at least once a week, by selected school characteristics: 2005–06 through 2013–14 ................. 183

20.4.

Percentage of public schools with a written plan for procedures to be performed in selected crises and percentage that have drilled students on the use of a plan, by selected school characteristics: Selected years, 2003–04 through 2013–14 ............................... 184

21.1.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported various security measures at school: Selected years, 1999 through 2013 .......................................................................................... 188

22.1.

On-campus crimes, arrests, and referrals for disciplinary action at degree-granting postsecondary institutions, by location of incident, control and level of institution, and type of incident: 2001 through 2013 ................................................................................ 189

22.2.

On-campus crimes, arrests, and referrals for disciplinary action per 10,000 full-timeequivalent (FTE) students at degree-granting postsecondary institutions, by whether institution has residence halls, control and level of institution, and type of incident: 2001 through 2013 ................................................................................................................. 191

23.1.

On-campus hate crimes at degree-granting postsecondary institutions, by level and control of institution, type of crime, and category of bias motivating the crime: 2009 through 2013 ................................................................................................................. 193

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List of Figures Figure

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Page

S1.1.

Percentage of fall 2009 ninth-graders who were ever suspended or expelled through spring 2012, by when the student was suspended or expelled and sex: 2012................................. 9

S1.2.

Percentage of fall 2009 ninth-graders who were ever suspended or expelled through spring 2012, by race/ethnicity: 2012.......................................................................................... 10

S1.3.

Percentage of fall 2009 ninth-graders who were ever suspended or expelled through spring 2012, by highest education of parents and family socioeconomic status: 2012................. 11

S1.4.

Percentage of fall 2009 ninth-graders who were ever suspended or expelled through spring 2012, by school engagement and sense of school belonging: 2012................................... 12

S1.5.

Percentage of fall 2009 ninth-graders who were ever suspended or expelled through spring 2012, by cumulative high school grade point average and high school completion status: 2013................................................................................................................................ 13

S2.1.

Number of juvenile offenders in residential placement facilities, by sex: Selected years, 1997 through 2013.................................................................................................................... 15

S2.2.

Residential placement rate (number of juvenile offenders in residential facilities) per 100,000 juveniles, by race/ethnicity: Selected years, 1997 through 2013.................................... 15

S2.3.

Residential placement rate (number of juvenile offenders in residential facilities) per 100,000 juveniles, by race/ethnicity and sex: 2013..................................................................... 16

S2.4.

Percentage distribution of juvenile offenders in residential placement facilities, by facility operation: 1997 and 2013............................................................................................... 17

1.1.

Number of student, staff, and nonstudent school-associated violent deaths, and number of homicides and suicides of youth ages 5–18 at school: School years 1992–93 to 2012–13.................................................................................................................. 21

1.2.

Percentage distribution and number of homicides and suicides of youth ages 5–18, by location: 2012–13.................................................................................................................. 21

2.1.

Rate of nonfatal victimization against students ages 12–18 per 1,000 students, by type of victimization and location: 1992 through 2014.............................................................. 25

2.2.

Rate of nonfatal victimization against students ages 12–18 per 1,000 students, by location, type of victimization, and sex: 2014............................................................................. 27

2.3.

Rate of nonfatal victimization against students ages 12–18 per 1,000 students, by location, type of victimization, and urbanicity: 2014.................................................................. 28

3.1.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported criminal victimization at school during the previous 6 months, by type of victimization: Selected years, 1995 through 2013.................. 31

3.2.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported criminal victimization at school during the previous 6 months, by selected student and school characteristics: 1995 and 2013............... 33

4.1.

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property at least once during the previous 12 months, by sex: Selected years, 1993 through 2013............................................................................................. 35

4.2.

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property at least once during the previous 12 months, by race/ ethnicity: 2013........................................................................................................................... 35

4.3.

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property at least once during the previous 12 months, by number of times threatened or injured and grade: 2013............................................................................... 36

List of Figures

Figure

Page

5.1.

Percentage of public and private school teachers who reported that they were threatened with injury or that they were physically attacked by a student from school during the previous 12 months: Selected school years, 1993–94 through 2011–12..................................... 39

5.2.

Percentage of public and private school teachers who reported that they were threatened with injury or that they were physically attacked by a student from school during the previous 12 months, by sex: School year 2011–12 ..................................................................... 39

5.3.

Percentage of public and private school teachers who reported that they were threatened with injury or that they were physically attacked by a student from school during the previous 12 months, by instructional level: School year 2011–12 .............................................. 40

6.1.

Percentage of public schools recording incidents of violent crime at school, by type of crime: School year 2013–14 ....................................................................................................... 43

6.2.

Percentage of public schools recording incidents of violent crime at school, by selected school characteristics: School year 2013–14 ................................................................................ 45

7.1.

Percentage of public schools reporting selected discipline problems that occurred at school at least once a week: School years 1999–2000, 2009–10, and 2013–14 .......................... 47

7.2.

Percentage of public schools reporting student bullying occurred at school at least once a week, by selected school characteristics: School year 2013–14 ........................................ 49

7.3.

Percentage of public schools reporting selected types of cyber-bullying problems occurring at school or away from school at least once a week, by school level: School year 2009–10 ............................................................................................................................ 50

8.1.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported that gangs were present at school during the school year, by urbanicity: 2011 and 2013 ............................................................... 53

8.2.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported that gangs were present at school during the school year, by race/ethnicity: 2011 and 2013 .......................................................... 53

9.1.

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported that illegal drugs were made available to them on school property during the previous 12 months, by sex: Selected years, 1993 through 2013 ................................................................................................................... 55

9.2.

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported that illegal drugs were made available to them on school property during the previous 12 months, by race/ethnicity: 2011 and 2013 .......................................................................................................................... 55

10.1.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being the target of hate-related words and seeing hate-related graffiti at school during the school year, by selected student and school characteristics: 2013........................................................................................................ 59

10.2.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being the target of hate-related words at school during the school year, by type of hate-related word and sex: 2013 ............................. 61

11.1.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being bullied at school during the school year, by type of bullying and sex: 2013............................................................................ 63

11.2.

Among students ages 12–18 who reported being bullied at school during the school year, percentage who reported being bullied in various locations: 2013 ...................................... 65

11.3.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being cyber-bullied anywhere during the school year, by type of cyber-bullying and sex: 2013 ............................................................ 67

11.4.

Among students ages 12–18 who reported being bullied at school or cyber-bullied anywhere during the school year, percentage reporting various frequencies of bullying and the notification of an adult at school: 2013......................................................................... 67

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Figure

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Page

11.5.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being bullied at school during the school year, by selected school characteristics: Selected years, 2005 through 2013 ................................ 69

12.1.

Percentage of public and private school teachers who agreed that student misbehavior and student tardiness and class cutting interfered with their teaching, and percentage who agreed that other teachers and the principal enforced school rules, by school control: School year 2011–12 ................................................................................................................. 71

12.2.

Percentage of public and private school teachers who agreed that student misbehavior and student tardiness and class cutting interfered with their teaching, and percentage who agreed that other teachers and the principal enforced school rules: Selected school years, 1993–94 through 2011–12.............................................................................................. 71

13.1.

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported having been in a physical fight at least one time during the previous 12 months, by location and grade: Selected years, 1993 through 2013 ................................................................................................................... 75

13.2.

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported having been in a physical fight at least one time during the previous 12 months, by race/ethnicity and location: 2013 ................. 75

13.3.

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported having been in a physical fight during the previous 12 months, by location, number of times, and sex: 2013............................ 77

14.1.

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported carrying a weapon at least 1 day during the previous 30 days, by location and sex: Selected years, 1993 through 2013 ................ 79

14.2.

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported carrying a weapon at least 1 day during the previous 30 days, by race/ethnicity and location: 2013 ............................................. 79

14.3.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported having access to a loaded gun, without adult permission, at school or away from school during the school year, by sex: Selected years, 2007 through 2013 ............................................................................................ 81

15.1.

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported using alcohol at least 1 day during the previous 30 days, by location and sex: Selected years, 1993 through 2013 ........................... 83

15.2.

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported using alcohol at least 1 day during the previous 30 days, by location, number of days, and sex: 2011 and 2013 .............................. 83

15.3.

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported using alcohol anywhere at least 1 day during the previous 30 days, by grade: 2013 .................................................................... 85

16.1.

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported using marijuana at least one time during the previous 30 days, by location and sex: Selected years, 1993 through 2013 ................ 87

16.2.

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported using marijuana during the previous 30 days, by location, number of times, and sex: 2011 and 2013 ................................................ 87

16.3.

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported using marijuana anywhere at least one time during the previous 30 days, by race/ethnicity: 2013 .................................................. 89

17.1.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being afraid of attack or harm during the school year, by location and sex: Selected years, 1995 through 2013 .................................... 93

17.2.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being afraid of attack or harm during the school year, by location and urbanicity: 2013 ...................................................................... 93

18.1.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported avoiding school activities or classes or avoiding one or more places in school because of fear of attack or harm during the school year: 2013 ...................................................................................................................... 95

List of Figures

Figure

Page

18.2.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported avoiding one or more places in school because of fear of attack or harm during the school year, by selected student and school characteristics: 2013 .................................................................................................................. 96

19.1.

Percentage of public school students enrolled who received out-of-school suspensions, by race/ethnicity and sex: 2011–12 ............................................................................................ 99

19.2.

Percentage distribution of discipline incidents resulting in removal of a student from a regular education program for at least an entire school day, by discipline reason: 2013–14.................................................................................................................................. 100

20.1.

Percentage of public schools that used selected safety and security measures, by school level: School year 2013–14 ...................................................................................................... 103

20.2.

Percentage of public schools that used selected safety and security measures, by year: School years 1999–2000, 2009–10, and 2013–14 ................................................................... 105

20.3.

Percentage of public schools with a written plan for procedures to be performed in selected crises and percentage that have drilled students on the use of a plan: School year 2013–14 .......................................................................................................................... 107

21.1.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported various security measures at school: Selected years, 1999 through 2013 .......................................................................................... 109

22.1.

Number of on-campus crimes reported and number per 10,000 full-time-equivalent (FTE) students in degree-granting postsecondary institutions, by selected type of crime: 2001 through 2013 ...................................................................................................... 113

22.2.

Number of on-campus arrests and number per 10,000 full-time-equivalent (FTE) students in degree-granting postsecondary institutions, by type of arrest: 2001 through 2013 ................................................................................................................. 114

22.3.

Number of referrals for disciplinary actions resulting from on-campus violations and number per 10,000 full-time-equivalent (FTE) students in degree-granting postsecondary institutions, by type of referral: 2001 through 2013 ..................................... 115

23.1.

Number of on-campus hate crimes at degree-granting postsecondary institutions, by selected type of crime: 2009 through 2013 .............................................................................. 117

23.2.

Number of on-campus hate crimes at degree-granting postsecondary institutions, by selected types of crime and category of bias motivating the crime: 2013 ..................................... 119

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Introduction

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

1

Our nation’s schools should be safe havens for teaching and learning free of crime and violence. Any instance of crime or violence at school not only affects the individuals involved but also may disrupt the educational process and affect bystanders, the school itself, and the surrounding community (Brookmeyer, Fanti, and Henrich 2006; Goldstein, Young, and Boyd 2008). For both students and teachers, victimization at school can have lasting effects. In addition to experiencing loneliness, depression, and adjustment difficulties (Crick and Bigbee 1998; Crick and Grotpeter 1996; Nansel et al. 2001; Prinstein, Boergers, and Vernberg 2001; Storch et al. 2003), victimized children are more prone to truancy (Ringwalt, Ennett, and Johnson 2003), poor academic performance (MacMillan and Hagan 2004; Wei and Williams 2004), dropping out of school (Beauvais et al. 1996; MacMillan and Hagan 2004), and violent behaviors (Nansel et al. 2003). For teachers, incidents of victimization may lead to professional disenchantment and even departure from the profession altogether (Karcher 2002; Smith and Smith 2006). For parents, school staff, and policymakers to effectively address school crime, they need an accurate understanding of the extent, nature, and context of the problem. However, it is difficult to gauge the scope of crime and violence in schools given the large amount of attention devoted to isolated incidents of extreme school violence. Measuring progress toward safer schools requires establishing good indicators of the current state of school crime and safety across the nation and regularly updating and monitoring these indicators; this is the aim of Indicators of School Crime and Safety.

Purpose and Organization of This Report Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015 is the 18th in a series of reports produced since 1998 by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) that present the most recent data available on school crime and student safety. Although the data presented in this report are the most recent data available at the time of publication, the data do not cover the most recent two or more school years. The report is not intended to be an exhaustive compilation of school 2

Introduction

crime and safety information, nor does it attempt to explore reasons for crime and violence in schools. Rather, it is designed to provide a brief summary of information from an array of data sources and to make data on national school crime and safety accessible to policymakers, educators, parents, and the general public. Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015 is organized into sections that delineate specific concerns to readers, starting with a description of the most serious violent crimes. The sections cover violent deaths; nonfatal student and teacher victimization; school environment; fights, weapons, and illegal substances; fear and avoidance; discipline, safety, and security measures; and campus safety and security. This year’s report also includes a spotlight section on topics related to student suspension and expulsion and juvenile offenders in residential placement facilities that house such offenders. Each section contains a set of indicators that, taken together, aim to describe a distinct aspect of school crime and safety. Where available, data on crimes that occur outside of school grounds are offered as a point of comparison.1 Supplemental tables for each indicator provide more detailed breakouts and standard errors for estimates. A reference section and a glossary of terms appear at the end of the report. This edition of the report contains updated data for eleven indicators: violent deaths at school and away from school (Indicator 1); incidence of victimization at school and away from school (Indicator 2); violent and other criminal incidents at public schools, and those reported to the police (Indicator 6 ); discipline problems reported by public schools (Indicator 7); illegal drug availability and drug-related discipline incidents (Indicator 9); students carrying weapons on school property and anywhere and students’ access to firearms (Indicator 14); students’ use of alcohol and alcohol-related discipline incidents (Indicator 15); serious disciplinary actions taken by public schools (Indicator 19); safety and security measures taken by public schools (Indicator 20); criminal incidents at postsecondary institutions (Indicator 22); and hate crime incidents at postsecondary institutions 1

Data in this report are not adjusted to reflect the number of hours that youths spend on school property versus the number of hours they spend elsewhere.

(Indicator 23). In addition, it includes two spotlight indicators: suspension and expulsion by student, family, and academic characteristics (Spotlight 1) and juveniles in residential placement: youth and facility characteristics (Spotlight 2). Also included in this year’s report are references to publications relevant to each indicator that the reader may want to consult for additional information or analyses. These references can be found in the “For more information” sidebars at the bottom of each indicator.

Data The indicators in this report are based on information drawn from a variety of independent data sources, including national surveys of students, teachers, principals, and postsecondary institutions and universe data collections from federal departments and agencies, including BJS, NCES, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Office of Postsecondary Education, the Office for Civil Rights, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Each data source has an independent sample design, data collection method, and questionnaire design, or is the result of a universe data collection. The combination of multiple, independent sources of data provides a broad perspective on school crime and safety that could not be achieved through any single source of information. However, readers should be cautious when comparing data from different sources. While every effort has been made to keep key definitions consistent across indicators, differences in sampling procedures, populations, time periods, and question phrasing can all affect the comparability of results. For example, both Indicators 20 and 21 report data on selected security and safety measures used in schools. Indicator 20 uses data collected from a survey of public school principals about safety and security practices used in their schools during the 2013–14 school year. The schools range from primary through high schools. Indicator 21, however, uses data collected from 12through 18-year-old students residing in a sample of households. These students were asked whether they observed selected safety and security measures in

their school in 2013, but they may not have known whether, in fact, the security measure was present. In addition, different indicators contain various approaches to the analysis of school crime data and, therefore, will show different perspectives on school crime. For example, both Indicators 2 and 3 report data on theft and violent victimization at school based on the National Crime Victimization Survey and the School Crime Supplement to that survey, respectively. While Indicator 2 examines the number of incidents of victimization, Indicator 3 examines the percentage or prevalence of students who reported victimization. Table A provides a summary of some of the variations in the design and coverage of sample surveys used in this report. Several indicators in this report are based on selfreported survey data. Readers should note that limitations inherent to self-reported data may affect estimates (Addington 2005; Cantor and Lynch 2000). First, unless an interview is “bounded” or a reference period is established, estimates may include events that exceed the scope of the specified reference period. This factor may artificially increase reported incidents because respondents may recall events outside of the given reference period. Second, many of the surveys rely on the respondent to “self-determine” a condition. This factor allows the respondent to define a situation based upon his or her own interpretation of whether the incident was a crime or not. On the other hand, the same situation may not necessarily be interpreted in the same way by a bystander or the perceived offender. Third, victim surveys tend to emphasize crime events as incidents that take place at one point in time. However, victims can often experience a state of victimization in which they are threatened or victimized regularly or repeatedly. Finally, respondents may recall an event inaccurately. For instance, people may forget the event entirely or recall the specifics of the episode incorrectly. These and other factors may affect the precision of the estimates based on these surveys. Data trends are discussed in this report when possible. Where trends are not discussed, either the data are not available in earlier surveys or the wording of the survey question changed from year to year, eliminating the ability to discuss any trend.

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

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Where data from samples are reported, as is the case with most of the indicators in this report, the standard error is calculated for each estimate provided in order to determine the “margin of error” for these estimates. The standard errors of the estimates for different subpopulations in an indicator can vary considerably and should be taken into account when making comparisons. With the exception of Indicator 2, in this report, in cases where the standard error was between 30 and 50 percent of the associated estimate, the estimates were noted with a “!” symbol (Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation [CV] for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent). In Indicator 2, the “!” symbol cautions the reader that estimates marked indicate that the reported statistic was based on 10 or fewer cases. With the exception of Indicator 2, in cases where the standard error was 50 percent or greater of the associated estimate, the estimate was suppressed (Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation [CV] is 50 percent or greater). See appendix A for more information. The appearance of a “!” symbol (Interpret data with caution) in a table or figure indicates a data cell with a high ratio of standard error to estimate so the reader should use caution when interpreting such data. These estimates are still discussed, however, when statistically significant differences are found despite large standard errors. Comparisons in the text based on sample survey data have been tested for statistical significance to ensure that the differences are larger than might be expected due to sampling variation. Findings described in this

4

Introduction

report with comparative language (e.g., higher, lower, increase, and decrease) are statistically significant at the .05 level. Comparisons based on universe data do not require statistical testing, with the exception of linear trends. Several test procedures were used, depending upon the type of data being analyzed and the nature of the comparison being tested. The primary test procedure used in this report was Student’s t statistic, which tests the difference between two sample estimates. The t test formula was not adjusted for multiple comparisons. Linear trend tests were used to examine changes in percentages over a range of values such as time or age. Linear trends tests allow one to examine whether, for example, the percentage of students who reported using drugs increased (or decreased) over time or whether the percentage of students who reported being physically attacked in school increased (or decreased) with age. When differences among percentages were examined relative to a variable with ordinal categories (such as grade), analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for a linear relationship between the two variables. Percentages reported in the tables and figures are generally rounded to one decimal place (e.g., 76.5 percent), while percentages reported in the text are generally rounded from the original number to whole numbers (with any value of 0.50 or above rounded to the next highest whole number). While the data labels on the figures have been rounded to one decimal place, the graphical presentation of these data is based on the unrounded estimates. Appendix A of this report contains descriptions of all the datasets used in this report and a discussion of how standard errors were calculated for each estimate.

Table A.

Nationally representative sample and universe surveys used in this report

Survey

Sample

Year of survey

Reference time period

Indicators

Campus Safety and Security Survey

All postsecondary institutions that receive Title IV funding

2001 through 2013 annually

Calendar year

22, 23

Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (CJRP)

All residential placement facilities that house juvenile offenders

1997 through 2013 biennially

Fourth Wednesday in October

Spotlight 2

Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC)

All public elementary and secondary schools

2011–12

2011–12 school year

19

EDFacts

All students in K–12 schools

2009–10 through 2013–14 annually

Incidents during the school year

9, 14, 15, and 19

Fast Response Survey System (FRSS)

Public primary, middle, and high schools1

2013–14

2013–14 school year

6, 7, and 20

High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09)

Students enrolled in ninth grade in fall 2009

2009, 2012, and 2013

Fall 2009, spring 2012, and fall 2013

Spotlight 1

National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)

Individuals ages 12 or older living in households and group quarters

1992 through 2014 annually

Interviews conducted during the calendar year2

2

The School-Associated Violent Deaths Study (SAVD)

Universe

1992 through 2013 continuous

July 1 through June 30

1

School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey

Students ages 12–18 enrolled in public and private schools during the school year

1995, 1999, and 2001 through 2013 biennially

Incidents during the previous 6 months

3

Incidents during the school year3

8, 10, 11, 14, 17, 18, and 21

School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS)

Public primary, middle, and high schools1

1999–2000, 2003–04, 2005–06, 2007–08, and 2009–10

1999–2000, 2003–04, 2005–06, 2007–08, and 2009–10 school years

6, 7, and 20

Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS)

Public and private school K–12 teachers

1993–94,1999–2000, 2003–04, 2007–08, and 2011–12

Incidents during the previous 12 months

5, 12

Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHR)

Universe

1992 through 2013 continuous

July 1 through June 30

1

Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System Fatal (WISQARS™ Fatal)

Universe

1992 through 2012 continuous

Calendar year

1

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)

Students enrolled in grades 9–12 in public and private schools at the time of the survey

1993 through 2013 biennially

Incidents during the previous 12 months

4, 9, 11, and 13

Incidents during the previous 30 days

14, 15, and 16

Either school principals or the person most knowledgeable about discipline issues at school completed the questionnaire. Respondents in the NCVS are interviewed every 6 months and asked about incidents that occurred in the past 6 months. 3 In 2007, 2009, 2011, and 2013, the reference period was the school year. In all other survey years, the reference period was the previous 6 months. Cognitive testing showed that estimates from 2007, 2009, 2011, and 2013 are comparable to previous years. For more information, please see appendix A. 1 2

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Spotlights

Spotlight 1 Suspension and Expulsion by Student, Family, and Academic Characteristics ...................................8 Figure S1.1 ................................................................9 Figure S1.2 ..............................................................10 Figure S1.3 .............................................................. 11 Figure S1.4 ..............................................................12 Figure S1.5 ..............................................................13

Spotlight 2 Juveniles in Residential Placement: Youth and Facility Characteristics ............................................. 14 Figure S2.1 ..............................................................15 Figure S2.2 .............................................................15 Figure S2.3 .............................................................16 Figure S2.4 .............................................................17

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

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Spotlight 1 Suspension and Expulsion by Student, Family, and Academic Characteristics The percentage of students who had ever been suspended or expelled was lower for fall 2009 ninth-graders who completed high school by 2013 than for fall 2009 ninth-graders who did not complete high school by 2013 (17 percent vs. 54 percent). Students may be suspended (temporarily removed from regular school activities in or out of school) or expelled (permanently removed from school with no services) for a variety of disciplinary reasons. Suspensions and expulsions from school are often associated with negative academic outcomes, such as lower levels of achievement and higher school dropout rates (Christle, Nelson, and Jolivette 2004; Skiba et al. 2002). The timing of school suspensions or expulsions is also associated with student outcomes. For example, students’ suspension in elementary or middle school is associated with a greater likelihood of being suspended later in school, poor academic performance, and a lower likelihood of graduating from high school on time (Raffaele Mendez 2003). This spotlight examines the characteristics of students who have ever been suspended or expelled, as well as academic outcomes for these students. It also examines differences in students’ characteristics based on the timing of their suspension or expulsion. The High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:2009) followed a nationally representative cohort of ninth-grade students throughout high school. During the first wave of data, which was collected from ninth-graders and their parents in the fall of 2009, parents were asked to report whether

their child had ever been suspended or expelled from school since starting kindergarten. During the first follow-up (conducted in the spring of 2012, when most of the students were in the 11th grade), parents and their children were surveyed again, and parents were asked to report on whether their child had been suspended or expelled since the last data collection. In addition to examining differences for all students who had ever been suspended or expelled, this spotlight examines differences in relation to the timing of students’ suspensions or expulsions. For this spotlight, students who were ever suspended or expelled are categorized into three different groups depending on the time period in which their suspension or expulsion occurred. One group consists of those who were suspended or expelled only before fall 2009 (in the spotlight, this group is described as being made up of those who were suspended or expelled only in the “early time period”). A second group consists of those who were suspended or expelled only between fall 2009 and spring 2012 (in the spotlight, this group is described as being made up of those who were suspended or expelled only in the “late time period”). A third group consists of those who were suspended or expelled in both time periods.

This spotlight indicator features data on a selected issue of current policy interest. For more information: Table S1.1, and http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/hsls09/.

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Spotlights

Figure S1.1. Percentage of fall 2009 ninth-graders who were ever suspended or expelled through spring 2012, by when the student was suspended or expelled and sex: 2012 Percent 100 80 60 40 20 0

19.4

26.1 12.6

Ever suspended or expelled

7.2

8.9

6.6

5.5

Suspended or expelled in the early time period

8.5

4.6

Suspended or expelled in the late time period

5.7

8.7

2.6

Suspended or expelled in both time periods

Timing of suspension or expulsion1 Total

Male

Female

“Ever suspended or expelled” are those fall 2009 ninth-graders who were suspended or expelled at any time. “Suspended or expelled in the early time period” are those students who were only suspended before fall 2009. “Suspended or expelled in the late time period” are those who were only suspended between fall 2009 and spring 2012. “Suspended or expelled in both time periods” are those who were suspended or expelled both before fall 2009 and between fall 2009 and spring 2012. NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:2009), 2013 Update and High School Transcripts Public-Use Data File.

1

The percentage of fall 2009 ninth-graders who, by spring 2012, had ever been suspended or expelled from school was about 19 percent (table S1.1 and figure S1.1). There were no measurable differences between the percentages of students who had ever been suspended or expelled in terms of the time period during which they were suspended or expelled (7 percent were suspended or expelled only in the early time period, 7 percent were suspended or expelled only in the late time period, and 6 percent were suspended or expelled in both time periods).

A higher percentage of males (26 percent) than of females (13 percent) were ever suspended or expelled. There were no measurable differences between the percentages of male students who were suspended or expelled only in the early time period, only in the late time period, or in both time periods. For female students who had ever been suspended or expelled, however, higher percentages were suspended or expelled only in the early time period (5 percent) and only in the late time period (5 percent) than in both time periods (3 percent).

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

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Figure S1.2. Percentage of fall 2009 ninth-graders who were ever suspended or expelled through spring 2012, by race/ethnicity: 2012 Percent 100 80 60

20

40.6!

35.6

40

25.6

21.3

14.4

6.4! 0

White

Black

Hispanic

Asian Race/ethnicity

‡ Pacific Islander

American Indian/ Alaska Native

Two or more races

! Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. ‡ Reporting standards not met. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is 50 percent or greater. NOTE: Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:2009), 2013 Update and High School Transcripts Public-Use Data File.

A higher percentage of Black students (36 percent) than of Hispanic (21 percent), White (14 percent), and Asian students (6 percent) had ever been suspended or expelled (figure S1.2 and table S1.1). Additionally, a higher percentage of students of Two or more races (26 percent) and Hispanic students had ever been suspended or expelled than White students. A lower percentage of Asian students than of students of any other race/ethnicity with available data had ever been suspended or expelled. The percentages of students in the White, Black, and Hispanic racial/ethnic groups who had ever been suspended or expelled varied in terms of the

10

Spotlights

time period in which the suspensions or expulsions occurred: For White students, a higher percentage were suspended or expelled only in the late time period (7 percent) than only in the early time period (4 percent) or in both periods (3 percent); for Black students, higher percentages were suspended or expelled only in the early time period (15 percent) or in both periods (14 percent) than only in the late time period (7 percent); and for Hispanic students, a higher percentage were suspended or expelled only in the early time period (10 percent) than in both periods (4 percent).

Figure S1.3. Percentage of fall 2009 ninth-graders who were ever suspended or expelled through spring 2012, by highest education of parents and family socioeconomic status: 2012 Highest education of parents in 2012 High school completion or less

27.3

Some college

20.5

13.4

Bachelor’s degree

9.5

Master’s or higher degree Family socioeconomic status in 20121

28.8

Lowest two quintiles

Middle two quintiles

17.4

9.3

Highest quintile 0

40

20

60

80

100

Percent Socioeconomic status was measured by a composite score on parental education and occupations, and family income. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:2009), 2013 Update and High School Transcripts Public-Use Data File.

1

Data on the characteristics of students’ families, such as their parents’ highest level of education and their families’ socioeconomic status, were also collected as part of the HSLS:2009 study, and the percentage of students who had ever been suspended or expelled varied according to these characteristics. For example, of students whose parents’ highest level of education was high school completion or less, 27 percent had ever been suspended or expelled (figure S1.3 and table S1.1). Of students whose parents’ highest level of education exceeded high school completion, the percentages who had ever been suspended or expelled

were lower (21 percent for students whose parents had some college, 13 percent for students whose parents had a bachelor’s degree, and 10 percent for students whose parents had a master’s or higher degree). A greater percentage of students of low socioeconomic status (SES) than of students of middle SES had ever been suspended or expelled (29 vs. 17 percent), and both of these percentages were greater than the percentage of high-SES students who had ever been suspended or expelled (9 percent).2

2

Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by a composite score on parental education and occupations, and family income at the time of data collection. Students living in households in the highest 20 percent of the SES scale were identified as being from high-SES households, those living in households in the middle 40 percent of the SES scale were identified as being from middle-SES households, and those living in households in the lowest 40 percent of the SES scale were identified as being from low-SES households.

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

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Figure S1.4. Percentage of fall 2009 ninth-graders who were ever suspended or expelled through spring 2012, by school engagement and sense of school belonging: 2012 School engagement in 20091 Low

28.0

20.5

Middle

8.8

High Sense of school belonging in 20092

28.5

Low

Middle

16.4

High

15.5 0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent A school engagement scale was constructed based on students’ responses to questions about how frequently they went to class without homework done, without pencil or paper, without books, or late. Students’ school engagement is considered low if they were in the bottom quarter of the scale distribution, middle if they were in the middle two quarters, and high if they were in the highest quarter. 2 A school belonging scale was constructed based on the extent to which students agreed or disagreed that they felt safe at school, that they felt proud of being part of the school, that there were always teachers or other adults at school they could talk to if they had a problem, that school was often a waste of time, and that getting good grades was important to them. Students’ sense of school belonging is considered low if they were in the bottom quarter of the scale distribution, middle if they were in the middle two quarters, and high if they were in the highest quarter. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:2009), 2013 Update and High School Transcripts Public-Use Data File. 1

Research shows that students’ attitudes toward school are associated with their academic outcomes (Morrison et al. 2002), and that schools with a supportive climate have lower rates of delinquency, including suspensions and expulsions (Christle, Jolivette, and Nelson 2005). As part of the HSLS:2009 data collection, students reported on their school engagement and sense of school belonging in the fall of their ninth-grade year. School engagement measured how frequently students went to class without homework done, without pencil or paper, without books, or late.3 The percentage of students with low school engagement who had ever been suspended or expelled (28 percent) was higher than the percentage of students with middle or high levels of school engagement who had ever been suspended

or expelled (21 percent and 9 percent, respectively; figure S1.4 and table S1.1). Sense of school belonging was measured based on the extent to which students agreed or disagreed that they felt safe at school, that they felt proud of being part of the school, that there were always teachers or other adults at school they could talk to if they had a problem, that school was often a waste of time, and that getting good grades was important to them.4 The percentage of students with a low sense of school belonging who had ever been suspended or expelled (28 percent) was higher than the percentage of students with a middle or high sense of school belonging who had ever been suspended or expelled (16 percent and 15 percent, respectively).

3

4 Students’ sense of school belonging is considered low if they were in the bottom quarter of the scale distribution, middle if they were in the middle two quarters, and high if they were in the highest quarter.

Students’ school engagement is considered low if they were in the bottom quarter of the scale distribution, middle if they were in the middle two quarters, and high if they were in the highest quarter.

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Spotlights

Figure S1.5. Percentage of fall 2009 ninth-graders who were ever suspended or expelled through spring 2012, by cumulative high school grade point average and high school completion status: 2013 Cumulative high school grade point average 46.4

0.00–1.99

28.5

2.00–2.49

18.1

2.50–2.99

8.5

3.00–3.49

2.8

3.50 or higher

High school completion status in 2013 Less than high school completion

54.5

16.7

High school completion 0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:2009), 2013 Update and High School Transcripts Public-Use Data File.

In 2013 (after most fall 2009 ninth-graders had completed high school), students’ high school transcripts were obtained. In addition, students and their parents were asked about students’ high school completion status. The percentages of students who had ever been suspended or expelled were higher for those students with lower grade point averages (GPAs). About 46 percent of students with a GPA below 1.99 had ever been suspended or expelled,

compared with 28 percent of students with a GPA of 2.00–2.49, 18 percent of students with a GPA of 2.50–2.99, 8 percent of students with a GPA of 3.00– 3.49, and 3 percent of students with a GPA of 3.50 or above (figure S1.5 and table S1.1). Also, a higher percentage of students who had not completed high school by 2013 than of students who had completed high school by 2013 had ever been suspended or expelled (54 vs. 17 percent).

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

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Spotlight 2 Juveniles in Residential Placement: Youth and Facility Characteristics The rate of residential placement for Black males in 2013 was 804 per 100,000, which was 1.6 times the rate for American Indian/Alaska Native males (496 per 100,000), 2.7 times the rate for Hispanic males (296 per 100,000), 5 times the rate for White males (162 per 100,000), and over 16 times the rate for Asian/Pacific Islander males (49 per 100,000). Juvenile offenders held in residential placement facilities often lack the necessary services and supports that can help them to develop skills, encourage learning, and lead to successful academic performance (U.S. Departments of Education and Justice 2014). The experiences of these youth during placement and following their reentry into the community are frequently characterized by high rates of reoffending, lower educational attainment, and negative employment outcomes (Aizer and Doyle 2015; Apel and Sweeten 2009; Hjalmarsson 2008; The Pew Charitable Trusts 2015; Solomon 2012). These juveniles often experience disruptions to their education as they pass in and out of traditional schooling. While most facilities provide middleschool- and high-school-level educational services (Hockenberry, Sickmund, and Sladky 2013), these services are generally not comparable to those available to their peers in the community (The Council of State Governments Justice Center 2015). Students who exit residential facilities also face challenges related to reenrollment, transfer of academic records, and acceptance of credits when they attempt to reenter the traditional education system (Feierman, Levick, and Mody 2009/10). The Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (CJRP) is a biennial survey of all secure and nonsecure residential placement facilities that house juvenile offenders, defined as persons younger than 21 who are held in a residential setting as a result of some contact with the justice system (i.e., being charged with or adjudicated for an offense). The CJRP provides a 1-day count of the number of youth in residential placement, as well as data on the characteristics of youth in these facilities and information about the facilities themselves. The census does not include adult prisons, jails, federal facilities, or facilities exclusively for drug or mental health treatment or for abused or neglected youth. Between 1997 and 2013, the number of youth in residential placement facilities fell by nearly 50 percent, from approximately 105,000 to just over 54,000 (figure S2.1 and table S2.1). The number of youth in these facilities declined for both males and

females, and the ratio of males to females did not change measurably between 1997 and 2013. In each of the nine years in which the CJRP was conducted, there were approximately 6 times as many males as females in residential facilities. The decline in residential placements between 1997 and 2013 was also observed for White, Black, Hispanic, Asian, Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native youth. The number of residential placements declined by about one-third for Hispanic and American Indian/Alaska Native youth; by about one-half for White, Black, and Pacific Islander youth; and by more than three-fourths for Asian youth. It is also important to examine the residential placement rate, which is the number of juvenile offenders in residential facilities per 100,000 youth in the general population. This rate provides a more comparable measurement across time because it accounts for population growth and demographic changes. The overall residential placement rate fell from 356 per 100,000 youth in 1997 to 173 per 100,000 in 2013 (figure S2.2 and table S2.2). The residential placement rate for White youth fell from 201 to 100 per 100,000 during the same period, while the rate for Black youth fell from 968 to 464 per 100,000. Between 1997 and 2013, rates for American Indian/Alaska Native youth fell from 490 to 334 per 100,000, rates for Hispanic youth fell from 468 to 173 per 100,000, and rates for Asian/Pacific Islander youth fell from 195 to 28 per 100,000.5 Although residential placement rates per 100,000 youth declined for all racial/ethnic groups, disparities between racial/ethnic groups persist. In 1997, the residential placement rate for Black youth was 4.8 times the rate for White youth, and in 2013 it was 4.6 times the rate for White youth. In 1997, the rate for Hispanic youth was 2.3 times the rate for White youth, and in 2013 it was 1.7 times the rate Spotlight 2 continued on page 16. 5

Separate data for Asian and Pacific Islander youth are not available for the residential placement rate per 100,000 juveniles.

This spotlight indicator features data on a selected issue of current policy interest. For more information: Tables S2.1 and S2.2, and http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/ezacjrp/.

14

Spotlights

Figure S2.1. Number of juvenile offenders in residential placement facilities, by sex: Selected years, 1997 through 2013 Number of residential placements 120,000 Total 100,000

Male

80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 Female 0 1997

1999

2001

2003

2006 2007

2010 2011

2013

Year NOTE: Data are from a biennial survey of all secure and nonsecure residential placement facilities that house juvenile offenders. Data do not include adult prisons, jails, federal facilities, or facilities exclusively for drug or mental health treatment or for abused or neglected youth. The data provide 1-day population counts of juveniles in residential placement facilities. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (CJRP), retrieved September 25, 2015, from http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/ezacjrp/.

Figure S2.2. Residential placement rate (number of juvenile offenders in residential facilities) per 100,000 juveniles, by race/ethnicity: Selected years, 1997 through 2013 Rate per 100,000 juveniles 1,000 Black 800

600 Hispanic

American Indian/Alaska Native

400 Total

White

200 Asian/Pacific Islander 0 1997

1999

2001

2003

2006 2007

2010 2011

2013

Year NOTE: Residential placement rate calculated per 100,000 persons age 10 through the upper age at which offenders were under original jurisdiction of the juvenile courts in each state in the given year. Data are from a biennial survey of all secure and nonsecure residential placement facilities that house juvenile offenders. Data do not include adult prisons, jails, federal facilities, or facilities exclusively for drug or mental health treatment or for abused or neglected youth. The data provide 1-day population counts of juveniles in residential placement facilities. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (CJRP), retrieved October 20, 2015, from http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/ezacjrp/.

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

15

Figure S2.3. Residential placement rate (number of juvenile offenders in residential facilities) per 100,000 juveniles, by race/ethnicity and sex: 2013 Rate per 100,000 juveniles 1,000 804

800

600

496

400

296

290 162

200 50 0

167 113

Total

45

35 White

Black

Hispanic Race/ethnicity Male

49

8

Asian/Pacific Islander

American Indian/Alaska Native

Female

NOTE: Residential placement rate calculated per 100,000 persons age 10 through the upper age at which offenders were under original jurisdiction of the juvenile courts in each state in the given year. Data are from a biennial survey of all secure and nonsecure residential placement facilities that house juvenile offenders. Data do not include adult prisons, jails, federal facilities, or facilities exclusively for drug or mental health treatment or for abused or neglected youth. The data provide 1-day population counts of juveniles in residential placement facilities. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (CJRP), retrieved October 20, 2015, from http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/ezacjrp/.

for White youth. In contrast, the disparity between American Indian/Alaska Native youth and White youth was larger in 2013 than in 1997. The American Indian/Alaska Native rate was 2.4 times the White rate in 1997 and 3.3 times the White rate in 2013. In 1997, residential placement rates were similar for White and Asian/Pacific Islander youth. However, residential placement rates declined more sharply for Asian/Pacific Islander youth than for White youth. As a result, in 2013 the residential placement rate for Asian/Pacific Islander youth was approximately one-quarter of the rate for White youth. The residential placement rate per 100,000 youth was also considerably higher for Black males than for males or females of any other racial/ethnic group. The rate of residential placement for Black males in 2013 was 804 per 100,000, which was 1.6 times the rate for American Indian/Alaska Native males (496 per 100,000), 2.7 times the rate for Hispanic males (296 per 100,000), 5 times the rate for White males (162 per 100,000), and over 16 times the rate for Asian/Pacific Islander males (49 per 100,000) (figure S2.3). Black males made up over one-third (35  percent) of all youth in residential placement in 2013. 16

Spotlights

Older youth made up a greater share of juveniles in residential placement than younger youth in 2013: A majority (69 percent) were between the ages of 16 and 20, about 30 percent were between the ages of 13 and 15, and 1 percent were age 12 or younger (table S2.1). In 2013, the number of juveniles in residential facilities was highest for those being held for offenses against persons6 (19,922, or 37 percent of all juveniles held) and second highest for those being held for offenses against property7 (12,768, or 24 percent). The number in residential facilities was 9,316 (17 percent) for those being held for technical violations, such as violations of probation, parole, or valid court order; 6,085 (11 percent) for those being held for offenses against the public order;8 and 3,533 (7 percent) for 6

Offenses against persons, or person offenses, include aggravated assault, criminal homicide, robbery, simple assault, violent sexual assault, and other offenses such as harassment, coercion, kidnapping, and reckless endangerment. 7 Offenses against property, or property offenses, include arson, auto theft, burglary, theft, and other offenses such as vandalism, trespassing, and selling stolen property. 8 Offenses against the public order, or public order offenses, include driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs; possession, use, or distribution of weapons; and other offenses such as obstruction of justice, nonviolent sex offenses, cruelty to animals, and disorderly conduct.

Figure S2.4. Percentage distribution of juvenile offenders in residential placement facilities, by facility operation: 1997 and 2013 Percent 100 28.0

32.0

80

60

27.7 35.6

40

20

0

44.3

32.4

Private1 Local State

1997

2013

Year

Private facilities are operated by private nonprofit or for-profit corporations or organizations. NOTE: Data are from a biennial survey of all secure and nonsecure residential placement facilities that house juvenile offenders. Data do not include adult prisons, jails, federal facilities, or facilities exclusively for drug or mental health treatment or for abused or neglected youth. The data provide 1-day population counts of juveniles in residential placement facilities. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (CJRP), retrieved October 20, 2015, from http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/ezacjrp/.

1

those being held for drug offenses. A total of 2,524 juvenile offenders (5 percent) were being held for status offenses, which are actions that are illegal for underage persons but not for adults.9 Between 1997 and 2013, the largest percentage declines in the number of juveniles in residential placement were observed for those being held for drug offenses (61 percent), status offenses (60 percent), and offenses against property (60 percent). Percentage declines over the period were smaller for juveniles being held for offenses against the public order (41 percent) and offenses against persons (43 percent). Juvenile residential placements for technical violations were 25 percent lower in 2013 than in 1997. Residential placement facilities vary by size, operational control, and classification. The percentage of juveniles in residential placement who were in the largest size facilities (201 or more residents) declined from 35 to 13 percent between 1997 and 2013. In 2013, most juveniles in residential placement were either in a facility of 21 to 50 residents (27 percent) or a facility of 51 to 150 residents (36 percent). In 1997, about 44 percent of juveniles were held in facilities operated by state government agencies, with the remainder split evenly between facilities operated 9

Examples include curfew violation, running away, truancy, and underage drinking.

by local government agencies and facilities operated by private entities (28 percent each; figure S2.4 and table S2.1). In 2013, the share of juveniles in state facilities had declined to 32 percent, with an additional 32  percent in private facilities and 36  percent in local facilities. Juveniles may be placed in a wide range of facility types, including detention centers, shelters, reception/ diagnostic centers, group homes, boot camps, ranch/ wilderness camps, residential treatment centers, and long-term secure facilities. Over time, detention centers and long-term secure facilities have held the largest numbers of youth.10 In 2013, detention centers held 36 percent of the youth in residential placement and long-term secure facilities held 27 percent. Data on residential treatment centers first became available in the 2003 CJRP. Since then, this facility type has contained the third-largest number of youth, accounting for 23 percent of juveniles in residential placement in 2013. About 8 percent of youth were held in group homes in 2013, and 2 percent or less of youth were held in each of the following facility types: ranch/wilderness camp, shelter, reception/diagnostic center, and boot camp. 10

Although respondents were able to select more than one type for their facility, the data used for this indicator assign each facility to a single primary type based on an analysis that applies a hierarchy rule.

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Violent Deaths

Indicator 1 Violent Deaths at School and Away From School ...20 Figure 1.1 ................................................................21 Figure 1.2 ................................................................21

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

19

Indicator 1 Violent Deaths at School and Away From School Over all available survey years, the percentage of youth homicides occurring at school remained at less than 3 percent of the total number of youth homicides, and the percentage of youth suicides occurring at school remained at less than 1 percent of the total number of youth suicides. Violent deaths at schools are rare but tragic events with far-reaching effects on the school population and surrounding community. This indicator presents data on school-associated violent deaths that were collected through the School-Associated Violent Deaths (SAVD) Surveillance System, as well as data on total suicides collected through the Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System Fatal (WISQARS™ Fatal) and data on total homicides collected through the Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHR). The SAVD Surveillance System defines a school-associated violent death as “a homicide, suicide, or legal intervention death11 (involving a law enforcement officer), in which the fatal injury occurred on the campus of a functioning elementary or secondary school in the United States.” School-associated violent deaths include those that occurred while the victim was on the way to or returning from regular sessions at school or while the victim was attending or traveling to or from an official school-sponsored event. Victims of schoolassociated violent deaths include not only students and staff members, but also others who are not students or staff members, such as students’ parents or community members. The most recent data released by the SAVD Surveillance System cover the period from July 1, 2012 through June 30, 2013. During this period, there were a total of 53 school-associated violent deaths in elementary and secondary schools in the United States (figure 1.1 and table 1.1). Of these 53 student, staff, and nonstudent school-associated violent deaths, there were 41 homicides, 11 suicides, and 1 legal intervention death.12

11 A legal intervention death is defined as a death caused by police and other persons with legal authority to use deadly force, excluding legal executions. 12 Data from 1999–2000 onward are subject to change until interviews with school and law enforcement officials have been completed. The details learned during the interviews can occasionally change the classification of a case. For more information on this survey, please see appendix A.

Data on violent deaths occurring away from school were included in order to calculate the percentage of violent deaths occurring at school. The most recent data available for total suicides of school-age youth (ages 5–18; also referred to as “youth” in this indicator) are for the 2012 calendar year; the most recent data available for total homicides of youth are for the 2012–13 school year.13 During the 2012–13 school year, there were 1,186 homicides of youth in the United States (figure 1.2 and table 1.1). During the 2012 calendar year, there were 1,590 suicides of youth. During the 2012–13 school year, there were 31 homicides and 6 suicides of school-age youth at school (figure 1.1 and table 1.1). When instances of homicide and suicide of school-age youth at school were combined, there was approximately 1 homicide or suicide at school for every 1.5 million students enrolled.14 The percentage of youth homicides occurring at school remained at less than 3 percent of the total number of youth homicides between 1992–93 (when data collection began) and 2012–13, even though the absolute number of homicides of school-age youth at school varied across the years15 (figure 1.1 and table  1.1). Between 1992–93 and 2012–13, a range of 1 to 10 school-age youth died by suicide at school each year, with no consistent pattern of increase or decrease in the number of suicides. The percentage of youth suicides occurring at school remained at less than 1 percent of the total number of youth suicides over all available survey years. 13

Data on total suicides are from the Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System Fatal (WISQARS™ Fatal) and data on total homicides are from the Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHR). Data on total suicides are available only by calendar year, whereas data on suicides and homicides at school and data on total homicides are available by school year. Due to these differences in reference periods, please use caution when comparing total suicides to other categories. 14 The total number of students enrolled in prekindergarten through 12th grade during the 2012–13 school year was 54,952,269 (Snyder and Dillow 2016). 15 Single incidents occurring at school with a large number of school-age victims could result in large variations in the number of homicides of school-age youth at school between two years. Please use caution when making comparisons over time.

This indicator has been updated to include 2012–13 data for school-associated violent deaths and total youth homicides, and 2012 data for total youth suicides. For more information: Table 1.1, and http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/youthviolence/ schoolviolence/SAVD.html.

20

Violent Deaths

Figure 1.1.

Number of student, staff, and nonstudent school-associated violent deaths, and number of homicides and suicides of youth ages 5–18 at school: School years 1992–93 to 2012–13

Number 100 80 60

57

40 34

48

48

53

29

28

32

48 28

47

0

7

7

6

45 37

34

33

6

4

20 6

63

57

1

14

34

36

36

14

16

18

6

5

8

10

52

48

44

44

32

23

22

21

5

8

3

21 9

5

18 7

35 19 2

45 32

53 31

15 11 3

5

6

1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 –93 –94 –95 –96 –97 –98 –99 –20001 –011 –021 –031 –041 –051 –061 –071 –081 –091 –101 –111 –121 –131

School year Number of student, staff, and nonstudent school-associated violent deaths2 Homicides of youth ages 5–18 at school Suicides of youth ages 5–18 at school Data from 1999–2000 onward are subject to change until interviews with school and law enforcement officials have been completed. The details learned during the interviews can occasionally change the classification of a case. For more information on this survey, please see appendix A. 2 A school-associated violent death is defined as “a homicide, suicide, or legal intervention (involving a law enforcement officer), in which the fatal injury occurred on the campus of a functioning elementary or secondary school in the United States,” while the victim was on the way to or from regular sessions at school, or while the victim was attending or traveling to or from an official school-sponsored event. Victims include students, staff members, and others who are not students or staff members, from July 1, 1992, through June 30, 2013. NOTE: “At school” includes on school property, on the way to or from regular sessions at school, and while attending or traveling to or from a schoolsponsored event. Estimates were revised and may differ from previously published data. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 1992–2013 School-Associated Violent Deaths Surveillance Study (SAVD) (partially funded by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Healthy Students), previously unpublished tabulation (September 2015). 1

Figure 1.2.

Percentage distribution and number of homicides and suicides of youth ages 5–18, by location: 2012–13

Type of school-associated violent death 2.61,2 Homicides

97.4

Of the total 1,1861 homicides, 31 occurred at school and 1,155 occurred away from school

1

0.41,2 99.64

Suicides 0

20

40

60

80

100

Of the approximately 1,5903 total youth suicides, 6 occurred at school and about 1,5844 occurred away from school

Percent At school

Away from school

Youth ages 5–18 from July 1, 2012, through June 30, 2013. Data from the School-Associated Violent Deaths Surveillance Study (SAVD) are subject to change until interviews with school and law enforcement officials have been completed. The details learned during the interviews can occasionally change the classification of a case. For more information on this survey, please see appendix A. 3 Youth ages 5–18 in the 2012 calendar year. 4 Because data reported on total youth suicides are for calendar year 2012, numbers for total suicides and suicides occurring away from school during school year 2012–13 is approximate. Use caution when interpreting these numbers due to timeline differences. NOTE: “At school” includes on school property, on the way to or from regular sessions at school, and while attending or traveling to or from a schoolsponsored event. SOURCE: Data on homicides and suicides of youth ages 5–18 at school are from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2013 School-Associated Violent Deaths Surveillance Study (SAVD) (partially funded by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Healthy Students), previously unpublished tabulation (September 2015); data on total suicides of youth ages 5–18 are from the CDC, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System Fatal (WISQARS™ Fatal), 2012, retrieved September 2015 from http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/index.html; and data on total homicides of youth ages 5–18 for the 2012–13 school year are from the Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHR) collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and tabulated by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, preliminary data (November 2015). 1 2

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Nonfatal Student and Teacher Victimization

Indicator 2 Incidence of Victimization at School and Away From School ............................................................. 24 Figure 2.1 ................................................................25 Figure 2.2 ................................................................27 Figure 2.3 ................................................................28

Indicator 3 Prevalence of Victimization at School......................30 Figure 3.1 ................................................................31 Figure 3.2 ................................................................33

Indicator 4 Threats and Injuries With Weapons on School Property .......................................................34 Figure 4.1 ................................................................35 Figure 4.2 ................................................................35 Figure 4.3 ................................................................36

Indicator 5 Teachers Threatened With Injury or Physically Attacked by Students ...............................................38 Figure 5.1 ................................................................39 Figure 5.2 ................................................................39 Figure 5.3 ................................................................40

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

23

Indicator 2 Incidence of Victimization at School and Away From School16 Between 1992 and 2014, the total victimization rate at school declined 82 percent, from 181 victimizations per 1,000 students in 1992 to 33 victimizations per 1,000 students in 2014. The total victimization rate away from school declined 86 percent, from 173 victimizations per 1,000 students in 1992 to 24 victimizations per 1,000 students in 2014. In 2014, data from the National Crime Victimization Survey showed that students ages 12–18 experienced 850,100 nonfatal victimizations16(theft17 and violent victimization18) at school and 621,300 nonfatal victimizations away from school (table 2.1).19 These figures represent total crime victimization rates of 33 victimizations per 1,000 students at school and 24 per 1,000 students away from school; these rates were not measurably different. For most of the years between 1992 and 2008 as well as in 2012, the rate of theft at school was higher than the rate of theft away from school among students ages 12–18 (figure 2.1). There were no measurable differences between the rates of theft at school and away from school in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2013, or 2014. The rate of theft at school was 14 thefts per 1,000 students in 2014 and 18 thefts per 1,000 students in 2013; these rates were not measurably different. The rate of theft away from school was lower in 2014 (11  thefts per 1,000 students) than in 2013 (16 thefts per 1,000 students). Between 1992 and 2000, the rate of violent victimization per 1,000 students at school was either lower than or not measurably different from the rate away from school. Since 2001, the rate of 16 Although Indicators 2 and 3 present information on similar topics, Indicator 2 is based solely on data collected in the NCVS, whereas Indicator 3 is based on data collected in the School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the NCVS as well as demographic data collected in the NCVS. Indicator 2 uses data from all students ages 12–18 who responded to the NCVS, while Indicator 3 uses data from all students ages 12–18 who responded to both the NCVS and the SCS. 17 “Theft” includes attempted and completed purse-snatching, completed pickpocketing, and all attempted and completed thefts, with the exception of motor vehicle thefts. Theft does not include robbery, which involves the threat or use of force and is classified as a violent crime. 18 “Violent victimization” includes serious violent crimes and simple assault. 19 “Students” refers to youth ages 12–18 whose educational attainment did not exceed grade 12 at the time of the survey. An uncertain percentage of these persons may not have attended school during the survey reference period. These data do not take into account the number of hours that students spend at school or away from school. “At school” includes inside the school building, on school property, and on the way to or from school.

violent victimization per 1,000 students at school has generally been higher than or not measurably different from the rate away from school. In 2014, the rate of violent victimization was 19 per 1,000 students at school and 13 per 1,000 students away from school; these rates were not measurably different. The rate of simple assault20 at school (15 per 1,000 students) was higher than away from school (6 per 1,000). The rate of violent victimization at school was lower in 2014 (19 violent victimizations per 1,000 students) than in 2013 (37 violent victimizations per 1,000 students). For violence away from school, the 2014 violent victimization rate did not differ measurably from the 2013 rate. The rate of serious violent victimization 21 against students ages 12–18 was generally lower at school than away from school in most survey years between 1992 and 2008. Between 2009 and 2014, the rate at school was not measurably different from the rate away from school. The 2014 serious violent victimization rate for students ages 12–18 did not differ measurably from the 2013 rate regardless of whether the location of victimization was at school or away from school. In 2014, students experienced about 4 serious violent victimizations per 1,000 students at school and 6  serious violent victimizations per 1,000 students away from school. Between 1992 and 2014, total victimization rates for students ages 12–18 generally declined both at school and away from school (figure 2.1). The total victimization rate at school declined 82 percent, from 181 victimizations per 1,000 students in 1992 to 33 victimizations per 1,000 students in 2014. The total victimization rate away from school declined 86   percent, from 173 victimizations per 1,000 students in 1992 to 24 victimizations per 1,000 students in 2014. Indicator 2 continued on page 26. 20

“Simple assault” includes threats and attacks without a weapon or serious injury. 21 “Serious violent victimization” includes the crimes of rape, sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated assault.

This indicator has been updated to include 2014 data. For more information: Tables 2.1 and 2.2.

24

Nonfatal Student and Teacher Victimization

Figure 2.1.

Rate of nonfatal victimization against students ages 12–18 per 1,000 students, by type of victimization and location: 1992 through 2014

Rate per 1,000 students

Total victimization

Theft

Rate per 1,000 students

200

200

At school 150

150

100

100

50

50

Away from school 0

1992

1994

1996

1998

2000 2002 2004

2006

At school

Away from school 2008

2010

2012 2014

0

1992

1994

1996 1998 2000

All violent victimization

Serious violent victimization1 Rate per 1,000 students

200

200

150

150

100

100

At school

50

Away from school 1992

1994

1996

1998

2006 2008 2010

Year

Rate per 1,000 students

0

2002 2004

Year

2000 2002 2004

Year

2006

2008

2010

2012 2014

2014

2012

2014

Away from school

50

0

2012

At school

1992

1994

1996 1998 2000

2002 2004

2006 2008 2010

Year

Serious violent victimization is also included in all violent victimization. NOTE: Due to methodological changes, use caution when comparing 2006 estimates to other years. “Serious violent victimization” includes the crimes of rape, sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated assault. “All violent victimization” includes serious violent crimes as well as simple assault. “Theft” includes attempted and completed purse-snatching, completed pickpocketing, and all attempted and completed thefts, with the exception of motor vehicle thefts. Theft does not include robbery, which involves the threat or use of force and is classified as a violent crime. “Total victimization” includes thefts and violent crimes. “At school” includes inside the school building, on school property, or on the way to or from school. Although Indicators 2 and 3 present information on similar topics, Indicator 2 is based solely on data collected in National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), whereas Indicator 3 is based on data collected in the School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the NCVS as well as demographic data collected in the NCVS. Indicator 2 uses data from all students ages 12–18 who responded to the NCVS, while Indicator 3 uses data from all students ages 12–18 who responded to both the NCVS and the SCS. The population size for students ages 12–18 was 25,773,800 in 2014. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. Estimates may vary from previously published reports. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), 1992 through 2014.

1

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

25

This pattern of decline in total victimization rates both at and away from school between 1992 and 2014 also held for thefts, violent victimizations, and serious violent victimizations. Thefts at school declined from a rate of 114 per 1,000 students to 14 per 1,000, and thefts away from school declined from a rate of 79 thefts per 1,000 students to 11 per 1,000. The rate of violent victimization at school declined overall from 68 victimizations per 1,000 students in 1992 to 19 per 1,000 in 2014. The rate of violent victimization away from school declined from 94 victimizations per 1,000 students in 1992 to 13 per 1,000 in 2014. Serious violent victimizations at school declined from 8 per 1,000 students in 1992 to 4 per 1,000 in 2014. The rate of serious violent victimization away from school declined from 43 victimizations per 1,000 students in 1992 to 6 per 1,000 in 2014. In 2014, the rates of total victimization, theft, and violent victimization for males did not differ measurably from the rates for females; this pattern held regardless of whether the location of victimization was at school or away from school. In 2014, the rate of total victimization at school for males was 35  victimizations per 1,000 students and the rate for females was 31 victimizations per 1,000 students (table 2.2 and figure 2.2). The total victimization rate away from school for males was 25 victimizations per 1,000 students, and the rate for females was 23 victimizations per 1,000 students. The rate of violent victimization at school for males was 20  victimizations per 1,000 students, and the rate for females was 18 victimizations per 1,000 students. The violent victimization rate away from school for males was 14 victimizations per 1,000 students, and the rate for females was 12 victimizations per 1,000 students.

26

Nonfatal Student and Teacher Victimization

In 2014, the rates of total victimization, theft, and violent victimization for students ages 12–14 did not differ measurably from the rates for students ages 15–18; this pattern held regardless of whether the location of victimization was at school or away from school. Total victimization rates at school were 34 per 1,000 students ages 12–14 and 32 per 1,000 students ages 15–18 (table 2.2). Total victimization rates away from school were 22 per 1,000 students ages 12–14 and 26 per 1,000 students ages 15–18. Differences in the rates of total victimization of students ages 12–18 at school by urbanicity were observed in 2014 (table 2.2, figure 2.3). In 2014, students residing in rural areas had higher rates of total victimization at school (53 victimizations per 1,000 students) than students residing in suburban areas (28 victimizations per 1,000 students). These differences were primarily driven by higher rates of violent victimization at school among students living in rural areas. In the same year, the rate of total victimization at school for students residing in urban areas was 32 victimizations per 1,000 students; the rates between rural and urban areas were not measurably different. Violent victimization rates at school were 40 per 1,000 students in rural areas, compared with 16 per 1,000 students in urban areas and 14 per 1,000 students in suburban areas. There were no measurable differences in rates of theft at school by urbanicity. In 2014, there were no differences by urbanicity in total victimization rates, theft rates, or violent victimization rates for victimizations that occurred away from school.

Figure 2.2.

Rate of nonfatal victimization against students ages 12–18 per 1,000 students, by location, type of victimization, and sex: 2014 At school

Rate per 1,000 students 100

50

34.8

31.0 15.2

0

Total

12.9

19.6

Theft

18.1

Violent

Type of victimization Male

Female

Away from school

Rate per 1,000 students 100

50 25.0

23.1 11.3

0

Total

11.1 Theft

13.7

12.0

Violent

Type of victimization Male

Female

NOTE: “Violent victimization” includes serious violent crimes (rape, sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated assault) as well as simple assault. “Theft” includes attempted and completed purse-snatching, completed pickpocketing, and all attempted and completed thefts, with the exception of motor vehicle thefts. Theft does not include robbery, which involves the threat or use of force and is classified as a violent crime. “Total victimization” includes thefts and violent crimes. “At school” includes inside the school building, on school property, or on the way to or from school. Although Indicators 2 and 3 present information on similar topics, Indicator 2 is based solely on data collected in National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), whereas Indicator 3 is based on data collected in the School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the NCVS as well as demographic data collected in the NCVS. Indicator 2 uses data from all students ages 12–18 who responded to the NCVS, while Indicator 3 uses data from all students ages 12–18 who responded to both the NCVS and the SCS. The population size for students ages 12–18 was 25,773,800 in 2014. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding and missing data on student characteristics. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), 2014.

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

27

Figure 2.3.

Rate of nonfatal victimization against students ages 12–18 per 1,000 students, by location, type of victimization, and urbanicity: 2014 At school

Rate per 1,000 students 100

52.8 50 32.5

39.7 27.6 16.0

0

Total

13.4

13.1

16.5

Theft

14.2

Violent

Type of victimization Urban

Suburban

Rural

Away from school

Rate per 1,000 students 100

50 25.5

21.8

29.6 12.6

0

Total

9.8

13.4

Theft

12.9

11.9

16.2

Violent

Type of victimization Urban

Suburban

Rural

NOTE: “Violent victimization” includes serious violent crimes (rape, sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated assault) as well as simple assault. “Theft” includes attempted and completed purse-snatching, completed pickpocketing, and all attempted and completed thefts, with the exception of motor vehicle thefts. Theft does not include robbery, which involves the threat or use of force and is classified as a violent crime. “Total victimization” includes thefts and violent crimes. “At school” includes inside the school building, on school property, or on the way to or from school. Although Indicators 2 and 3 present information on similar topics, Indicator 2 is based solely on data collected in National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), whereas Indicator 3 is based on data collected in the School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the NCVS as well as demographic data collected in the NCVS. Indicator 2 uses data from all students ages 12–18 who responded to the NCVS, while Indicator 3 uses data from all students ages 12–18 who responded to both the NCVS and the SCS. The population size for students ages 12–18 was 25,773,800 in 2014. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding and missing data on student characteristics. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), 2014.

28

Nonfatal Student and Teacher Victimization

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Indicator 3 Prevalence of Victimization at School In 2013, approximately 3 percent of students ages 12–18 reported being victimized at school during the previous 6 months. Two percent of students reported theft, 1 percent reported violent victimization, and less than one-half of 1 percent reported serious violent victimization. Between 1995 and 2013, the percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being victimized at school decreased overall, as did the percentages of students who reported theft, violent victimization, and serious violent victimization. The School Crime Supplement (SCS)22 to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) makes possible the comparison, across student demographic characteristics (e.g., grade, sex, and race/ethnicity), of victimization rate data collected from the NCVS. The SCS is administered only to students who have already completed the NCVS; thus, the calculation of estimates presented here is based on a subset of the student sample used to calculate the estimates presented in Indicator 2. Results from the most recent data collection show that in 2013 approximately 3 percent of students ages 12–18 reported being victimized at school23 during the previous 6 months. Two percent of students reported theft,24 1 percent reported violent victimization,25 and less than one half of 1 percent reported serious violent victimization26 (figure 3.1 and table 3.1). In 2013, a higher percentage of 9th-graders than of 12th-graders reported being victimized at school during the previous 6 months (4 vs. 2 percent; figure  3.2 and

table 3.1). The percentage of students who reported theft was higher for 9th- and 10th-graders (3 percent each) and 11th-graders (2 percent) than for 8thgraders (1 percent). In addition, the percentage of students who reported violent victimization was higher for 6th-graders (3 percent) than for 10thand 11th-graders (1 percent each). No measurable differences were observed by sex or race/ethnicity in reports of victimization overall or in reports of specific types of victimization. Among students ages 12–18 in 2013, the percentage reporting theft at school during the previous 6 months was higher for students from urban and suburban areas (2 percent each) than for students from rural areas (1 percent). No measurable differences were observed between public and private schools in student reports of victimization overall or in reports of specific types of victimization. Indicator 3 continued on page 32.

22 Although Indicators 2 and 3 present information on similar topics, Indicator 2 is based solely on data collected in the NCVS, whereas Indicator 3 is based on data collected in the School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the NCVS as well as demographic data collected in the NCVS. Indicator 2 uses data from all students ages 12–18 who responded to the NCVS, while Indicator 3 uses data from all students ages 12–18 who responded to both the NCVS and the SCS. 23 “At school” includes the school building, on school property, on a school bus, and, from 2001 onward, going to and from school. 24 “Theft” includes attempted and completed purse-snatching, completed pickpocketing, and all attempted and completed thefts, with the exception of motor vehicle thefts. Theft does not include robbery, which involves the threat or use of force and is classified as a violent crime. 25 “Violent victimization” includes serious violent crimes and simple assault. 26 “Serious violent victimization” includes rape, sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated assault.

This indicator repeats information from the Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2014 report. For more information: Table 3.1, and DeVoe and Bauer (2011), (http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2012314).

30

Nonfatal Student and Teacher Victimization

Figure 3.1.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported criminal victimization at school during the previous 6 months, by type of victimization: Selected years, 1995 through 2013 Total victimizations

Thefts

Percent

Percent

20

20

15

15

10

10

5

5 0

0 1995

1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013

1995

Year

Year

Violent victimizations

Serious violent victimizations1

Percent

Percent

20

20

15

15

10

10

5

5

0 1995

1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 Year

1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013

0 1995

1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 Year

Serious violent victimization is also included in violent victimization. NOTE: “Total victimization” includes theft and violent victimization. “Theft” includes attempted and completed purse-snatching, completed pickpocketing, and all attempted and completed thefts, with the exception of motor vehicle thefts. Theft does not include robbery, which involves the threat or use of force and is classified as a violent crime. “Serious violent victimization” includes the crimes of rape, sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated assault. “Violent victimization” includes the serious violent crimes as well as simple assault. “At school” includes the school building, on school property, on a school bus, and, from 2001 onward, going to and from school. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and because students who reported both theft and violent victimization are counted only once in total victimization. Although Indicators 2 and 3 present information on similar topics, Indicator 2 is based solely on data collected in the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), whereas Indicator 3 is based on data collected in the School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the NCVS as well as demographic data collected in the NCVS. Indicator 2 uses data from all students ages 12–18 who responded to the NCVS, while Indicator 3 uses data from all students ages 12–18 who responded to both the NCVS and the SCS. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 1995 through 2013. 1

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

31

Between 1995 and 2013, the percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being victimized at school during the previous 6 months decreased overall (from 10 to 3 percent), as did the percentages of students who reported theft (from 7 to 2 percent), violent victimization (from 3 to 1 percent), and serious violent victimization (from 1 percent to less than one-half of 1 percent). The percentage of students who reported being victimized at school decreased between 1995 and 2013 for both male (from 10 to 3  percent) and female students (from 9 to 3 percent), as well as for White (from 10 to 3 percent), Black (from 10  to 3 percent), and Hispanic students (from 8 to 3 percent). In addition, the percentages of students who reported being victimized decreased between 1995 and 2013 for all grades 6 through 12.

32

Nonfatal Student and Teacher Victimization

A decrease between 1995 and 2013 in the percentage of students reporting criminal victimization also occurred by school characteristics. About 9 percent of students from urban areas, 10 percent of students from suburban areas, and 8 percent of students from rural areas reported being victimized at school in 1995, compared with 3 percent each of students from urban and suburban areas and 2 percent of students from rural areas in 2013. About 10 percent of public school students and 7 percent of private school students reported being victimized at school in 1995; the reported percent decreased to 3 percent each for public and private school students in 2013.

Figure 3.2.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported criminal victimization at school during the previous 6 months, by selected student and school characteristics: 1995 and 2013

Student or school characteristic Total

9.5

3.0

Sex Male

10.0

3.2

Female

9.0

2.8

Race/ethnicity1 White

9.8

3.0

Black

10.2

3.2

Hispanic

7.6

3.2

Grade 6th

9.6

4.1

7th

11.2

2.5

8th

10.5

2.3

9th

11.9

4.1

10th

9.1

3.3

11th

7.3

3.3

12th

6.1

2.0!

Urbanicity2 Urban

9.3

3.3

Suburban

10.3

3.2

Rural

8.3

2.0

Sector Public

9.8

3.1

Private

6.6

2.8! 0

5

10

15

20

Percent 1995

2013

! Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. 1 Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Separate data for Asians were not collected in 1995; therefore, data for this group are not shown. 2 Refers to the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) status of the respondent’s household as defined in 2000 by the U.S. Census Bureau. Categories include “central city of an MSA (Urban),” “in MSA but not in central city (Suburban),” and “not MSA (Rural).” NOTE: “Total victimization” includes theft and violent victimization. “At school” includes the school building, on school property, on a school bus, and, from 2001 onward, going to and from school. Although Indicators 2 and 3 present information on similar topics, Indicator 2 is based solely on data collected in the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), whereas Indicator 3 is based on data collected in the School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the NCVS as well as demographic data collected in the NCVS. Indicator 2 uses data from all students ages 12–18 who responded to the NCVS, while Indicator 3 uses data from all students ages 12–18 who responded to both the NCVS and the SCS. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 1995 and 2013.

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

33

Indicator 4 Threats and Injuries With Weapons on School Property In 2013, about 7 percent of students in grades 9–12 reported that they were threatened or injured with a weapon on school property. The percentage of students who reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property has decreased over the last decade, from 9 percent in 2003 to 7 percent in 2013. In the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, students in grades 9–12 were asked whether they had been threatened or injured with a weapon such as a gun, knife, or club on school property27 during the 12 months preceding the survey. In 2013, about 7 percent of students reported they were threatened or injured with a weapon on school property (table 4.1). This percentage was not measurably different from the percentages reported in 2011 and in 1993 (the first year of data collection for this item), but it decreased over the last decade, from a high of 9 percent in 2003 to 7 percent in 2013. In each survey year from 1993 to 2013, a higher percentage of males than of females reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property in the previous 12 months (figure 4.1 and table 4.1). In 2013, approximately 8 percent of males and 6 percent of females reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property. The percentage of males who reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property was lower in 2013 than in 2011 (8 vs. 10 percent); however, the percentages for females were not measurably different between these two years. There were differences in the percentages of students who reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property in the previous 12 months by race/ethnicity and grade level. In 2013, lower percentages of White students (6 percent) and Asian students (5 percent) than of Hispanic students (8  percent) and American Indian/Alaska Native students (18 percent) reported being threatened or

27

injured with a weapon on school property (figure 4.2 and table 4.1). In addition, a lower percentage of White students than of Black students reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property (6 vs. 8 percent). In 2013, a lower percentage of 12th-graders (5 percent) than of students in any other grade (9 percent of 9th-graders and 7 percent each of 10th- and 11th-graders) reported being threatened or injured with a weapon (table 4.1). As part of the survey students were also asked how many times they had been threatened or injured with a weapon on school property during the previous 12 months. In 2013, 93 percent of students reported that they had not been threatened or injured with a weapon on school property. A higher percentage of students reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property 1 time (3 percent) than reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property 2 or 3 times (2 percent), 4 to 11 times (1  percent), or 12 or more times (1 percent; figure 4.3 and table 4.1). In 2013, the percentage of public school students who reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property during the previous 12 months varied among the 35 states for which data were available. Among these states, the percentage of students who reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property ranged from 4 percent in Wisconsin and Massachusetts to 11 percent in Louisiana and Arkansas (table 4.2).

“On school property” was not defined for survey respondents.

This indicator repeats information from the Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2014 report. For more information: Tables 4.1 and 4.2, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014), (http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/ss/ss6304.pdf).

34

Nonfatal Student and Teacher Victimization

Figure 4.1.

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property at least once during the previous 12 months, by sex: Selected years, 1993 through 2013

Percent 20 15 Male 10

Total Female

5 0 1993

1995

1997

1999

2001

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011

2013

Year NOTE: Survey respondents were asked about being threatened or injured “with a weapon such as a gun, knife, or club on school property.” “On school property” was not defined for respondents. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 1993 through 2013.

Figure 4.2.

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property at least once during the previous 12 months, by race/ ethnicity: 2013

Percent 20

18.5

15 10 5 0

8.4 5.8

White

8.7!

8.5

7.7

5.3

Black

Hispanic

Pacific Islander

Asian

American Indian/ Alaska Native

Two or more races

Race/ethnicity ! Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. NOTE: Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Survey respondents were asked about being threatened or injured “with a weapon such as a gun, knife, or club on school property.” “On school property” was not defined for respondents. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 2013.

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

35

Figure 4.3.

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property at least once during the previous 12 months, by number of times threatened or injured and grade: 2013

Percent 20 15 10 5 0

8.5

7.0 6.8 4.9

At least once

3.5 3.0 3.4

2.5

2.0

1 time

1.7 1.3 1.1

2 or 3 times

1.5 1.4 1.3 1.0 4 to 11 times

1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9 12 or more times

Number of times 9th grade

10th grade

11th grade

12th grade

NOTE: Survey respondents were asked about being threatened or injured “with a weapon such as a gun, knife, or club on school property.” “On school property” was not defined for respondents. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 2013.

36

Nonfatal Student and Teacher Victimization

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Indicator 5 Teachers Threatened With Injury or Physically Attacked by Students During the 2011–12 school year, a higher percentage of public than private school teachers reported being threatened with injury (10 vs. 3 percent) or being physically attacked (6 vs. 3 percent) by a student from their school. Students are not the only victims of intimidation or violence in schools. Teachers are also subject to threats and physical attacks, and students from their schools sometimes commit these offenses. The Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) asks school teachers whether they were threatened with injury or physically attacked by a student from their school in the previous 12 months. During the 2011–12 school year, 9 percent of school teachers reported being threatened with injury by a student from their school (table 5.1). This percentage was lower than the 12 percent of teachers who reported being threatened with injury in 1993–94, but higher than the percentages of teachers who reported being threatened with injury in 2003–04 and 2007–08 (7 percent each; figure 5.1). The percentage of teachers reporting that they had been physically attacked by a student from their school in 2011–12 (5 percent) was higher than in any previous survey year (ranging from 3 to 4 percent). During the 2011–12 school year, there were no measurable differences in the percentages of male and female teachers who reported being threatened with injury during the school year (9 percent each); however, there were gender differences in the reports of being physically attacked (figure 5.2). Six percent of female school teachers reported being physically attacked by a student from their school, compared with 4 percent of male teachers. There were some differences in the percentages of teachers who reported being threatened by a student and being physically attacked by the race/ethnicity

of the teacher. In the 2011–12 school year, a higher percentage of Black teachers (14 percent) than White teachers and teachers of other racial/ethnic groups (9 percent each) reported being threatened by a student from their school during the school year. A higher percentage of Black teachers (8 percent) than Hispanic teachers (4 percent) reported being physically attacked by a student. The percentages of teachers who reported being threatened with injury or being physically attacked during the school year by a student from their school varied by school characteristics during the 2011–12 school year (figure 5.3). The percentage of elementary teachers who reported being physically attacked by a student was higher than the percentage of secondary teachers reporting it (8 vs. 3 percent). In addition, a higher percentage of public than private school teachers reported being threatened with injury (10 vs. 3 percent) or being physically attacked (6 vs. 3 percent) by a student during 2011–12. Public school teachers’ reports of being threatened with injury or physically attacked varied among the states and the District of Columbia. During the 2011–12 school year, the percentage of public school teachers who reported being threatened with injury during the previous 12 months ranged from 5 percent in Oregon to 18 percent in Louisiana (table 5.2). The percentage who reported being physically attacked ranged from 3 percent in Alabama, Mississippi, North Dakota, Oregon, and Tennessee to 11 percent in Wisconsin.

This indicator repeats information first reported in the Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2013 report. For more information: Tables 5.1 and 5.2, and appendix B for definitions of instructional levels.

38

Nonfatal Student and Teacher Victimization

Figure 5.1.

Percentage of public and private school teachers who reported that they were threatened with injury or that they were physically attacked by a student from school during the previous 12 months: Selected school years, 1993–94 through 2011–12

Percent 25 20 15

Threatened with injury

10 5 Physically attacked 0

1993–94

1999–2000

2003–04

2011–12

2007–08

School year NOTE: Teachers who taught only prekindergarten students are excluded. Some data have been revised from previously published figures. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), “Public School Teacher Data File,” and “Private School Teacher Data File,” 1993–94, 1999–2000, 2003–04, 2007–08, and 2011–12; and “Charter School Teacher Data File,” 1999–2000.

Figure 5.2.

Percentage of public and private school teachers who reported that they were threatened with injury or that they were physically attacked by a student from school during the previous 12 months, by sex: School year 2011–12

Percent 25 20 15 10

9.2

9.2

9.2 5.4

5 0

Threatened with injury

3.5

6.0

Physically attacked Type of reported problem Total

Men

Women

NOTE: Teachers who taught only prekindergarten students are excluded. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), “Public School Teacher Data File,” and “Private School Teacher Data File,” 2011–12.

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

39

Figure 5.3.

Percentage of public and private school teachers who reported that they were threatened with injury or that they were physically attacked by a student from school during the previous 12 months, by instructional level: School year 2011–12

Percent 25 20 15 10

9.2

9.6

8.7 5.4

5 0

8.2 2.6

Threatened with injury

Physically attacked Type of reported problem Total

Elementary

Secondary

NOTE: Teachers who taught only prekindergarten students are excluded. Instructional level divides teachers into elementary or secondary based on a combination of the grades taught, main teaching assignment, and the structure of the teachers’ class(es). Please see the glossary for a more detailed definition. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), “Public School Teacher Data File” and “Private School Teacher Data File,” 2011–12.

40

Nonfatal Student and Teacher Victimization

School Environment

Indicator 6 Violent and Other Criminal Incidents at Public Schools, and Those Reported to the Police ............ 42 Figure 6.1 ................................................................43 Figure 6.2 ................................................................45

Indicator 7 Discipline Problems Reported by Public Schools ....46 Figure 7.1.................................................................47 Figure 7.2 ................................................................49 Figure 7.3 ................................................................50

Indicator 8 Students’ Reports of Gangs at School..................... 52 Figure 8.1 ................................................................53 Figure 8.2 ................................................................53

Indicator 9 Illegal Drug Availability and Drug-Related Discipline Incidents ..................................................54 Figure 9.1 ................................................................55 Figure 9.2 ................................................................55

Indicator 10 Students’ Reports of Being Called Hate-Related Words and Seeing Hate-Related Graffiti .................58 Figure 10.1 ..............................................................59 Figure 10.2 ..............................................................61

Indicator 11 Bullying at School and Cyber-Bullying Anywhere ...62 Figure 11.1 ...............................................................63 Figure 11.2 ..............................................................65 Figure 11.3 ..............................................................67 Figure 11.4 ..............................................................67 Figure 11.5 ..............................................................69

Indicator 12 Teachers’ Reports on School Conditions ................ 70 Figure 12.1 ..............................................................71 Figure 12.2 ..............................................................71

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

41

Indicator 6 Violent and Other Criminal Incidents at Public Schools, and Those Reported to the Police During the 2013–14 school year, 65 percent of public schools recorded that one or more violent incidents had taken place, amounting to an estimated 757,000 crimes. This figure translates to a rate of approximately 15 crimes per 1,000 students enrolled in 2013–14. In 2013–14, public school principals were asked to provide the number of incidents of violent crime28 and serious violent crime29 that occurred at their school30 on the Fast Response Survey System (FRSS) survey of school safety and discipline. This indicator presents the percentage of public schools that recorded one or more of these specified incidents, the total number of these incidents recorded, and the rate of incidents of crime per 1,000 students.31 In the School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) administered in earlier years, public school principals were asked to provide the number of incidents of violent crime, incidents of serious violent crime, thefts of items valued at $10 or greater without personal confrontation, and other incidents32 that occurred at their school. In this survey, public school principals were also asked to provide the number of incidents they reported to the police. Data on these additional items are presented for the 2009–10 school year. During the 2013–14 school year, 65 percent of public schools recorded that one or more violent incidents had taken place, amounting to an estimated 757,000 incidents (figure 6.1 and table 6.1). This figure translates to a rate of approximately 15 crimes per 1,000 students enrolled in 2013–14.

Violent incidents can be examined by the specific types of incidents that schools recorded. In 2013–14, about 58 percent of public schools reported one or more incidents of a physical attack or fight without a weapon. This percentage translates to approximately 453,000 incidents at a rate of about 9 crimes per 1,000 students. Some 47 percent of schools reported one or more incidents of threat of physical attack without a weapon (a rate of 6 crimes per 1,000 students). Serious violent incidents are included within the total number of violent incidents, but can also be examined on their own. About 13 percent of public schools recorded one or more serious violent incidents in 2013–14 (a rate of 1 crime per 1,000 students). The types of serious violent incidents recorded included: threat of physical attack with a weapon (9 percent), robbery without a weapon (2 percent), physical attack or fight with a weapon (2 percent), sexual battery other than rape (2 percent), and rape or attempted rape (less than one half of 1 percent). Each type of serious violent incident translates to a rate of less than 1 crime per 1,000 students. Indicator 6 continued on page 44.

28 “Violent incidents” include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon. 29 “Serious violent incidents” include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with a weapon, threat of physical attack with a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon. 30 “At school” was defined for respondents to include activities that happen in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that hold school-sponsored events or activities. Respondents were instructed to include incidents that occurred before, during, or after normal school hours, or when school activities or events were in session. 31 Hereafter referred to as the rate of crime per 1,000 students. 32 “Other incidents” include possession of a firearm or explosive device; possession of a knife or sharp object; distribution, possession, or use of illegal drugs or alcohol; vandalism; and inappropriate distribution, possession, or use of prescription drugs.

This indicator has been updated to include 2013–14 data. For more information: Tables 6.1, 6.2, and 6.3, Neiman (2011), (http:// nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2011320), and Gray and Lewis (2015), (http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo. asp?pubid=2015051).

42

School Environment

Figure 6.1.

Percentage of public schools recording incidents of violent crime at school, by type of crime: School year 2013–14

Percent 100 80 65.0 57.5

60

47.1 40 20 0

13.1 0.2! Total

Physical Threat of attack or physical fight without attack a weapon without a weapon

Serious violent incidents, total

1.7

Rape or Sexual attempted battery rape other than rape

1.8

8.7

Threat of Physical physical attack or fight with attack with a weapon a weapon



2.5

Robbery with a weapon

Robbery without a weapon

Serious violent incidents Type of crime ! Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. ‡ Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater. NOTE: Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school. “At school” was defined to include activities that happen in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that hold school-sponsored events or activities. Respondents were instructed to include incidents that occurred before, during, and after normal school hours or when school activities or events were in session. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and because schools that recorded more than one type of crime incident were counted only once in the total percentage of schools recording or reporting incidents. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System (FRSS), “School Safety and Discipline: 2013–14,” FRSS 106, 2014.

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

43

The percentage of public schools that recorded violent incidents and serious violent incidents varied by school characteristics. For example, primary schools recorded lower percentages of violent incidents (53  percent) than middle schools (88 percent) and high schools and combined elementary/secondary schools (referred to as high/combined schools) (78  percent; figure 6.2 and table 6.2). Similarly, a lower percentage of primary schools recorded serious violent incidents (9 percent) than middle or high/ combined schools (18 and 19 percent, respectively). In 2013–14, about 86 percent of public schools with 1,000 or more students enrolled recorded violent incidents at school, higher than the percentages reported by schools with fewer students enrolled. The same pattern by enrollment size was observed for the percentage of schools recording serious violent incidents. A higher percentage of schools located in towns recorded violent incidents (76 percent) than those located in rural areas (62 percent) and suburban areas (60 percent), and a higher percentage of schools located in towns recorded serious violent incidents (17 percent) than those located in rural areas (10  percent). Additionally, a higher percentage of schools located in cities (18 percent) recorded serious violent incidents than those located in suburban areas (11 percent) and rural areas. In 2013–14, a lower percentage of schools where 0 to 25 percent of students were eligible for free or reduced-price lunch recorded violent incidents (51  percent) than those schools where a larger percentage of students were eligible for free or

44

School Environment

reduced-price lunch. The percentage of schools that recorded serious violent incidents was also lower for schools where 0 to 25 percent of students were eligible for free or reduced-price lunch (10 percent) than for schools where 76 to 100 percent of students were eligible for free or reduced-price lunch (16 percent). In the SSOCS, public school principals were asked to provide the number of thefts of items valued at $10 or greater without personal confrontation, and other incidents that occurred at their school in addition to reporting the number of violent incidents and serious violent incidents. During the 2009–10 school year, 85 percent of public schools recorded that one or more of these types of incidents had taken place (table 6.1). During the same year, 60 percent of schools reported one of the specified incidents to the police. In 2009–10, a greater percentage of public schools recorded a criminal incident than reported a criminal incident to the police. This pattern held true for violent incidents, serious violent incidents, thefts, and other criminal incidents (tables 6.1 and 6.3). Seventyfour percent of schools recorded one or more violent incidents, 16 percent recorded one or more serious violent incidents, 44 percent recorded one or more thefts, and 68 percent recorded one or more other criminal incidents. In comparison, 40 percent of public schools reported at least one violent incident to police, 10 percent reported at least one serious violent incident to police, 25 percent reported at least one theft to police, and 46 percent reported one or more other criminal incidents to police.

Figure 6.2.

Percentage of public schools recording incidents of violent crime at school, by selected school characteristics: School year 2013–14 School characteristic 65.0

Total School level 52.8

Primary

87.6

Middle 78.0

High school/combined Enrollment size 54.6

Less than 300

60.7

300–499

69.1

500–999

86.4

1,000 or more

Locale 68.0

City 60.4

Suburban

76.4

Town 62.2

Rural Percent combined enrollment of minority students1

59.7

Less than 5 percent 5 percent to less than 20 percent

62.1

20 percent to less than 50 percent

62.1 70.4

50 percent or more Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch 0–25

50.8

26–50

66.9

51–75

67.4 71.2

76–100 0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent Percent combined enrollment of Black, Hispanic, Asian, Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native students. NOTE: Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school. “At school” was defined to include activities that happen in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that hold school-sponsored events or activities. Respondents were instructed to include incidents that occurred before, during, and after normal school hours or when school activities or events were in session. High school/combined refers to high schools and combined elementary/secondary schools. Because the 2013–14 survey did not collect data on the percentage of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch, the classification of schools by the percentage of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch was computed based on data obtained from the Common Core of Data. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System (FRSS), “School Safety and Discipline: 2013–14,” FRSS 106, 2014; and Common Core of Data (CCD), “Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey,” 2013–14.

1

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

45

Indicator 7 Discipline Problems Reported by Public Schools The percentage of public schools that reported student bullying occurred at least once a week decreased from 29 percent in 1999–2000 to 16 percent in 2013–14. Between 1999–2000 and 2009–10, the School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) asked public school principals how often certain disciplinary problems happened in their schools33 during the school years in which this survey was administered. More recently, in 2013–14, school principals were asked to provide responses to a similar set of questions on the Fast Response Survey System (FRSS) survey of school safety and discipline. This indicator examines whether the following discipline problems were reported by public schools at least once a week: student racial/ ethnic tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student harassment of other students based on sexual orientation or gender identity, student verbal abuse of teachers, student acts of disrespect for teachers other than verbal abuse, and widespread disorder in the classroom. In the 2009–10 SSOCS survey administration, schools were also asked to report selected types of cyber-bullying34 problems at school or away from school that occurred at least once a week. In 2013–14, about 16 percent of public schools reported that bullying occurred among students at least once a week (figure 7.1 and table 7.1). About 5 percent of public schools reported verbal abuse of teachers, 9 percent reported acts of disrespect for teachers other than verbal abuse, and 2 percent reported widespread disorder in the classroom. About 1 percent of public schools reported each of the following occurred at least once a week in 2013–14: Student racial/ethnic tensions, sexual harassment of other students, and harassment of other students based on sexual orientation or gender identity.

The percentage of public schools that reported student bullying occurred at least once a week decreased from 29 percent in 1999–2000 to 16 percent in 2013–14 (figure 7.1 and table 7.1). Similarly, the percentage of schools that reported the occurrence of student verbal abuse of teachers at least once a week decreased from 13 percent in 1999–2000 to 5 percent in 2013–14. The percentages of public schools that reported the occurrence of student racial/ethnic tensions was lower in 2013–14 than in most prior survey years. For example, 3 percent of schools reported student racial/ethnic tensions in 1999–2000, compared to 1 percent of schools in 2013–14. The percentage of public schools reporting student sexual harassment of other students at least once a week was lower in 2013–14 (1 percent) than in every prior survey year since data collection began in 2003–04 (table 7.1). The percentage of public schools reporting student harassment of other students based on sexual orientation or gender identity was lower in 2013–14 (1 percent) than in 2009–10 (3 percent), the first year data on this item were collected. There was no measurable difference in the percentage of schools that reported widespread disorder in the classroom in 1999–2000 and 2013–14 (figure 7.1 and table 7.1). Similarly, there was no measurable difference in the percentage of schools reporting student acts of disrespect for teachers other than verbal abuse in 2007–08 (the first year of data collection for this item) and 2013–14. Indicator 7 continued on page 48.

33 “At school” was defined for respondents to include activities that happen in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that hold school-sponsored events or activities. Respondents were instructed to respond only for those times that were during normal school hours or when school activities or events were in session, unless the survey specified otherwise. 34 “Cyber-bullying” was defined for respondents as “occurring when willful and repeated harm is inflicted through the use of computers, cell phones, or other electronic devices.”

This indicator has been updated to include 2013–14 data. For more information: Tables 7.1 and 7.2, Neiman (2011), (http:// nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2011320), and Gray and Lewis (2015), (http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo. asp?pubid=2015051).

46

School Environment

Figure 7.1.

Percentage of public schools reporting selected discipline problems that occurred at school at least once a week: School years 1999–2000, 2009–10, and 2013–14

Discipline problem 3.4 Student racial/ ethnic tensions

2.8 1.4 29.3 23.1

Student bullying 15.7

Student sexual harrassment of other students1

3.2 1.4

Student harrassment of other students based on sexual orientation or gender identity1

2.5 0.8 12.5

Student verbal abuse of teachers

4.8 5.1

3.1 Widespread disorder in classrooms

2.5 2.3

Student acts of disrespect for teachers other than verbal abuse1

8.6 8.6 0

10

20

30

Percent 1999–2000

2009–10

2013–14

Data for 1999–2000 are not available. NOTE: Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school. “At school” was defined to include activities that happen in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that hold school-sponsored events or activities. Respondents were instructed to respond only for those times that were during normal school hours or when school activities or events were in session, unless the survey specified otherwise. Data for 2013–14 were collected using the Fast Response Survey System, while data for earlier years were collected using the School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS). The 2013–14 survey was designed to allow comparisons with SSOCS data. However, respondents to the 2013–14 survey could choose either to complete the survey on paper (and mail it back) or to complete the survey online, whereas respondents to SSOCS did not have the option of completing the survey online. The 2013–14 survey also relied on a smaller sample. The smaller sample size and change in survey administration may have impacted 2013–14 results. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1999–2000 and 2009–10 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2000 and 2010; Fast Response Survey System (FRSS), “School Safety and Discipline: 2013–14,” FRSS 106, 2014.

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Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

47

During the 2013–14 school year, the most commonly reported discipline problem among public schools was student bullying. The percentage of public schools that reported student bullying occurred at least once a week was higher for middle schools (25 percent) than high schools and combined elementary/secondary schools (referred to as high/ combined schools) (17 percent), and the percentages for both of these school levels were higher than the percentage for primary schools (12 percent; figure 7.2 and table 7.1). A higher percentage of schools with enrollments of 1,000 or more reported student bullying (22 percent) than schools of any other enrollment size. A higher percentage of schools located in towns (24 percent) reported bullying as compared to schools located in suburbs (13 percent), cities (15 percent), and rural areas (15 percent). A lower percentage of schools where 25 percent or less of the students were eligible for free or reduced-price lunch reported student bullying (8 percent) than schools with any other percentage of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch.35 In 2009–10, the SSOCS included a questionnaire item on cyber-bullying in which public schools were asked to report the occurrence of cyber-bullying

35  The percentage of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch programs is a proxy measure of school poverty.

48

School Environment

among students at school and away from school. Eight percent of public schools reported that cyberbullying had occurred among students daily or at least once a week at school or away from school. Four percent of public schools also reported that the school environment was affected by cyber-bullying. Similarly, 4 percent of schools reported that staff resources were used to deal with cyber-bullying (figure 7.3 and table 7.2). Public schools’ reports on the occurrence of cyberbullying at school and away from school in 2009–10 varied by school characteristics (table 7.2). Primary schools reported lower percentages of cyber-bullying among students (2 percent) than middle schools (19 percent), high schools (18 percent), and combined schools (13 percent). Thirteen percent of schools with less than 5 percent combined enrollment of minority students (defined as Black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, or American Indian/Alaska Native students) reported cyber-bullying among students, compared with 5 percent of schools with 50 percent or more combined enrollment of these racial/ethnic groups.

Figure 7.2.

Percentage of public schools reporting student bullying occurred at school at least once a week, by selected school characteristics: School year 2013–14 School characteristic Total

15.7

School level Primary

12.2 24.5

Middle High school/combined

17.2

Enrollment size Less than 300

13.5 14.6

300–499

16.1

500–999

22.1

1,000 or more

Locale City

14.8 12.9

Suburban

24.0

Town Rural

15.4

Percent combined enrollment of minority students1 Less than 5 percent

14.6!

5 percent to less than 20 percent

11.9

20 percent to less than 50 percent

18.1

50 percent or more

16.8

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch 0–25

8.2

26–50

14.2

51–75

18.3

76–100

20.2

0

10

20

30

Percent ! Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. 1 Percent combined enrollment of Black, Hispanic, Asian, Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native students. NOTE: Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school. “At school” was defined to include activities that happen in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that hold school-sponsored events or activities. Respondents were instructed to respond only for those times that were during normal school hours or when school activities or events were in session, unless the survey specified otherwise. High school/combined refers to high schools and combined elementary/secondary schools. Because the 2013–14 survey did not collect data on the percentage of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch, the classification of schools by the percentage of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch was computed based on data obtained from the Common Core of Data. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System (FRSS), “School Safety and Discipline: 2013–14,” FRSS 106, 2014; and Common Core of Data (CCD), “Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey,” 2013–14.

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

49

Figure 7.3.

Percentage of public schools reporting selected types of cyber-bullying problems occurring at school or away from school at least once a week, by school level: School year 2009–10

Percent of public schools 30

18.6

20

17.6 12.6

10

9.8 7.9

9.9

8.6 7.4!

4.4

3.8 1.5

0

8.5

All public schools

0.9! 0.9! Primary

‡ Middle

High school

Combined

School level1 Cyber-bullying among students

School environment is affected by cyber-bullying

Staff resources are used to deal with cyber-bullying

! Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. ‡ Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the CV is 50 percent or greater. 1 Primary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9. High schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 12. Combined schools include all other combinations of grades, including K–12 schools. NOTE: Includes schools reporting that cyber-bullying happens either “daily” or “at least once a week.” “Cyber-bullying” was defined for respondents as occurring “when willful and repeated harm is inflicted through the use of computers, cell phones, or other electronic devices.” Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school. Respondents were instructed to include cyber-bullying “problems that can occur anywhere (both at your school and away from school).” SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2009–10 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2010.

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Indicator 8 Students’ Reports of Gangs at School The percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported that gangs were present at their school decreased from 18 percent in 2011 to 12 percent in 2013. A higher percentage of students from urban areas (18 percent) reported a gang presence than students from suburban (11 percent) and rural areas (7 percent) in 2013. In order to assess gang activity in and around the vicinity of schools, the School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey asked students ages 12–18 if gangs were present at their school36 during the school year. The percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported that gangs were present at their school decreased from 18 percent in 2011 to 12 percent in 2013 (figure 8.1 and table 8.1). The percentage of students who reported a gang presence has decreased every year since 2005, when it was 24 percent. In 2013, a higher percentage of students from urban areas (18 percent) reported a gang presence at their school than students from suburban (11 percent) and rural areas (7 percent). Between 2011 and 2013, the percentages of students from urban and suburban areas who reported a gang presence at their school both decreased (from 23 to 18 percent for students from urban areas and from 16 to 11 percent for students in suburban areas). There was no measurable change in the percentage of rural students who reported a gang presence at their school between 2011 and 2013. A higher percentage of students attending public schools (13 percent) than of students attending private schools (2 percent) reported that gangs were present at their school in 2013. The percentage of public school students who reported a gang presence decreased from 19 percent in 2011 to 13 percent in 2013. However, the percentage of private school students who reported a gang presence at their school in 2013 was not measurably different from the percentage in 2011.

In 2013, the percentages of male and female students who reported a gang presence at their school were not measurably different (13 and 12 percent, respectively). Between 2011 and 2013, the percentage of male students who reported a gang presence decreased from 18 to 13 percent, and the percentage of female students who reported a gang presence decreased from 17 to 12 percent. Higher percentages of Hispanic (20 percent) and Black (19 percent) students reported the presence of gangs at their school than White (7 percent) and Asian (9 percent) students (figure 8.2 and table 8.1). The percentage of White students who reported a gang presence decreased from 11 percent in 2011 to 7 percent in 2013. Similarly, between 2011 and 2013 the percentage of Black students who reported a gang presence decreased from 33 to 19 percent, and the percentage of Hispanic students decreased from 26 to 20 percent. The percentages reported in 2013 by Asian students and students of other races/ethnicities were not measurably different from the percentages reported in 2011. The percentages of students in 6th through 8th grade who reported a gang presence at their school were lower than the percentages for students in 9th through 12th grade in 2013 (table 8.1). Five percent of 6th-graders and 8 percent each of 7th- and 8thgraders reported the presence of gangs, compared with 14 percent of 9th-graders, 15 percent of 12thgraders, 17 percent of 11th-graders, and 18 percent of 10th-graders.

36 “At school” includes in the school building, on school property, on a school bus, and going to and from school.

This indicator repeats information from the Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2014 report. For more information: Table 8.1, and DeVoe and Bauer (2011), (http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2012314).

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Figure 8.1.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported that gangs were present at school during the school year, by urbanicity: 2011 and 2013

Percent 50 40 30 22.8

17.5

20

18.3

16.1

12.4

0

12.1

10.8

10

Total

Urban

Suburban

6.8

Rural

Urbanicity 2011

2013

NOTE: Urbanicity refers to the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) status of the respondent’s household as defined in 2000 by the U.S. Census Bureau. Categories include “central city of an MSA (Urban),” “in MSA but not in central city (Suburban),” and “not MSA (Rural).” All gangs, whether or not they are involved in violent or illegal activity, are included. “At school” includes in the school building, on school property, on a school bus, and going to and from school. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 2011 and 2013.

Figure 8.2.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported that gangs were present at school during the school year, by race/ethnicity: 2011 and 2013

Percent 50 40 32.7 30

26.4

10 0

20.1

18.6

20 11.1

9.9

7.5

White

Black

Hispanic

9.4

Asian

9.9

14.3

Other

Race/ethnicity 2011

2013

NOTE: Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. “Other” includes American Indians/Alaska Natives, Pacific Islanders, and persons of Two or more races. All gangs, whether or not they are involved in violent or illegal activity, are included. “At school” includes in the school building, on school property, on a school bus, and going to and from school. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 2011 and 2013.

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

53

Indicator 9 Illegal Drug Availability and Drug-Related Discipline Incidents The percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported that illegal drugs were offered, sold, or given to them on school property increased from 1993 to 1995 (from 24 to 32 percent), but then decreased to 22 percent in 2013. The percentage of students who reported that illegal drugs were made available to them on school property was lower in 2013 than in 2011 (22 vs. 26 percent). This indicator uses data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) to discuss whether students had been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug on school property, and then uses state data from the EDFacts data collection to discuss the number of discipline incidents resulting in the removal of a student for at least an entire school day that involve students’ possession or use of tobacco or illicit drugs on school grounds. Readers should take note of the differing data sources and terminology. In the YRBS, students in grades 9–12 were asked whether someone had offered, sold, or given them an illegal drug on school property in the 12 months preceding the survey.37 From 1993 to 1995, the percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported that illegal drugs were made available to them on school property increased (from 24 to 32 percent), but then decreased to 22 percent in 2013 (table 9.1). There was no measurable difference between the percentages reported in 1993 and 2013. However, the percentage of students who reported that drugs were made available to them on school property was lower in 2013 (22 percent) than in 2011 (26 percent; figure 9.1 and table 9.1). In every survey year from 1993 to 2013, a lower percentage of females than of males reported that illegal drugs were offered, sold, or given to them on school property. In 2013, some 20 percent of females and 24 percent of males reported that illegal drugs were made available to them on school property. The percentage of males who reported that drugs were offered, sold, or given to them on school property in 2013 was lower than the percentage reported in 2011 (29 percent). However, for females the percentage reported in 2013 was not measurably different from the percentage reported in 2011. 37

In 2013, lower percentages of Black students (19 percent) and White students (20 percent) than of Hispanic students (27 percent) and students of Two or more races (26 percent) reported that illegal drugs were offered, sold, or given to them on school property (figure 9.2 and table 9.1). In addition, the percentage of Black students who reported that illegal drugs were made available to them on school property was lower than the percentage of Pacific Islander students (19 vs. 28 percent). Between 2011 and 2013, the percentages of Black, Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native students who reported that illegal drugs were made available to them on school property declined. A lower percentage of 12th-graders than of 9th-, 10th-, or 11th-graders reported that illegal drugs were made available to them on school property in 2013 (table 9.1). Nineteen percent of 12th-graders reported that illegal drugs were made available to them on school property that year, compared with 22 percent of 9th-graders and 23 percent each of 10th- and 11th-graders. In 2013, public school students’ reports of the availability of illegal drugs on school property varied across the 36 states for which data were available (table  9.2). Among these states, the percentage of students reporting that illegal drugs were offered, sold, or given to them on school property ranged from 12 percent in Mississippi to 33 percent in New Mexico. Indicator 9 continued on page 56.

“On school property” was not defined for survey respondents.

This indicator repeats student-reported information from the Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2014 report, and adds 2013 data on discipline incidents related to illicit drug. For more information: Tables 9.1, 9.2, and 9.3, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014), (http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/ss/ss6304.pdf).

54

School Environment

Figure 9.1.

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported that illegal drugs were made available to them on school property during the previous 12 months, by sex: Selected years, 1993 through 2013

Percent 50 Male

40

Total 30

Female

20 10 0

1993

1995

1997

1999

2001

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011

2013

Year NOTE: “On school property” was not defined for survey respondents. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 1993 through 2013.

Figure 9.2.

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported that illegal drugs were made available to them on school property during the previous 12 months, by race/ethnicity: 2011 and 2013

Percent 50

33.2 30

22.7 20

40.5

38.9

40

20.4

22.8

27.4

25.5

23.3 22.6

18.6

33.3

27.7

26.4

10 0

White

Black

Hispanic

Pacific Islander

Asian Race/ethnicity 2011

American Indian/ Alaska Native

Two or more races

2013

NOTE: “On school property” was not defined for survey respondents. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 2011 and 2013.

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

55

It is also important to examine discipline incidents that result from illicit drug-related activities at school, which reflect disruptions in the educational process and provide a gauge for the scope of drug use at school. As part of the EDFacts data collection, state education agencies report the number of discipline incidents resulting in the removal of a student for at least an entire school day that involve students’ possession or use of illicit drugs on school grounds.38 State education agencies compile these data based on incidents that were reported by their schools and school districts. During the 2013–14 school year, there were 197,000 reported illicit drug-related discipline incidents in the United States (table  9.3).39 The number of illicit drug-related incidents varies widely across states, due in large part to states’

38

Includes tobacco. United States total includes 49 states and the District of Columbia. Data for Vermont were unavailable for 2013–14. 39

56

School Environment

differing populations. Therefore, the rate of illicit drug-related discipline incidents per 100,000 students can provide a more comparable indication of the frequency of these incidents across states. During the 2013–14 school year, the rate of illicit drug-related discipline incidents was 394 per 100,000 students in the United States. The majority of states had rates between 100 and 1,000 illicit drug-related discipline incidents per 100,000 students during the 2013–14 school year. Five states had rates of illicit drug-related discipline incidents per 100,000 students that were below 100: Wyoming, Texas, Tennessee, Virginia, and Michigan, while two states had rates above 1,000: Kentucky and New Mexico.

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Indicator 10 Students’ Reports of Being Called Hate-Related Words and Seeing Hate-Related Graffiti In 2013, about 7 percent of students ages 12–18 reported being the target of hate-related words and 25 percent reported seeing hate-related graffiti at school during the school year; the corresponding 2011 percentages were both higher (9 and 28 percent, respectively). The School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey collects data on students’ reports of being the target of hate-related40 words and seeing hate-related graffiti at school.41 Specifically, students ages 12–18 were asked whether someone at school had called them a derogatory word having to do with their race, ethnicity, religion, disability, gender, or sexual orientation. Additionally, students were asked if they had seen hate-related graffiti at their school—that is, hate-related words or symbols written in classrooms, bathrooms, or hallways or on the outside of the school building. In 2013, about 7 percent of students ages 12–18 reported being the target of hate-related words at school during the school year, which was lower than the 9 percent reported in 2011 (figure 10.1 and table 10.1). The percentage of students who reported being the target of hate-related words decreased from 12 percent in 2001 (the first year of data collection for this item) to 7 percent in 2013. Similarly, in 2013, about 25 percent of students reported seeing hate-related graffiti at school during the school year, which was lower than the 28 percent reported in 2011, and also represented a decrease from the 36 percent reported in 1999, when data for students’ reports of seeing hate-related graffiti at school were first collected. The percentages of males and females who reported being called a hate-related word during the school year did not measurably differ in any survey year from 2001 to 2013. The percentages of male and female students who reported being called a hate-related word were lower in 2013 (7 percent each) than in

2011 (9 percent each). In addition, the percentages of both males and females who reported being called a hate-related word decreased overall between 2001 and 2013 (from 13 to 7 percent for males and from 12 to 7 percent for females). The percentages of males and females who reported seeing hate-related graffiti at school during the school year did not measurably differ in any survey year from 2001 to 2013. The percentage of male students who reported seeing hate-related graffiti at school was lower in 2013 (24 percent) than in 2011 (29 percent), as well as in 1999 (34 percent). The percentage of female students who reported seeing hate-related graffiti at school was lower in 2013 (25  percent) than in 2011 (28 percent) and lower than in 1999 (39 percent). In 2013, a lower percentage of White students than students of any other race/ethnicity reported being called a hate-related word during the school year. About 5 percent of White students reported being called a hate-related word, compared with 7 percent of Hispanic students, 8 percent of Black students, 10 percent of Asian students, and 11 percent of students of other races/ethnicities. There were no measurable differences by race/ethnicity, however, in the percentages of students who reported seeing haterelated graffiti at school in 2013. About 21 percent of Asian students, 24 percent of White students, 26  percent each of Hispanic and Black students, and 28 percent of students of other races/ethnicities reported seeing hate-related graffiti at school. Indicator 10 continued on page 60.

40 “Hate-related” refers to derogatory terms used by others in reference to students’ personal characteristics. 41 “At school” includes the school building, on school property, on a school bus, and, from 2001 onward, going to and from school.

This indicator repeats information from the Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2014 report. For more information: Tables 10.1 and 10.2, and DeVoe and Bauer (2011), (http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2012314).

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School Environment

Figure 10.1. Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being the target of hate-related words and seeing hate-related graffiti at school during the school year, by selected student and school characteristics: 2013 Hate-related words

Hate-related graffiti

Student or school characteristic

Student or school characteristic

Total

6.6

Total

24.6

Sex Male

6.6

Sex Male

24.1

Female

6.7

Female

25.1

Grade

Grade

6th

6.7

6th

21.9

7th

7.5

7th

21.7

8th

7.4

8th

24.0

9th

6.6

9th

10th

6.4

10th

26.0

11th

25.8

7.5

11th

4.1

12th

27.2

12th

Race/ ethnicity1

24.2

Race/ ethnicity1 5.3

White

7.8

Black Hispanic

23.7

White

10.3

Other

25.6

Hispanic

7.4

Asian

26.3

Black

Asian

20.8

Other

11.2

Sector

28.4

Sector

Public

6.6

Public

Private

6.7

Private

0

5

10

15

20

Percent

25

30

35

25.6 12.6 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

Percent

Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. “Other” includes American Indians/Alaska Natives, Pacific Islanders, and persons of Two or more races. NOTE: “At school” includes the school building, on school property, on a school bus, and going to and from school. “Hate-related” refers to derogatory terms used by others in reference to students’ personal characteristics. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 2013.

1

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

59

Some measurable differences were observed across grades in students’ reports of being called a haterelated word and seeing hate-related graffiti at school in 2013 (figure 10.1 and table 10.1). In 2013, a lower percentage of 12th-graders (4 percent) than of 7th-, 8th-, and 9th-graders (7 percent each), and 11th-graders (8  percent) reported being called a hate-related word at school. A lower percentage of 7th-graders (22 percent) reported seeing hate-rated graffiti at school than 9th- and 10th-graders (27 and 26 percent, respectively). In each data collection year between 1999 and 2013, a higher percentage of public school students than of private school students reported seeing hate-related graffiti at school. For instance, in 2013, approximately 26 percent of public school students reported seeing hate-related graffiti at school, compared with 13 percent of private school students. However, the percentages of public and private school students who reported being called a hate-related word were not measurably different in 2013 (7 percent each).

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School Environment

Students who reported being the target of haterelated words at school in 2013 were asked to indicate whether the derogatory word they were called referred to their race, ethnicity, religion, disability, gender, or sexual orientation (figure 10.2 and table 10.2). A lower percentage of male students than of female students reported being called a hate-related word referring to their gender (less than one-half of 1 percent vs. 2 percent). With respect to being called a hate-related word referring to their race, a lower percentage of White students than of their peers reported being targeted in 2013 (table 10.2). Specifically, 2 percent of White students reported being called a hate-related word referring to their race, compared with 4 percent of Hispanic students, 6 percent of Black students, and 8 percent each of Asian students and students of other races/ethnicities.

Figure 10.2. Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being the target of hate-related words at school during the school year, by type of hate-related word and sex: 2013 Percent 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

6.6 6.6 6.7

Total1

3.3 3.5 3.1 Race

1.9 1.9 1.9

1.2 1.0 1.4

0.8 0.7 0.9

1.0 0.3 1.7

1.1 0.9 1.3

Ethnicity

Religion

Disability

Gender

Sexual orientation

Type of hate-related word Total

Male

Female

Students who indicated that they had been called a hate-related word were asked to choose the specific characteristics that the hate-related word or words targeted. Students were allowed to choose more than one characteristic. If a student chose more than one characteristic, he or she is counted only once in the total percentage of students who reported being called a hate-related word; therefore, the total is less than the sum of the students’ individual characteristics. NOTE: “At school” includes the school building, on school property, on a school bus, and going to and from school. “Hate-related” refers to derogatory terms used by others in reference to students’ personal characteristics. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 2013.

1

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Indicator 11 Bullying at School and Cyber-Bullying Anywhere The percentage of students who reported being bullied was lower in 2013 (22 percent) than in every prior survey year (28 percent each in 2005, 2009, and 2011 and 32 percent in 2007). The School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey collects data on bullying42 and cyber-bullying43 by asking students ages 12–18 if they had been bullied at school44 and cyber-bullied anywhere during the school year. Students were also asked about the types and frequencies of bullying and cyber-bullying they had been subjected to, as well as whether an adult at school45 had been notified of the incidents. Cyber-bullying is distinct from bullying at school; however, bullying at school might be a pertinent context to understand cyber-bullying anywhere. In the SCS, survey items on cyber-bullying anywhere were asked separately from survey items on bullying at school. In a different survey, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), students in grades 9–12 were asked if they had been bullied on school property46 or electronically bullied during the previous 12 months. In addition to collecting data at the national level, the YRBS also collects data at the state level. Readers should take note of the differing data sources and terminology. On the SCS in 2013, about 22 percent of students ages 12–18 reported being bullied at school during the school year (figure 11.1 and table 11.1). Of students 42

“Bullying” includes students who responded that another student had made fun of them, called them names, or insulted them; spread rumors about them; threatened them with harm; tried to make them do something they did not want to do; excluded them from activities on purpose; destroyed their property on purpose; or pushed, shoved, tripped, or spit on them. 43 “Cyber-bullying” includes students who responded that another student had posted hurtful information about them on the Internet; purposely shared private information about them on the Internet; threatened or insulted them through instant messaging; threatened or insulted them through text messaging; threatened or insulted them through e-mail; threatened or insulted them while gaming; or excluded them online. 44 “At school” includes the school building, on school property, on a school bus, or going to and from school. 45 “Adult at school” refers to a teacher or other adult at school. 46 In the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), bullying was defined for respondents as “when one or more students tease, threaten, spread rumors about, hit, shove, or hurt another student over and over again.” “On school property” was not defined for survey respondents.

ages 12–18, about 14 percent reported that they were made fun of, called names, or insulted; 13 percent reported being the subject of rumors; and 6 percent reported that they were pushed, shoved, tripped, or spit on. Of those students who reported being pushed, shoved, tripped, or spit on at school, about 21 percent reported injury as a result of the incident. Additionally, about 4 percent of all students reported being excluded from activities on purpose, 4 percent reported being threatened with harm, 2 percent reported that others tried to make them do things they did not want to do, and 2 percent reported that their property was destroyed by others on purpose. In 2013, a higher percentage of females than of males ages 12–18 reported being bullied at school during the school year (24 vs. 19 percent). Also, higher percentages of females than of males reported that they were made fun of, called names, or insulted (15 vs. 13 percent); were the subject of rumors (17 vs. 10 percent); and were excluded from activities on purpose (5 vs. 4 percent). In contrast, a higher percentage of males (7 percent) than of females (5 percent) reported being pushed, shoved, tripped, or spit on. A higher percentage of White students (24 percent) than of Hispanic students (19 percent) and Asian students (9 percent) reported being bullied at school in 2013. In addition, higher percentages of Black students (20 percent) and Hispanic students than of Asian students reported being bullied at school. A higher percentage of White students (16 percent) than of Hispanic students (12 percent), Black students (10 percent), and Asian students (7 percent) reported being made fun of, called names, or insulted. Similarly, 15 percent of White students reported that they had been the subject of rumors, compared with 11 percent of Hispanic students and 4 percent of Asian students. Indicator 11 continued on page 64.

This indicator repeats information from the Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2014 report. For more information: Tables 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, and 11.6, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014), (http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/ss/ ss6304.pdf), and DeVoe and Bauer (2011), (http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2012314).

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Figure 11.1. Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being bullied at school during the school year, by type of bullying and sex: 2013 Type of bullying 21.5 19.5

Bullied at school

23.7 13.6 12.6 14.7

Made fun of, called names, or insulted

13.2

Subject of rumors

9.6 17.0 6.0

Pushed, shoved, tripped, or spit on

7.4 4.6 4.5 3.5 5.5

Excluded from activities on purpose

3.9 Threatened with harm

4.1 3.7 2.2 2.4

Tried to make do things did not want to do

1.9

Property destroyed on purpose

1.6 1.8 1.3 0

10

20

30

40

50

Percent Total

Male

Female

NOTE: “At school” includes the school building, on school property, on a school bus, or going to and from school. Bullying types do not sum to totals because students could have experienced more than one type of bullying. Students who reported experiencing more than one type of bullying at school were counted only once in the total for students bullied at school. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 2013.

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Higher percentages of students in grades 6 through 11 than of students in grade 12 reported being bullied at school during the school year. In 2013, about 14   percent of 12th-graders reported being bullied at school, compared with 28 percent of 6thgraders, 26 percent of 7th-graders, 22 percent of 8th-graders, 23 percent of 9th-graders, 19 percent of 10th-graders, and 20 percent of 11th-graders. No measurable differences were observed in the percentage of students who reported being bullied at school by school characteristics such as urbanicity and control of school.

In 2013, approximately 7 percent of students ages 12–18 reported being cyber-bullied anywhere during the school year (figure 11.3 and table 11.3). About 3 percent of students reported that another student had posted hurtful information about them on the Internet, and 3 percent reported being the subject of harassing text messages. Some 2 percent reported being the subject of harassing instant messages and 1 percent each reported having their private information purposely shared on the Internet, being the subject of harassing e-mails, being harassed while gaming, and being excluded online.

The SCS also asked students ages 12–18 who reported being bullied at school to indicate the location where they had been victimized. In 2013, of students who reported being bullied during the school year, about 46 percent of students reported that the bullying occurred in the hallway or stairwell at school, 34  percent reported being bullied inside the classroom, and 23 percent reported being bullied outside on school grounds (figure 11.2 and table 11.2). About 19 percent of students who were bullied reported that the bullying occurred in the cafeteria, 9 percent reported that it occurred in the bathroom or locker room, 8 percent reported that it occurred on the school bus, and 1 percent reported that it occurred somewhere else in school.

A higher percentage of female students than of male students ages 12–18 reported being victims of cyberbullying in 2013. Nine percent of females compared with 5 percent of males were victims of cyber-bullying overall. In particular, a higher percentage of females than of males were victims of various types of cyberbullying: Having hurtful information about them posted on the Internet by another student (5 vs. 1 percent), having their private information purposely shared on the Internet (1 percent vs. less than one-half of 1 percent), being the subject of harassing instant messages (3 vs. 1 percent), and being the subject of harassing text messages (5 vs. 2 percent). In contrast, 2 percent of male students reported being harassed while gaming, compared with less than one-half of 1 percent of female students. Indicator 11 continued on page 66.

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School Environment

Figure 11.2. Among students ages 12–18 who reported being bullied at school during the school year, percentage who reported being bullied in various locations: 2013 Percent 50

45.6

40 33.6 30

9.1

10 0

22.9

18.9

20

7.8 0.8!

Inside classroom

In hallway or stairwell

In bathroom or locker room

Cafeteria

Somewhere else Outside on in school school grounds

On school bus

Location of bullying ! Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. NOTE: “At school” includes the school building, on school property, on a school bus, or going to and from school. Location totals may sum to more than 100 percent because students could have been bullied in more than one location. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 2013.

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The percentage of students who reported being cyberbullied anywhere during the school year in 2013 was higher for White students (8 percent) than for Black students (5 percent). There were no measurable differences by grade level, urbanicity, or school sector in the prevalence of students reporting being a victim of cyber-bullying. In 2013, about 33 percent of students who reported being bullied at school indicated that they were bullied at least once or twice a month during the school year: 19 percent reported being bullied once or twice a month, 8 percent reported being bullied once or twice a week, and 6 percent reported being bullied almost every day (figure 11.4 and table 11.4). About 27  percent of students who reported being cyber-bullied anywhere indicated that they were cyber-bullied at least once or twice a month during the school year: 15 percent reported being cyberbullied once or twice a month, 8 percent reported being cyber-bullied once or twice a week, and 4 percent reported being cyber-bullied almost every day. Among students who reported being cyberbullied, a higher percentage of females than of males reported being cyber-bullied once or twice a month (19 vs. 9 percent).

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School Environment

Students who reported being bullied or cyber-bullied were also asked whether they had notified an adult about the incident. In 2013, a higher percentage of students reported notifying an adult after being bullied at school than after being cyber-bullied anywhere (39 vs. 23 percent). While there was no measurable difference by sex in the percentage of students notifying an adult after being bullied at school, a higher percentage of females than of males reported notifying an adult after being cyber-bullied (32 vs. 11 percent). In addition, higher percentages of 6th- and 7th-graders than of 8th- through 12thgraders reported notifying an adult after being bullied at school, and higher percentages of 7th- and 8th-graders than of 9th-graders reported notifying an adult after being cyber-bullied. The percentage of students who reported notifying an adult after being bullied at school was higher for those who reported being bullied once or twice a week (55 percent) than for those who reported being bullied once or twice a year (37 percent) or once or twice a month (38 percent). Indicator 11 continued on page 68.

Figure 11.3. Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being cyber-bullied anywhere during the school year, by type of cyber-bullying and sex: 2013 Percent 50 40 30 20 10 0

6.9 5.2

8.6

Total cyberbullying

2.8 1.2 4.5

0.9 0.4 1.5

Hurtful information on Internet

Private information purposely shared on Internet

2.1 1.0 3.4

3.2 1.6 4.9

Subject of harassing instant messages

Subject of harassing text messages

0.9 0.2! 1.7

1.5 2.5 0.4!

0.9 0.9 0.9

Subject of harassing e-mails

Subject of harassment while gaming

Excluded online

Type of cyber-bullying Total

Male

Female

! Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. NOTE: Students who reported experiencing more than one type of cyber-bullying were counted only once in the cyber-bullying total. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and because students could have experienced more than one type of cyber-bullying. Students who reported being cyber-bullied are those who responded that another student had done one or more of the following: posted hurtful information about them on the Internet; purposely shared private information about them on the Internet; threatened or insulted them through instant messaging; threatened or insulted them through text messaging; threatened or insulted them through e-mail; threatened or insulted them while gaming; or excluded them online. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 2013.

Figure 11.4. Among students ages 12–18 who reported being bullied at school or cyber-bullied anywhere during the school year, percentage reporting various frequencies of bullying and the notification of an adult at school: 2013 Percent 100 80

73.2

67.3

60 38.9

40 20 0

19.4

Once or Once or twice in the twice school year a month

23.3

15.0 7.6

5.7

Once or twice a week

Almost every day

Bullying at school

7.9 Adult notified1

Once or Once or twice in the twice school year a month

Once or twice a week

3.8 Almost every day

Adult notified1

Cyber-bullying anywhere2

Teacher or other adult at school notified. Students who reported being cyber-bullied are those who responded that another student had done one or more of the following: posted hurtful information about them on the Internet; purposely shared private information about them on the Internet; threatened or insulted them through instant messaging; threatened or insulted them through text messaging; threatened or insulted them through e-mail; threatened or insulted them while gaming; or excluded them online. NOTE: “At school” includes the school building, on school property, on a school bus, or going to and from school. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 2013. 1 2

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The percentages of students reporting being bullied at school varied over time from 2005 through 2013. Prior data are excluded from the time series due to a significant redesign of the bullying items in 2005. The percentage of students who reported being bullied was lower in 2013 (22 percent) than in every prior survey year (28 percent each in 2005, 2009, and 2011 and 32 percent in 2007; table 11.5). A similar pattern was observed for some of the student and school characteristics examined. For example, in 2013 about 24 percent of female students reported being bullied at school, compared with 29 percent each in 2005 and 2009, about 31 percent in 2011, and 33 percent in 2007. Similarly, about 24 percent of White students reported being bullied at school in 2013, compared with 29 percent in 2009, about 30 percent in 2005, about 31 percent in 2011, and 34 percent in 2007. By school characteristics, in 2013 about 22 percent of students from suburban schools reported being bullied at school, compared with 28 percent in 2009, about 29 percent each in 2005 and 2011, and 31 percent in 2007 (figure 11.5). Similarly, about

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21 percent of public school students reported being bullied at school in 2013, compared with 28 percent in 2011, about 29 percent each in 2005 and 2009, and 32 percent in 2007. As mentioned in the introduction, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) collects both national and state-level data on bullying and electronic bullying for students in grades 9–12. In 2013, both national and state-level data on the percentages of students who reported being bullied on school property during the previous 12 months were available for 40 states (table 11.6). Among these states, the percentages of students who reported being bullied on school property ranged from 16 percent in Florida to 26 percent in Montana. There were also 40 states that had 2013 data available on the percentages of students who reported being electronically bullied during the previous 12 months. Among these states, the percentages of students who reported being electronically bullied ranged from 12 percent in Mississippi, Florida, and North Carolina to 21 percent in Maine.

Figure 11.5. Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being bullied at school during the school year, by selected school characteristics: Selected years, 2005 through 2013 Urbanicity1

Sector2 Percent 50

Percent 50 40

40

Rural

Public 30

30 20

Urban

Suburban

10

10 0

Private

20

2005

2007

2009 Year

2011

2013

0

2005

2007

2009

2011

2013

Year

Refers to the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) status of the respondent’s household as defined in 2000 by the U.S. Census Bureau. Categories include “central city of an MSA (Urban),” “in MSA but not in central city (Suburban),” and “not MSA (Rural).” These data by metropolitan status were based on the location of households and differ from those published in Student Reports of Bullying and Cyber-Bullying: Results From the 2011 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey, which were based on the urban-centric measure of the location of the school that the child attended. 2 Sector of school as reported by the respondent. These data differ from those based on a matching of the respondent-reported school name to the Common Core of Data’s Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey or the Private School Survey, as reported in Student Reports of Bullying and Cyber-Bullying: Results From the 2011 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. NOTE: “At school” includes the school building, on school property, on a school bus, or going to and from school. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 2005 through 2013. 1

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Indicator 12 Teachers’ Reports on School Conditions In 2011–12, higher percentages of public school teachers than of private school teachers reported that student misbehavior and student tardiness and class cutting interfered with their teaching. Managing inappropriate behaviors and classroom disruptions is time-consuming and takes away from valuable instructional time and student engagement in academic behaviors (Riley et al. 2011). In the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), public and private school teachers were asked whether student misbehavior and student tardiness and class cutting interfered with their teaching. During the 2011–12 school year, 38 percent of teachers agreed or strongly agreed that student misbehavior interfered with their teaching, and 35 percent reported that student tardiness and class cutting interfered with their teaching (figure 12.1 and table 12.1). Teachers were also asked whether school rules were enforced by other teachers at their school, even for students not in their classes, and whether school rules were enforced by the principal. In 2011–12, about 69 percent of teachers agreed or strongly agreed that other teachers at their school enforced the school rules, and 84 percent reported that the principal enforced the school rules (figure 12.1 and table 12.2). The percentages of teachers who reported that student misbehavior and student tardiness and class cutting interfered with their teaching varied by school characteristics during the 2011–12 school year (table 12.1). For example, a higher percentage of public school teachers (41 percent) than of private school teachers (22 percent) reported that student misbehavior interfered with their teaching. Thirtyeight percent of public school teachers reported that student tardiness and class cutting interfered with their teaching, compared with 19 percent of private school teachers.

In every survey year, a lower percentage of elementary school teachers than of secondary school teachers reported that student tardiness and class cutting interfered with their teaching; in 2011–12, 31 percent of elementary school teachers and 45 percent of secondary school teachers reported that student tardiness and class cutting interfered with their teaching (table 12.1). There was no measurable difference between the percentages of elementary and secondary school teachers who reported that student misbehavior interfered with their teaching. The percentage of teachers who reported that student misbehavior interfered with their teaching fluctuated between 1993–94 and 2011–12; however, the percentage was higher in 2011–12 (38 percent) than in the previous survey year (34 percent in 2007–08; figure 12.2). The percentage of teachers reporting that student tardiness and class cutting interfered with their teaching increased between 1993–94 and 2011–12 (from 25 to 35 percent). A higher percentage of teachers reported that student tardiness and class cutting interfered with their teaching in 2011–12 than in 2007–08 (35 vs. 31 percent). In every survey year, a lower percentage of public school teachers than of private school teachers agreed that school rules were enforced by other teachers and by the principal in their school (table 12.2). In 2011–12, some 68 percent of public school teachers reported that school rules were enforced by other teachers, compared with 77 percent of private school teachers. In addition, 84 percent of public school teachers reported that school rules were enforced by the principal, compared with 89 percent of private school teachers. Indicator 12 continued on page 72.

This indicator repeats information first reported in the Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2013 report. For more information: Tables 12.1, 12.2, and 12.3, appendix B for definitions of school levels, and Coopersmith (2009), (http://nces.ed.gov/ pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2009324).

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Figure 12.1. Percentage of public and private school teachers who agreed that student misbehavior and student tardiness and class cutting interfered with their teaching, and percentage who agreed that other teachers and the principal enforced school rules, by school control: School year 2011–12 Percent 100 80

68.8

77.4

84.4

83.7

89.4

67.6

60 38.5

40

35.3

37.6

22.0

20 0

40.7

Student misbehavior interfered

18.8

Student tardiness and class cutting interfered Total

Other teachers enforced¹

Public

Principal enforced²

Private

Teachers were asked whether “rules for student behavior are consistently enforced by teachers in this school, even for students not in their classes.” 2 Teachers were asked whether their “principal enforces school rules for student conduct and backs me up when I need it.” NOTE: Teachers who taught only prekindergarten students are excluded. Includes teachers who “strongly” agreed and teachers who “somewhat” agreed that students’ misbehavior, tardiness, and class cutting interfered with their teaching, as well as teachers who “strongly” agreed and teachers who “somewhat” agreed that other teachers and the principal enforced school rules. The public sector includes traditional public and public charter school teachers. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), “Public School Teacher Data File” and “Private School Teacher Data File,” 2011–12. 1

Figure 12.2. Percentage of public and private school teachers who agreed that student misbehavior and student tardiness and class cutting interfered with their teaching, and percentage who agreed that other teachers and the principal enforced school rules: Selected school years, 1993–94 through 2011–12 Percent

Percent

100

100 Principal enforced1

80

80

60

60 Student misbehavior interfered

40

40 20

20

Student tardiness and class cutting interfered

0 1993–94

1999–2000 2003–04

Other teachers enforced2

2007–08

2011–12

0 1993–94

1999–2000 2003–04

2007–08

2011–12

School year Teachers were asked whether their “principal enforces school rules for student conduct and backs me up when I need it.” Teachers were asked whether “rules for student behavior are consistently enforced by teachers in this school, even for students not in their classes.” NOTE: Teachers who taught only prekindergarten students are excluded. Includes teachers who “strongly” agreed and teachers who “somewhat” agreed that students’ misbehavior, tardiness, and class cutting interfered with their teaching, as well as teachers who “strongly” agreed and teachers who “somewhat” agreed that other teachers and the principal enforced school rules. The public sector includes traditional public and public charter school teachers. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), “Public School Teacher Data File” and “Private School Teacher Data File,” 1993–94, 1999–2000, 2003–04, 2007–08, and 2011–12; and “Charter School Teacher Data File,” 1999–2000. 1 2

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Between 1993–94 and 2011–12, the percentage of teachers who agreed or strongly agreed that school rules were enforced by other teachers fluctuated between 64 and 73 percent, and the percentage who agreed that rules were enforced by the principal fluctuated between 82 and 89 percent, showing no consistent trends. However, a lower percentage of teachers reported that school rules were enforced by other teachers in 2011–12 (69 percent) than in the previous survey year (72 percent in 2007–08). Similarly, the percentage of teachers who reported that school rules were enforced by the principal was lower in 2011–12 than in 2007–08 (84 vs. 89 percent).

72

School Environment

In 2011–12, the percentages of public school teachers who reported that student misbehavior and student tardiness and class cutting interfered with their teaching varied by state. For example, among the 50 states and the District of Columbia, the percentage of teachers who reported that student misbehavior interfered with their teaching ranged from 31 percent in Wyoming to 55 percent in Louisiana (table 12.3). The percentages of teachers who reported that school rules were enforced by other teachers and by the principal also varied by state.

Fights, Weapons, and Illegal Substances

Indicator 13 Physical Fights on School Property and Anywhere ................................................................. 74 Figure 13.1 ..............................................................75 Figure 13.2 ..............................................................75 Figure 13.3 ..............................................................77

Indicator 14 Students Carrying Weapons on School Property and Anywhere and Students’ Access to Firearms ... 78 Figure 14.1 ..............................................................79 Figure 14.2 ..............................................................79 Figure 14.3 ..............................................................81

Indicator 15 Students’ Use of Alcohol and Alcohol-Related Discipline Incidents ..................................................82 Figure 15.1 ..............................................................83 Figure 15.2 ..............................................................83 Figure 15.3 ..............................................................85

Indicator 16 Students’ Use of Marijuana on School Property and Anywhere ..........................................................86 Figure 16.1 ..............................................................87 Figure 16.2 ..............................................................87 Figure 16.3 ..............................................................89

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Indicator 13 Physical Fights on School Property and Anywhere The percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported being in a physical fight anywhere decreased between 1993 and 2013 (from 42 to 25 percent), and the percentage of students in these grades who reported being in a physical fight on school property also decreased during this period (from 16 to 8 percent). In the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, students in grades 9–12 were asked about their involvement in physical fights in general (referred to as “anywhere” in this indicator),47 as well as about their involvement in physical fights on school property, during the 12 months preceding the survey.48 In this indicator, percentages of students reporting involvement in fights occurring anywhere are used as a point of comparison with percentages of students reporting involvement in fights occurring on school property. Overall, the percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported being in a physical fight anywhere decreased between 1993 and 2013 (from 42 to 25 percent), and the percentage of students in these grades who reported being in a physical fight on school property also decreased during this period (from 16 to 8 percent; figure 13.1 and table 13.1). The percentage of students in these grades who reported being in a physical fight anywhere was lower in 2013 (25 percent) than in 2011 (33 percent); the percentage of those who reported being in a physical fight on school property was also lower in 2013 (8 percent) than in 2011 (12 percent). From 1993 through 2013, the percentages of students in grades 9–12 who reported being in a physical fight anywhere as well as a physical fight on school property decreased for all four grade levels. The 2013 percentages of 12th-graders who reported being in a physical fight, either anywhere or on school property, were lower than the percentages reported by 9th-, 10th-, and 11th-graders. In 2013, about 19 percent of 12th-graders reported being in a physical fight anywhere, compared with 28 percent of 9th-graders, 26 percent of 10th-graders, and 24 percent of 11th-graders. Similarly, 5 percent of 12th-graders, compared with 11 percent of 9th-graders, 8 percent of 10th-graders, and 7 percent of 11th-graders reported being in a physical fight on school property. 47

“Anywhere” includes on school property. The term “anywhere” is not used in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire; students were simply asked how many times in the past 12 months they had been in a physical fight. In the question asking students about physical fights at school, “on school property” was not defined for survey respondents. 48

The percentages of 9th- to 12th-graders who reported being in a physical fight in 2013 differed by race/ ethnicity. For example, a higher percentage of Black students (35 percent) than of students of Two or more races (29 percent), Hispanic students (28 percent), Pacific Islander students (22 percent), White students (21 percent), and Asian students (16 percent) reported being in a physical fight anywhere (figure 13.2 and table 13.1). In addition, higher percentages of Hispanic students and students of Two or more races than of White students and Asian students reported being in a physical fight anywhere. With regard to the involvement of 9th- to 12th-graders in physical fights on school property, the same patterns by race/ ethnicity were observed. The percentage of students who reported being in a physical fight on school property was higher for Black students (13 percent) than for students of Two or more races (10 percent), Hispanic students (9 percent), Pacific Islander students (7 percent), White students (6 percent), and Asian students (5 percent), and the percentages were higher for students of Two or more races and Hispanic students than for White students and Asian students. Between 1993 and 2013, the percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported being in a physical fight anywhere decreased for White students (from 40 to 21 percent), Hispanic students (from 43 to 28 percent), and American Indian/Alaska Native students (from 50 to 32 percent). During the same period, the percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported being in a physical fight on school property decreased for White students (from 15 to 6 percent), Black students (from 22 to 13 percent), and Hispanic students (from 18 to 9 percent). The percentages of Asian students who reported being in a physical fight anywhere and on school property both decreased between 1999 (the first year separate data on Asian and Pacific Islander students were available) and 2013. The percentage of Pacific Islander students who reported being in a physical fight on school property also decreased between 1999 and 2013. Indicator 13 continued on page 76.

This indicator repeats information from the Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2014 report. For more information: Tables 13.1, 13.2, and 13.3, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014), (http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/ss/ss6304.pdf).

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Fights, Weapons, and Illegal Substances

Figure 13.1. Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported having been in a physical fight at least one time during the previous 12 months, by location and grade: Selected years, 1993 through 2013 Anywhere (including on school property)

On school property

Percent

Percent

60

60

50

50 10th

40 30

Total

20

9th

40 30 12th

11th

10

10

0

0

1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013

10th Total

9th

20

11th

12th

1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013

Year

Year

NOTE: The term “anywhere” is not used in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire; students were simply asked how many times in the past 12 months they had been in a physical fight. In the question asking students about physical fights at school, “on school property” was not defined for survey respondents. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 1993 through 2013.

Figure 13.2. Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported having been in a physical fight at least one time during the previous 12 months, by race/ethnicity and location: 2013 Percent 60 50 40

34.7

20 10 0

32.1

28.4

30

28.5

22.0

20.9 12.8 6.4 White

Black

16.1 9.4

Hispanic

10.7

7.1!

5.5 Asian

Pacific Islander

American Indian/ Alaska Native

10.0

Two or more races

Race/ethnicity Anywhere (including on school property)

On school property

! Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. NOTE: Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. The term “anywhere” is not used in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire; students were simply asked how many times in the past 12 months they had been in a physical fight. In the question asking students about physical fights at school, “on school property” was not defined for survey respondents. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 2013.

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Students in grades 9–12 were also asked how often they had been in physical fights during the previous 12 months. In 2013, about 19 percent of students in these grades reported being in a physical fight anywhere 1 to 3 times, 4 percent reported being in a physical fight anywhere 4 to 11 times, and 2 percent reported being in a physical fight anywhere 12 or more times (figure 13.3 and table 13.2) during the 12-month period. When students in these grades were asked about the incidence of physical fights on school property during the 12-month period, 7  percent reported being in a physical fight on school property 1 to 3 times, 1 percent reported being in a physical fight on school property 4 to 11 times, and less than 1 percent reported being in a physical fight on school property 12 or more times. The percentages of both male and female 9th- to 12th-graders who reported being in a physical fight both anywhere and on school property decreased between 1993 and 2013. About 30 percent of male students reported being in a physical fight anywhere in 2013 compared with 51 percent in 1993, and 11 percent reported being in a physical fight on school property in 2013 compared with 24 percent in 1993. About 19 percent of female students reported being in a physical fight anywhere in 2013 compared with 32 percent in 1993, and 6 percent reported being in a physical fight on school property in 2013 compared with 9 percent in 1993. In 2013, a higher percentage of male than of female 9th- to 12th-graders reported being in a physical fight during the previous 12 months (30 vs. 19 percent;

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figure 13.3 and table 13.1). The reported frequency of fights involving students in these grades was also higher for males than for females (table 13.2). A higher percentage of males than of females reported being in a physical fight anywhere 1 to 3 times (22 vs. 16 percent), 4 to 11 times (5 vs. 3 percent), and 12 or more times (3 vs. 1 percent) during the 12-month period. Similar to the frequency of fights anywhere, in 2013, a higher percentage of males than of females in grades 9 through 12 reported that they had been in a physical fight on school property during the previous 12 months (11 vs. 6 percent). Additionally, a higher percentage of males than of females reported being in a physical fight on school property 1 to 3 times (9 vs. 5 percent), 4 to 11 times (1 percent vs. less than 1 percent), and 12 or more times (1 percent vs. less than 1 percent). Data for the percentage of public school students who reported being in a physical fight anywhere in 2013 were available for 37 states, and data for physical fights on school property involving these students were available for 35 states. Among these states, the percentages of students who reported being in a physical fight anywhere ranged from 17 percent in Hawaii and Maine to 31 percent in Louisiana and Mississippi, and the percentages of students who reported being in a physical fight on school property ranged from 5 percent in Massachusetts to 14 percent in Mississippi and Maryland (table 13.3).

Figure 13.3. Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported having been in a physical fight during the previous 12 months, by location, number of times, and sex: 2013 Anywhere (including on school property)

On school property

Percent

Percent

60

60

50

50

40

40

30 20

30.2 24.7

10 0

30

22.1 19.2 18.8 15.6

20 4.0 5.4

At least 1 time

1 to 3 times

2.6

4 to 11 times

1.9 2.7 1.0 12 or more times

10 0

8.110.7 5.6 At least 1 time

7.1 9.1

5.1

1 to 3 times

0.6 0.8 0.3! 4 to 11 times

0.5 0.7 0.3 12 or more times

Number of times Total

Male

Female

! Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. NOTE: The term “anywhere” is not used in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire; students were simply asked how many times in the past 12 months they had been in a physical fight. In the question asking students about physical fights at school, “on school property” was not defined for survey respondents. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 2013.

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Indicator 14 Students Carrying Weapons on School Property and Anywhere and Students’ Access to Firearms Between 1993 and 2013, the percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported carrying a weapon on school property at least 1 day during the previous 30 days declined from 12 to 5 percent. A higher percentage of male students than of female students reported they had carried a weapon, both anywhere and on school property, in every survey year from 1993 to 2013. This indicator uses data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) to discuss students’ carrying of weapons on school property and anywhere, then uses state data from the EDFacts data collection to discuss the numbers of incidents involving students with firearms at school by state, and concludes with a discussion of data from the School Crime Supplement (SCS) survey on students’ access to firearms at school or away from school. Readers should take note of the differing data sources and terminology.

The percentage of students who reported carrying a weapon on school property in the previous 30 days declined from 12 percent in 1993 to 5 percent in 2013 (figure 14.1 and table 14.1). The percentage of students who reported carrying weapons anywhere was lower in 2013 (18 percent) than in 1993 (22 percent). There were no measurable differences between the 2011 and 2013 percentages of students who reported carrying a weapon either anywhere or on school property during the previous 30 days.

In the YRBS, students were asked if they had carried a weapon such as a gun, knife, or club anywhere in the previous 30 days and if they had carried such a weapon on school property during the same time period.49 In this indicator, the percentage of students carrying a weapon “anywhere”50 is included as a point of comparison with the percentage of students carrying a weapon on school property.

In every survey year from 1993 to 2013, a higher percentage of male students than of female students reported that they had carried a weapon, both anywhere and on school property. In 2013, for example, 28 percent of male students reported carrying a weapon anywhere, compared with 8 percent of female students. In addition, 8 percent of male students reported carrying a weapon on school property, compared with 3 percent of female students.

In 2013, some 18 percent of students in grades 9–12 reported that they had carried a weapon anywhere at least 1 day during the previous 30 days: 9 percent reported carrying a weapon anywhere on 6 or more days, 6 percent reported carrying a weapon on 2 to 5 days, and 3 percent reported carrying a weapon on 1  day (tables 14.1 and 14.2). In comparison, 5 percent of students reported carrying a weapon on school property at least 1 day during the previous 30 days. This percentage was composed of 3 percent of students who reported carrying a weapon on 6 or more days, 1 percent of students who reported carrying a weapon on 2 to 5 days, and 1 percent of students who reported carrying a weapon on 1 day during the 30-day period.

49 The term “anywhere” is not used in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire; students were simply asked how many days they carried a weapon during the past 30 days. In the question asking students about carrying a weapon at school, “on school property” was not defined for survey respondents. 50 “Anywhere” includes on school property.

In 2013, the percentage of White students who reported carrying a weapon anywhere in the previous 30 days (21 percent) was higher than the percentages of Hispanic students (16 percent), Pacific Islander and Black students (13 percent each), and Asian students (9 percent) who reported doing so (figure 14.2 and table 14.1). In addition, higher percentages of students of Two or more races (19 percent) and Hispanic students than of Black students and Asian students reported carrying a weapon anywhere during the period. The percentage of American Indian/Alaska Native students (18 percent) who reported carrying a weapon anywhere was also higher than the percentage of Asian students. With respect to students reporting that they carried a weapon on school property during the previous 30 days, a higher percentage of White students (6 percent) than of Black students (4 percent) reported that they had carried a weapon during the previous 30 days. Indicator 14 continued on page 80.

This indicator repeats student-reported information from the Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2014 report, and has been updated to include 2013 data on discipline incidents related to weapons possession. For more information: Tables 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, and 14.5, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014), (http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/ss/ss6304.pdf), and DeVoe and Bauer (2011), (http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2012314).

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Figure 14.1. Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported carrying a weapon at least 1 day during the previous 30 days, by location and sex: Selected years, 1993 through 2013 Anywhere (including on school property)

On school property

Percent

Percent

50

50

40

40 Male

30

Total

20

20

Female

10 0

30

Total

Male

10

1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013

0

Female 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013

Year

Year

NOTE: The term “anywhere” is not used in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire; students were simply asked how many days they carried a weapon during the past 30 days. In the question asking students about carrying a weapon at school, “on school property” was not defined for survey respondents. Respondents were asked about carrying “a weapon such as a gun, knife, or club.” SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 1993 through 2013.

Figure 14.2. Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported carrying a weapon at least 1 day during the previous 30 days, by race/ethnicity and location: 2013 Percent 50 40 30 20

20.8

17.9

12.5 10 0

5.2 Total

5.7 White

12.6!

8.7 3.9

Black

18.8

17.8

15.5 4.7 Hispanic

3.8 Asian

Race/ethnicity Anywhere (including on school property)

7.0! 4.0!

Pacific Islander

American Indian/ Alaska Native

6.3 Two or more races

On school property

! Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. NOTE: Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. The term “anywhere” is not used in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire; students were simply asked how many days they carried a weapon during the past 30 days. In the question asking students about carrying a weapon at school, “on school property” was not defined for survey respondents. Respondents were asked about carrying “a weapon such as a gun, knife, or club.” SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 2013.

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There were no measurable differences by grade in the percentages of students who reported carrying a weapon anywhere or on school property at least 1 day during the previous 30 days in 2013: About 18 percent of students at each of grade levels 9 through 12 reported carrying a weapon anywhere during the previous 30 days, and 5 percent each of 9th-, 10th-, and 12th-graders and 6 percent of 11th-graders reported carrying a weapon on school property. However, a higher percentage of 12th-graders (11 percent) than of 9th- and 10th-graders (8 percent each) reported carrying a weapon anywhere on 6 or more days during the previous 30 days (table 14.2). In 2013, state-level data on percentages of public school students who reported carrying a weapon anywhere were available for 34 states (table 14.3). Among these states, the percentages of students who reported carrying a weapon anywhere ranged from 10 percent in New Jersey and Hawaii to 29 percent in Wyoming. There were also 34 states that had 2013 data available on the percentages of students reporting that they carried a weapon on school property during the previous 30 days; the percentages ranged from 3 percent in New Jersey, Delaware, Massachusetts, Wisconsin, and Nevada to 10 percent in Wyoming, Montana, and Vermont. Reported incidents involving students who brought or possessed firearms at school are also important to examine. As part of the EDFacts data collection, state education agencies report the number of incidents involving students who brought or possessed firearms at school. State education agencies compile these data based on incidents that were reported by their schools and school districts. During the 2013–14 school year, there were 1,501 reported firearm possession incidents at schools (table 14.5). The total number of incidents varies widely across states, due in large part to states’ differing populations. Therefore, the rate of firearm

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possession incidents per 100,000 students can provide a more comparable indication of the frequency of these incidents across states. During the 2013–14 school year, the rate of firearm possession incidents was 3 per 100,000 students in the United States. The majority of states had rates between 1 and 10 firearm possession incidents per 100,000 students from 2009–10 to 2013–14. Two states, Hawaii and Maine, reported no firearm incidents during the 2013–14 school year and therefore had a rate of 0 firearm possession incidents per 100,000 students. Four other states had rates of firearm possession incidents per 100,000 students below 1. The four states were Illinois, New Jersey, Iowa, and Maryland. Hawaii, Illinois, New Jersey, and Iowa also had rates below 1 during the 2012–13 school year. During the 2013–14 school year, three states had rates above 10: Louisiana, Arkansas, and Vermont. However, of these three states, only Arkansas also had a rate above 10 during the 2012–13 school year. Information about students’ access to firearms can put student reports of carrying a gun anywhere and on school property into context. In the SCS survey, students were asked if they could have gotten a loaded gun without adult permission, either at school or away from school, during the current school year. In 2013, about 4 percent of students ages 12–18 reported having access to a loaded gun without adult permission, either at school or away from school, during the current school year (figure 14.3 and table  14.4). The percentage of 12- to 18-yearold students reporting that they had access to a loaded gun without adult permission decreased from 7 percent in 2007 (the first year of data collection for this item) to 4  percent in 2013. There was no measurable difference between the percentages who reported having such access to a loaded gun between 2011 and 2013.

Figure 14.3. Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported having access to a loaded gun, without adult permission, at school or away from school during the school year, by sex: Selected years, 2007 through 2013 Percent 50 40 30 20 10 0

6.7

5.5

8.4 4.7

7.6

5.6

3.7

Total

5.0

3.9

3.4

3.6

3.4

Female

Male Sex 2007

2009

2011

2013

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 2007 through 2013.

In every survey year from 2007 to 2011, a higher percentage of male students than of female students ages 12–18 reported having access to a loaded gun without adult permission. However, there was no measurable difference between the percentages of male and female students who reported having such access to a loaded gun in 2013. The percentage of male students who reported having access to a loaded gun without adult permission was lower in 2013 than in 2011 (4 vs. 6 percent). The percentages of female students who reported having such access to a loaded gun were not measurably different between these two years.

In 2013, higher percentages of 10th-, 11th-, and 12th-graders reported having access to a loaded gun without adult permission than did 7th- and 8th-graders. About 5 percent of 10th-graders and 6 percent each of 11th- and 12th-graders reported having access to a loaded gun without adult supervision, compared with 2 percent each of 7thand 8th-graders. The percentage of 11th-graders reporting that they had access to a gun without adult supervision was also higher than the percentage of 9th-graders reporting such access (3 percent).

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Indicator 15 Students’ Use of Alcohol and Alcohol-Related Discipline Incidents Between 1993 and 2013, the percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported having at least one drink of alcohol anywhere during the previous 30 days decreased from 48 to 35 percent. The percentage who reported consuming alcohol in 2013 was lower than the percentage in 2011 (39 percent). In 2011, some 5 percent of students in grades 9–12 reported having at least one drink of alcohol on school property. This indicator uses data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) to discuss whether students had consumed alcohol during the previous 30 days on school property and anywhere, then uses state data from the EDFacts data collection to discuss the number of discipline incidents resulting in the removal of a student for at least an entire school day that involve students’ possession or use of alcohol on school grounds. Readers should take note of the differing data sources and terminology. In the 2013 YRBS, students in grades 9–12 were asked if they had consumed alcohol on at least 1 day during the previous 30 days. Prior to 2013, students were also asked if they had consumed alcohol on school property51 during the previous 30 days. Due to this change in the questionnaire, this indicator first discusses results on alcohol consumption anywhere using data up to 2013 and then discusses students’ reports of alcohol consumption on school property using data up to 2011. Between 1993 and 2013, the percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported having at least one drink of alcohol during the previous 30 days decreased from 48 to 35 percent (figure 15.1 and table 15.1). Additionally, the percentage who reported consuming alcohol in 2013 was lower than the percentage in 2011 (39 percent). In 2013, about 17 percent of students in grades 9–12 reported consuming alcohol on 1 or 2 days during the previous 30 days, 17 percent reported consuming alcohol on 3 to 29 of the previous 30 days, and 1 percent reported consuming alcohol on all of the previous 30 days (table 15.2). The percentage of students who reported consuming alcohol on 1 or 2 days was lower in 2013 than in 2011 (17 vs. 19 percent). In every survey year between 1993 and 2001, except in 1995, a higher percentage of males than of females reported consuming alcohol on at least 1 day during the previous 30 days. However, in the survey years

since 2003, there have been no measurable differences between the percentages of male and female students who reported consuming alcohol on at least 1 of the previous 30 days. Nevertheless, there were differences by sex in the number of days students reported consuming alcohol in 2013. A higher percentage of females than of males reported consuming alcohol on 1 or 2 days (19 vs. 16 percent). In contrast, a higher percentage of males than of females reported consuming alcohol on all of the previous 30 days (1 percent vs. less than one-half of 1 percent; figure 15.2 and table 15.2). In 2013, the percentage of students who reported consuming alcohol increased with grade level. About 47 percent of 12th-graders reported consuming alcohol on at least 1 day during the previous 30 days (figure 15.3 and table 15.1). This percentage was higher than the percentages for 9th-graders (24  percent), 10th-graders (31 percent), and 11thgraders (39 percent; table 15.2). Additionally, higher percentages of Hispanic students (37 percent), White students and students of Two or more races (36 percent each), American Indian/Alaska Native students (33 percent), and Black students (30  percent) than of Asian students (22 percent) reported consuming alcohol on at least 1 day during the previous 30 days in 2013. The percentage of Black students who reported consuming alcohol on at least 1 day was lower than the percentages reported by White students, Hispanic students, and students of Two or more races. In 2013, state-level data on the percentages of students who reported consuming alcohol were available for 41  states (table 15.3). Among these states, the percentages of students who reported drinking alcohol on at least 1 day during the previous 30 days ranged from 11 percent in Utah to 39 percent in Louisiana and New Jersey. Indicator 15 continued on page 84.

51 In the question about drinking alcohol at school, “on school property” was not defined for survey respondents.

This indicator has been updated to include 2013 data on discipline incidents related to alcohol. For more information: Tables 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, and 15.4, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014), (http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/ss/ss6304.pdf).

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Figure 15.1. Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported using alcohol at least 1 day during the previous 30 days, by location and sex: Selected years, 1993 through 2013 Anywhere, 1993 through 2013 (including on school property)

On school property, 1993 through 2011

Percent

Percent

60

60

Male

Total

Female

40

40

20

20 Male

0

1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013

0

Total

Female 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011

Year

Year

NOTE: The term “anywhere” was not used in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire; students were simply asked how many days during the previous 30 days they had at least one drink of alcohol. In the question about drinking alcohol at school, “on school property” was not defined for survey respondents. Data on alcohol use at school were not collected in 2013. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 1993 through 2013.

Figure 15.2. Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported using alcohol at least 1 day during the previous 30 days, by location, number of days, and sex: 2011 and 2013 Anywhere, 2013 (including on school property)

On school property, 2011

Percent

Percent

60

60

40

20

0

40

34.4 35.5

15.7

18.8

17.4 16.3

20

1.2 0.3 At least 1 day

1 or 2 days

3 to 29 days

All 30 days

0

5.4 4.7

3.1 3.4

1.5 1.1

0.8 0.1!

At least 1 day

1 or 2 days

3 to 29 days

All 30 days

Number of days Male

Female

! Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. NOTE: The term “anywhere” was not used in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire; students were simply asked how many days during the previous 30 days they had at least one drink of alcohol. In the question about drinking alcohol at school, “on school property” was not defined for survey respondents. Data on alcohol use at school were not collected in 2013. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 2011 and 2013.

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Prior to 2013, data were also collected on student alcohol consumption on school property during the previous 30 days. In 2011, some 5 percent of students in grades 9–12 reported having at least one drink of alcohol on school property, which was not measurably different from the percentage in 1993 (figure 15.1 and table 15.1). About 3 percent of students reported using alcohol on school property on 1 or 2 of the previous 30 days in 2011. One percent of students reported using alcohol on school property on 3 to 29 of the previous 30 days, and less than one percent of students reported using alcohol on school property on all of the previous 30 days (table 15.2). Higher percentages of American Indian/Alaska Native students (21 percent) and Hispanic students (7 percent) than of Black students (5 percent), White students (4 percent), and Asian students (3 percent) reported alcohol consumption on school property in 2011. However, there were no measurable differences in the percentages of students who reported consuming alcohol on at least 1 day on school property in 2011 by sex and grade level. In 2011, state-level data on the percentages of students who reported using alcohol on at least 1 day during the previous 30 days on school property were available for 37 states and the District of Columbia (table 15.3). Among these states, the percentages of students who reported drinking alcohol on school property ranged from 2 percent in Indiana and Iowa to 7 percent in the District of Columbia.

It is also important to examine discipline incidents that result from possession or use of alcohol at school, which reflect disruptions in the educational process and provide a gauge for the scope of alcohol use at school. As part of the EDFacts data collection, state education agencies report the number of discipline incidents resulting in the removal of a student for at least an entire school day that involve students’ possession or use of alcohol on school grounds. State education agencies compile these data based on incidents that were reported by their schools and school districts. During the 2013–14 school year, there were 24,000 reported alcohol-related discipline incidents in the United States (table 15.4).52 The number of alcohol-related incidents varies widely across states, due in large part to states’ differing populations. Therefore, the rate of alcoholrelated discipline incidents per 100,000 students can provide a more comparable indication of the frequency of these incidents across states. During the 2013–14 school year, the rate of alcohol-related discipline incidents was 48 per 100,000 students in the United States. The majority of states had rates between 10 and 100 alcohol-related discipline incidents per 100,000 students during the 2013–14 school year. Texas and Wyoming had rates of alcohol-related discipline incidents per 100,000 students that were at or below 10. Tennessee, Montana, and Washington had rates above 100.

52

United States total includes 49 states and the District of Columbia. Data for Vermont were unavailable for 2013–14.

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Fights, Weapons, and Illegal Substances

Figure 15.3. Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported using alcohol anywhere at least 1 day during the previous 30 days, by grade: 2013 Percent 60 46.8 40

39.2 34.9

30.9 24.4

20

0

Total

9th

10th

11th

12th

Grade NOTE: The term “anywhere” was not used in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire; students were simply asked how many days during the previous 30 days they had at least one drink of alcohol. “Anywhere” includes on school property. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 2013.

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Indicator 16 Students’ Use of Marijuana on School Property and Anywhere In 2013, some 23 percent of students in grades 9–12 reported using marijuana at least one time in the previous 30 days, which was higher than the percentage reported in 1993 (18 percent). In 2011, some 6  percent of students reported using marijuana at least one time on school property. The 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey asked students in grades 9–12 whether they had used marijuana in the previous 30 days. Prior to 2013, students were also asked whether they had used marijuana on school property53 in the previous 30 days. Due to this change in the questionnaire, this indicator differs from previous editions; it first discusses students’ reports of marijuana use anywhere using data up to 2013, and then discusses students’ reports of marijuana use on school property using data up to 2011. In 2013, some 23 percent of students in grades 9–12 reported using marijuana at least one time in the previous 30 days, which was higher than the percentage reported in 1993 (18 percent) but not measurably different from that reported in 2011 (figure 16.1 and table 16.1). In 2013, about 7 percent of students in grades 9–12 reported using marijuana 1 or 2 times during the previous 30 days, 11 percent reported using marijuana 3 to 39 times during the previous 30 days, and 5 percent reported using marijuana 40 or more times during the previous 30 days (table 16.2). In every survey year between 1993 and 2011, higher percentages of male students than of female students reported using marijuana at least one time in the previous 30 days; in 2013, there was no measurable difference in the percentages reported by male and female students (25 and 22 percent, respectively;

figure  16.1 and table 16.1). However, a higher percentage of males (7 percent) than of females (3 percent) reported using marijuana 40 or more times during the previous 30 days in 2013 (figure 16.2 and table 16.2). In 2013, some differences in the percentages of students who reported marijuana use were observed by race/ethnicity and grade level. The percentages of Asian students (16 percent) and White students (20 percent) who reported using marijuana during the previous 30 days were lower than the percentages reported by Hispanic students (28 percent), Black students and students of Two or more races (29 percent each), and American Indian/Alaska Native students (36 percent; figure 16.3 and table 16.1). In addition, the percentage of students in 9th grade (18 percent) who reported using marijuana was lower than the percentages of students in 10th grade (23 percent), 11th grade (26 percent), and 12th grade (28 percent) who reported doing so. In 2013, state-level data for students who reported using marijuana at least one time in the previous 30  days were available for 42 states (table 16.3). Among these states, the percentages of students who reported using marijuana ranged from 8 percent in Utah to 28 percent in New Mexico. Indicator 16 continued on page 88.

53 In the question about using marijuana at school, “on school property” was not defined for survey respondents. The term “anywhere” is not used in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire; students were simply asked how many times during the previous 30 days they had used marijuana.

This indicator repeats information from the Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2014 report. For more information: Tables 16.1, 16.2, and 16.3, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014), (http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/ss/ss6304.pdf).

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Figure 16.1. Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported using marijuana at least one time during the previous 30 days, by location and sex: Selected years, 1993 through 2013 Anywhere, 1993 through 2013 (including on school property)

On school property, 1993 through 2011

Percent

Percent

50

50

40

40 Male

30 20

Total

30 20

Female

Male

10

10

0

0

1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013

Total

Female 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011

Year

Year

NOTE: The term “anywhere” is not used in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire; students were simply asked how many times during the previous 30 days they had used marijuana. In the question about using marijuana at school, “on school property” was not defined for survey respondents. Data on marijuana use at school were not collected in 2013. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 1993 through 2013.

Figure 16.2. Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported using marijuana during the previous 30 days, by location, number of times, and sex: 2011 and 2013 Anywhere, 2013 (including on school property)

On school property, 2011

Percent

Percent

50

50

40

40

30 20

25.0

30 21.9

10 0

20 6.5

At least 1 time

7.8

1 or 2 times

12.0 10.7 6.5 3 to 39 times

3.4

40 or more times

10 0

7.5 4.1 At least 1 time

3.1 2.5

3.2 1.4

1.2 0.2

1 or 2 times

3 to 39 times

40 or more times

Number of times Male

Female

NOTE: The term “anywhere” is not used in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire; students were simply asked how many times during the previous 30 days they had used marijuana. In the question about using marijuana at school, “on school property” was not defined for survey respondents. Data on marijuana use at school were not collected in 2013. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 2011 and 2013.

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Prior to 2013, data were also collected on students’ marijuana use on school property during the previous 30 days. Some 6 percent of students reported using marijuana at least one time on school property in 2011; this was not measurably different from the percentage reported in 1993 but was higher than the percentage reported in 2009 (5 percent; figure 16.1  and table 16.1). In 2011, about 3 percent of students reported using marijuana on school property 1 or 2 times in the previous 30 days, about 2 percent reported using marijuana 3 to 39 times during the previous 30 days, and 1 percent reported using marijuana 40 or more times during the previous 30 days (table 16.2). In every survey year between 1993 and 2011, higher percentages of male students than of female students reported using marijuana on school property at least one time in the previous 30 days (figure 16.1 and table 16.1). For example, 8 percent of male students reported using marijuana on school property in 2011, compared with 4 percent of female students.

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Fights, Weapons, and Illegal Substances

In 2011, a higher percentage of American Indian/ Alaska Native students (21 percent) than of students from most other racial/ethnic groups reported using marijuana on school property at least one time in the previous 30 days. Additionally, a higher percentage of Hispanic students (8 percent) than of White or Asian students (5 and 4 percent, respectively) reported using marijuana on school property, and a higher percentage of Black students (7 percent) than of White students reported doing so. There were no measurable differences by grade level in the percentages of students reporting marijuana use on school property in 2011. In 2011, state-level data for students who reported using marijuana on school property at least one time in the previous 30 days were available for 36 states and the District of Columbia (table 16.3). Among these states, the percentages of students who reported using marijuana on school property ranged from 2 percent in Oklahoma to 10 percent in New Mexico.

Figure 16.3. Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported using marijuana anywhere at least one time during the previous 30 days, by race/ethnicity: 2013 Percent 50 40

35.5 28.9

30 20

28.8

27.6 23.4!

20.4 16.4

10 0

White

Black

Hispanic

Asian

Pacific Islander

American Indian/ Alaska Native

Two or more races

Race/ethnicity Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. NOTE: Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. The term “anywhere” is not used in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire; students were simply asked how many times during the previous 30 days they had used marijuana. “Anywhere” includes on school property. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 2013.

!

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Fear and Avoidance

Indicator 17 Students’ Perceptions of Personal Safety at School and Away From School ................................92 Figure 17.1 ...............................................................93 Figure 17.2 ..............................................................93

Indicator 18 Students’ Reports of Avoiding School Activities or Classes or Specific Places in School ..................94 Figure 18.1 ..............................................................95 Figure 18.2 ..............................................................96

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

91

Indicator 17 Students’ Perceptions of Personal Safety at School and Away From School The percentage of students who reported being afraid of attack or harm at school decreased from 12 percent in 1995 to 3 percent in 2013, and the percentage of students who reported being afraid of attack or harm away from school decreased from 6 percent in 1999 to 3 percent in 2013. In the School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey, students ages 12–18 were asked how often54 they had been afraid of attack or harm “at school or on the way to and from school” as well as “away from school.”55 In 2013, about 3 percent of students ages 12–18 reported that they were afraid of attack or harm at school or on the way to and from school during the school year (figure 17.1 and table 17.1). Similarly, 3 percent of students ages 12–18 reported that they were afraid of attack or harm away from school during the school year. Between 1995 and 2013, the percentages of students who reported being afraid of attack or harm at school decreased overall (from 12 to 3 percent), as well as among male students (from 11 to 3 percent) and female students (from 13 to 4 percent; figure 17.1). In addition, the percentage of students who reported being afraid of attack or harm at school decreased between 1995 and 2013 for White students (from 8 to 3 percent), Black students (from 20 to 5 percent), and Hispanic students (from 21 to 5 percent). A declining trend was also observed for away from school: between 1999 (the first year of data collection for this item) and 2013, the percentage of students who reported being afraid of attack or harm decreased from 6 to 3 percent overall, from 4 to 2 percent for male students, and from 7 to 3 percent for female students. The percentages of White students (from 4 to 2 percent), Black students (from 9 to 4 percent), and Hispanic students (from 9 to 4 percent) who reported being afraid of attack or harm away from 54 Students were asked if they “never,” “almost never,” “sometimes,” or “most of the time” feared that someone would attack or harm them at school or away from school. Students responding “sometimes” or “most of the time” were considered fearful. For the 2001 survey only, the wording was changed from “attack or harm” to “attack or threaten to attack.” 55 “At school” includes the school building, on school property, on a school bus, and, from 2001 onward, going to and from school.

school also decreased during this period. Between the two most recent survey years, 2011 and 2013, no measurable differences were found in the overall percentages of students who reported being afraid of attack or harm, either at school or away from school. In 2013, higher percentages of Black and Hispanic students (5 percent each) than of White students (3 percent) reported being afraid of attack or harm at school (table 17.1). Similarly, higher percentages of Black and Hispanic students (4 percent each) than of White students (2 percent) reported being afraid of attack or harm away from school. Higher percentages of 6th-graders (5 percent) and 7th- and 10th-graders (4 percent each) reported being afraid of attack or harm at school than did 12th-graders (2 percent) in 2013. Likewise, higher percentages of 6th-, 9th-, and 10th-graders (3 to 4  percent each) reported being afraid of attack or harm away from school than did 12th-graders (1 percent). In 2013, higher percentages of students in urban areas than of students in suburban areas reported being afraid of attack or harm both at school and away from school (figure 17.2). Specifically, 4 percent of students in urban areas reported being afraid of attack or harm at school, compared with 3 percent of students in suburban areas. Similarly, 4 percent of students in urban areas reported being afraid of attack or harm away from school, higher than the 2 percent of students in suburban areas. In addition, a higher percentage of students in urban areas than of students in rural areas reported being afraid of attack or harm away from school (4 vs. 2 percent). There were no measurable differences between the percentages of public school and private school students who reported being afraid of attack or harm at school or away from school in 2013.

This indicator repeats information from the Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2014 report. For more information: Table 17.1, and DeVoe and Bauer (2011), (http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2012314).

92

Fear and Avoidance

Figure 17.1. Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being afraid of attack or harm during the school year, by location and sex: Selected years, 1995 through 2013 At school

Away from school

Percent

Percent

25

25

20

20

15 10 5

15

Female

10

Total

Male

Female

Total

5 Male

0

1995

1999 2001 2003 2005 20071 20091 20111 20131

0

1995

1999 2001 2003 2005 20071 20091 20111 20131

Year

Year

1 Starting in 2007, the reference period was the school year, whereas in prior survey years the reference period was the previous 6 months. Cognitive testing showed that estimates from 2007 onward are comparable to previous years. NOTE: “At school” includes the school building, on school property, on a school bus, and, from 2001 onward, going to and from school. Students were asked if they “never,” “almost never,” “sometimes,” or “most of the time” feared that someone would attack or harm them at school or away from school. Students responding “sometimes” or “most of the time” were considered fearful. For the 2001 survey only, the wording was changed from “attack or harm” to “attack or threaten to attack.” Data on fear of attack or harm away from school were not collected in 1995. For more information, please see appendix A. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 1995 through 2013.

Figure 17.2. Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being afraid of attack or harm during the school year, by location and urbanicity: 2013 Percent 25 20 15 10 5 0

3.5

4.5

3.3

3.0

2.7

At school

4.0 2.2

1.7

Away from school Location Total

Urban

Suburban

Rural

NOTE: “At school” includes the school building, on school property, on a school bus, and going to and from school. Students were asked if they “never,” “almost never,” “sometimes,” or “most of the time” feared that someone would attack or harm them at school or away from school. Students responding “sometimes” or “most of the time” were considered fearful. Urbanicity refers to the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) status of the respondent’s household as defined in 2000 by the U.S. Census Bureau. Categories include “central city of an MSA (Urban),” “in MSA but not in central city (Suburban),” and “not MSA (Rural).” SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 2013.

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93

Indicator 18 Students’ Reports of Avoiding School Activities or Classes or Specific Places in School In 2013, about 5 percent of students ages 12–18 reported that they avoided school activities or classes or one or more places in school because they thought someone might attack or harm them. The School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey asked students ages 12–18 whether they avoided school activities or classes56 or one or more places in school57 because they were fearful that someone might attack or harm them.58 In 2013, about 5 percent of students reported that they avoided at least one school activity or class or one or more places in school during the previous school year because they feared being attacked or harmed. Specifically, 2 percent of students reported avoiding at least one school activity or class, and about 4 percent reported avoiding one or more places in school (figure 18.1 and table 18.1). There was no overall pattern of increase or decrease between 1999 and 2013 in the percentage of students who reported that they avoided at least one school activity or class or one or more places in school because of fear of attack or harm. The percentage in 2013 (5 percent) was lower than the percentage in 1999 (7 percent) but not measurably different from the percentage in 2011.

In 2013, about 1 percent each of students reported that they avoided any activities, avoided any classes, and stayed home from school. With respect to avoiding specific places in school, 2 percent of students reported that they avoided the hallways or stairs in school, and 1 percent each reported that they avoided parts of the school cafeteria, any school restrooms, the entrance to the school, and other places inside the school building. Students’ reports of avoiding one or more places in school because of fear of attack or harm varied by some student and school characteristics in 2013 (figure 18.2). A higher percentage of Hispanic students (5  percent) than of White students (3 percent) reported avoiding one or more places in school. By grade, higher percentages of 7th-graders and 9th-graders (5 percent each) than of 8th-graders (3 percent), 11th-graders (3 percent), or 12th-graders (2 percent) reported avoiding one or more places in school. Also, a higher percentage of public school students (4 percent) than of private school students (1 percent) reported avoiding one or more places in  school.

56 “Avoided school activities or classes” includes student reports of three activities: avoiding any (extracurricular) activities, avoiding any classes, or staying home from school. Before 2007, students were asked whether they avoided “any extracurricular activities.” Starting in 2007, the survey wording was changed to “any activities.” Caution should be used when comparing changes in this item over time. 57 “Avoiding one or more places in school” includes student reports of five activities: avoiding the entrance, any hallways or stairs, parts of the cafeteria, restrooms, and other places inside the school building. 58 For the 2001 survey only, the wording was changed from “attack or harm” to “attack or threaten to attack.” See appendix A for more information.

This indicator repeats information from the Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2014 report. For more information: Table 18.1, and DeVoe and Bauer (2011), (http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2012314).

94

Fear and Avoidance

Figure 18.1. Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported avoiding school activities or classes or avoiding one or more places in school because of fear of attack or harm during the school year: 2013

Total

4.7

Avoided school activities or classes

2.0

1.0

Any activities Any classes

0.5

Stayed home from school

0.9

Avoided one or more places in school

3.7

Entrance to the school

0.8

Hallways or stairs in school

1.7

Parts of the school cafeteria

1.4

Any school restrooms

1.3

Other places inside the school buidling

0.8 0

5

10

15

20

Percent NOTE: “Avoided school activities” includes avoiding any (extracurricular) activities, skipping class, or staying home from school. “Avoided one or more places in school” includes avoiding the entrance, any hallways or stairs, parts of the cafeteria, restrooms, and other places inside the school building. Students were asked whether they avoided places, activities, or classes because they thought that someone might attack or harm them. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and because students reporting more than one type of avoidance were counted only once in the totals. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 2013.

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95

Figure 18.2. Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported avoiding one or more places in school because of fear of attack or harm during the school year, by selected student and school characteristics: 2013 Total

3.7

Sex Male

3.4

Female

3.9

Race/ ethnicity1 White

3.0

Black

3.3

Hispanic

4.9

Asian

3.8! 5.9

Other Urbanicity2 4.3

Urban Suburban

3.3

Rural

3.5

Sector Public

3.9 1.0!

Private 0

5

10

15

20

Percent ! Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. 1 Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. “Other” includes American Indians/Alaska Natives, Pacific Islanders, and persons of Two or more races. 2 Refers to the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) status of the respondent’s household as defined in 2000 by the U.S. Census Bureau. Categories include “central city of an MSA (Urban),” “in MSA but not in central city (Suburban),” and “not MSA (Rural).” NOTE: Places include the entrance, any hallways or stairs, parts of the cafeteria, restrooms, and other places inside the school building. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 2013.

96

Fear and Avoidance

Discipline, Safety, and Security Measures

Indicator 19 Serious Disciplinary Actions Taken by Public Schools.....................................................................98 Figure 19.1 ..............................................................99 Figure 19.2 ............................................................100

Indicator 20 Safety and Security Measures Taken by Public Schools........................................................ 102 Figure 20.1 ............................................................103 Figure 20.2 ............................................................105 Figure 20.3 ............................................................107

Indicator 21 Students’ Reports of Safety and Security Measures Observed at School .............................. 108 Figure 21.1 ............................................................109

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

97

Indicator 19 Serious Disciplinary Actions Taken by Public Schools During the 2011–12 school year, 3.4 million public school students in the United States received in-school suspensions and 3.2 million received out-of-school suspensions. The percentage of Black students receiving out-of-school suspensions (15 percent) was higher than the percentages for students of any other racial/ ethnic group. This indicator uses two different universe data collections to provide information on discipline in public schools. First, data from the Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC) are used to discuss the number and percentage of students receiving various disciplinary actions (e.g., suspensions, expulsions, school-related arrests). The indicator then uses state data from the EDFacts data collection to discuss the number and rate of discipline incidents related to alcohol, drugs, violence, or weapons possession that resulted in a student being removed from the education setting for at least an entire school day. Readers should take note of the differing data sources and terminology. The CRDC provides data on the number of students who were disciplined during the 2011–12 school year by the type of action taken: suspensions (both inschool and out-of-school), expulsions, referrals to law enforcement,59 school-related arrests,60 and corporal punishments.61 During the 2011–12 school year, 3.4 million students in the United States received in-school suspensions and 3.2 million received outof-school suspensions (table 19.1). The number of students who were suspended can also be expressed as a percentage of students enrolled.62 Seven percent 59

Referral to law enforcement is an action by which a student is reported to any law enforcement agency or official, including a school police unit, for an incident that occurs on school grounds, during school-related events, or while taking school transportation, regardless of whether official action is taken. 60 A school-related arrest is an arrest of a student for any activity conducted on school grounds, during off-campus school activities (including while taking school transportation), or due to a referral by any school official. 61 Corporal punishment is paddling, spanking, or other forms of physical punishment imposed on a student. 62 The percentage of students receiving a disciplinary action is calculated by dividing the cumulative number of students receiving that type of disciplinary action for the entire 2011–12 school year by the student enrollment based on a count of students taken on a single day between September 27 and December 31. The CRDC provides a count of students who received disciplinary actions; thus, a student who was suspended multiple times during a school year might be counted only once in the CRDC.

of students received an in-school suspension and 6 percent received an out-of-school suspension in 2011–12 (table 19.2). Less than 1 percent of students received each of the following disciplinary actions: referral to law enforcement, corporal punishment, expulsion, and school-related arrest. T he CR DC a lso prov ide s informat ion on characteristics of students receiving disciplinary actions, including students’ sex and race/ethnicity.63 There were differences by both sex and race/ethnicity in the percentage of students who received out-ofschool suspensions in 2011–12. The percentage of Black students receiving out-of-school suspensions (15 percent) was higher than the percentages for students of all other racial/ethnic groups (figure 19.1). In contrast, a lower percentage of Asian students (1 percent) received out-of-school suspensions than students from any other racial/ethnic group. A higher percentage of male students (9 percent) than female students (4 percent) received an outof-school suspension in 2011–12. This pattern of higher percentages of male than female students being suspended held across all racial/ethnic groups. In addition, differences by race/ethnicity for male and female students were similar to the overall differences by race/ethnicity. Among males, the percentage of Black students who received an out-ofschool suspension (20 percent) was almost twice the percentage of American Indian/Alaska Native students (10 percent), and more than twice the percentages of students of Two or more races (9 percent), Hispanic students (8 percent), White students (6 percent), Pacific Islander students (5  percent), and Asian students (2 percent). Similarly, the percentage of Black female students who received an out-of-school suspension (11 percent) was more than twice the 63

Excludes data for students with disabilities served only under Section 504.

This indicator has been updated to include new data. For more information: Tables 19.1, 19.2, 19.3, and 19.4.

98

Discipline, Safety, and Security Measures

Figure 19.1. Percentage of public school students enrolled who received out-of-school suspensions, by race/ethnicity and sex: 2011–12 Percent 100

80

60

40

20 0

15.4 6.4 8.7 4.0

4.3 6.2 2.3

Total

White

19.6 11.1

Black

5.9

8.2

3.6

1.5 2.3 0.7

Hispanic

Asian

Race/ethnicity Total

Male

3.8 5.2 2.2

Pacific Islander

7.8

10.5

5.1

American Indian/Alaska Native

6.4 8.8 3.9

Two or more races

Female

NOTE: Excludes data for students with disabilities served only under Section 504. The percentage of students receiving a disciplinary action is calculated by dividing the cumulative number of students receiving that type of disciplinary action for the entire 2011–12 school year by the student enrollment based on a count of students taken on a single day between September 27 and December 31. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights, Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC), “2011–12 Discipline Estimations by State” and “2011–12 Estimations for Enrollment.”

percentages of female students of any other race/ ethnicity. The pattern of greater percentages of Black males and females receiving disciplinary actions than males and females of any other race/ethnicity was also evident for student expulsions. The CRDC allows for state-level comparisons of the percentage of students who received various disciplinary actions. In the majority of states, between 3 and 10 percent of students received an out-of-school suspension during the 2011–12 school year (table 19.3). In Hawaii, North Dakota, and Utah, the percentage of students receiving an outof-school suspension was less than 3 percent. More than 10 percent of students received an out-of-school suspension in the District of Columbia, Florida, South Carolina, Mississippi, and Delaware.

As part of the EDFacts data collection, state education agencies (SEAs) report the number of discipline incidents resulting in the removal of a student for at least an entire school day for specific reasons: possession or use of alcohol on school grounds, possession or use of tobacco or illicit drugs on school grounds, a violent incident with or without physical injury, and weapons possession. Unlike the CRDC, where the reasons for disciplinary actions are not available, the EDFacts data can be used to examine the magnitude of the specific types of discipline incidents listed above.64 SEAs compile these data based on incidents that were reported by their schools and school districts.65 SEAs are not required to report discipline incidents that are not a result of alcohol, drugs, violence, or weapons possession. 64

EDFacts data represent a count of specific discipline incidents, while the CRDC provides a count of students who received disciplinary actions. Thus, a student who was suspended multiple times during a school year might be counted once in the CRDC, but multiple times in EDFacts provided each incident met the inclusion criteria. 65 EDFacts is compiled by state education agencies, while the CRDC is generally filled out by district- or school-level staff.

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

99

Figure 19.2. Percentage distribution of discipline incidents resulting in removal of a student from a regular education program for at least an entire school day, by discipline reason: 2013–14 Percent 100 78.0

80 60 40 15.1

20 0

5.1

1.8 Alcohol

Illicit drug

Violent incident1

Weapons possession

Discipline reason Includes violent incidents with and without physical injury. NOTE: Data on discipline incidents are only available for incidents that fall within the categories shown in the figure. Additional data on other discipline incidents that resulted in removal of a student from a regular education program for at least an entire school day are not available. Includes 49 states and the District of Columbia. Data for Vermont were unavailable for 2013–14. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, EDFacts file 030, Data Group 523, extracted October 14, 2015, from the EDFacts Data Warehouse (internal U.S. Department of Education source).

1

During the 2013 –14 school year, there were 1.3 million reported discipline incidents in the United States for reasons related to alcohol, drugs, violence, or weapons possession (table 19.4).66 About 78 percent of these discipline incidents were violent incidents with or without physical injury (figure 19.2). Fifteen percent of these discipline incidents were illicit drug related, 5  percent were weapons possessions, and 2 percent were alcohol related. The number of discipline incidents can also be expressed as a ratio of discipline incidents per 100,000 students. During the 2013–14 school year, there were 2,615 reported discipline incidents related to alcohol, drugs, violence, or weapons possession per 100,000 students in the United States.

66 United States total includes 49 states and the District of Columbia. Data for Vermont were unavailable for 2013–14.

100

Discipline, Safety, and Security Measures

The total number of discipline incidents for reasons related to alcohol, drugs, violence, and weapons possession varies widely across states, due in large part to states’ differing populations. Therefore, the ratio of such discipline incidents per 100,000 students can provide a more comparable indication of the frequency of these incidents across states. The majority of states had ratios between 500 and 5,000 alcohol-, drug-, violence-, or weapons possession-related discipline incidents per 100,000 students during the 2013–14 school year. Three states had ratios per 100,000 students that were below 500: Texas, Idaho, and Delaware. Rhode Island, the District of Columbia, Colorado, Louisiana, Kentucky, and Alabama had ratios per 100,000 students that were above 5,000.

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Indicator 20 Safety and Security Measures Taken by Public Schools In the 2013–14 school year, about 88 percent of public schools reported they had a written plan for procedures to be performed in the event of a shooting, and 70 percent of these schools had drilled students on the use of the plan. Schools use a variety of practices and procedures to promote the safety of students, faculty, and staff. Certain practices, such as locking or monitoring doors and gates, are intended to limit or control access to school campuses, while others, such as the use of metal detectors and security cameras, are intended to monitor or restrict students’ and visitors’ behavior on campus. In the 2013–14 school year, principals of public schools were asked about their schools’ use of safety and security measures and procedures in the Fast Response Survey System (FRSS) survey of school safety and discipline. Another measure of safety and security, collected in the FRSS survey of school safety and discipline, is the presence of security staff in public schools during the school year. Principals were also asked to report whether their school had a written plan for procedures to be performed in selected crises, as well as whether they had drilled students during the current school year on the use of a plan. In prior years, data on safety and security measures and procedures, presence of security staff at school, and written and drilled plans for selected crises were collected from the School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS). In the 2013–14 school year, 93 percent of public schools reported that they controlled access to school buildings by locking or monitoring doors during school hours (table 20.1). Other safety and security measures reported by public schools included the use of security cameras to monitor the school (75 percent), a requirement that faculty and staff wear badges or picture IDs (68 percent), and the enforcement of a

strict dress code (58 percent). In addition, 24 percent of public schools reported the use of random dog sniffs to check for drugs, 20 percent required that students wear uniforms, 9 percent required students to wear badges or picture IDs, and 4 percent used random metal detector checks. Use of various safety and security procedures differed by school level during the 2013–14 school year (figure 20.1 and table 20.2). For example, higher percentages of public primary schools and public middle schools than of public high schools and combined elementary/secondary schools (referred to as high/combined schools) controlled access to school buildings and required faculty and staff to wear badges or picture IDs. Additionally, a higher percentage of primary schools required students to wear uniforms (23  percent) than high/combined schools (15 percent). Conversely, higher percentages of high/combined schools and middle schools than of primary schools reported the enforcement of a strict dress code; a requirement that students wear badges or picture IDs; and the use of random metal detector checks. A higher percentage of high/combined schools reported the use of security cameras to monitor the school (89 percent) than middle schools (84 percent), and both of these percentages were higher than the percentage of primary schools (67 percent) that reported the use of security cameras. The same pattern was evident for the use of random dog sniffs. Indicator 20 continued on page 104.

This indicator has been updated to include 2013–14 data. For more information: Tables 20.1, 20.2, 20.3, and 20.4, Neiman (2011), (http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2011320), and Gray and Lewis (2015), (http://nces.ed.gov/ pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2015051).

102

Discipline, Safety, and Security Measures

Figure 20.1. Percentage of public schools that used selected safety and security measures, by school level: School year 2013–14 Safety and security measure 94.5 94.9

Controlled access to buildings during school hours1

88.8 67.2

Security cameras used to monitor the school

83.7 89.2 72.8 68.5

Required faculty and staff to wear badges or picture IDs

54.4 52.6

Enforced a strict dress code

70.5 63.8 5.5

Random dog sniffs to check for drugs

44.2 57.0 22.7 19.7 14.8

Required students to wear uniforms 4.1

Required students to wear badges or picture IDs

16.0 15.6 1.4!

Random metal detector checks

7.6 8.7 0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent Primary

Middle

High school/combined

! Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. 1 For example, locked or monitored doors. NOTE: Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school. Primary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9. High schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 12. Combined schools include all other combinations of grades, including K–12 schools. Separate data on high schools and combined schools are not available. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System (FRSS), “School Safety and Discipline: 2013–14,” FRSS 106, 2014.

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

103

In 2013–14, use of various safety and security procedures also differed by school size. A higher percentage of public schools with 1,000 or more students enrolled than those with fewer students enrolled reported the use of security cameras, a requirement that students wear badges or picture IDs, use of random dog sniffs, and use of random metal detector checks (table 20.2). A lower percentage of schools with less than 300 students enrolled reported that they required faculty and staff to wear badges or picture IDs (46 percent) than schools with greater numbers of students enrolled.

percentages of students eligible for free or reducedprice lunch. Conversely, a lower percentage of schools where 76 percent or more of students were eligible for free or reduced-price lunch reported the use of random dog sniffs (14 percent) than schools where lower percentages of students were eligible for free or reduced-price lunch. A higher percentage of schools where 25 percent or less of students were eligible for free or reduced-price lunch reported requiring faculty and staff to wear badges or picture IDs (82 percent) than schools where higher percentages of students were eligible for free or reduced-price lunch.

A higher percentage of public schools located in cities than those in suburban areas, towns, and rural areas reported that they enforced a strict dress code, required students to wear uniforms, and used random metal detector checks in 2013–14 (table 20.2). A higher percentage of schools in suburban areas required faculty or staff to wear badges or picture IDs (79 percent) than those in towns (67 percent), cities (67 percent), and rural areas (60 percent). Random dog sniffs were reported by a higher percentage of public schools in rural areas (35 percent) and towns (32 percent) than suburban areas (19 percent) and cities (11 percent).

The percentages of public schools reporting the use of various safety and security measures in 2013–14 tended to be higher than in prior years (figure 20.2 and table 20.1). For example, the percentage of public schools reporting the use of security cameras increased from 19 percent in 1999–2000 to 75 percent in 2013–14. Similarly, the percentage of public schools reporting that they controlled access to school buildings increased from 75 percent to 93 percent during this time. From 1999–2000 to 2013–14, the following safety and security measures also increased: requiring faculty and staff to wear badges or picture IDs, enforcing a strict dress code, use of random dog sniffs, requiring school uniforms, and requiring students to wear badges or picture IDs. Conversely, the percentage of schools that reported using random metal detector checks decreased from 7 percent in 1999–2000 to 4 percent in 2013–14.

Many safety and security measures tended to be more prevalent in schools where 76 percent or more of students were eligible for free or reduced-price lunch (table 20.2). A higher percentage of these schools reported they enforced a strict dress code, required school uniforms, and required students to wear badges or picture IDs than schools with lower

104

Discipline, Safety, and Security Measures

Indicator 20 continued on page 106.

Figure 20.2. Percentage of public schools that used selected safety and security measures, by year: School years 1999–2000, 2009–10, and 2013–14 Safety and security measure 74.6

Controlled access to buildings during school hours1

91.7 93.3 19.4

Security cameras used to monitor the school

61.1 75.1 25.4

Required faculty and staff to wear badges or picture IDs

62.9 68.0 47.4 56.9 58.5

Enforced a strict dress code

20.6 22.9 24.1

Random dog sniffs to check for drugs 11.8

Required students to wear uniforms

18.9 20.4 3.9 6.9 8.9

Required students to wear badges or picture IDs

7.2 5.2 4.2

Random metal detector checks 0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent 1999–2000

2009–10

2013–14

For example, locked or monitored doors. NOTE: Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school. Data for 2013–14 were collected using the Fast Response Survey System, while data for earlier years were collected using the School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS). The 2013–14 survey was designed to allow comparisons with SSOCS data. However, respondents to the 2013–14 survey could choose either to complete the survey on paper (and mail it back) or to complete the survey online, whereas respondents to SSOCS did not have the option of completing the survey online. The 2013–14 survey also relied on a smaller sample. The smaller sample size and change in survey administration may have impacted 2013–14 results. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1999–2000 and 2009–10 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2000 and 2010; Fast Response Survey System (FRSS), “School Safety and Discipline: 2013–14,” FRSS 106, 2014.

1

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

105

In the 2013–14 school year, 43 percent of public schools reported the presence of one or more security guards, security personnel, School Resource Officers, or sworn law enforcement officers at their school at least once a week during the school year (table 20.3).67 The percentage of public schools reporting the presence of security staff did not differ measurably between 2013–14 and prior years in which data on this item were collected. However, the percentage of public schools reporting the presence of full-time security staff was lower in 2013–14 (24 percent) than in prior years, while the percentage of public schools reporting part-time-only security staff in 2013–14 (19 percent) was higher than it was in prior years. About 29 percent of public primary schools reported the presence of one or more security staff at their school at least once a week in 2013–14. The percentage of primary schools reporting security staff was lower than the percentages of middle schools and high/ combined schools reporting the presence of security staff (63 and 64 percent, respectively). Differences in the presence of security staff were also found by other school characteristics. Public schools with greater numbers of students were more likely to report the presence of security staff. For example, 22  percent of schools with less than 300 students

67 Security guards or security personnel do not include law enforcement. School Resource Officers include all career law enforcement officers with arrest authority who have specialized training and are assigned to work in collaboration with school organizations. Sworn law enforcement includes sworn law enforcement officers who are not School Resource Officers.

106

Discipline, Safety, and Security Measures

enrolled reported the presence of security staff at least once a week, compared with 87 percent of schools with 1,000 or more students enrolled. The percentage of public schools in rural areas that reported the presence of one or more security staff at least once a week during the 2013–14 school year (36 percent) was lower than the percentages of schools in cities (45 percent), suburban areas (48 percent), and towns (48 percent). Another aspect of school safety and security is ensuring plans are in place to be enacted in the event of a crisis situation. In 2013–14, about 94 percent of public schools reported they had a written plan for procedures to be performed in the event of a natural disaster (figure 20.3 and table 20.4).68 Eighty-three percent of these schools reported that they had drilled students on the use of the plan. About 88 percent of public schools reported they had a plan for procedures to be performed in the event of a shooting, and 70 percent of these schools had drilled students on the use of the plan. Public schools also reported having plans in place for bomb threats or incidents (88  percent); chemical, biological, or radiological threats or incidents 69 (60 percent); and hostages (50 percent).

68

For example, earthquakes or tornadoes. For example, release of mustard gas, anthrax, smallpox, or radioactive materials. 69

Figure 20.3. Percentage of public schools with a written plan for procedures to be performed in selected crises and percentage that have drilled students on the use of a plan: School year 2013–14 Have a written plan

Percent 100

93.8

88.3

87.6

80 59.5

60

50.2

40 20 0

Natural disasters1

Shootings

Bomb threats or incidents Selected crises

Chemical, biological, or radiological threats or incidents2

Hostages

Drilled students on the use of a plan

Percent 100 80

82.6 70.3

60

49.2

40 20 0

Natural disasters1

Shootings

Bomb threats or incidents Selected crises

21.9

21.7

Chemical, biological, or radiological threats or incidents2

Hostages

For example, earthquakes or tornadoes. For example, release of mustard gas, anthrax, smallpox, or radioactive materials. NOTE: Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System (FRSS), “School Safety and Discipline: 2013–14,” FRSS 106, 2014. 1 2

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

107

Indicator 21 Students’ Reports of Safety and Security Measures Observed at School In 2013, about 77 percent of students ages 12–18 reported observing one or more security cameras to monitor the school during the day at their schools, and 76 percent of students reported observing locked entrance or exit doors during the day. In the School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey, students ages 12–18 were asked whether their schools used certain security measures.70 Security measures include metal detectors, locker checks, security cameras, security guards or assigned police officers, adults supervising hallways, badges or picture identification for students, a written code of student conduct, locked entrance or exit doors during the day, and a requirement that visitors sign in. In 2013, nearly all students ages 12–18 reported that they observed the use of at least one of the selected security measures at their schools (figure 21.1 and table 21.1). In 2013, most students ages 12–18 reported that their schools had a written code of student conduct and a requirement that visitors sign in (96 percent each). Approximately 90 percent of students reported the presence of school staff (other than security guards or assigned police officers) or other adults supervising the hallway, 77 percent reported the use of one or more security cameras at their schools, and 76 percent reported locked entrance or exit doors during the day. About 70 percent of students reported the presence of security guards and/or assigned police officers, 52 percent reported locker checks, and 26 percent reported that students were required to wear badges or picture identification at their schools. Eleven percent of students reported the use of metal detectors at their schools, representing the least observed of the selected safety and security measures. The percentage of students who reported locked entrance or exit doors during the day increased

between the two most recent survey years, as well as over the past 14 years. Specifically, 76 percent of students reported observing locked entrance or exit doors during the day in 2013, representing an increase from 65 percent in 2011, as well as an overall increase from 38 percent in 1999. The percentage of students who reported the presence of school staff (other than security guards or assigned police officers) or other adults supervising the hallway also was higher in 2013 (90 percent) than in 2011 (89 percent) and in 1999 (85 percent). The percentage of students who reported the presence of metal detectors at school increased from 1999 to 2013 (from 9 to 11 percent), as did the percentage of students who reported the presence of security guards and/or assigned police officers (from 54 to 70  percent) and the percentage of students who reported a requirement that visitors sign in (from 87 to 96 percent). Beginning in 2001, students were asked whether they observed the use of security cameras at school and whether they were required to wear badges or picture identification. From 2001 to 2013, the percentage of students who reported the use of one or more security cameras at school increased from 39 to 77 percent, and the percentage of students who reported that they were required to wear badges or picture identification increased from 21 to 26 percent. No measurable differences were found between the two most recent survey years (2011 and 2013) in the percentages of students reporting these safety and security measures.

70 Readers should note that this indicator relies on student reports of security measures and provides estimates based on students’ awareness of the measure rather than on documented practice. See Indicator 20 for a summary of the use of various security measures as reported by schools.

This indicator repeats information from the Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2014 report. For more information: Table 21.1, and DeVoe and Bauer (2011), (http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2012314).

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Discipline, Safety, and Security Measures

Figure 21.1. Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported various security measures at school: Selected years, 1999 through 2013 Security measure

Security measure 38.1 48.8 52.8 54.3 60.9 64.3 64.5

99.4 99.3 99.6 Locked entrance 99.8 or exit doors 99.3 during the day 99.6 99.6

Total1

75.8 54.1

95.1 95.3 95.5 95.9 95.6 95.7 95.9

A written code of student conduct1

87.1 90.2 91.7 93.0 94.3 94.3 94.9 95.8

A requirement that visitors sign in

85.4 88.3 90.6 90.1 90.0 90.6 88.9 90.5

Other school staff or other adults supervising the hallway

Security guards and/or assigned police officers

53.3 53.5 53.0 53.2 53.6 53.8 53.0 52.0

Locker checks

21.2 22.5 24.9 24.3 23.4 24.8 26.2

A requirement that students wear badges or picture identification1 9.0 8.7 10.1 10.7 10.1 10.6 11.2 11.0

38.5 47.9

One or more security cameras to monitor the school1

57.9 66.0 70.0 76.7 76.7

0

20

40

60

80

Metal detectors

100

0

20

Percent 1999

63.6 69.6 68.3 68.8 68.1 69.8 70.4

40

60

80

100

Percent 2001

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011

2013

Data for 1999 are not available. NOTE: “At school” includes the school building, on school property, on a school bus, and, from 2001 onward, going to and from school. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 1999 through 2013.

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Postsecondary Campus Safety and Security

Indicator 22 Criminal Incidents at Postsecondary Institutions .............................................................. 112 Figure 22.1 ............................................................ 113 Figure 22.2 ............................................................ 114 Figure 22.3 ............................................................ 115

Indicator 23 Hate Crime Incidents at Postsecondary Institutions .............................................................. 116 Figure 23.1 ............................................................ 117 Figure 23.2 ............................................................ 119

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

111

Indicator 22 Criminal Incidents at Postsecondary Institutions In 2013, about 27,600 criminal incidents on campuses at postsecondary institutions were reported to police and security agencies, representing an 8 percent decrease from 2012 (29,800 incidents). The number of on-campus crimes reported per 10,000 full-time-equivalent students also decreased, from 19.8 in 2012 to 18.4 in 2013. Since 1990, postsecondary institutions participating in Title IV federal student financial aid programs have been required to comply with the Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act, known as the Clery Act. The Clery Act requires institutions to give timely warnings about crimes to students and staff; to publicly report campus crime and safety policies; and to collect, report, and disseminate campus crime data. Since 1999, data on campus safety and security have been reported by institutions through the Campus Safety and Security Survey. These reports include on-campus criminal offenses and arrests involving students, faculty, staff, and the general public. Reports on referrals for disciplinary action primarily deal with persons associated formally with the institution (i.e., students, faculty, and other staff). In 2013, there were 27,600 criminal incidents against persons and property on campus at public and private 2-year and 4-year postsecondary institutions that were reported to police and security agencies, representing an 8 percent decrease from 2012 (29,800 incidents; table 22.1). The number of on-campus crimes per 10,000 full-time-equivalent (FTE) students71 also decreased, from 19.8 in 2012 to 18.4 in 2013 (table 22.2). Among the various types of on-campus crimes reported in 2013, there were 15,500 burglaries,72 constituting 56 percent of all criminal incidents (table 22.1). Other commonly reported crimes  included forcible sex offenses (5,000 incidents, or 18 percent of crimes) and motor vehicle theft (3,000 incidents, or 11 percent of crimes). In addition, 2,100 aggravated assaults and 1,300 robberies73 were reported. These estimates translate to 10.3 burglaries, 3.3 forcible sex offenses, 2.0 motor vehicle thefts, 1.4 aggravated assaults, and 0.9 robberies per 10,000 FTE students (table 22.2). 71 The base of 10,000 FTE students includes students who are enrolled exclusively in distance learning courses and who may not be physically present on campus. 72 Unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft. 73 Taking or attempting to take anything of value using actual or threatened force or violence.

Looking at on-campus crime patterns over a longer period, the overall number of crimes reported between 2001 and 2013 decreased by 34 percent (figure 22.1 and table 22.1). Although the number of reported on-campus crimes increased by 7 percent between 2001 and 2006 (from 41,600 to 44,500), it decreased by 38 percent between 2006 and 2013 (from 44,500 to 27,600). The number of on-campus crimes reported in 2013 was lower than in 2001 for every category except forcible sex offenses and murder. The number of reported forcible sex crimes on campus increased from 2,200 in 2001 to 5,000 in 2013 (a 126 percent increase). More recently, the number of reported forcible sex crimes increased by almost a quarter between 2012 and 2013, from 4,000 to 5,000. Twenty-three murders were reported on college campuses in 2013, which was higher than the numbers reported in 2012 (12) or in 2001 (17). Increases in FTE college enrollment between 2001 and 2013 as well as changes in the number of crimes affected the number of on-campus crimes per 10,000 FTE students (see Digest of Education Statistics 2014 for details about college enrollment). Overall, the number of on-campus crimes per 10,000 students decreased from 35.6 in 2001 to 18.4 in 2013 (figure   22.1 and table 22.2). Between 2001 and 2006, both enrollment and the number of on-campus crimes increased. However, because enrollment increased by a larger percentage than the number of crimes, the number of on-campus crimes per 10,000 students was actually lower in 2006 (33.3) than in 2001 (35.6). Between 2006 and 2013, the number of reported on-campus crimes decreased, enrollment increased, and the number of on-campus crimes per 10,000 students decreased from 33.3 to 18.4. The rates per 10,000 students for all types of reported on-campus crimes, other than forcible sex offenses and murder, were lower in 2013 than in 2001. In the case of forcible sex offenses, the rate increased from 1.9 per 10,000 students in 2001 to 3.3 in 2013. The rate per 10,000 students for murder was the same in 2013 and in 2001 (0.015).

This indicator has been updated to include 2013 data. For more information: Digest of Education Statistics 2014, tables 22.1 and 22.2, and http://ope.ed.gov/security/.

112

Postsecondary Campus Safety and Security

Figure 22.1. Number of on-campus crimes reported and number per 10,000 full-time-equivalent (FTE) students in degree-granting postsecondary institutions, by selected type of crime: 2001 through 2013 Number of on-campus crimes

Number of on-campus crimes per 10,000 FTE students

60,000

50

50,000

40

Total1

40,000 30,000

Burglary2

0

Burglary2

20

20,000 10,000

30

Total1

Motor vehicle theft3 Forcible sex offense4 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

Year

10 0

Motor vehicle theft3 Forcible sex offense4 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

Year

Includes other reported crimes not separately shown. Unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft. 3 Theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle. 4 Any sexual act directed against another person forcibly and/or against that person’s will. NOTE: Data are for degree-granting institutions, which are institutions that grant associate’s or higher degrees and participate in Title IV federal financial aid programs. Some institutions that report Clery data—specifically, non-degree-granting institutions and institutions outside of the 50 states and the District of Columbia—are excluded from this figure. Crimes include incidents involving students, staff, and on-campus guests. Excludes offcampus crimes even if they involve college students or staff. Some data have been revised from previously published figures. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Postsecondary Education, Campus Safety and Security Reporting System, 2001 through 2013; and National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Spring 2002 through Spring 2014, Fall Enrollment component. 1 2

In 2013, the number of crimes committed on college campuses differed by type of institution, though to some extent this reflects the enrollment size of the types and the presence of student residence halls. Crimes involving students on campus after normal class hours, such as those occurring in residence halls, are included in campus crime reports, while crimes involving students off campus are not. In 2013, more on-campus crimes overall were reported at institutions with residence halls than at institutions without residence halls (24.2 vs. 6.2 per 10,000 students; table 22.2). Rates for most types of crime were also higher for institutions with residence halls. For example, more burglaries were reported at institutions with residence halls than at institutions without residence halls (13.9 vs. 2.9 per 10,000 students), and more forcible sex offenses were reported at institutions with residence halls than at institutions without them (4.6 vs. 0.5 per 10,000 students).

Although data for different types of institutions are difficult to compare directly because of the differing structures of student services and campus arrangements, there were decreases in the numbers of on-campus crimes at all types of institutions between 2006 and 2013. At public 4-year institutions, the number of on-campus crimes decreased from a high of 20,600 in 2006 to 13,200 in 2013, and the number of on-campus crimes per 10,000 students decreased from 35.5 to 19.6 during this period (tables 22.1 and 22.2). Similarly, at nonprofit 4-year institutions, the number of crimes decreased from 16,900 in 2006 to 10,400 in 2013, and the number of crimes per 10,000 students decreased from 57.7 to 31.3. At public 2-year institutions, the number of crimes decreased from 5,700 to 3,100 between 2006 and 2013, and the number of crimes per 10,000 students decreased from 15.4 to 8.0.

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

113

Figure 22.2. Number of on-campus arrests and number per 10,000 full-time-equivalent (FTE) students in degree-granting postsecondary institutions, by type of arrest: 2001 through 2013 Number of on-campus arrests per 10,000 FTE students

Number of on-campus arrests 60,000

Total

50,000 40,000

50 40

Liquor law violations 30

Total Liquor law violations

30,000 20,000 10,000 0

Drug law violations

20

Drug law violations

10

Illegal weapons possession

Illegal weapons possession 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

Year

0

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

Year

NOTE: Data are for degree-granting institutions, which are institutions that grant associate’s or higher degrees and participate in Title IV federal financial aid programs. Some institutions that report Clery data—specifically, non-degree-granting institutions and institutions outside of the 50 states and the District of Columbia—are excluded from this figure. Arrests include incidents involving students, staff, and on-campus guests. Excludes offcampus arrests even if they involve college students or staff. Some data have been revised from previously published figures. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Postsecondary Education, Campus Safety and Security Reporting System, 2001 through 2013; and National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Spring 2002 through Spring 2014, Fall Enrollment component.

As part of the Clery Act, institutions are required to report the number of arrests made on college campuses for illegal weapons possession and drug and liquor law violations. In contrast to the decreases in reported on-campus crimes, the number of arrests on campuses increased overall between 2001 and 2013. The total number of arrests for illegal weapons possession and drug and liquor law violations increased from 40,300 in 2001 to 54,300 in 2011, then decreased to 47,800 in 2013 (figure 22.2 and table 22.1). While the number of arrests for weapons possession was 3  percent lower in 2013 than in 2001 (1,000 vs. 1,100), arrests for drug law violations increased by 70 percent during this period, from 11,900 in 2001 to 20,100 in 2013. There was also an increase in the number of arrests for liquor law violations between 2001 and 2006 (from 27,400 to 34,900); however, the number decreased between 2006 and 2013, with the 2013 figure (26,600) lower than in any year between 2001 and 2012. Between 2001 and 2013, the number of arrests per 10,000 students for weapons possession decreased from 0.9 to 0.7, while the number of arrests per 10,000 students for drug law violations increased from 10.2 to 13.4 (figure 22.2 and table 22.2). The number of arrests per 10,000 students for liquor law violations increased between 2001 and 2006 (from 23.5 to 26.2), but decreased between 2006 and 2013 (from 26.2 to 17.7). 114

Postsecondary Campus Safety and Security

There were some differences among institution types in the patterns of on-campus arrests made for illegal weapons possession and drug and liquor law violations. At public 4-year institutions, the number of on-campus arrests per 10,000 students was lower in 2013 than in 2001 (57.4 vs. 60.1; table  22.2). At nonprofit 4-year institutions, the number of on-campus arrests per 10,000 students decreased from 24.5 in 2001 to 17.2 in 2013. In contrast, the number of on-campus arrests per 10,000 students at public 2-year institutions was higher in 2013 than in 2001 (8.0 vs. 7.8). In addition to reporting on-campus arrests, institutions report referrals for disciplinary action for cases involving illegal weapons possession, drug law violations, and liquor law violations. Disciplinary action counts only include incidents for which there was a referral for institutional disciplinary action, but no arrest. In 2013, there were 246,400 referrals for disciplinary action for cases involving weapons, drugs, and liquor law violations, with most of the referrals (90 percent) involving violations in residence halls (table 22.1). The largest number of disciplinary referrals (190,900) involved liquor law violations.

Figure 22.3. Number of referrals for disciplinary actions resulting from on-campus violations and number per 10,000 full-time-equivalent (FTE) students in degree-granting postsecondary institutions, by type of referral: 2001 through 2013 Number of referrals

Number of referrals per 10,000 FTE students

300,000

200

250,000

Total Total

150

200,000 150,000

Liquor law violations

100

Liquor law violations

100,000 50,000 0

Drug law violations Illegal weapons possession 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

Year

50

Drug law violations 0

Illegal weapons possession 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

Year

NOTE: Data are for degree-granting institutions, which are institutions that grant associate’s or higher degrees and participate in Title IV federal financial aid programs. Some institutions that report Clery data—specifically, non-degree-granting institutions and institutions outside of the 50 states and the District of Columbia—are excluded from this figure. Referrals include incidents involving students, staff, and on-campus guests. Some data have been revised from previously published figures. Excludes cases in which an individual is both arrested and referred to college officials for disciplinary action for a single offense. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Postsecondary Education, Campus Safety and Security Reporting System, 2001 through 2013; and National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Spring 2002 through Spring 2014, Fall Enrollment component.

Similar to the number of on-campus arrests for drug law violations, the number of disciplinary referrals for these incidents increased between 2001 and 2013 (from 23,900 to 54,100 for a 127 percent increase; figure 22.3 and table 22.1). The number of referrals for liquor law violations also increased from 130,000 in 2001 to 190,900 in 2013 (a 47 percent increase). The number of referrals for illegal weapons possession was lower in 2013 (1,400) than in 2006 (1,900), but it was higher than the number of such referrals in 2001 (1,300). Some of these increases may be associated with there being more students on college campuses. The number of referrals per 10,000 students for illegal weapons possession increased between 2001 and 2006 (from 1.1 to 1.4), but decreased between 2006 and 2013 (from 1.4 to 1.0; figure 22.3 and table  22.2). The number of referrals per 10,000 students for drug law violations was lower in 2006 than in 2001 (20.4 vs. 20.5 referrals); however, it increased between 2006 and 2013 (from 20.4 to 36.1 referrals). While the

number of referrals per 10,000 students for liquor law violations increased between 2001 and 2006 (from 111.3 to 141.6), the number in 2013 was lower than in 2006 (127.2 vs. 141.6 referrals). Both public 4-year and nonprofit 4-year institutions had increases in disciplinary referrals between 2001 and 2013. At public 4-year institutions, the number of referrals for disciplinary action involving illegal weapons possession, drug law violations, and liquor law violations increased from 153.1 per 10,000 students in 2001 to 189.6 in 2013 (table 22.2). At nonprofit 4-year institutions, the number of referrals for these types of incidents rose from 275.5 per 10,000 students to 330.9. In both 2001 and 2013, liquor law violations constituted the majority of these referrals for disciplinary action at public 4-year (82 percent in 2001 and 77 percent in 2013) and nonprofit 4-year (86 percent in 2001 and 79 percent in 2013) institutions.

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

115

Indicator 23 Hate Crime Incidents at Postsecondary Institutions In 2013, out of the 781 total hate crimes reported on college campuses, the most common type of hate crime reported by postsecondary institutions was destruction, damage, and vandalism (364 incidents), followed by intimidation (295 incidents) and simple assault (89 incidents). Race and sexual orientation were the categories of motivating bias most frequently associated with hate crimes. A 2008 amendment to the Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security and Campus Crime Statistics Act (see Criminal Incidents at Postsecondary Institutions; Indicator 22) requires campuses to report hate crime incidents. A hate crime is a criminal offense that is motivated, in whole or in part, by the perpetrator’s bias against the victim(s) based on their race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, gender, or disability. Individual institutions are provided guidance on classifying hate crimes in the Handbook for Campus Safety and Security Reporting, but the final classifications are at the discretion of the institution. In addition to reporting data on haterelated incidents for the existing seven types of crimes (criminal homicide, including murder and negligent manslaughter; sex offenses, forcible and nonforcible; robbery; aggravated assault; burglary; motor vehicle theft; and arson), the 2008 amendment to the Clery Act required campuses to report hate-related incidents on four additional types of crimes: simple assault; larceny; intimidation; and destruction, damage, and vandalism. In 2013, there were 781 criminal incidents classified as hate crimes that occurred on the campuses of public and private 2-year and 4-year postsecondary institutions which were reported to police and security agencies (table 23.1). The most common type of hate crime reported by institutions was destruction, damage, and vandalism (364 incidents; hereafter referred to as “vandalism” in this indicator), followed by intimidation (295 incidents), simple assault (89 incidents), larceny (15 incidents), forcible sex offenses (7 incidents), aggravated assault (6 incidents), burglary (4 incidents), and robbery (1 incident; figure 23.1). For several other types of on-campus crimes— namely, murder, negligent manslaughter, nonforcible sex offenses, motor vehicle theft, and arson—there were no incidents classified as hate crimes in 2013.

The distribution of on-campus crimes classified as hate crimes in 2013 was similar to the distributions in previous years. Vandalism, intimidation, and simple assault constituted the three most common types of hate crimes reported by institutions in every year from 2009 to 2012. For example, of the 787 criminal incidents classified as hate crimes in 2012, there were 403 vandalisms, 268 intimidations, and 79 simple assaults. Also similar to 2013, there were no reported incidents of murder, negligent manslaughter, nonforcible sex offenses, or motor vehicle theft classified as hate crimes in any year from 2009 to 2012. For the three most common types of hate crimes reported in 2013 (vandalism, intimidation, and simple assault), the most frequent category of motivating bias associated with these crimes was race. Race-related hate crimes accounted for 41 percent of reported vandalisms classified as hate crimes (151 incidents), 37 percent of reported intimidations (110 incidents), and 38 percent of reported simple assaults (34  incidents; figure 23.2 and table 23.1). The second most frequent category of bias associated with all three types of crimes was sexual orientation. Thirtyone percent of vandalism hate crimes (112  incidents), 23  percent of intimidations (69 incidents), and 29 percent of simple assaults (26  incidents) were classified with sexual orientation as the motivating bias. Among the other categories of bias, 13 percent of vandalism hate crimes were associated with religion (48  incidents), 10 percent with ethnicity (37 incidents), 4 percent with gender (14 incidents), and 1 percent with disability (2  incidents). For intimidation hate crimes, 17  percent were associated with ethnicity (49 incidents), 13  percent with gender (37 incidents), 8 percent with religion (24 incidents), and 2 percent with disability (6 incidents). Indicator 23 continued on page 118.

This indicator has been updated to include 2013 data. For more information: Table 23.1, http://ope.ed.gov/security/, and the Handbook for Campus Safety and Security Reporting (http://www2.ed.gov/admins/lead/safety/handbook.pdf).

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Postsecondary Campus Safety and Security

Figure 23.1. Number of on-campus hate crimes at degree-granting postsecondary institutions, by selected types of crime: 2009 through 2013 Type of crime 396

Destruction, damage, and vandalism1

555

364 403

364 175

260

Intimidation2

268 58 67 67 79

Simple assault3

282 295

89

10 9 15 9 15

Larceny4

11 7 9 4 7

Forcible sex offenses5

9 17 13 14 6

Aggravated assault6

Burglary7

8 11 8 5 4

Robbery8

5 2 2 5 1

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

Number of on-campus hate crimes 2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

1 Willfully or maliciously destroying, damaging, defacing, or otherwise injuring real or personal property without the consent of the owner or the person having custody or control of it. 2 Placing another person in reasonable fear of bodily harm through the use of threatening words and/or other conduct, but without displaying a weapon or subjecting the victim to actual physical attack. 3 A physical attack by one person upon another where neither the offender displays a weapon, nor the victim suffers obvious severe or aggravated bodily injury involving apparent broken bones, loss of teeth, possible internal injury, severe laceration, or loss of consciousness. 4 The unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the possession of another. 5 Any sexual act directed against another person forcibly and/or against that person’s will. 6 Attack upon a person for the purpose of inflicting severe or aggravated bodily injury. 7 Unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft. 8 Taking or attempting to take anything of value using actual or threatened force or violence. NOTE: Data are for degree-granting institutions, which are institutions that grant associate’s or higher degrees and participate in Title IV federal financial aid programs. Some institutions that report Clery data—specifically, non-degree-granting institutions and institutions outside of the 50 states and the District of Columbia—are excluded. A hate crime is a criminal offense that is motivated, in whole or in part, by the perpetrator’s bias against a group of people based on their race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, gender, or disability. Includes on-campus incidents involving students, staff, and on-campus guests. Excludes off-campus crimes and arrests even if they involve college students or staff. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Postsecondary Education, Campus Safety and Security Reporting System, 2009 through 2013.

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

117

For simple assaults classified as hate crimes, 19 percent were associated with gender (17 incidents), 8 percent with ethnicity (7 incidents), and 6 percent with religion (5 incidents). No simple assaults were associated with disability. Similar to 2013, race and sexual orientation were the categories of bias most frequently associated with the three most common hate crimes in 2012: 46 percent of vandalisms (186 incidents), 45 percent of intimidations (120 incidents), and 46 percent of simple assaults (36 incidents) were associated with race; in addition, 26 percent of vandalisms and intimidations (104 incidents and 70 incidents, respectively) and 27 percent of simple assaults (21 incidents) were associated with sexual orientation (table 23.1).

118

Postsecondary Campus Safety and Security

Larceny was the fourth most commonly reported hate crime in 2013. Five of the 15 larceny hate crimes reported in 2013 were associated with race, followed by sexual orientation and religion (3 incidents each) and ethnicity and gender (2 incidents each). No larceny hate crimes were associated with disability. While the number of hate crimes reported in 2013 was highest at 4-year private nonprofit and 4-year public postsecondary institutions (349 and 295 total incidents, respectively), these institutions also enroll the largest numbers of students. Public 2-year institutions, which also enroll a large number of students, had the third highest number of reported hate crimes (106 incidents). The frequency of crimes and the most commonly reported categories of bias were similar across these types of postsecondary institutions.

Figure 23.2. Number of on-campus hate crimes at degree-granting postsecondary institutions, by selected types of crime and category of bias motivating the crime: 2013 Number of on-campus hate crimes 600 500 400

364 295

300 200 100 0

151

110

112 48

37

14

Destruction, damage, and vandalism1

89

69 24

2

49

Intimidation

37

6

34

26

5

Simple assault

2

17

7

0

3

Type of crime Total

Race

Sexual orientation

Religion

Ethnicity

Gender

Disability

1 Willfully or maliciously destroying, damaging, defacing, or otherwise injuring real or personal property without the consent of the owner or the person having custody or control of it. 2 Placing another person in reasonable fear of bodily harm through the use of threatening words and/or other conduct, but without displaying a weapon or subjecting the victim to actual physical attack. 3 A physical attack by one person upon another where neither the offender displays a weapon, nor the victim suffers obvious severe or aggravated bodily injury involving apparent broken bones, loss of teeth, possible internal injury, severe laceration, or loss of consciousness. NOTE: Data are for degree-granting institutions, which are institutions that grant associate’s or higher degrees and participate in Title IV federal financial aid programs. Some institutions that report Clery data—specifically, non-degree-granting institutions and institutions outside of the 50 states and the District of Columbia—are excluded. A hate crime is a criminal offense that is motivated, in whole or in part, by the perpetrator’s bias against a group of people based on their race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, gender, or disability. Includes on-campus incidents involving students, staff, and on-campus guests. Excludes off-campus crimes and arrests even if they involve college students or staff. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Postsecondary Education, Campus Safety and Security Reporting System, 2013.

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References

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The Council of State Governments Justice Center. (2015). Locked Out: Improving Educational and Vocational Outcomes for Incarcerated Youth. New York: Author. Retrieved November 2015 from http://csgjusticecenter.org/youth/publications/ locked-out-improv ing-educ at iona l-a ndvocational-outcomes-for-incarcerated-youth/.

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References

Supplemental Tables

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

125

126

Supplemental Tables

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

(38,600) (26,600) (44,300) (20,000) (29,100) (39,400) (25,400) (39,200) (9,800) (5,400) (8,100) (20,700) (67,800) (35,200) (41,200) (37,700) (62,200) (44,500) (45,700) (42,500) (43,100) (37,400) (33,800) (29,900) (43,700) (43,900) (34,200) (40,600) (46,700) (40,600)

3,776,000 213,000 3,456,000 1,906,000 1,869,000 2,001,000 478,000 819,000 129,000 15,000 30,000 304,000 1,456,000 745,000 881,000 693,000 1,391,000 1,381,000 1,004,000 601,000 655,000 752,000 845,000 743,000 794,000 1,923,000 922,000 854,000 1,850,000 907,000

2

Total, all students1

243,000 304,000 140,000

222,000 395,000 81,000

279,000 186,000 136,000 72,000 21,000

400,000 241,000 93,000

398,000 152,000 118,000 66,000

288,000 170,000 175,000 ‡ ‡ ‡ 78,000

498,000 236,000

116,000 578,000

734,000

(24,200) (28,000) (21,600)

(22,200) (26,200) (14,400)

(27,500) (23,200) (15,300) (11,800) (4,500)

(35,300) (19,800) (12,400)

(38,100) (19,800) (12,300) (10,500)

(19,400) (18,300) (29,700) (†) (†) (†) (14,100)

(26,200) (22,200)

(18,500) (31,600)

(35,400)

3

Total, ever suspended or expelled

Number of fall 2009 ninth-graders

23.7 51.2 25.1

21.8 52.8 25.3

16.7 18.2 20.9 23.5 20.7

36.8 36.6 26.6

38.6 19.7 23.3 18.4

53.0 12.7 21.7 3.4 0.4 ! 0.8 8.1

50.5 49.5

5.8 94.2

100.0

(1.13) (1.12) (1.08)

(1.12) (1.16) (0.94)

(1.15) (1.11) (1.01) (0.98) (0.78)

(1.60) (1.14) (1.18)

(1.76) (0.92) (1.06) (0.98)

(1.00) (0.68) (0.96) (0.26) (0.14) (0.21) (0.54)

(0.42) (0.42)

(0.72) (0.72)

(†)

4

All students

(3.07) (3.57) (3.03)

(2.77) (2.99) (1.97)

(3.50) (3.22) (2.02) (1.56) (0.65)

(3.39) (2.68) (1.74)

(3.91) (2.76) (1.71) (1.44)

(2.37) (2.63) (3.66) (0.42) (†) (0.66) (1.84)

(2.34) (2.34)

(2.52) (2.52)

(†)

28.5 16.4 15.5

28.0 20.5 8.8

46.4 28.5 18.1 8.5 2.8

28.8 17.4 9.3

27.3 20.5 13.4 9.5

14.4 35.6 21.3 6.4 ! ‡ 40.6 ! 25.6

26.1 12.6

54.5 16.7

19.4

(2.22) (1.36) (2.13)

(2.40) (1.34) (1.50)

(3.31) (2.49) (1.99) (1.33) (0.60)

(1.88) (1.41) (1.10)

(1.92) (2.20) (1.20) (1.41)

(0.93) (3.42) (3.21) (2.38) (†) (14.16) (4.07)

(1.35) (1.17)

(5.05) (0.88)

(0.91)

6

Total

9.6 5.8 7.4

9.1 8.2 3.5

11.3 12.5 7.0 4.7 1.0 !

10.7 6.6 3.2

10.6 7.1 4.3 3.9

4.3 14.8 10.1 ‡ ‡ ‡ 6.7

8.9 5.5

13.8 6.6

7.2

(1.54) (0.73) (2.14)

(1.46) (1.25) (0.85)

(1.82) (2.73) (1.30) (1.11) (0.33)

(1.57) (1.02) (0.69)

(1.55) (1.62) (0.84) (0.94)

(0.51) (2.47) (2.77) (†) (†) (†) (1.84)

(1.22) (0.89)

(3.76) (0.74)

(0.72)

7

Only before fall of 2009

9.2 6.4 3.6

7.8 7.6 2.4

13.7 9.6 7.3 3.0 1.5

8.8 6.0 4.2

8.6 6.6 5.8 3.1

6.7 6.9 7.0 1.2 ! ‡ ‡ 5.8 !

8.5 4.6

17.5 5.8

6.6

(1.04) (0.78) (0.71)

(1.34) (0.82) (0.49)

(2.06) (1.65) (1.22) (0.57) (0.45)

(1.00) (0.88) (0.66)

(1.00) (1.20) (0.99) (0.57)

(0.65) (1.60) (1.38) (0.54) (†) (†) (1.76)

(0.88) (0.62)

(3.69) (0.46)

(0.54)

8

Only between fall 2009 and spring 2012

When suspended or expelled

Percent ever suspended or expelled

9.7 4.2 4.5

11.1 4.7 2.8 !

21.4 6.4 3.7 ‡ ‡

9.3 4.8 1.9 !

8.1 6.8 3.3 2.5 !

3.4 13.9 4.3 ‡ ‡ ‡ 13.1 !

8.7 2.6

23.2 4.4

5.7

(1.57) (0.69) (1.30)

(1.71) (0.77) (1.21)

(3.44) (1.11) (0.76) (†) (†)

(1.62) (0.76) (0.59)

(1.57) (1.30) (0.72) (0.80)

(0.38) (3.17) (0.95) (†) (†) (†) (4.09)

(1.20) (0.55)

(4.45) (0.63)

(0.65)

9

Both before fall 2009 and between fall 2009 and spring 2012

4A school belonging scale was constructed based on the extent to which students agreed or disagreed that they felt safe at school, that they felt proud of being part of the school, that there were always teachers or other adults at school they could talk to if they had a problem, that school was often a waste of time, and that getting good grades was important to them. Students’ sense of school belonging is considered low if they were in the bottom quarter of the scale distribution, middle if they were in the middle two quarters, and high if they were in the highest quarter. NOTE: Estimates weighted by W2W1PAR. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and survey item nonresponse. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:2009), 2013 Update and High School Transcripts Public-Use Data File. (This table was prepared October 2015.)

35.4 44.2 20.4

31.9 56.6 11.6

40.2 26.9 19.6 10.3 3.0

54.5 32.8 12.7

54.2 20.8 16.0 9.0

39.3 23.2 23.8 1.1 ! ‡ 1.6 ! 10.6

67.8 32.2

16.7 83.3

100.0

5

Ever suspended or expelled

Percentage distribution of fall 2009 ninth-graders

[Standarderrors errors appear appear ininparentheses] [Standard parentheses]

†Not applicable. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. ‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater. 1The total includes all students whose parents provided a response about their child’s suspension and expulsion status both on the base-year (2009) questionnaire and on the first follow-up (2012) questionnaire. 2Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by a composite score on parental education and occupations, and family income. 3A school engagement scale was constructed based on students’ responses to questions about how frequently they went to class without homework done, without pencil or paper, without books, or late. Students’ school engagement is considered low if they were in the bottom quarter of the scale distribution, middle if they were in the middle two quarters, and high if they were in the highest quarter.

Total, all students.......................................... High school completion status in 2013 Less than high school completion....................... High school completion....................................... Sex Male .................................................................... Female ................................................................ Race/ethnicity White................................................................... Black ................................................................... Hispanic .............................................................. Asian................................................................... Pacific Islander.................................................... American Indian/Alaska Native........................... Two or more races .............................................. Highest education of parents in 2012 High school completion or less ........................... Some college ...................................................... Bachelor’s degree ............................................... Master’s or higher degree ................................... Socioeconomic status of parents in 20122 Lowest two fifths ................................................. Middle two fifths .................................................. Highest fifth......................................................... Cumulative high school grade point average 0.00–1.99............................................................ 2.00–2.49............................................................ 2.50–2.99............................................................ 3.00–3.49............................................................ 3.50 or higher...................................................... School engagement in 20093 Low ..................................................................... Middle ................................................................. High .................................................................... Sense of school belonging in 20094 Low ..................................................................... Middle ................................................................. High ....................................................................

1

Selected student characteristic

characteristics: 2013

Number and percentage of fall 2009 ninth-graders who were ever suspended or expelled through spring 2012, by when student was suspended or expelled selectedwho student characteristics: 2013through spring 2012, by when student was suspended or expelled and selected student Table 233.25. Number and percentage of fall 2009and ninth-graders were ever suspended or expelled

Table S1.1.

360 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education Discipline, Safety, and Security Measures

372 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education Discipline, Safety, and Security Measures

Table S2.1.

Number of juvenile offenders in residential placement facilities, by selected juvenile and

Table 233.90. Number of juvenile offenders in residential placement facilities, selected juvenile facility characteristics: Selected years, 1997bythrough 2013 and facility characteristics: Selected years, 1997 through 2013 Juvenile or facility characteristic 1

Total.................................................................... Juvenile characteristics Sex Male ........................................................................ Female .................................................................... Race/ethnicity White....................................................................... Black ....................................................................... Hispanic .................................................................. Asian....................................................................... Pacific Islander........................................................ American Indian/Alaska Native............................... Other1...................................................................... Race/ethnicity by sex Male White................................................................... Black ................................................................... Hispanic .............................................................. Asian ................................................................... Pacific Islander.................................................... American Indian/Alaska Native ........................... Other1 .................................................................. Female White................................................................... Black ................................................................... Hispanic .............................................................. Asian ................................................................... Pacific Islander.................................................... American Indian/Alaska Native ........................... Other1 .................................................................. Age 12 or younger.......................................................... 13............................................................................ 14............................................................................ 15............................................................................ 16............................................................................ 17............................................................................ 18 to 20................................................................... Most serious offense2 Person offense ........................................................ Property offense ..................................................... Drug offense ........................................................... Public order offense ................................................ Technical violation................................................... Status offense ......................................................... Facility characteristics Facility size 1 to 10 residents ..................................................... 11 to 20 residents ................................................... 21 to 50 residents ................................................... 51 to 150 residents ................................................. 151 to 200 residents ............................................... 201 or more residents............................................. Facility operation State ....................................................................... Local ....................................................................... Private3 ................................................................... Facility self-classification4 Detention center ..................................................... Shelter .................................................................... Reception/diagnostic center ................................... Group home............................................................ Boot camp............................................................... Ranch/wilderness camp.......................................... Residential treatment center5.................................. Long-term secure facility.........................................

1997

1999

2001

2003

2006

2007

2010

2011

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

105,055

107,493

104,219

96,531

92,721

86,814

70,793

61,423

54,148

90,771 14,284

92,985 14,508

89,115 15,104

81,975 14,556

78,998 13,723

75,017 11,797

61,359 9,434

53,079 8,344

46,421 7,727

39,445 41,896 19,322 1,927 288 1,615 562

40,911 42,344 19,580 1,873 256 1,879 650

41,324 40,742 18,011 1,193 317 2,011 621

37,307 36,733 18,405 1,153 308 1,712 913

32,490 37,334 19,027 924 231 1,703 1,012

29,534 35,447 18,056 754 281 1,464 1,278

22,947 28,977 15,590 516 212 1,236 1,315

19,927 24,574 13,973 417 149 1,191 1,192

17,563 21,550 12,291 338 138 1,078 1,190

32,425 37,135 17,503 1,759 248 1,273 428

34,071 37,282 17,713 1,690 208 1,498 523

34,245 35,433 16,006 1,050 268 1,645 468

30,766 31,611 16,254 1,012 251 1,361 720

26,578 32,580 16,754 829 195 1,266 796

24,579 31,291 16,103 663 231 1,108 1,042

19,273 25,542 13,928 456 178 924 1,058

16,659 21,686 12,411 360 121 896 946

14,579 18,977 10,723 299 114 812 917

7,020 4,761 1,819 168 40 342 134

6,840 5,062 1,867 183 48 381 127

7,079 5,309 2,005 143 49 366 153

6,541 5,122 2,151 141 57 351 193

5,912 4,754 2,273 95 36 437 216

4,955 4,156 1,953 91 50 356 236

3,674 3,435 1,662 60 34 312 257

3,268 2,888 1,562 57 28 295 246

2,984 2,573 1,568 39 24 266 273

2,178 4,648 11,578 21,237 28,201 24,564 12,649

3,914 6,445 13,010 20,924 26,144 23,627 13,429

1,844 4,429 10,470 19,519 26,945 24,948 16,064

1,662 4,079 9,871 18,335 24,786 23,963 13,835

1,206 3,419 9,113 17,552 24,606 23,716 13,109

979 2,844 7,621 15,565 23,091 23,193 13,521

693 2,079 5,955 12,604 19,540 19,990 9,932

764 1,999 5,276 10,589 16,473 17,447 8,875

706 1,957 4,717 9,473 14,108 15,100 8,087

35,138 31,907 9,071 10,287 12,410 6,242

37,367 31,432 9,645 10,848 13,909 4,292

34,885 29,341 9,076 10,806 15,413 4,698

33,170 26,813 7,988 9,949 14,102 4,509

31,674 23,152 7,985 10,015 15,280 4,615

31,140 21,076 7,095 11,000 13,093 3,410

26,011 17,037 4,986 8,139 11,604 3,016

22,964 14,705 4,315 7,317 9,883 2,239

19,922 12,768 3,533 6,085 9,316 2,524

5,511 7,443 17,934 29,789 7,781 36,597

5,110 7,214 19,721 33,045 9,525 32,878

5,253 7,445 20,932 32,211 7,677 30,701

4,808 6,935 20,646 31,232 6,635 26,275

4,215 7,044 18,988 31,417 8,757 22,300

4,085 7,320 18,400 30,505 6,810 19,694

3,865 6,304 17,534 25,605 5,244 12,241

3,468 6,337 15,104 22,947 3,942 9,625

3,469 5,782 14,700 19,669 3,333 7,195

46,516 29,084 29,455

47,347 28,875 31,271

43,669 29,659 30,891

37,335 28,875 30,321

34,658 29,505 28,558

31,539 29,085 26,190

24,881 24,231 21,681

20,783 21,801 18,839

17,532 19,298 17,318

29,057 2,880 2,999 18,326 3,811 7,338 — 40,317

34,840 2,717 4,988 15,722 1,615 10,620 — 36,991

38,741 2,700 6,038 13,744 2,906 7,737 — 32,353

29,755 1,375 1,229 7,120 2,111 4,375 18,522 32,044

30,929 1,134 1,820 6,708 1,736 2,721 20,355 27,318

29,618 982 1,391 6,397 1,391 3,038 18,289 25,708

24,119 1,052 1,476 7,320 526 2,441 15,565 18,294

21,090 1,313 1,027 4,800 524 2,224 13,783 16,662

19,407 1,103 422 4,590 320 1,308 12,416 14,582

—Not available. 1For 2006 and later years, includes the “Two or more races” category, which did not appear on earlier questionnaires. For 2003 and earlier years, includes an “Other” category. Respondents who selected “Other” were instructed to specify what this meant. Examination of these written-in responses, which account for less than 1 percent of the records, indicates that the majority refer to individuals of mixed racial/ethnic identity. 2Delinquent/criminal offenses range from those committed against persons (e.g., assault) to technical violations, which include violations of probation, parole, or valid court orders. A “status” offense is illegal for underage persons, but not for adults (e.g., truancy or underage drinking). 3Private facilities are operated by private nonprofit or for-profit corporations or organizations. 4Although respondents may select more than one type for their facility, this table assigns each facility to a single primary type based on an analysis that applies a hierarchy rule. For 1997, the facility type data exclude 327 juveniles who were in facilities identified only as “Other.”

2013

5Prior

to 2003, residential treatment centers were included in the “Group home” category. NOTE: Data are from a biennial survey of all secure and nonsecure residential placement facilities that house juvenile offenders, defined as persons younger than 21 who are held in a residential setting as a result of some contact with the justice system (they are charged with or adjudicated for an offense). Data do not include adult prisons, jails, federal facilities, or facilities exclusively for drug or mental health treatment or for abused or neglected youth. The data provide 1-day population counts of juveniles in residential placement facilities; 1-day counts differ substantially from the annual admission and release data used to measure facility population flow. For definitions of specific terms, see http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/ezacjrp/asp/glossary.asp. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (CJRP), retrieved September 25, 2015, from http:// www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/ezacjrp/. (This table was prepared October 2015.)

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

127

376 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education Discipline, Safety, and Security Measures

Table S2.2.

Residential placement rate (number of juvenile offenders in residential facilities) per 100,000

Table 233.92. Residential placement rate (number of juvenile offenders in residential facilities) 100,000 juveniles, juveniles, by sex and race/ethnicity: Selected years, 1997perthrough 2013 by sex and race/ethnicity: Selected years, 1997 through 2013 Sex and race/ethnicity 1 Total....................................................................

Sex Male ........................................................................ Female .................................................................... Race/ethnicity White....................................................................... Black ....................................................................... Hispanic .................................................................. Asian/Pacific Islander.............................................. American Indian/Alaska Native............................... Other1...................................................................... Race/ethnicity by sex Male White................................................................... Black ................................................................... Hispanic .............................................................. Asian/Pacific Islander.......................................... American Indian/Alaska Native ........................... Other1 .................................................................. Female White................................................................... Black ................................................................... Hispanic .............................................................. Asian/Pacific Islander.......................................... American Indian/Alaska Native ........................... Other1 ..................................................................

1997

1999

2001

2003

2006

2007

2010

2011

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

356

355

334

303

289

272

225

196

173

599 99

599 99

556 99

502 94

479 88

458 76

380 61

330 54

290 50

201 968 468 195 490 —

208 937 435 178 542 —

208 857 360 119 556 —

189 742 335 110 468 —

170 743 309 80 476 —

157 714 284 71 416 —

128 606 228 47 369 —

112 520 202 35 361 —

100 464 173 28 334 —

322 1,688 823 346 759 —

337 1,623 764 309 849 —

336 1,466 622 203 894 —

304 1,256 577 185 732 —

270 1,275 530 139 698 —

254 1,238 494 119 621 —

209 1,049 398 80 544 —

182 902 351 60 535 —

162 804 296 49 496 —

74 224 91 38 211 —

72 228 86 40 224 —

73 227 83 31 206 —

68 210 81 31 195 —

64 193 76 19 248 —

54 170 63 20 205 —

42 146 50 12 190 —

38 124 46 11 182 —

35 113 45 8 167 —

—Not available. 1For 2006 and later years, includes the “Two or more races” category, which did not appear on earlier questionnaires. For 2003 and earlier years, includes an “Other” category. Respondents who selected “Other” were instructed to specify what this meant. Examination of these writtenin responses, which account for less than 1 percent of the records, indicates that the majority refer to individuals of mixed racial/ethnic identity. NOTE: Residential placement rate calculated per 100,000 persons age 10 through the upper age at which those charged with a criminal law violation were under original jurisdiction of the juvenile courts in each state in the given year (through age 17 in most states); for more information, see http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/structure_process/qa04101.asp?qaDate=2013. Data are

from a biennial survey of all secure and nonsecure residential placement facilities that house juvenile offenders, defined as persons younger than 21 who are held in a residential setting as a result of some contact with the justice system (they are charged with or adjudicated for an offense). Data do not include adult prisons, jails, federal facilities, or facilities exclusively for drug or mental health treatment or for abused or neglected youth. The data provide 1-day population counts of juveniles in residential placement facilities; 1-day counts differ substantially from the annual admission and release data used to measure facility population flow. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (CJRP), retrieved October 20, 2015, from http:// www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/ezacjrp/. (This table was prepared October 2015.)

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

128

Supplemental Tables

2013

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 307

Table 1.1. sm i t c i V em i r C

School-associated violent deaths of all persons, homicides and suicidesSchool of youth ages 5–18 Crime Victims at school, and total homicides and suicides of youth ages 5–18, by type of violent death: Table 228.10. School-associated violent deaths of all persons, homicides and suicides of youth ages 5–18 at school, and total homicides and 1992–93 to 2012–13

l oo h cS

suicides of youth ages 5–18, by type of violent death: 1992–93 to 2012–13 School-associated violent deaths1 of all persons (includes students, staff, and other nonstudents)

Year

Homicides of youth ages 5–18

Total

Homicides

Suicides

Legal interventions

Unintentional firearm-related deaths

2

3

4

5

6

1

Suicides of youth ages 5–18

Homicides at school2 Total homicides 7

Suicides at school2

8

9

Total suicides3 10

1992–93............................. 1993–94............................. 1994–95.............................

57 48 48

47 38 39

10 10 8

0 0 0

0 0 1

34 29 28

2,721 2,932 2,696

6 7 7

1,680 1,723 1,767

1995–96............................. 1996–97............................. 1997–98............................. 1998–99............................. 1999–2000.........................

53 48 57 47 37 4

46 45 47 38 26 4

6 2 9 6 11 4

1 1 1 2 04

0 0 0 1 04

32 28 34 33 14 4

2,545 2,221 2,100 1,777 1,567

6 1 6 4 84

1,725 1,633 1,626 1,597 1,415

2000–01............................. 2001–02............................. 2002–03............................. 2003–04............................. 2004–05.............................

34 4 36 4 36 4 45 4 52 4

26 4 27 4 25 4 37 4 40 4

74 84 11 4 74 10 4

14 14 04 14 24

04 04 04 04 04

14 4 16 4 18 4 23 4 22 4

1,509 1,498 1,553 1,474 1,554

64 54 10 4 54 84

1,493 1,400 1,331 1,285 1,471

2005–06............................. 2006–07............................. 2007–08............................. 2008–09............................. 2009–10.............................

44 4 63 4 48 4 44 4 35 4

37 4 48 4 39 4 29 4 27 4

64 13 4 74 15 4 54

14 24 24 04 34

04 04 04 04 04

21 4 32 4 21 4 18 4 19 4

1,697 1,801 1,744 1,605 1,410

34 94 54 74 24

1,408 1,296 1,231 1,344 1,467

2010–11............................. 2011–12............................. 2012–13.............................

32 4 45 4 53 4

26 4 26 4 41 4

64 14 4 11 4

04 54 14

04 04 04

11 4 15 4 31 4

1,339 1,201 1,186

34 54 64

1,456 1,568 1,590

1A

school-associated violent death is defined as “a homicide, suicide, or legal intervention (involving a law enforcement officer), in which the fatal injury occurred on the campus of a functioning elementary or secondary school in the United States,” while the victim was on the way to or from regular sessions at school, or while the victim was attending or traveling to or from an official school-sponsored event. 2“At school” includes on school property, on the way to or from regular sessions at school, and while attending or traveling to or from a school-sponsored event. 3Total youth suicides are reported for calendar years 1992 through 2012 (instead of school years 1992–93 through 2012–13). 4Data from 1999–2000 onward are subject to change until interviews with school and law enforcement officials have been completed. The details learned during the interviews can occasionally change the classification of a case.

NOTE: Unless otherwise noted, data are reported for the school year, defined as July 1 through June 30. Some data have been revised from previously published figures. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 1992–2013 School-Associated Violent Deaths Surveillance Study (SAVD) (partially funded by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Healthy Students), previously unpublished tabulation (September 2015); CDC, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System Fatal (WISQARS™ Fatal), 1999–2012, retrieved September 2015 from http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/index.html; and Federal Bureau of Investigation and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHR), preliminary data (November 2015). (This table was prepared December 2015.)

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

129

130

Number of nonfatal victimizations against students ages 12–18 and rate of victimization per 1,000 students, by type of victimization, location, and year: 1992 through 2014

Supplemental Tables (188,450) (161,330) (168,370) (124,260) (139,940) (133,810) (176,390) (109,100)

2,082,600 2,308,800 1,762,200 1,678,600 1,799,900

1,801,200 1,435,500 1,322,800 892,000 1,246,200

2002............................... 2003............................... 2004............................... 2005............................... 20063..............................

2007............................... 2008............................... 2009............................... 2010............................... 2011...............................

2012............................... 1,364,900 2013............................... 1,420,900 2014............................... 850,100

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015 (108,370) (115,110) (88,190)

2012............................... 2013............................... 2014...............................

470,800 403,000 288,900

614,300 498,500 484,200 378,800 541,900

820,100 780,900 718,000 637,700 714,200

1,710,700 1,408,000 1,129,200 1,228,900 961,400

1,857,600 1,731,100 1,713,900 1,604,800 1,572,700

615,600 454,900 363,700

896,700 648,000 594,500 469,800 647,700

1,088,800 1,270,500 1,065,400 875,900 859,000

1,975,000 1,635,100 1,752,200 1,331,500 1,348,500

2,679,400 2,477,100 2,474,100 2,468,400 2,205,200

(44,070) (40,470) (34,370)

(52,740) (52,350) (48,320) (40,200) (55,160)

(64,530) (64,210) (59,070) (57,740) (61,900)

(101,810) (94,900) (79,770) (90,770) (74,230)

(118,610) (96,700) (96,250) (92,000) (87,830)

(51,440) (43,390) (39,120)

(66,230) (61,170) (54,480) (45,300) (61,500)

(77,110) (88,550) (75,160) (70,140) (68,730)

(111,830) (104,210) (104,970) (95,940) (93,240)

(147,660) (121,200) (121,260) (120,690) (107,650)

3

Theft

520,400 375,500 332,400

757,400 634,100 372,900 311,200 424,300

799,400 1,043,200 653,700 791,300 698,900

2,006,900 1,639,800 1,584,500 1,074,800 819,000

2,226,500 2,104,800 2,433,200 2,021,800 1,910,600

749,200 966,000 486,400

904,400 787,500 728,300 422,300 598,600

993,800 1,038,300 696,800 802,600 940,900

1,635,900 1,612,200 1,400,200 969,500 1,172,700

1,601,800 2,215,700 2,246,900 1,932,200 1,925,300

(71,280) (68,800) (58,000)

(100,440) (94,160) (70,660) (59,190) (66,350)

(108,260) (121,880) (79,660) (101,380) (89,980)

(189,180) (157,700) (161,350) (124,280) (94,590)

(149,210) (187,960) (174,580) (157,470) (165,810)

(90,250) (134,140) (74,790)

(114,320) (108,480) (111,550) (73,310) (84,090)

(126,210) (121,490) (83,090) (102,360) (109,880)

(164,530) (155,840) (148,230) (115,680) (120,560)

(121,630) (194,520) (165,530) (152,670) (166,690)

4

All violent

Violent

169,900 151,200 165,000

337,700 258,600 176,800 167,300 137,600

341,200 412,800 272,500 257,100 263,600

853,300 684,900 675,400 402,100 314,800

1,025,100 1,004,300 1,074,900 829,700 870,000

89,000 125,500 93,800

116,100 128,700 233,700 155,000 89,500

173,500 188,400 107,300 140,300 249,900

376,200 314,500 281,100 214,200 259,400

5

violent1

38.0 30.1 24.1

51.6 42.8 33.1 27.0 38.2

58.6 69.1 52.3 53.8 53.0

140.7 113.8 100.8 85.0 65.2

173.1 158.2 164.9 141.9 133.5

52.4 55.0 33.0

67.8 54.3 51.0 34.9 49.3

75.4 87.4 67.2 63.2 67.5

136.6 121.3 117.0 84.9 92.3

181.5 193.5 187.7 172.2 158.4

(3.93) (4.19) (3.27)

(5.34) (4.90) (4.54) (3.83) (4.33)

(5.92) (6.19) (4.63) (5.29) (5.04)

(9.41) (7.96) (7.71) (7.01) (5.39)

(7.81) (9.90) (8.44) (7.91) (8.32)

(4.78) (6.24) (4.00)

(6.40) (5.67) (6.00) (4.55) (5.11)

(6.96) (7.16) (5.40) (5.85) (5.86)

(9.25) (8.27) (8.43) (7.00) (6.67)

(7.99) (11.02) (9.04) (8.82) (9.17)

6

Total

18.1 15.6 11.2

23.1 18.9 18.7 14.8 21.4

29.7 29.6 27.4 24.0 26.8

64.7 52.6 41.9 45.3 35.2

78.7 71.4 68.1 62.8 60.3

23.6 17.6 14.1

33.7 24.5 22.9 18.4 25.6

39.4 48.1 40.6 33.0 32.2

74.7 61.1 65.1 49.1 49.4

113.6 102.1 98.4 96.6 84.5

(1.66) (1.54) (1.32)

(1.94) (1.94) (1.83) (1.55) (2.13)

(2.27) (2.34) (2.19) (2.12) (2.27)

(3.62) (3.38) (2.85) (3.17) (2.60)

(4.66) (3.75) (3.61) (3.41) (3.22)

(1.93) (1.65) (1.50)

(2.41) (2.26) (2.05) (1.75) (2.36)

(2.69) (3.18) (2.76) (2.56) (2.52)

(3.95) (3.69) (3.69) (3.34) (3.23)

(5.64) (4.61) (4.46) (4.37) (3.88)

7

Theft

20.0 14.5 12.9

28.5 24.0 14.4 12.2 16.8

28.9 39.5 24.9 29.8 26.2

75.9 61.3 58.8 39.6 30.0

94.4 86.8 96.7 79.1 73.3

28.8 37.4 18.9

34.0 29.8 28.1 16.5 23.7

36.0 39.3 26.6 30.2 35.3

61.9 60.2 52.0 35.8 42.9

67.9 91.4 89.3 75.6 73.8

Rate of victimization per 1,000 students

(2.64) (2.56) (2.18)

(3.55) (3.42) (2.63) (2.24) (2.52)

(3.71) (4.33) (2.91) (3.63) (3.22)

(6.51) (5.40) (5.53) (4.30) (3.30)

(5.70) (7.01) (6.24) (5.59) (5.79)

(3.31) (4.84) (2.79)

(4.02) (3.91) (4.08) (2.75) (3.16)

(4.29) (4.32) (3.03) (3.66) (3.90)

(5.74) (5.34) (5.11) (4.02) (4.14)

(4.77) (7.23) (5.95) (5.44) (5.81)

8

All violent

Violent

6.5 5.8 6.4

12.7 9.8 6.8 6.5 5.4

12.4 15.6 10.4 9.7 9.9

32.3 25.6 25.1 14.8 11.5

43.5 41.4 42.7 32.5 33.4

3.4 4.9 3.6

4.4 4.9 9.0 6.1 3.5

6.3 7.1 4.1 5.3 9.4

14.2 11.7 10.4 7.9 9.5

8.4 22.1 18.3 11.5 14.3

(1.33) (1.38) (1.40)

(2.01) (1.96) (1.62) (1.47) (1.20)

(2.09) (2.37) (1.68) (1.77) (1.73)

(3.79) (3.04) (3.20) (2.24) (1.79)

(3.72) (4.47) (3.80) (3.19) (3.50)

(0.91) (1.22) (0.98)

(0.94) (1.28) (1.94) (1.40) (0.91)

(1.32) (1.42) (0.95) (1.20) (1.68)

(2.24) (1.80) (1.81) (1.48) (1.58)

(1.48) (3.02) (2.24) (1.64) (2.01)

9

Serious violent1

include robbery, which involves the threat or use of force and is classified as a violent crime. “Total victimization” includes theft and violent crimes. Data in this table are from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS); due to differences in time coverage and administration between the NCVS and the School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the NCVS, data in this table cannot be compared with data in tables that are based on the SCS. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), 1992 through 2014. (This table was prepared August 2015).

(35,260) (36,490) (36,650)

(55,630) (52,980) (42,890) (38,460) (31,000)

(59,590) (64,660) (45,080) (47,950) (47,280)

(105,660) (85,520) (90,150) (62,950) (50,070)

(92,600) (114,870) (101,370) (85,830) (96,510)

(23,850) (32,110) (25,550)

(25,430) (34,370) (51,610) (36,500) (23,360)

(37,300) (38,240) (25,110) (32,400) (45,670)

(60,990) (49,770) (50,060) (40,980) (44,110)

(35,430) (76,050) (58,110) (42,890) (54,150)

Serious

197,600 535,500 459,100 294,500 371,900

violent victimization is also included in all violent victimization. school” includes inside the school building, on school property, and on the way to and from school. to methodological differences, use caution when comparing 2006 estimates to other years. NOTE: “Serious violent victimization” includes the crimes of rape, sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated assault. “All violent victimization” includes serious violent crimes as well as simple assault. “Theft” includes attempted and completed purse-snatching, completed pickpocketing, and all attempted and completed thefts, with the exception of motor vehicle thefts. Theft does not

3Due

2“At

1Serious

(154,740) (137,840) (124,770) (103,620) (117,200)

2007............................... 1,371,700 2008............................... 1,132,600 2009............................... 857,200 2010............................... 689,900 2011............................... 966,100

991,200 778,500 621,300

(178,050) (179,240) (130,480) (151,460) (144,660)

1,619,500 1,824,100 1,371,800 1,429,000 1,413,100

2002............................... 2003............................... 2004............................... 2005............................... 20063..............................

(288,080) (243,270) (233,350) (211,310) (160,090)

3,717,600 3,047,800 2,713,800 2,303,600 1,780,300

1997............................... 1998............................... 1999............................... 2000............................... 2001...............................

(218,910) (280,790) (249,260) (234,640) (250,620)

4,084,100 3,835,900 4,147,100 3,626,600 3,483,200

Away from school 1992............................... 1993............................... 1994............................... 1995............................... 1996...............................

(212,520) (210,930) (154,390) (169,040) (170,490)

(282,430) (254,250) (258,560) (211,140) (202,890)

3,610,900 3,247,300 3,152,400 2,301,000 2,521,300

1997............................... 1998............................... 1999............................... 2000............................... 2001...............................

(225,600) (321,220) (271,730) (267,610) (281,640)

4,281,200 4,692,800 4,721,000 4,400,700 4,130,400

2

Total

At school2 1992............................... 1993............................... 1994............................... 1995............................... 1996...............................

1

Location and year

Number of nonfatal victimizations

[Standard errors parentheses] [Standard errorsappear appear ininparentheses]

Table 228.20. Number of nonfatal victimizations against students ages 12–18 and rate of victimization per 1,000 students, by type of victimization, location, and year: 1992 through 2014

Table 2.1.

305 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education School Crime Victims

Number of nonfatal victimizations against students ages 12–18 and rate of victimization per 1,000 students, by type of victimization, location, and selected student characteristics: 2014

(88,190) (57,970) (52,890) (50,470) (60,240) (62,640) (27,140) (26,700) (16,020) (40,610) (55,180) (29,810) (24,140) (27,520) (25,400) (27,200) (28,210) (30,450)

621,300

332,100 289,200

269,400 351,900

373,200 103,300 100,600 44,200

193,300 308,400 119,600

85,800 105,600 93,000 103,600 109,700 123,700

(30,770) (22,360) (35,420) (29,740) (41,830) (37,430)

(73,440) (28,460) (27,040) (36,330)

473,400 111,300 102,600 162,800

125,800 75,900 156,500 119,200 202,300 170,500

(67,910) (68,740)

421,200 428,900

(47,520) (64,630) (43,290)

(72,230) (64,320)

461,800 388,300

245,800 391,100 213,200

(109,100)

850,100

2

Total

363,700

20,800 ! 49,500 40,200 51,000 57,300 70,000

95,400 139,400 54,100

191,900 36,600 37,000 23,300

116,800 172,100

150,100 138,800

288,900

41,400 44,200 61,200 35,600 128,400 52,900

121,100 189,700 53,000

211,500 51,600 48,200 52,500

182,600 181,200

202,000 161,800

(8,360) (13,180) (11,800) (13,390) (14,240) (15,840)

(18,710) (22,990) (13,810)

(27,400) (11,240) (11,300) (8,870)

(20,880) (25,800)

(23,930) (22,940)

(34,370)

(11,980) (12,410) (14,750) (11,070) (21,990) (13,650)

(21,290) (27,220) (13,660)

(28,900) (13,470) (12,980) (13,600)

(26,650) (26,540)

(28,180) (24,940)

(39,120)

3

Theft

486,400

64,900 56,000 52,800 52,600 52,400 53,700

97,900 169,000 65,500

181,300 66,600 63,600 20,900 !

152,600 179,800

182,000 150,300

332,400

84,400 ! 31,700 95,300 83,600 73,800 117,600

124,800 201,500 160,200

262,000 59,700 54,500 110,300 !

238,700 247,700

259,900 226,600

Violent

(20,290) (18,520) (17,850) (17,810) (17,770) (18,050)

(26,240) (37,210) (20,410)

(38,950) (20,620) (20,030) (10,230)

(34,840) (38,740)

(39,060) (34,510)

(58,000)

(23,890) (13,100) (25,810) (23,760) (21,980) (29,480)

(30,620) (41,720) (35,950)

(49,550) (19,260) (18,200) (28,300)

(46,610) (47,770)

(49,290) (45,040)

(74,790)

4

All violent

93,800

22,900 ! 34,000 ! 23,400 ! 19,100 ! 35,500 ! 30,100 !

37,600 ! 100,900 26,400 !

79,300 32,500 ! 42,900 10,200 !

69,600 95,400

107,100 57,900

165,000

8,400 ! 14,100 ! 10,700 ! 6,000 ! 9,700 ! 44,800 !

31,300 ! 16,900 ! 45,600 !

59,800 ! 10,800 ! 13,700 ! 9,600 !

18,700 ! 75,100

33.0

45.6 36.4 21.1 31.4 14.7 21.2

25.5 21.8 29.6

27.2 25.7 17.0 20.8

21.7 26.4

25.0 23.1

24.1

66.9 26.1 35.6 36.1 27.1 29.2

32.5 27.6 52.8

34.6 27.6 17.3 76.5

33.9 32.2

34.8 31.0

(12.00) (8.94) (5.54) (7.81) (3.66) (5.00)

(5.10) (3.73) (7.00)

(4.34) (6.43) (4.35) (7.26)

(3.88) (4.29)

(4.16) (4.03)

(3.27)

(14.94) (7.36) (7.58) (8.48) (5.33) (6.08)

(5.91) (4.33) (9.88)

(5.04) (6.73) (4.40) (15.41)

(5.13) (4.86)

(5.12) (4.85)

(4.00)

6

Total

14.1

11.1 ! 17.1 9.1 15.5 7.7 12.0

12.6 9.8 13.4

14.0 9.1 6.2 11.0

9.4 12.9

11.3 11.1

11.2

22.0 15.2 13.9 10.8 17.2 9.1

16.0 13.4 13.1

15.4 12.8 8.1 24.7

14.7 13.6

15.2 12.9

(4.41) (4.48) (2.66) (4.00) (1.90) (2.68)

(2.44) (1.61) (3.38)

(1.97) (2.77) (1.89) (4.13)

(1.66) (1.91)

(1.78) (1.81)

(1.32)

(6.26) (4.22) (3.31) (3.32) (2.90) (2.32)

(2.77) (1.90) (3.34)

(2.08) (3.31) (2.17) (6.27)

(2.11) (1.96)

(2.09) (1.97)

(1.50)

7

Theft

18.9

34.5 19.3 12.0 15.9 7.0 9.2

12.9 11.9 16.2

13.2 16.6 10.7 9.8 !

12.3 13.5

13.7 12.0

12.9

44.9 ! 10.9 21.7 25.3 9.9 20.1

16.5 14.2 39.7

19.1 14.8 9.2 51.8 !

19.2 18.6

19.6 18.1

Violent

(10.23) (6.15) (3.95) (5.23) (2.34) (3.02)

(3.36) (2.55) (4.89)

(2.76) (4.95) (3.30) (4.71)

(2.72) (2.81)

(2.85) (2.68)

(2.18)

(11.89) (4.41) (5.63) (6.88) (2.88) (4.85)

(3.90) (2.85) (8.34)

(3.47) (4.64) (3.00) (12.34)

(3.60) (3.44)

(3.57) (3.46)

(2.79)

8

All violent

Rate of victimization per 1,000 students

3.6

12.2 ! 11.7 ! 5.3 ! 5.8 ! 4.8 ! 5.1 !

5.0 ! 7.1 6.5 !

5.8 8.1 ! 7.2 4.8 !

5.6 7.2

8.1 4.6

6.4

4.5 ! 4.8 ! 2.4 ! 1.8 ! 1.3 ! 7.7 !

4.1 ! 1.2 ! 11.3 !

4.4 ! 2.7 ! 2.3 ! 4.5 !

1.5 ! 5.6

5.2 ! 1.9 !

(5.62) (4.60) (2.45) (2.90) (1.86) (2.14)

(1.89) (1.85) (2.87)

(1.65) (3.24) (2.61) (3.15)

(1.67) (1.90)

(2.05) (1.49)

(1.40)

(3.20) (2.77) (1.57) (1.51) (0.88) (2.71)

(1.69) (0.64) (3.95)

(1.39) (1.72) (1.34) (3.03)

(0.77) (1.64)

(1.57) (0.89)

(0.98)

9

Serious violent1

pleted pickpocketing, and all attempted and completed thefts, with the exception of motor vehicle thefts. Theft does not include robbery, which involves the threat or use of force and is classified as a violent crime. “Total victimization” includes theft and violent crimes. Data in this table are from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) and are reported in accordance with Bureau of Justice Statistics standards. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and missing data on student characteristics. The population size for students ages 12–18 was 25,773,800 in 2014. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), 2014. (This table was prepared August 2015.)

(10,810) (13,670) (10,920) (9,720) (14,020) (12,690)

(14,530) (26,750) (11,760)

(22,990) (13,310) (15,730) (6,780)

(21,180) (25,820)

(27,780) (18,900)

(36,650)

(6,070) (8,120) (6,960) (5,020) (6,570) (16,160)

(12,990) (9,050) (16,330)

(19,280) (6,980) (7,990) (6,520)

(9,580) (22,220)

(21,170) (11,190)

(25,550)

5

Serious violent1

69,500 ! 24,300 !

!Interpret data with caution. Estimate based on 10 or fewer sample cases, or the coefficient of variation is greater than 50 percent. 1Serious violent victimization is also included in all violent victimization. 2“At school” includes inside the school building, on school property, and on the way to and from school. 3Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. “Other” includes Asians, Pacific Islanders, American Indians/Alaska Natives, and persons of Two or more races. 4Refers to the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) status of the respondent’s household as defined in 2000 by the U.S. Census Bureau. Categories include “central city of an MSA (Urban),” “in MSA but not in central city (Suburban),” and “not MSA (Rural).” NOTE: “Serious violent victimization” includes the crimes of rape, sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated assault. “All violent victimization” includes serious violent crimes as well as simple assault. “Theft” includes attempted and completed purse-snatching, com-

Away from school Total.......................................... Sex Male ...................................... Female .................................. Age 12–14 .................................... 15–18 .................................... Race/ethnicity3 White..................................... Black ..................................... Hispanic ................................ Other ..................................... Urbanicity4 Urban .................................... Suburban............................... Rural...................................... Household income Less than $15,000 ................ $15,000–29,999 .................... $30,000–49,999 .................... $50,000–74,999 .................... $75,000 or more.................... Not reported..........................

At school2 Total.......................................... Sex Male ...................................... Female .................................. Age 12–14 .................................... 15–18 .................................... Race/ethnicity3 White..................................... Black ..................................... Hispanic ................................ Other ..................................... Urbanicity4 Urban .................................... Suburban............................... Rural...................................... Household income Less than $15,000 ................ $15,000–29,999 .................... $30,000–49,999 .................... $50,000–74,999 .................... $75,000 or more.................... Not reported..........................

1

Location and student characteristic

Number of nonfatal victimizations

[Standard errors inparentheses] parentheses] [Standard errorsappear appear in

Table 228.25. Number of nonfatal victimizations against students ages 12–18 and rate of victimization per 1,000 students, by type of victimization, location, and selected student characteristics: 2014

Table 2.2.

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 341 School Crime Victims

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

131

310 CHAPTER and of Secondary Education Table 3.1. 2: Elementary Percentage students ages 12–18 who reported criminal victimization at school during the School Crime Victims previous 6 months, by type of victimization and selected student and school characteristics: Selected years, 1995 2013 Table 228.30. Percentage of students ages 12–18through who reported criminal victimization at school during the previous 6 months, by type of

victimization and selected student and school characteristics: Selected years, 1995 through 2013 [Standarderrors errorsappear appearininparentheses] parentheses] [Standard

Type of victimization and student or school characteristic 1 Total................................. Sex Male ...................................... Female .................................. Race/ethnicity1 White..................................... Black ..................................... Hispanic ................................ Asian..................................... Other..................................... Grade 6th......................................... 7th......................................... 8th......................................... 9th......................................... 10th....................................... 11th....................................... 12th....................................... Urbanicity2 Urban .................................... Suburban .............................. Rural ..................................... Sector Public .................................... Private................................... Theft ................................. Sex Male ...................................... Female .................................. Race/ethnicity1 White..................................... Black ..................................... Hispanic ................................ Asian..................................... Other..................................... Grade 6th......................................... 7th......................................... 8th......................................... 9th......................................... 10th....................................... 11th....................................... 12th....................................... Urbanicity2 Urban .................................... Suburban .............................. Rural ..................................... Sector Public .................................... Private................................... Violent .............................. Sex Male ...................................... Female .................................. Race/ethnicity1 White..................................... Black ..................................... Hispanic ................................ Asian..................................... Other..................................... Grade 6th......................................... 7th......................................... 8th......................................... 9th......................................... 10th....................................... 11th....................................... 12th....................................... Urbanicity2 Urban .................................... Suburban .............................. Rural ..................................... Sector Public .................................... Private...................................

1995

1999

2001

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

9.5

(0.35)

7.6

(0.35)

5.5

(0.31)

5.1

(0.24)

4.3

(0.31)

4.3

(0.30)

3.9

(0.28)

3.5

(0.28)

3.0

(0.25)

10.0 9.0

(0.46) (0.47)

7.8 7.3

(0.46) (0.46)

6.1 4.9

(0.41) (0.39)

5.4 4.8

(0.33) (0.36)

4.6 3.9

(0.42) (0.38)

4.5 4.0

(0.43) (0.39)

4.6 3.2

(0.40) (0.35)

3.7 3.4

(0.35) (0.38)

3.2 2.8

(0.40) (0.34)

9.8 10.2 7.6 — 8.8

(0.37) (1.04) (0.90) (†) (1.54)

7.5 9.9 5.7 — 6.4

(0.44) (0.85) (0.77) (†) (1.28)

5.8 6.1 4.6 — 3.1

(0.39) (0.78) (0.64) (†) (0.91)

5.4 5.3 3.9 — 5.0

(0.31) (0.80) (0.50) (†) (1.08)

4.7 3.8 3.9 1.5 ! 4.3 !

(0.35) (0.80) (0.70) (0.68) (2.00)

4.3 4.3 3.6 3.6 ! 8.1

(0.38) (0.83) (0.54) (1.38) (2.01)

3.9 4.4 3.9 ‡ ‡

(0.37) (0.74) (0.75) (†) (†)

3.6 4.6 2.9 2.5 ! 3.7 !

(0.35) (0.89) (0.47) (1.23) (1.37)

3.0 3.2 3.2 2.6 ! 2.2 !

(0.32) (0.71) (0.46) (1.08) (1.08)

9.6 11.2 10.5 11.9 9.1 7.3 6.1

(0.97) (0.81) (0.78) (0.88) (0.76) (0.74) (0.74)

8.0 8.2 7.6 8.9 8.0 7.2 4.8

(1.24) (0.81) (0.84) (0.79) (0.82) (0.88) (0.81)

5.9 5.8 4.3 7.9 6.5 4.8 2.9

(0.90) (0.66) (0.61) (0.81) (0.77) (0.62) (0.52)

3.8 6.3 5.2 6.3 4.8 5.1 3.6

(0.77) (0.74) (0.65) (0.70) (0.63) (0.68) (0.71)

4.6 5.4 3.6 4.7 4.3 3.6 3.8

(0.83) (0.71) (0.63) (0.69) (0.71) (0.51) (0.85)

4.1 4.7 4.4 5.3 4.4 4.0 2.7

(0.87) (0.69) (0.63) (0.75) (0.67) (0.75) (0.70)

3.7 3.4 3.8 5.3 4.2 4.7 2.0

(0.91) (0.70) (0.78) (0.85) (0.79) (0.88) (0.52)

3.8 3.1 3.8 5.1 3.0 3.1 2.9

(0.85) (0.61) (0.67) (0.83) (0.58) (0.65) (0.68)

4.1 2.5 2.3 4.1 3.3 3.3 2.0 !

(0.92) (0.51) (0.52) (0.76) (0.57) (0.65) (0.67)

9.3 10.3 8.3

(0.64) (0.49) (0.79)

8.4 7.6 6.4

(0.69) (0.43) (0.96)

5.9 5.7 4.7

(0.58) (0.40) (0.93)

6.1 4.8 4.7

(0.58) (0.33) (0.75)

5.3 4.2 2.8

(0.65) (0.34) (0.69)

4.5 4.1 4.4

(0.58) (0.38) (0.55)

4.2 4.0 3.1

(0.56) (0.36) (0.66)

4.3 3.3 2.8

(0.56) (0.34) (0.57)

3.3 3.2 2.0

(0.47) (0.35) (0.58)

9.8 6.6

(0.38) (0.90)

7.9 4.5

(0.37) (0.80)

5.7 3.4

(0.34) (0.72)

5.2 4.9

(0.26) (0.79)

4.4 2.7

(0.32) (0.77)

4.6 (0.32) 1.1 ! (0.50)

4.1 (0.30) 1.8 ! (0.76)

3.7 (0.29) 1.9 ! (0.68)

3.1 2.8 !

(0.27) (0.89)

7.1

(0.29)

5.7

(0.32)

4.2

(0.24)

4.0

(0.21)

3.1

(0.27)

3.0

(0.23)

2.8

(0.23)

2.6

(0.23)

1.9

(0.20)

7.1 7.1

(0.38) (0.41)

5.7 5.7

(0.41) (0.43)

4.5 3.8

(0.34) (0.33)

4.0 4.1

(0.27) (0.32)

3.1 3.2

(0.34) (0.36)

3.0 3.0

(0.34) (0.33)

3.4 2.1

(0.36) (0.28)

2.6 2.6

(0.29) (0.33)

2.0 1.8

(0.30) (0.28)

7.4 7.1 5.8 — 6.5

(0.32) (0.85) (0.78) (†) (1.40)

5.8 7.4 3.9 — 4.4

(0.43) (0.77) (0.61) (†) (0.98)

4.2 5.0 3.7 — 2.9

(0.30) (0.68) (0.69) (†) (0.87)

4.3 4.0 3.0 — 4.4

(0.28) (0.66) (0.41) (†) (1.04)

3.4 2.7 3.1 ‡ ‡

(0.32) (0.65) (0.64) (†) (†)

3.1 3.0 2.2 3.2 ! 4.5 !

(0.29) (0.70) (0.47) (1.32) (1.57)

2.9 2.5 3.0 ‡ ‡

(0.31) (0.61) (0.63) (†) (†)

2.5 3.7 2.0 2.5 ! 2.8 !

(0.28) (0.78) (0.41) (1.23) (1.21)

1.6 2.7 1.8 2.6 ! ‡

(0.22) (0.67) (0.39) (1.08) (†)

5.4 8.1 7.9 9.1 7.7 5.5 4.6

(0.66) (0.71) (0.72) (0.77) (0.72) (0.66) (0.67)

5.2 6.0 5.9 6.5 6.5 5.5 4.0

(0.97) (0.73) (0.81) (0.71) (0.73) (0.67) (0.71)

4.0 3.4 3.3 6.2 5.7 3.8 2.3

(0.70) (0.51) (0.50) (0.76) (0.72) (0.57) (0.45)

2.2 4.8 4.1 5.3 3.7 4.1 3.1

(0.63) (0.67) (0.56) (0.62) (0.59) (0.64) (0.68)

2.8 2.9 2.4 3.7 3.8 2.8 3.5

(0.75) (0.50) (0.53) (0.61) (0.66) (0.45) (0.85)

2.7 2.7 2.5 4.6 3.6 2.6 1.9

(0.77) (0.54) (0.54) (0.70) (0.63) (0.61) (0.55)

1.3 ! 2.1 2.0 4.9 3.5 3.3 1.5

(0.52) (0.57) (0.55) (0.80) (0.72) (0.74) (0.44)

2.7 1.9 2.0 4.4 2.1 2.7 2.4

(0.70) (0.44) (0.48) (0.78) (0.50) (0.58) (0.62)

1.4 ! 1.4 1.0 ! 2.7 2.6 2.3 1.6 !

(0.57) (0.38) (0.33) (0.58) (0.48) (0.50) (0.62)

6.6 7.6 6.8

(0.51) (0.40) (0.66)

6.9 5.4 5.0

(0.59) (0.36) (0.95)

4.5 4.3 3.4

(0.52) (0.32) (0.65)

4.5 3.8 3.9

(0.47) (0.27) (0.66)

3.6 (0.51) 3.2 (0.31) 2.2 ! (0.68)

2.8 3.0 3.2

(0.48) (0.31) (0.46)

2.9 2.8 2.3

(0.45) (0.32) (0.59)

3.0 2.5 2.0

(0.45) (0.30) (0.47)

2.4 1.9 0.8

(0.44) (0.27) (0.24)

7.3 5.2

(0.32) (0.74)

5.9 4.3

(0.34) (0.78)

4.4 2.5

(0.26) (0.67)

4.0 4.0

(0.22) (0.77)

3.3 (0.28) 1.3 ! (0.48)

3.2 (0.25) 1.1 ! (0.50)

2.9 ‡

(0.25) (†)

2.7 (0.24) 1.2 ! (0.52)

1.9 2.0 !

(0.21) (0.76)

3.0

(0.21)

2.3

(0.18)

1.8

(0.19)

1.3

(0.15)

1.2

(0.15)

1.6

(0.18)

1.4

(0.17)

1.1

(0.15)

1.2

(0.15)

3.5 2.4

(0.27) (0.25)

2.5 2.0

(0.26) (0.22)

2.1 1.5

(0.26) (0.24)

1.8 0.9

(0.24) (0.16)

1.6 0.8

(0.25) (0.15)

1.7 1.4

(0.26) (0.23)

1.6 1.1

(0.25) (0.21)

1.2 0.9

(0.21) (0.17)

1.3 1.1

(0.23) (0.23)

3.0 3.4 2.7 — 2.5 !

(0.23) (0.61) (0.43) (†) (0.87)

2.1 3.5 1.9 — 2.2 !

(0.22) (0.55) (0.38) (†) (0.81)

2.0 (0.24) 1.3 ! (0.40) 1.5 (0.41) — (†) ‡ (†)

1.4 1.6 1.1 — ‡

(0.18) (0.41) (0.28) (†) (†)

1.3 (0.20) 1.3 ! (0.46) 0.9 (0.24) ‡ (†) ‡ (†)

1.5 1.6 ! 1.4 ‡ 4.5 !

(0.22) (0.50) (0.42) (†) (1.50)

1.2 (0.21) 2.3 (0.62) 1.3 ! (0.40) # (†) ‡ (†)

1.2 (0.17) 1.1 ! (0.42) 1.0 (0.28) # (†) ‡ (†)

1.5 ‡ 1.5 ‡ ‡

(0.24) (†) (0.26) (†) (†)

5.1 3.8 3.1 3.4 2.1 1.9 1.9

(0.73) (0.54) (0.44) (0.50) (0.36) (0.40) (0.41)

3.8 2.6 2.4 3.2 1.7 1.8 ! 0.8 !

(0.76) (0.43) (0.44) (0.47) (0.39) (0.58) (0.31)

2.6 2.6 1.3 2.4 1.2 1.6 0.9 !

1.9 1.7 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.0 ! 0.5 !

(0.53) (0.43) (0.35) (0.31) (0.36) (0.33) (0.26)

1.9 2.6 1.4 1.0 0.5 ! 0.7 ! ‡

1.5 ! 2.4 2.1 1.2 ! 1.2 ! 1.5 ! 0.8 !

(0.54) (0.50) (0.47) (0.37) (0.39) (0.46) (0.35)

2.6 ! 1.2 ! 2.0 0.9 ! 1.0 ! 1.5 ! ‡

1.3 ! 1.2 ! 2.1 1.1 ! 0.9 ! ‡ ‡

(0.49) (0.41) (0.50) (0.35) (0.34) (†) (†)

2.7 1.2 ! 1.4 1.4 ! 1.0 ! 1.0 ! ‡

(0.73) (0.38) (0.42) (0.44) (0.35) (0.43) (†)

3.3 3.5 1.8

(0.40) (0.30) (0.31)

2.3 2.4 1.9

(0.38) (0.26) (0.50)

1.7 (0.29) 1.7 (0.20) 2.0 ! (0.64)

1.8 (0.32) 1.2 (0.19) 0.9 ! (0.31)

1.8 (0.34) 1.1 (0.18) 0.6 ! (0.26)

2.0 1.3 1.7

(0.35) (0.23) (0.36)

1.8 (0.41) 1.3 (0.23) 0.8 ! (0.32)

1.4 (0.31) 0.9 (0.16) 1.0 ! (0.31)

0.9 1.4 1.1 !

(0.21) (0.21) (0.46)

3.1 1.7

(0.22) (0.45)

2.5 ‡

(0.20) (†)

1.9 (0.20) 1.0 ! (0.32)

1.4 (0.15) 0.9 ! (0.39)

1.2 (0.15) 1.4 ! (0.60)

1.7 ‡

(0.20) (†)

1.4 ‡

1.1 ‡

1.2 ‡

(0.16) (†)

(0.66) (0.47) (0.34) (0.46) (0.31) (0.39) (0.31)

(0.55) (0.53) (0.39) (0.29) (0.24) (0.31) (†)

See notes at end of table.

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

132

2013

Supplemental Tables

(0.83) (0.42) (0.60) (0.37) (0.37) (0.51) (†)

(0.19) (†)

(0.15) (†)

Elementary and Secondary Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported CHAPTER criminal2:victimization at schoolEducation during 311 the School Crime Victims previous 6 months, by type of victimization and selected student and school characteristics: Selected years, 1995 through 2013—Continued Table 228.30. Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported criminal victimization at school during the previous 6 months, by type of

Table 3.1.

victimization and selected student and school characteristics: Selected years, 1995 through 2013—Continued [Standard errors appear appear inin parentheses] parentheses] [Standard errors

Type of victimization and student or school characteristic 1 Serious violent3 ............... Sex Male ...................................... Female .................................. Race/ethnicity1 White..................................... Black ..................................... Hispanic ................................ Asian..................................... Other..................................... Grade 6th......................................... 7th......................................... 8th......................................... 9th......................................... 10th....................................... 11th....................................... 12th....................................... Urbanicity2 Urban .................................... Suburban .............................. Rural ..................................... Sector Public .................................... Private...................................

1995

1999

2001

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0.7

(0.09)

0.5

(0.09)

0.4

0.9 0.4

(0.14) (0.10)

0.6 0.5

(0.12) (0.12)

0.5 (0.11) 0.4 ! (0.12)

0.3 ! (0.10) ‡ (†)

0.6 (0.09) 1.0 ! (0.31) 0.9 ! (0.30) — (†) ‡ (†)

0.4 (0.09) 1.2 (0.33) 0.6 ! (0.22) — (†) # (†)

0.4 (0.08) 0.5 ! (0.25) 0.8 ! (0.33) — (†) # (†)

0.2 ! (0.06) ‡ (†) 0.4 ! (0.18) — (†) ‡ (†)

1.5 0.9 0.8 ! 0.7 0.4 ! 0.4 ! ‡

1.3 ! 0.9 ! 0.5 ! 0.6 ! ‡ ‡ ‡

‡ 0.6 ! 0.3 ! 0.8 ! 0.4 ! ‡ ‡

(†) (0.24) (0.14) (0.31) (0.18) (†) (†)

# (†) ‡ (†) 0.3 ! (0.15) 0.6 ! (0.21) # (†) ‡ (†) # (†)

(0.42) (0.24) (0.23) (0.21) (0.17) (0.16) (†)

(0.40) (0.27) (0.22) (0.18) (†) (†) (†)

(0.08)

0.2

(0.06)

0.3

0.4

0.3

(0.09)

0.1 ! (0.05)

0.2 !

(0.07)

0.3 ! (0.10) 0.3 (0.07)

0.5 ! (0.14) 0.2 ! (0.08)

0.6 ‡

(0.16) (†)

0.2 ! (0.08) ‡ (†)

0.2 ! 0.2 !

(0.10) (0.10)

0.3 ! (0.09) ‡ (†) 0.4 ! (0.16) ‡ (†) ‡ (†)

0.2 ! (0.08) ‡ (†) 0.8 ! (0.32) ‡ (†) ‡ (†)

0.3 ! (0.10) ‡ (†) ‡ (†) # (†) # (†)

0.2 ! (0.07) ‡ (†) ‡ (†) # (†) # (†)

0.2 ! ‡ 0.4 ! ‡ ‡

(0.09) (†) (0.17) (†) (†)

‡ (†) 0.5 ! (0.23) # (†) ‡ (†) # (†) # (†) # (†)

0.8 ! ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

(0.42) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†)

0.3 ! 0.2 ! ‡

(0.16) (0.08) (†)

0.1 ! (0.06) # (†)

0.2 ! ‡

(0.08) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

‡ (†) 0.4 ! (0.20) ‡ (†) ‡ (†) ‡ (†) 0.6 ! (0.27) ‡ (†)

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

1.3 (0.24) 0.6 (0.12) 0.3 ! (0.10)

0.7 (0.19) 0.5 (0.11) 0.4 ! (0.18)

0.5 (0.15) 0.4 (0.09) 0.5 ! (0.24)

0.4 ! (0.14) 0.1 ! (0.05) ‡ (†)

0.4 ! (0.17) 0.3 ! (0.08) ‡ (†)

0.7 ! (0.23) 0.2 ! (0.09) ‡ (†)

0.6 ! (0.22) 0.3 ! (0.11) ‡ (†)

0.7 ‡

0.6 #

0.5 #

0.2 #

0.3 ‡

0.4 ‡

0.4 ‡

(0.10) (†)

(0.10) (†)

(0.09) (†)

—Not available. †Not applicable. #Rounds to zero. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. ‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater. 1Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. “Other” includes American Indians/ Alaska Natives, Asians (prior to 2005), Pacific Islanders, and, from 2003 onward, persons of Two or more races. Due to changes in racial/ethnic categories, comparisons of race/ethnicity across years should be made with caution. 2Refers to the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) status of the respondent’s household as defined in 2000 by the U.S. Census Bureau. Categories include “central city of an MSA (Urban),” “in MSA but not in central city (Suburban),” and “not MSA (Rural).”

(0.06) (†)

10

(0.08)

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

(0.07)

2013

(0.06) (†)

(0.09) (†)

(0.10) (†)

‡ ‡ ‡

3Serious

violent victimization is also included in violent victimization. NOTE: “Total victimization” includes theft and violent victimization. A single student could report more than one type of victimization. In the total victimization section, students who reported both theft and violent victimization are counted only once. “Theft” includes attempted and completed purse-snatching, completed pickpocketing, and all attempted and completed thefts, with the exception of motor vehicle thefts. Theft does not include robbery, which involves the threat or use of force and is classified as a violent crime. “Serious violent victimization” includes the crimes of rape, sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated assault. “Violent victimization” includes the serious violent crimes as well as simple assault. “At school” includes the school building, on school property, on a school bus, and, from 2001 onward, going to and from school. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, selected years, 1995 through 2013. (This table was prepared August 2014.)

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

133

134

Supplemental Tables (0.75) (0.35) (0.44) (0.37) (0.31) (0.38)

(0.96) (0.42) (0.59) (0.59) (0.39) (0.54)

(0.64) (0.57) (0.71) (0.80) (0.66)

93.9 3.0 1.6 0.9 0.6

6.5 6.1 5.4 5.5 5.2 6.1

5.4 5.8 4.0 5.8 6.5

(0.40) (0.33) (0.20) (0.18) (0.08)

(0.61) (0.41) (0.41) (0.37) (0.37) (0.40)

(0.40) (0.68) (0.32) (0.64) (0.52)

4

Female

(0.77) (0.46) (0.52) (0.43) (0.35) (0.32)

(0.58) (0.53) (0.56) (0.35) (0.66)

94.2 (0.32) 2.7 (0.27) 1.6 (0.17) 0.8 (0.12) 0.7 (0.17)

7.8 7.2 6.9 6.4 6.1 5.8

6.3 7.0 6.2 6.6 8.5

5

White

(0.80) (0.69) (0.86) (0.80) (0.64) (0.82)

91.6 (0.82) 3.8 (0.51) 1.8 (0.35) 1.7 (0.36) 1.2 (0.23)

10.9 8.1 9.7 9.4 8.9 8.4

11.2 (0.95) 11.0 (1.61) 9.9 (0.91) 7.6 (0.85) 9.3 (0.71)

6

Black

91.5 (0.73) 3.3 (0.51) 1.6 (0.29) 2.3 (0.34) 1.2 (0.25)

9.4 (1.23) 9.8 (0.86) 8.7 (0.60) 9.1 (0.61) 9.2 (0.81) 8.5 (0.73)

8.6 (0.83) 12.4 (1.44) 9.0 (0.63) 9.8 (1.09) 8.9 (1.05)

7

Hispanic

—Not available. †Not applicable. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. ‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater. 1Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity.

92.3 (0.54) 3.0 (0.25) 1.7 (0.21) 1.7 (0.21) 1.3 (0.19)

11.6 9.7 10.2 9.6 9.5 7.7

9.2 10.9 10.2 9.5 11.5

3

2 (0.44) (0.52) (0.45) (0.42) (0.55)

Male

Total

93.1 (0.38) 3.0 (0.22) 1.7 (0.14) 1.3 (0.14) 0.9 (0.11)

9.2 7.9 7.8 7.7 7.4 6.9

2003............................................ 2005............................................ 2007............................................ 2009............................................ 2011............................................ 2013............................................

Number of times, 2013 0 times ........................................ 1 time .......................................... 2 or 3 times ................................. 4 to 11 times ............................... 12 or more times.........................

7.3 8.4 7.4 7.7 8.9

At least once 1993............................................ 1995............................................ 1997............................................ 1999............................................ 2001............................................

1

Number of times and year

Sex

91.3 2.0 ‡ ‡ ‡

16.3 14.5 ! 8.1 ! 12.5 11.3 8.7 !

— — — 15.6 24.8

(2.71) (0.59) (†) (†) (†)

(4.31) (4.93) (2.45) (3.11) (3.23) (2.71)

(†) (†) (†) (4.46) (7.16)

9

81.5 9.6 ! ‡ 4.9 ! ‡

22.1 9.8 5.9 16.5 8.2 18.5

11.7 11.4 ! 12.5 ! 13.2 ! 15.2 !

(5.24) (3.14) (†) (2.34) (†)

(4.79) (2.67) (1.24) (2.68) (1.52) (5.24)

(2.50) (4.22) (5.15) (5.45) (4.57)

10

92.3 3.1 ! 2.2 ! 1.5 ! ‡

18.7 10.7 13.3 9.2 9.9 7.7

— — — 9.3 10.3

(2.11) (0.96) (0.67) (0.63) (†)

(3.11) (2.33) (2.25) (1.50) (1.35) (2.11)

(†) (†) (†) (1.22) (2.33)

11

Two or more races2

91.5 3.5 2.5 1.5 1.0

12.1 10.5 9.2 8.7 8.3 8.5

9.4 9.6 10.1 10.5 12.7

(0.75) (0.50) (0.37) (0.22) (0.20)

(1.25) (0.63) (0.69) (0.53) (0.63) (0.75)

(0.92) (0.96) (1.02) (0.95) (0.89)

12

9th grade

93.0 3.0 1.7 1.4 0.9

9.2 8.8 8.4 8.4 7.7 7.0

7.3 9.6 7.9 8.2 9.1

(0.67) (0.52) (0.26) (0.30) (0.20)

(1.02) (0.72) (0.51) (0.72) (0.58) (0.67)

(0.59) (1.03) (1.14) (0.92) (0.75)

13

10th grade

7.3 5.5 6.8 7.9 7.3 6.8

7.3 7.7 5.9 6.1 6.9

(0.60) (0.39) (0.24) (0.28) (0.22)

(0.69) (0.43) (0.57) (0.60) (0.61) (0.60)

(0.64) (0.64) (0.70) (0.46) (0.65)

14

11th grade

93.2 3.4 1.3 1.3 0.9

Grade

95.1 2.0 1.1 1.0 0.9

6.3 5.8 6.3 5.2 5.9 4.9

5.5 6.7 5.8 5.1 5.3

(0.61) (0.27) (0.21) (0.21) (0.25)

(0.92) (0.52) (0.64) (0.53) (0.45) (0.61)

(0.62) (0.57) (0.80) (0.79) (0.52)

15

12th grade

1999, Asian students and Pacific Islander students were not categorized separately, and students could not be classified as Two or more races. Because the response categories changed in 1999, caution should be used in comparing data on race from 1993, 1995, and 1997 with data from later years. NOTE: Survey respondents were asked about being threatened or injured “with a weapon such as a gun, knife, or club on school property.” “On school property” was not defined for respondents. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 1993 through 2013. (This table was prepared June 2014.)

(1.41) (0.51) (†) (†) (†)

(2.66) (1.10) (2.29) (0.91) (0.99) (1.41)

(†) (†) (†) (1.05) (2.73)

2Before

94.7 1.7 ! ‡ ‡ ‡

11.5 4.6 7.6 ! 5.5 7.0 5.3

— — — 7.7 11.3

8

Asian2

American Indian/ Alaska Native2 Pacific Islander2

Race/ethnicity1

[Standard errorsappear appear ininparentheses] [Standard errors parentheses]

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property during the previous 12 months, by selected student characteristics and number of times threatened or injured: Selected years,121993 through 2013student characteristics Table 228.40. Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property during the previous months, by selected and number of times threatened or injured: Selected years, 1993 through 2013

Table 4.1.

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 309 School Crime Victims

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

310 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education

Table 4.2. Crime Victims Percentage of public school students in grades 9–12 who reported being threatened or School injured with a weapon on school property at least one time during the previous 12 months, Table 228.50. Percentage of public school students grades 9–12 who2013 reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property by state: Selected years,in2003 through at least one time during the previous 12 months, by state: Selected years, 2003 through 2013 [Standarderrors errorsappear appear in in parentheses] parentheses] [Standard

State 1

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011

2

3

4

5

6

2013 7

United States1 ............. Alabama ............................ Alaska................................ Arizona .............................. Arkansas............................ California ...........................

9.2 7.2 8.1 9.7 — —

(0.75) (0.91) (1.01) (1.10) (†) (†)

7.9 10.6 — 10.7 9.6 —

(0.35) (0.86) (†) (0.55) (1.06) (†)

7.8 — 7.7 11.2 9.1 —

(0.44) (†) (0.88) (0.79) (1.03) (†)

7.7 10.4 7.3 9.3 11.9 —

(0.37) (1.56) (0.90) (0.92) (1.38) (†)

7.4 7.6 5.6 10.4 6.3 —

(0.31) (1.20) (0.70) (0.74) (0.85) (†)

6.9 9.9 — 9.1 10.9 —

(0.38) (1.17) (†) (1.32) (1.14) (†)

Colorado ............................ Connecticut........................ Delaware............................ District of Columbia ........... Florida................................

— — 7.7 12.7 8.4

(†) (†) (0.60) (1.42) (0.44)

7.6 9.1 6.2 12.1 7.9

(0.75) (0.91) (0.63) (0.78) (0.45)

— 7.7 5.6 11.3 8.6

(†) (0.59) (0.50) (0.98) (0.57)

8.0 7.0 7.8 — 8.2

(0.74) (0.62) (0.63) (†) (0.39)

6.7 6.8 6.4 8.7 7.2

(0.80) (0.71) (0.62) (0.92) (0.31)

— 7.1 5.6 — 7.1

(†) (0.74) (0.46) (†) (0.37)

Georgia.............................. Hawaii ................................ Idaho.................................. Illinois................................. Indiana...............................

8.2 — 9.4 — 6.7

(0.75) (†) (0.82) (†) (0.91)

8.3 6.8 8.3 — 8.8

(2.08) (0.87) (0.59) (†) (0.96)

8.1 6.4 10.2 7.8 9.6

(0.81) (1.10) (1.07) (0.69) (0.68)

8.2 7.7 7.9 8.8 6.5

(0.83) (1.03) (0.62) (0.86) (0.66)

11.7 6.3 7.3 7.6 6.8

(2.08) (0.62) (0.99) (0.48) (1.14)

7.2 — 5.8 8.5 —

(0.81) (†) (0.59) (0.82) (†)

Iowa ................................... Kansas............................... Kentucky ............................ Louisiana ........................... Maine.................................

— — 5.2 — 8.5

(†) (†) (0.72) (†) (0.78)

7.8 7.4 8.0 — 7.1

(1.02) (0.82) (0.75) (†) (0.68)

7.1 8.6 8.3 — 6.8

(0.86) (1.12) (0.53) (†) (0.84)

— 6.2 7.9 9.5 7.7

(†) (0.62) (1.00) (1.29) (0.32)

6.3 5.6 7.4 8.7 6.8

(0.85) (0.68) (0.98) (1.18) (0.26)

— 5.3 5.4 10.5 5.3

(†) (0.65) (0.57) (0.99) (0.29)

Maryland............................ Massachusetts................... Michigan ............................ Minnesota .......................... Mississippi .........................

— 6.3 9.7 — 6.6

(†) (0.54) (0.57) (†) (0.82)

11.7 5.4 8.6 — —

(1.30) (0.44) (0.81) (†) (†)

9.6 5.3 8.1 — 8.3

(0.86) (0.47) (0.77) (†) (0.59)

9.1 7.0 9.4 — 8.0

(0.75) (0.58) (0.63) (†) (0.69)

8.4 6.8 6.8 — 7.5

(0.67) (0.67) (0.50) (†) (0.63)

9.4 4.4 6.7 — 8.8

(0.22) (0.38) (0.52) (†) (0.78)

Missouri ............................. Montana............................. Nebraska ........................... Nevada .............................. New Hampshire .................

7.5 7.1 8.8 6.0 7.5

(0.93) (0.46) (0.80) (0.65) (0.98)

9.1 8.0 9.7 8.1 8.6

(1.19) (0.64) (0.68) (0.96) (0.91)

9.3 7.0 — 7.8 7.3

(1.03) (0.51) (†) (0.70) (0.69)

7.8 7.4 — 10.7 —

(0.76) (0.99) (†) (0.84) (†)

— 7.5 6.4 — —

(†) (0.53) (0.54) (†) (†)

— 6.3 6.4 6.4 —

(†) (0.40) (0.57) (0.80) (†)

New Jersey ........................ New Mexico ....................... New York............................ North Carolina ................... North Dakota .....................

— — 7.2 7.2 5.9

(†) (†) (0.44) (0.74) (0.89)

8.0 10.4 7.2 7.9 6.6

(1.07) (0.96) (0.47) (0.92) (0.58)

— 10.1 7.3 6.6 5.2

(†) (0.68) (0.57) (0.62) (0.59)

6.6 — 7.5 6.8 —

(0.75) (†) (0.55) (0.61) (†)

5.7 — 7.3 9.1 —

(0.51) (†) (0.60) (0.95) (†)

6.2 — 7.3 6.9 —

(0.81) (†) (0.61) (0.45) (†)

Ohio2 .................................. Oklahoma .......................... Oregon............................... Pennsylvania...................... Rhode Island .....................

7.7 7.4 — — 8.2

(1.30) (1.10) (†) (†) (0.84)

8.2 6.0 — — 8.7

(0.67) (0.65) (†) (†) (0.87)

8.3 7.0 — — 8.3

(0.77) (0.72) (†) (†) (0.42)

— 5.8 — 5.6 6.5

(†) (0.66) (†) (0.73) (0.65)

— 5.7 — — —

(†) (0.88) (†) (†) (†)

— 4.6 — — 6.4

(†) (0.53) (†) (†) (0.51)

South Carolina................... South Dakota2 .................... Tennessee ......................... Texas ................................. Utah ...................................

— 6.5 8.4 — 7.3

(†) (0.71) (1.17) (†) (1.44)

10.1 8.1 7.4 9.3 9.8

(0.93) (1.04) (0.79) (0.84) (1.32)

9.8 5.9 7.3 8.7 11.4

(0.85) (0.87) (0.76) (0.52) (1.92)

8.8 6.8 7.0 7.2 7.7

(1.48) (0.87) (0.71) (0.52) (0.88)

9.2 6.1 5.8 6.8 7.0

(0.92) (0.77) (0.52) (0.40) (0.98)

6.5 5.0 9.3 7.1 5.5

(0.83) (0.69) (0.73) (0.62) (0.59)

Vermont ............................. Virginia............................... Washington........................ West Virginia...................... Wisconsin .......................... Wyoming............................

7.3 — — 8.5 5.5 9.7

(0.20) (†) (†) (1.26) (0.70) (1.00)

6.3 — — 8.0 7.6 7.8

(0.46) (†) (†) (0.78) (0.73) (0.67)

6.2 — — 9.7 5.6 8.3

(0.56) (†) (†) (0.77) (0.66) (0.67)

6.0 — — 9.2 6.7 9.4

(0.30) (†) (†) (0.77) (0.75) (0.58)

5.5 7.0 — 6.6 5.1 7.3

(0.37) (0.86) (†) (0.93) (0.48) (0.58)

6.4 6.1 — 5.6 4.3 6.8

(0.43) (0.43) (†) (0.51) (0.64) (0.47)

—Not available. †Not applicable. 1Data for the U.S. total include both public and private schools and were collected through a national survey representing the entire country. 2Data include both public and private schools. NOTE: Survey respondents were asked about being threatened or injured “with a weapon such as a gun, knife, or club on school property.” “On school property” was not defined for respondents. State-level data include public schools only, with the exception of data for Ohio and South Dakota. Data for the U.S. total, Ohio, and South Dakota include both public and

private schools. For specific states, a given year’s data may be unavailable (1) because the state did not participate in the survey that year; (2) because the state omitted this particular survey item from the state-level questionnaire; or (3) because the state had an overall response rate of less than 60 percent (the overall response rate is the school response rate multiplied by the student response rate). SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 2003 through 2013. (This table was prepared June 2014.)

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

135

136

Supplemental Tables

4.1 3.9 3.5 4.0 5.4

Physically attacked 1993–94......................... 1999–2000..................... 2003–04......................... 2007–08......................... 2011–12......................... (0.13) (0.14) (0.21) (0.21) (0.30)

(0.23) (0.20) (0.24) (0.26) (0.42) 3.9 3.5 2.6 3.7 3.5

14.7 11.0 8.5 9.3 9.2

30,800 30,600 23,600 34,900 32,500

115,900 95,100 78,400 88,300 84,500

Sex

(0.21) (0.22) (0.27) (0.49) (0.35)

(0.40) (0.38) (0.39) (0.59) (0.49)

(1,770) (1,990) (2,610) (4,760) (3,330)

(3,870) (3,610) (3,930) (5,970) (5,220)

3

Male

4.2 4.0 3.8 4.1 6.0

10.5 8.1 6.2 6.8 9.2 (0.18) (0.17) (0.24) (0.21) (0.37)

(0.25) (0.20) (0.27) (0.27) (0.50)

90,300 (3,900) 104,200 (4,390) 105,700 (6,460) 121,100 (6,120) 177,300 (11,310)

226,800 (5,570) 209,800 (5,490) 174,400 (7,260) 201,600 (8,140) 268,400 (15,450)

4

Female

4.1 3.8 3.3 4.1 5.4

11.5 8.6 6.4 7.2 8.8 (0.16) (0.13) (0.20) (0.22) (0.33)

(0.24) (0.19) (0.24) (0.26) (0.40)

104,300 (4,020) 111,700 (3,810) 102,200 (5,920) 132,300 (6,860) 171,300 (10,950)

295,700 (6,320) 252,500 (5,670) 198,900 (6,980) 234,700 (8,850) 279,900 (13,300)

5

White

3.9 4.8 5.5 4.7 7.6

11.9 11.6 11.8 11.1 13.8

7,700 11,600 15,100 12,300 18,800

23,900 28,300 32,500 28,700 34,200

6

Black

(0.40) (0.59) (0.78) (0.89) (1.41)

(0.61) (0.84) (0.96) (0.93) (1.72)

(860) (1,540) (2,300) (2,350) (3,580)

7

Hispanic

(1,290) (1,660) (1,860) (2,040) (2,890)

(1,850) (1,980) (1,810) (3,230) (4,660)

(0.99) (0.83) (0.85) (0.73) (0.96)

(1.32) (1.01) (0.82) (1.19) (1.54)

5.2 3.1 4.8 2.8 ! 6.1

13.4 8.3 8.7 7.6 9.1

2,800 2,600 5,000 3,200 ! 7,900

7,300 7,000 9,000 8,600 11,800

9

(0.76) (0.54) (1.10) (0.97) (1.43)

(1.08) (0.98) (1.25) (1.36) (1.54)

5.0 5.5 4.5 5.8 8.2

8.7 8.0 5.7 6.6 9.6

(0.20) (0.23) (0.35) (0.38) (0.50)

(0.30) (0.29) (0.37) (0.38) (0.67)

(450) 77,300 (3,240) (460) 102,200 (4,360) (1,110) 89,800 (6,680) (1,250) 114,700 (7,220) (1,990) 160,700 (10,210)

3.2 2.1 2.3 2.2 2.6

15.0 9.9 8.0 8.4 8.7

43,800 32,600 39,400 41,300 49,100

207,500 156,900 139,200 160,000 163,200

Instructional level1 Elementary

(680) 135,200 (4,520) (850) 148,100 (5,560) (1,250) 113,600 (7,240) (1,630) 130,000 (7,720) (2,200) 189,800 (13,430)

8

Other2

326,800 (7,040) 287,400 (7,060) 242,100 (7,840) 276,600 (10,570) 338,400 (17,290)

11

Public3

(0.14) (0.14) (0.19) (0.16) (0.21)

(0.28) (0.26) (0.27) (0.36) (0.34)

4.4 4.2 3.7 4.3 5.8

12.8 9.6 7.4 8.1 10.0

(0.14) (0.15) (0.22) (0.24) (0.33)

(0.26) (0.22) (0.24) (0.30) (0.48)

2.3 2.2 1.7 2.0 2.7

4.2 3.9 2.3 2.7 3.1

8,700 9,800 7,800 9,600 12,400

15,900 17,500 10,700 13,300 14,500

Control of school

(1,980) 112,400 (3,730) (2,270) 125,000 (4,630) (3,410) 121,400 (7,180) (3,220) 146,400 (8,200) (4,310) 197,400 (11,730)

(5,380) (4,360) (5,280) (7,220) (7,520)

10

Secondary

(0.23) (0.22) (0.32) (0.24) (0.33)

(0.29) (0.35) (0.40) (0.30) (0.32)

(860) (1,070) (1,450) (1,170) (1,490)

(1,130) (1,700) (1,780) (1,460) (1,450)

12

Private

NOTE: Teachers who taught only prekindergarten students are excluded. Instructional level divides teachers into elementary or secondary based on a combination of the grades taught, main teaching assignment, and the structure of the teachers’ class(es). Please see the glossary for a more detailed definition. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Please see the glossary for a more detailed definition. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Some data have been revised from previously published figures. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), “Public School Teacher Data File” and “Private School Teacher Data File,” 1993–94, 1999–2000, 2003–04, 2007–08, and 2011–12; and “Charter School Teacher Data File,” 1999–2000. (This table was prepared October 2013.)

5.2 4.6 3.1 3.1 4.1

13.1 9.1 5.5 6.7 9.4

Percent of teachers

6,200 8,800 7,000 8,200 11,800

15,900 17,200 12,400 17,900 27,100

Number of teachers

Race/ethnicity

(1,380) (2,150) (3,050) (3,080) (4,380)

!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. 1Teachers were classified as elementary or secondary on the basis of the grades they taught, rather than on the level of the school in which they taught. In general, elementary teachers include those teaching prekindergarten through grade 5 and those teaching multiple grades, with a preponderance of grades taught being kindergarten through grade 6. In general, secondary teachers include those teaching any of grades 7 through 12 and those teaching multiple grades, with a preponderance of grades taught being grades 7 through 12 and usually with no grade taught being lower than grade 5. 2Includes American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians, and Pacific Islanders; for 2003–04 and later years, also includes persons of Two or more races. 3Includes traditional public and public charter schools.

11.7 8.8 6.8 7.4 9.2

121,100 (3,950) 134,800 (4,820) 129,200 (7,810) 156,000 (8,090) 209,800 (11,880)

Physically attacked 1993–94......................... 1999–2000..................... 2003–04......................... 2007–08......................... 2011–12.........................

Threatened with injury 1993–94......................... 1999–2000..................... 2003–04......................... 2007–08......................... 2011–12.........................

342,700 (7,140) 304,900 (7,090) 252,800 (8,750) 289,900 (10,660) 352,900 (17,080)

2

Total

Threatened with injury 1993–94......................... 1999–2000..................... 2003–04......................... 2007–08......................... 2011–12.........................

1

Year

[Standard errors parentheses] [Standard errorsappear appear ininparentheses]

Number and percentage of public and private school teachers who reported that they were threatened with injury or physically attacked by a student from school during the previous 12 months, by selected teacher and school characteristics: Selected years, 1993–94 through 2011–12 Table 228.70. Number and percentage of public and private school teachers who reported that they were threatened with injury or physically attacked by a student from school during the previous 12 months, by selected teacher and school characteristics: Selected years, 1993–94 through 2011–12

Table 5.1.

314 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education School Crime Victims

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

312 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education

TableSchool 5.2. CrimePercentage of public school teachers who reported that they were threatened with injury Victims or physically attacked by a student from school during the previous 12 months, by state: Table 228.80. Percentage of public school teachersthrough who reported that they were threatened with injury or physically attacked by a student from Selected years, 1993–94 2011–12 school during the previous 12 months, by state: Selected years, 1993–94 through 2011–12 [Standarderrors errorsappear appear in in parentheses] parentheses] [Standard

Threatened with injury State

Physically attacked

1993–94

1999–2000

2003–04

2007–08

2011–12

1993–94

1999–2000

2003–04

2007–08

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

1

2011–12 11

United States................ Alabama ............................ Alaska................................ Arizona .............................. Arkansas............................ California ...........................

12.8 13.3 13.7 13.0 13.8 7.4

(0.26) (1.29) (0.92) (1.07) (1.38) (0.91)

9.6 8.8 10.9 9.5 10.1 5.8

(0.22) (0.99) (0.80) (1.16) (1.18) (0.70)

7.4 6.1 8.9 6.8 4.8 6.0

(0.24) (0.88) (1.25) (0.98) (0.81) (1.00)

8.1 6.8 7.8 6.4 5.9 8.5

(0.30) (1.41) (1.24) (1.04) (1.18) (1.31)

10.0 7.6 12.3 9.1 7.8 7.7

(0.48) (1.92) (2.82) (2.08) (1.48) (1.17)

4.4 3.2 6.5 3.6 3.0 2.9

(0.14) (0.84) (0.48) (0.67) (0.67) (0.61)

4.2 3.8 5.2 4.5 2.5 2.5

(0.15) (0.57) (0.51) (0.95) (0.59) (0.46)

3.7 2.7 6.0 2.6 2.7 2.0

(0.22) (0.75) (0.94) (0.58) (0.72) (0.53)

4.3 3.2 ! 6.7 4.9 4.1 3.6

(0.24) (1.12) (1.50) (1.29) (1.07) (0.78)

5.8 3.1 ! 5.1 ! 4.7 ! 5.2 ! 4.4

(0.33) (0.94) (1.78) (1.43) (1.80) (0.95)

Colorado ............................ Connecticut........................ Delaware............................ District of Columbia ........... Florida................................

13.1 11.8 18.7 24.0 20.1

(1.29) (0.86) (1.56) (1.80) (1.65)

6.6 9.1 11.4 22.3 12.2

(0.97) (0.88) (1.37) (1.30) (1.07)

3.8 6.9 7.7 17.3 11.2

(0.82) (1.28) (1.35) (2.63) (1.26)

6.8 7.2 11.7 16.9 11.4

(1.64) (1.39) (1.93) (3.06) (2.11)

7.3 (1.69) 7.5 ! (3.03) 15.8 (3.49) ‡ (†) ‡ (†)

4.9 3.5 7.2 8.3 4.9

(0.82) (0.46) (1.10) (1.34) (0.78)

3.1 4.1 5.3 9.1 6.7

(0.60) (0.55) (0.92) (0.83) (0.91)

1.5 ! 2.8 3.2 ! 5.2 6.5

(0.45) (0.70) (1.00) (1.24) (1.58)

4.7 3.3 ! 5.4 7.3 4.0

(1.33) (1.04) (1.46) (2.00) (1.04)

3.6 ! 6.2 ! 9.8 ‡ ‡

(1.26) (2.91) (2.80) (†) (†)

Georgia.............................. Hawaii ................................ Idaho.................................. Illinois................................. Indiana...............................

14.0 9.9 9.7 10.9 13.8

(1.29) (1.48) (1.02) (0.76) (1.28)

9.5 9.4 7.8 8.2 7.6

(1.42) (0.99) (0.44) (0.89) (1.12)

6.4 9.0 5.4 7.9 7.2

(1.21) (1.33) (0.98) (1.60) (1.18)

5.8 8.0 5.9 8.1 10.2

(1.18) (1.84) (1.24) (1.42) (1.78)

9.5 ! ‡ 6.7 7.3 11.2

(2.98) (†) (1.42) (1.41) (2.87)

3.4 2.9 4.2 4.5 3.0

(0.66) (0.57) (0.76) (0.50) (0.66)

3.6 3.2 4.3 2.7 3.0

(0.84) (0.57) (0.39) (0.39) (0.75)

4.6 5.7 2.5 ! 2.3 ! 4.1 !

(1.30) (1.18) (0.75) (0.77) (1.28)

4.0 4.5 2.9 ! 3.9 4.7

(1.04) (1.30) (0.87) (0.90) (0.93)

6.3 ! ‡ 3.6 ! 4.1 6.4

(2.60) (†) (1.34) (1.11) (1.88)

Iowa ................................... Kansas............................... Kentucky ............................ Louisiana ........................... Maine.................................

9.4 10.9 14.0 17.0 9.0

(1.19) (0.91) (1.33) (1.17) (1.11)

10.7 6.0 12.6 13.4 11.7

(0.93) (0.78) (1.22) (2.31) (1.13)

4.9 3.9 7.8 9.8 5.2

(1.13) (0.81) (1.46) (1.42) (1.09)

7.2 5.7 9.8 10.3 9.5

(1.32) (1.07) (1.86) (2.35) (1.49)

11.7 7.2 10.6 18.3 9.1

(2.43) (1.66) (1.48) (2.95) (1.98)

4.3 3.8 3.8 6.6 2.4

(0.88) (0.61) (0.72) (0.82) (0.62)

3.9 2.9 4.5 5.0 6.3

(0.73) (0.55) (0.62) (1.31) (0.96)

2.4 3.3 2.7 2.7 3.3 !

(0.64) (0.79) (0.79) (0.69) (1.00)

3.4 5.0 5.8 4.0 ! 5.2

(0.93) (1.36) (1.60) (1.40) (1.37)

7.6 5.5 ! 7.0 7.2 ! 5.2

(2.11) (1.77) (1.25) (2.27) (1.55)

Maryland............................ Massachusetts................... Michigan ............................ Minnesota .......................... Mississippi .........................

19.8 10.8 10.7 9.6 13.4

(2.15) (0.83) (1.54) (1.13) (1.48)

10.7 11.3 8.0 9.5 11.1

(1.31) (1.48) (0.93) (1.11) (0.99)

13.5 6.4 9.2 8.1 5.5

(2.24) (1.23) (1.55) (1.17) (0.92)

12.6 9.7 6.0 7.3 10.7

(2.47) (1.98) (1.15) (1.16) (1.59)

‡ 6.2 11.8 11.4 7.7

(†) (1.69) (1.62) (1.49) (1.42)

8.6 4.7 6.4 4.5 4.1

(1.34) (0.64) (1.13) (0.85) (0.78)

4.6 4.3 3.8 4.4 3.7

(0.93) (0.67) (0.91) (1.04) (0.58)

6.5 3.8 5.4 3.6 0.9 !

(1.40) (0.75) (1.04) (0.68) (0.34)

8.4 4.1 3.5 ! 6.5 2.9

(1.57) (0.93) (1.32) (1.38) (0.83)

‡ 5.3 9.0 6.5 3.1 !

(†) (1.51) (2.00) (1.27) (1.14)

Missouri ............................. Montana............................. Nebraska ........................... Nevada .............................. New Hampshire .................

12.6 7.7 10.4 13.2 11.1

(1.11) (0.58) (0.61) (1.22) (1.30)

11.3 8.3 9.9 11.6 8.8

(1.73) (0.97) (0.70) (1.34) (1.43)

8.3 6.0 7.5 7.3 5.8

(1.27) (0.78) (1.12) (1.89) (1.37)

8.7 6.3 7.2 9.2 6.5

(1.17) (1.25) (1.27) (2.21) (1.47)

12.3 7.6 8.0 9.1 5.6 !

(2.25) (2.24) (1.46) (2.65) (2.11)

3.2 2.7 3.6 4.5 3.0

(0.73) (0.48) (0.64) (0.86) (0.70)

5.6 2.7 3.8 8.1 4.2

(1.41) (0.38) (0.57) (1.07) (1.09)

5.5 1.9 4.1 4.1 ! 2.8 !

(1.43) (0.47) (0.89) (1.28) (0.91)

5.3 4.0 4.2 3.7 ! 2.2 !

(1.15) (0.81) (1.11) (1.41) (0.91)

7.5 4.2 ! 5.8 4.7 ! ‡

(1.73) (1.37) (1.36) (2.25) (†)

New Jersey ........................ New Mexico ....................... New York............................ North Carolina ................... North Dakota .....................

7.9 12.8 16.2 17.1 5.5

(0.87) (1.27) (1.32) (1.32) (0.62)

7.5 10.2 11.5 12.8 5.7

(0.80) (1.75) (1.06) (1.63) (0.57)

4.3 7.8 10.4 8.7 5.0

(1.20) (1.25) (1.62) (1.44) (0.95)

4.6 12.8 10.5 9.6 2.5

(1.26) (1.85) (1.85) (1.71) (0.70)

6.9 10.0 11.9 13.4 6.1

(1.08) (2.76) (1.86) (2.79) (1.48)

2.4 4.4 6.7 6.0 2.9

(0.45) (0.72) (0.97) (0.95) (0.66)

3.4 6.8 5.2 5.5 2.1

(0.78) (1.77) (0.79) (1.23) (0.37)

2.0 ! 5.9 6.5 4.4 2.1

(0.67) (0.97) (1.12) (0.95) (0.49)

2.2 ! 4.5 6.4 5.9 ! 1.6 !

(0.82) (1.33) (1.56) (1.84) (0.50)

3.6 9.9 ! 7.0 6.3 3.3 !

(0.97) (3.17) (1.48) (1.58) (1.06)

Ohio ................................... Oklahoma .......................... Oregon............................... Pennsylvania...................... Rhode Island .....................

15.2 11.0 11.5 11.0 13.4

(1.48) (1.21) (1.00) (1.75) (1.78)

9.6 8.5 6.9 9.5 10.2

(1.35) (1.17) (1.33) (1.28) (0.64)

6.2 6.0 5.5 9.5 4.6 !

(1.14) (0.79) (1.11) (1.29) (1.39)

8.7 7.4 6.3 4.6 8.6

(1.59) (0.87) (1.30) (1.04) (2.13)

9.9 9.6 5.3 10.1 ‡

(1.20) (2.12) (1.56) (1.54) (†)

3.6 4.1 3.4 3.6 4.2

(0.69) (0.81) (0.64) (1.02) (0.91)

2.9 4.5 3.0 4.5 4.8

(0.83) (1.12) (0.60) (0.97) (0.59)

2.5 ! 3.0 1.4 ! 5.0 2.4 !

(0.83) (0.53) (0.55) (0.82) (0.92)

2.2 ! 3.2 3.9 ! 3.8 ‡

(0.70) (0.63) (1.18) (0.90) (†)

3.9 6.2 3.4 ! 4.4 ‡

(0.88) (1.66) (1.27) (0.99) (†)

South Carolina................... South Dakota..................... Tennessee ......................... Texas ................................. Utah ...................................

15.2 6.5 12.4 12.6 11.1

(1.62) (0.83) (1.45) (1.15) (0.87)

11.5 7.7 13.3 8.9 8.0

(1.10) (0.91) (1.65) (0.89) (1.15)

8.5 4.7 6.5 7.6 5.2

(1.30) (1.23) (1.24) (1.13) (0.82)

8.5 6.9 7.7 7.6 5.7

(1.46) (1.88) (1.26) (1.31) (1.18)

13.1 10.0 9.4 10.0 7.2

(2.70) (2.28) (2.11) (1.81) (1.96)

3.8 2.6 3.5 4.2 7.2

(0.92) (0.46) (0.91) (0.65) (0.72)

5.3 3.9 2.6 4.8 2.6

(0.94) (0.50) (0.67) (0.75) (0.58)

3.1 2.9 3.7 3.9 4.1

(0.82) (0.79) (1.02) (0.92) (0.90)

2.9 ! 4.3 4.1 4.2 3.8 !

(1.18) (0.88) (1.11) (1.18) (1.26)

‡ 5.2 ! 3.2 ! 5.7 5.4

(†) (1.66) (1.04) (1.30) (1.53)

Vermont ............................. Virginia............................... Washington........................ West Virginia...................... Wisconsin .......................... Wyoming............................

12.4 14.9 13.0 11.7 13.7 9.0

(1.28) (1.37) (1.33) (0.86) (1.82) (0.79)

9.9 12.1 10.0 10.0 10.1 6.7

(1.46) (1.19) (0.98) (1.19) (0.99) (0.96)

4.9 6.5 6.7 7.4 4.7 3.8 !

(1.18) (1.11) (1.29) (1.13) (0.99) (1.31)

7.6 8.1 7.0 8.1 8.8 5.1

(1.82) (1.38) (1.34) (1.67) (1.51) (1.00)

8.7 9.9 7.4 9.4 13.7 10.9

(1.86) (1.58) (1.36) (2.08) (2.37) (3.10)

8.6 6.9 4.9 3.4 3.9 2.7

(1.38) (1.23) (0.74) (0.67) (0.77) (0.49)

5.3 4.9 5.0 3.4 4.4 2.6

(0.94) (0.76) (0.61) (0.67) (0.79) (0.47)

1.8 ! 2.9 ! 4.1 3.4 2.5 2.5 !

(0.90) (0.88) (0.85) (0.82) (0.71) (1.04)

4.2 6.0 4.4 4.0 6.5 3.0

(1.22) (1.32) (1.28) (1.07) (1.29) (0.86)

5.3 6.5 6.8 4.3 ! 11.3 ‡

(1.29) (1.68) (1.80) (1.72) (2.56) (†)

†Not applicable. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. ‡Reporting standards not met. Data may be suppressed because the response rate is under 50 percent, there are too few cases for a reliable estimate, or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater.

NOTE: Teachers who taught only prekindergarten students are excluded. Includes traditional public and public charter schools. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Some data have been revised from previously published figures. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), “Public School Teacher Data File,” 1993–94, 1999–2000, 2003–04, 2007–08, and 2011–12; and “Charter School Teacher Data File,” 1999–2000. (This table was prepared October 2013.)

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

137

s t ned i cn I

em i r C

138

years, 1999–2000 through 2013–14

Supplemental Tables

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015 62.5 36.0 14.8 0.6 2.3 3.9 8.5 0.3 ! 3.4 25.8 18.9 28.5 52.0 4.5 23.0 11.4 22.2 — — — 14.7 32.7

Reported incidents to police Total ............................................................................................... Violent incidents.......................................................................................... Serious violent incidents ............................................................................ Rape or attempted rape ......................................................................... Sexual battery other than rape............................................................... Physical attack or fight with a weapon ................................................... Threat of physical attack with a weapon ................................................ Robbery with a weapon ......................................................................... Robbery without a weapon .................................................................... Physical attack or fight without a weapon .................................................. Threat of physical attack without a weapon ............................................... Theft4............................................................................................................. Other incidents5 ........................................................................................... Possession of a firearm/explosive device .................................................. Possession of a knife or sharp object ........................................................ Distribution of illegal drugs6 ....................................................................... Possession or use of alcohol or illegal drugs6............................................ Distribution, possession, or use of illegal drugs7 ....................................... Inappropriate distribution, possession, or use of prescription drugs8 ........ Distribution, possession, or use of alcohol7 ............................................... Sexual harassment .................................................................................... Vandalism .................................................................................................. (1.37) (1.26) (0.82) (0.10) (0.34) (0.50) (0.59) (0.09) (0.41) (0.91) (0.94) (1.04) (1.14) (0.41) (0.84) (0.48) (0.67) (†) (†) (†) (0.78) (1.10)

(1.23) (1.37) (0.98) (0.10) (0.33) (0.60) (0.70) (0.15) (0.56) (1.52) (1.47) (1.37) (1.30) (0.44) (1.28) (0.50) (0.72) (†) (†) (†) (1.26) (1.61)

2

1999–2000

65.2 43.6 13.3 0.8 2.6 2.8 6.0 0.6 4.2 35.6 21.0 30.5 50.0 4.9 — 12.4 26.0 — — — — 34.3

88.5 81.4 18.3 0.8 3.0 4.0 8.6 0.6 6.3 76.7 53.0 46.0 64.0 6.1 — 12.9 29.3 — — — — 51.4 (1.35) (1.15) (0.88) (0.17) (0.28) (0.38) (0.55) (0.15) (0.51) (0.98) (0.82) (1.17) (1.18) (0.44) (†) (0.57) (0.76) (†) (†) (†) (†) (1.06)

(0.85) (1.05) (0.99) (0.17) (0.32) (0.46) (0.71) (0.15) (0.60) (1.21) (1.34) (1.29) (1.27) (0.49) (†) (0.55) (0.87) (†) (†) (†) (†) (1.17)

3

2003–04

60.9 37.7 12.6 0.3 2.6 2.2 5.9 0.4 4.9 29.2 19.7 27.9 50.6 5.5 25.0 — — 22.8 — 11.6 — 31.9

85.7 77.7 17.1 0.3 2.8 3.0 8.8 0.4 6.4 74.3 52.2 46.0 68.2 7.2 42.8 — — 25.9 — 16.2 — 50.5 62.0 37.8 12.6 0.8 2.1 2.1 5.7 0.4 ! 4.1 28.2 19.5 31.0 48.7 3.6 23.3 — — 20.7 — 10.6 — 30.8

85.5 75.5 17.2 0.8 2.5 3.0 9.3 0.4 ! 5.2 72.7 47.8 47.3 67.4 4.7 40.6 — — 23.2 — 14.9 — 49.3 (1.24) (1.16) (0.86) (0.17) (0.29) (0.27) (0.59) (0.14) (0.42) (0.90) (0.76) (1.12) (1.17) (0.32) (0.69) (†) (†) (0.60) (†) (0.55) (†) (1.18)

(0.87) (1.09) (1.06) (0.17) (0.33) (0.33) (0.77) (0.14) (0.56) (1.07) (1.19) (1.29) (1.13) (0.38) (1.10) (†) (†) (0.68) (†) (0.57) (†) (1.16)

5

2007–08

60.0 39.9 10.4 0.5 1.4 2.2 4.5 0.2 3.5 34.3 15.2 25.4 46.3 3.1 20.0 — — 21.4 9.6 10.0 — 26.8

85.0 73.8 16.4 0.5 2.3 3.9 7.7 0.2 4.4 70.5 46.4 44.1 68.1 4.7 39.7 — — 24.6 12.1 14.1 — 45.8 (1.24) (1.16) (0.86) (0.17) (0.29) (0.27) (0.59) (0.14) (0.42) (0.90) (0.76) (1.12) (1.17) (0.32) (0.69) (†) (†) (0.60) (†) (0.55) (†) (1.18)

(0.87) (1.09) (1.06) (0.17) (0.33) (0.33) (0.77) (0.14) (0.56) (1.07) (1.19) (1.29) (1.13) (0.38) (1.10) (†) (†) (0.68) (†) (0.57) (†) (1.16)

6

2009–10

— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

— 65.0 13.1 0.2 ! 1.7 1.8 8.7 ‡ 2.5 57.5 47.1 — — — — — — — — — — — (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (1.46) (1.00) (0.10) (0.37) (0.34) (0.78) (†) (0.42) (1.43) (1.50) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

7

Percent of schools

— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

— 757,000 25,700 ‡ 1,800 2,900 15,100 ‡ 5,200 453,100 278,100 — — — — — — — — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (48,540) (2,730) (†) (480) (700) (1,820) (†) (920) (41,330) (13,820) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

8

Number of incidents

2013–141

— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

— 15.4 0.5 # # 0.1 0.3 ‡ 0.1 9.1 5.7 — — — — — — — — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (1.04) (0.06) (†) (†) (0.01) (0.04) (†) (0.02) (0.87) (0.30) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

9

Rate per 1,000 students2

should be used when making direct comparisons of “Other incidents” between years because the survey questions about alcohol and drugs changed, as outlined in footnotes 6, 7, and 8. survey items “Distribution of illegal drugs” and “Possession or use of alcohol or illegal drugs” appear only on the 1999–2000 and 2003–04 questionnaires. Different alcohol- and drug-related survey items were used on the questionnaires for later years. 7The survey items “Distribution, possession, or use of illegal drugs” and “Distribution, possession, or use of alcohol” appear only on the questionnaires for 2005–06 and later years. 8The 2009–10 questionnaire was the first to include the survey item “Inappropriate distribution, possession, or use of prescription drugs.” NOTE: Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school. “At school” was defined to include activities that happen in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that hold school-sponsored events or activities. Respondents were instructed to include incidents that occurred before, during, and after normal school hours or when school activities or events were in session. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and because schools that recorded or reported more than one type of crime incident were counted only once in the total percentage of schools recording or reporting incidents. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1999–2000, 2003–04, 2005–06, 2007–08, and 2009–10 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2000, 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010; Fast Response Survey System (FRSS), “School Safety and Discipline: 2013–14,” FRSS 106, 2014; and Common Core of Data (CCD), “Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey,” 2013–14. (This table was prepared September 2015.) 6The

5Caution

(1.15) (1.09) (0.70) (0.07) (0.26) (0.27) (0.49) (0.12) (0.48) (1.00) (0.69) (0.97) (1.00) (0.51) (1.00) (†) (†) (0.62) (†) (0.61) (†) (1.02)

(1.07) (1.11) (0.91) (0.07) (0.24) (0.38) (0.66) (0.12) (0.59) (1.20) (1.27) (1.07) (1.07) (0.60) (1.23) (†) (†) (0.68) (†) (0.68) (†) (1.17)

4

2005–06

Percent of schools

[Standarderrors errorsappear appear in [Standard in parentheses] parentheses]

—Not available. †Not applicable. #Rounds to zero. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. ‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater. 1Data for 2013–14 were collected using the Fast Response Survey System, while data for earlier years were collected using the School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS). The 2013–14 survey was designed to allow comparisons with SSOCS data. However, respondents to the 2013–14 survey could choose either to complete the survey on paper (and mail it back) or to complete the survey online, whereas respondents to SSOCS did not have the option of completing the survey online. The 2013–14 survey also relied on a smaller sample. The smaller sample size and change in survey administration may have impacted 2013–14 results. 2Because the 2013–14 survey did not collect school enrollment counts, the rate per 1,000 students was calculated by dividing the number of incidents by the total number of students obtained from the Common Core of Data. 3Total not presented for 2013–14 because the survey did not collect information regarding theft and other incidents. Therefore, the total incident rate is not comparable with earlier years. 4Theft/larceny (taking things worth over $10 without personal confrontation) was defined for respondents as “the unlawful taking of another person’s property without personal confrontation, threat, violence, or bodily harm.” This includes pocket picking, stealing a purse or backpack (if left unattended or no force was used to take it from owner), theft from a building, theft from a motor vehicle or motor vehicle parts or accessories, theft of a bicycle, theft from a vending machine, and all other types of thefts.

86.4 71.4 19.7 0.7 2.5 5.2 11.1 0.5 ! 5.3 63.7 52.2 45.6 72.7 5.5 42.6 12.3 26.6 — — — 36.3 51.4

Recorded incidents Total3 .............................................................................................. Violent incidents.......................................................................................... Serious violent incidents ............................................................................ Rape or attempted rape ......................................................................... Sexual battery other than rape............................................................... Physical attack or fight with a weapon ................................................... Threat of physical attack with a weapon ................................................ Robbery with a weapon ......................................................................... Robbery without a weapon .................................................................... Physical attack or fight without a weapon .................................................. Threat of physical attack without a weapon ............................................... Theft4............................................................................................................. Other incidents5 ........................................................................................... Possession of a firearm/explosive device .................................................. Possession of a knife or sharp object ........................................................ Distribution of illegal drugs6 ....................................................................... Possession or use of alcohol or illegal drugs6............................................ Distribution, possession, or use of illegal drugs7 ....................................... Inappropriate distribution, possession, or use of prescription drugs8 ........ Distribution, possession, or use of alcohol7 ............................................... Sexual harassment .................................................................................... Vandalism ..................................................................................................

1

Type of crime recorded or reported to police

l ooh cS

Percentage of public schools recording incidents of crime at school and reporting incidents to police, number of incidents, and rate per 1,000 students, by type of crime: Selected throughto2013–14 Table 229.10. Percentage of public schools recording incidents of crime atyears, school 1999–2000 and reporting incidents police, number of incidents, and rate per 1,000 students, by type of crime: Selected

Table 6.1.

316 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education School Crime Incidents

(2.12) (2.21) (3.14) (1.91)

(3.07) (2.13) (2.49) (2.49)

62.6 76.0 73.8 81.4

74.9 73.5 80.3 70.2

(3.25) (2.34) (1.75) (1.22)

(1.63) (1.10) (†) (1.21) (5.33)

17,100 (690) 22,700 (1,050) 23,800 (1,020) 19,100 (940)

(190) (240) (110) (300)

21,500 23,800 12,100 25,300

62.8 71.3 76.4 95.4

3

4

Number of incidents

141,700 290,500 334,400 417,200

108,500 192,800 293,600 588,800

396,300 371,000 166,300 250,100

111,300 274,400 487,900 310,100

482,100 375,200 — 264,400 62,000

(11,440) (20,440) (24,050) (42,360)

(20,340) (15,450) (20,960) (43,670)

(27,430) (33,010) (21,190) (15,910)

(17,230) (25,110) (35,630) (16,110)

(37,320) (19,310) (†) (12,910) (7,570)

(1.07) 1,183,700 (44,390)

69.6 (3.33) 67.9 (2.82) 75.9 (2.14) 78.2 (1.75)

(400) (180) (100) (60)

18,900 25,200 29,800 8,900

64.4 90.5 — 90.9 73.7

73.8

11,700 (980) 20,900 (1,080) 20,000 (650) 30,100 (1,270)

(340) (100) (†) (70) (200)

48,900 15,300 — 12,200 6,400

2 (460)

82,800

Percent of schools recording

All violent

5 (0.91)

11.9 22.1 27.3 41.3

23.3 17.2 23.1 31.4

28.8 22.4 28.2 22.5

27.2 26.5 25.0 23.2

(0.82) (1.48) (1.82) (3.73)

(3.62) (1.19) (1.76) (1.96)

(2.11) (1.92) (3.36) (1.49)

(4.08) (2.44) (1.78) (1.19)

21.3 (1.64) 40.0 (2.04) — (†) 21.4 (1.05) 20.8 (2.21)

25.0

Rate per 1,000 students

2009–10

(0.94) 52,500

6

10.5 16.2 15.8 22.9

12.6 9.9 18.6 21.1

21.7 15.5 15.6 13.2

10.4 15.7 15.9 32.8

incidents3

(1.22) 6,700 (1.89) 12,500 (1.67) 13,100 (2.60) 20,100

(2.52) 5,400 ! (1.29) 6,500 (1.58) 15,100 (1.82) 25,400

(2.12) 17,400 (1.80) 16,200 (2.33) 6,300 (1.51) 12,600

(2.11) 6,100 ! (2.14) 14,200 (1.42) 16,400 (1.61) 15,700

(1,400) (1,970) (2,840) (4,550)

(2,090) (1,490) (3,000) (4,360)

(2,830) (3,070) (1,390) (2,920)

(2,100) (3,560) (2,420) (2,080)

(3,780) (2,360) (†) (1,690) (†)

(5,510)

7

8

9

(800) (250) (330) (†) (†)

(840)

21,100 (570) 23,500 (630) 10,800 (750) 28,600 (1,030)

(0.11) (0.16) (0.24) (0.45)

15,100 22,900 23,200 19,800

(1,090) (1,290) (1,200) (1,100)

(0.44) 7,300 (920) (0.13) 22,800 (1,130) (0.23) 22,700 (1,290) (0.23) 31,300 (1,120)

(0.21) (0.18) (0.23) (0.26)

(0.51) 19,500 (1,540) (0.35) 25,400 (1,250) (0.12) 30,700 (950) (0.15) 8,500 (300)

(0.17) 49,700 (0.25) 16,100 (†) 18,400 (0.14) — (†) —

(0.12) 84,100

Total number of public schools 11

(1.46) 757,000 (48,540)

10

Number of incidents

(2.96) (3.13) (3.51) (3.21)

300,200 192,100 103,100 161,700

(39,830) (20,140) (12,540) (16,780)

50.8 66.9 67.4 71.2

(3.79) 62,400 (9,970) (2.82) 141,200 (12,280) (3.00) 219,300 (19,270) (2.91) 301,800 (43,350)

59.7 (5.75) 30,500 (4,910) 62.1 (3.55) 111,600 (10,320) 62.1 (2.81) 173,500 (15,540) 70.4 (2.29) 441,400 (44,490)

68.0 60.4 76.4 62.2

54.6 (4.18) 72,200 (15,010) 60.7 (2.80) 202,700 (38,450) 69.1 (1.98) 316,200 (24,810) 86.4 (2.18) 165,900 (12,860)

52.8 (2.18) 318,300 (43,530) 87.6 (1.93) 228,700 (15,050) 78.0 (2.53) 209,900 (15,680) — (†) — (†) — (†) — (†)

65.0

Percent of schools recording

All violent

incidents2

12 (1.04)

(2.74) (3.80) (1.14) (0.92)

6.1 (0.93) 10.7 (0.89) 17.2 (1.29) 27.6 (3.94)

11.6 (1.37) 10.3 (0.93) 11.9 (1.01) 20.9 (2.13)

20.7 (2.87) 11.9 (1.23) 18.3 (2.01) 12.4 (1.23)

16.0 19.5 14.9 12.7

13.0 (1.85) 23.3 (1.58) 13.9 (0.98) — (†) — (†)

15.4

Rate per 1,000 students4

2013–141

10.3 10.9 14.6 16.2

5.7 ! 10.2 14.9 15.7

17.5 11.2 17.4 9.9

11.3 10.7 12.9 25.3

9.2 18.3 19.3 — —

13.1

25,700 (2,730)

14

Number of incidents

(2.01) (1.69) (1.88) (2.16)

(2.37) (1.80) (2.06) (1.62)

(2.30) (1.62) (3.46) (1.51)

(2.58) (1.77) (1.57) (2.57)

3,200 (680) 4,600 (770) 8,500 (1,460) 8,700 (1,920)

‡ (†) 5,400 (1,080) 6,800 (1,020) 13,000 (2,170)

10,100 (2,010) 6,000 (1,010) 4,400 (1,040) 5,200 (840)

‡ (†) 5,000 (1,090) 11,500 (2,290) 6,300 (900)

(1.25) 7,700 (1,250) (1.92) 7,600 (1,150) (1.85) 10,400 (1,960) (†) — (†) (†) — (†)

(1.00)

13

Percent of schools recording

Serious violent incidents3

0.3 0.4 0.7 0.8

0.2 ! 0.5 0.5 0.6

0.7 0.4 0.8 0.4

0.8 0.5 0.5 0.5

0.3 0.8 0.7 — —

0.5

(0.06) (0.06) (0.11) (0.18)

(0.09) (0.10) (0.07) (0.11)

(0.15) (0.06) (0.18) (0.07)

(0.19) (0.10) (0.11) (0.07)

(0.05) (0.12) (0.13) (†) (†)

(0.06)

15

Rate per 1,000 students4

dents obtained from the Common Core of Data (CCD). For 2013–14, the classification of schools by the percentage of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch was also computed from CCD data. 5Primary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9. High schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 12. Combined schools include all other combinations of grades, including K–12 schools. Separate data on high schools and combined schools are not available for 2013–14. NOTE: Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school. “At school” was defined to include activities that happen in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that hold school-sponsored events or activities. Respondents were instructed to include incidents that occurred before, during, or after normal school hours or when school activities or events were in session. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2009–10 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2010; Fast Response Survey System (FRSS), “School Safety and Discipline: 2013–14,” FRSS 106, 2014; and Common Core of Data (CCD), “Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey,” 2013–14. (This table was prepared September 2015.)

0.6 1.0 1.1 2.0

1.2 ! 0.6 1.2 1.4

1.3 1.0 1.1 1.1

1.5 ! 1.4 0.8 1.2

1.0 1.5 — 1.1 ‡

1.1

Number Rate per of incidents 1,000 students

13.0 (1.42) 21,900 18.9 (1.46) 13,600 — (†) — 27.6 (1.35) 13,500 15.5 (3.72) ‡

16.4

Percent of schools recording

Serious violent

—Not available. †Not applicable. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. ‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater. 1Data for 2013–14 were collected using the Fast Response Survey System, while data for 2009–10 were collected using the School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS). The 2013–14 survey was designed to allow comparisons with SSOCS data. However, respondents to the 2013–14 survey could choose either to complete the survey on paper (and mail it back) or to complete the survey online, whereas respondents to SSOCS did not have the option of completing the survey online. The 2013–14 survey also relied on a smaller sample. The smaller sample size and change in survey administration may have impacted 2013–14 results. 2All violent incidents include serious violent incidents (see footnote 3) as well as physical attack or fight without a weapon and threat of physical attack without a weapon. 3Serious violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with a weapon, threat of physical attack with a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon. 4The 2013–14 survey collected neither school enrollment counts nor data on the percentage of students eligible for free or reducedprice lunch. For 2013–14, the rate per 1,000 students was calculated by dividing the number of incidents by the total number of stu-

Total........................................... School level5 Primary ........................................... Middle ............................................. High school/combined .................... High school ................................. Combined.................................... Enrollment size Less than 300 ................................. 300–499.......................................... 500–999.......................................... 1,000 or more ................................. Locale City.................................................. Suburban ........................................ Town................................................ Rural ............................................... Percent combined enrollment of Black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and American Indian/ Alaska Native students Less than 5 percent ........................ 5 percent to less than 20 percent ... 20 percent to less than 50 percent . 50 percent or more ......................... Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch4 0–25................................................ 26–50.............................................. 51–75.............................................. 76–100............................................

1

School characteristic

Total number of public schools

incidents2

[Standarderrors errorsappear appear ininparentheses] [Standard parentheses]

Table 6.2. Percentage of public schools recording violent incidents of crime at school, number of incidents, and rate per 1,000 students, by category of violentofincident and selected schoolincidents characteristics: 2009–10 andof2013–14 Table 229.30. Percentage public schools recording violent of crime at school, number incidents, and rate per 1,000 students, by category of violent incident and selected school characteristics: 2009–10 and 2013–14

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 319 School Crime Incidents

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

139

140

Supplemental Tables

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015 42.5 39.9 43.1 36.0

36.5 35.8 41.7 42.8 33.8 42.7 40.3 41.4 36.8 41.5 39.4

(400) (180) (100) (60) (190) (240) (110) (300)

18,900 25,200 29,800 8,900 21,500 23,800 12,100 25,300

11,700 (980) 20,900 (1,080) 20,000 (650) 30,100 (1,270) 17,100 (690) 22,700 (1,050) 23,800 (1,020) 19,100 (940) 12,300 (960) 32,600 (960) 37,900 (1,000)

22.6 31.4 45.6 81.1

21.1 65.9 76.6 51.0

(340) (100) (70) (200)

48,900 15,300 12,200 6,400

39.9

(460)

82,800

2

4

42,200 (3,270) 76,100 (4,170) 87,200 (6,600) 98,400 (13,140)

(3.46) 29,000 (3,330) (1.96) 128,500 (13,490) (1.76) 146,400 (8,760)

(1.98) (1.92) (2.50) (2.91)

(3.00) 20,000 (2,360) (1.72) 48,800 (3,620) (2.20) 75,000 (5,870) (2.36) 160,200 (13,150)

(2.01) 94,100 (4,900) (1.80) 107,600 (12,150) (3.06) 39,100 (3,510) (1.93) 63,200 (5,590)

(2.54) 14,800 (2,740) (2.29) 36,800 (4,240) (1.79) 93,400 (6,070) (1.67) 159,000 (12,100)

(1.60) 35,300 (5,400) (1.53) 100,100 (6,140) (1.61) 146,200 (10,520) (5.72) 22,300 (3,820)

5

6.9 7.4 5.7

3.6 5.8 7.1 9.8 (0.74) (0.75) (0.33)

(0.25) (0.33) (0.51) (1.28)

(0.42) (0.32) (0.50) (0.67)

(0.35) (0.72) (0.56) (0.52)

6.8 6.5 6.6 5.7

4.3 4.4 5.9 8.5

(0.67) (0.42) (0.31) (0.90)

(0.23) (0.64) (0.84) (1.20)

(0.28)

3.6 3.6 4.8 11.9

1.6 10.7 11.8 7.5

6.4

Number Rate per of incidents 1,000 students

(1.13) 303,900 (13,310)

3

Percent of schools

8.7 10.0 11.3

7.4 10.7 8.8 14.7

7.1 6.5 10.3 14.5

14.0 10.0 9.9 8.1

4.7 ! 7.1 10.6 31.1

5.5 15.5 24.9 8.4

10.4

9,200 7,300 2,100 4,900

3,600 5,000 5,400 9,500

(1.85) 2,200 (1.10) 7,900 (0.83) 13,400

(0.76) (1.31) (1.01) (1.92)

(1.64) 1,400 (0.80) 3,200 (1.16) 5,000 (1.27) 14,100

(1.45) (1.11) (1.91) (1.22)

(1.44) 1,400 (1.32) 3,700 (1.04) 7,900 (1.67) 10,600

0.5 0.5 0.5

0.3 0.4 0.4 0.9

0.3 0.3 0.4 0.7

0.7 0.4 0.4 0.4

0.3 0.4 0.4 0.8

0.3 0.7 0.8 0.3 !

0.5

(0.11) (0.05) (0.08)

(0.04) (0.05) (0.09) (0.22)

(0.09) (0.04) (0.06) (0.12)

(0.11) (0.08) (0.06) (0.10)

(0.09) (0.08) (0.07) (0.08)

(0.06) (0.09) (0.09) (0.13)

(0.05)

8

Rate per 1,000 students

24.8 25.8 25.3

26.8 31.2 22.9 20.3

23.5 24.8 26.8 25.7

23.7 26.3 26.9 25.3

14.6 17.1 26.4 68.4

9.3 41.1 64.1 36.9

25.4

(3.36) (1.43) (1.55)

(1.72) (1.83) (1.95) (1.88)

(2.54) (1.66) (1.71) (1.78)

(1.65) (1.46) (2.33) (2.00)

(2.73) (1.91) (1.40) (1.70)

(1.18) (1.81) (1.59) (5.41)

11,400 42,100 69,300

30,500 43,300 31,200 17,800

10,200 30,100 34,900 47,500

37,000 39,900 16,400 29,500

7,800 12,800 31,000 71,200

9,500 27,100 73,800 12,500

(1,470) (3,230) (3,600)

(2,420) (3,740) (3,220) (2,030)

(1,490) (2,970) (2,900) (3,470)

(3,420) (2,430) (1,720) (2,930)

(2,210) (1,780) (2,410) (3,640)

(1,950) (2,110) (3,370) (2,420)

(4,180)

10

2.7 2.4 2.7

2.6 3.3 2.6 1.8

2.2 2.7 2.7 2.5

2.7 2.4 2.8 2.7

1.9 1.2 1.6 5.3

0.4 2.9 6.0 4.2

2.6

(0.38) (0.18) (0.15)

(0.20) (0.29) (0.25) (0.19)

(0.32) (0.26) (0.23) (0.19)

(0.24) (0.14) (0.27) (0.27)

(0.53) (0.17) (0.12) (0.29)

(0.09) (0.23) (0.31) (0.84)

(0.09)

11

Number Rate per of incidents 1,000 students

Theft3

(1.01) 122,800

9

Percent of schools

46.4 45.6 46.9

40.6 48.0 47.5 48.0

38.5 40.1 46.3 53.7

50.6 47.5 48.1 40.8

30.1 40.2 48.9 89.0

30.3 65.4 83.6 52.0

46.3

91,000 85,700 35,900 49,800

54,200 76,900 72,300 59,000 (3.51) 22,100 (1.77) 88,900 (1.67) 151,500

(2.55) (2.92) (2.55) (2.76)

(3.20) 20,200 (2.31) 53,200 (2.29) 65,500 (2.25) 123,500

(1.85) (2.11) (3.27) (1.89)

(2.59) 16,000 (2.58) 33,100 (2.08) 74,300 (1.72) 139,000

(1.78) 40,100 (1.32) 60,300 (1.32) 146,200 (4.86) 15,900

(2,730) (6,080) (6,510)

(3,980) (5,010) (5,400) (4,970)

(2,820) (3,810) (4,240) (6,250)

(4,370) (5,410) (3,090) (2,620)

(2,590) (2,720) (4,010) (5,870)

(3,810) (2,600) (5,850) (2,350)

(8,260)

13

5.3 5.1 5.9

4.6 5.9 5.9 5.8

4.3 4.7 5.1 6.6

6.6 5.2 6.1 4.5

3.9 3.2 3.8 10.4

1.8 6.4 11.8 5.3

5.5

(0.65) (0.33) (0.26)

(0.31) (0.36) (0.40) (0.49)

(0.49) (0.32) (0.33) (0.34)

(0.31) (0.28) (0.52) (0.26)

(0.66) (0.27) (0.20) (0.46)

(0.17) (0.29) (0.50) (0.82)

(0.17)

14

Number Rate per of incidents 1,000 students

Other incidents4

(1.23) 262,400

12

Percent of schools

not higher than grade 9. High schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 12. Combined schools include all other combinations of grades, including K–12 schools. 6Student/teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of fulltime-equivalent (FTE) teachers. Information regarding the total number of FTE teachers was obtained from the Common Core of Data (CCD), the sampling frame for SSOCS. NOTE: Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school. “At school” was defined to include activities that happen in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that hold school-sponsored events or activities. Respondents were instructed to include incidents that occurred before, during, or after normal school hours or when school activities or events were in session. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2009–10 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2010. (This table was prepared September 2013.)

(450) (900) (2,210)

(560) (670) (1,160) (2,230)

(400) (450) (710) (2,310)

(1,460) (1,280) (350) (1,110)

(380) (860) (1,440) (1,100)

(0.84) 6,100 (1,450) (1.25) 6,300 (850) (1.16) 10,200 (1,120) (2.41) 1,000 ! (400)

(2,320)

7

Number of incidents

Serious violent2

(0.62) 23,500

6

Percent of schools

Violent incidents

!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. 1All violent incidents include serious violent incidents (see footnote 2) as well as physical attack or fight without a weapon and threat of physical attack without a weapon. 2Serious violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with a weapon, threat of physical attack with a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon. 3Theft/larceny (taking things worth over $10 without personal confrontation) was defined for respondents as “the unlawful taking of another person’s property without personal confrontation, threat, violence, or bodily harm.” This includes pocket picking, stealing a purse or backpack (if left unattended or no force was used to take it from owner), theft from a building, theft from a motor vehicle or motor vehicle parts or accessories, theft of a bicycle, theft from a vending machine, and all other types of thefts. 4“Other incidents” include possession of a firearm or explosive device; possession of a knife or sharp object; distribution, possession, or use of illegal drugs or alcohol; inappropriate distribution, possession, or use of prescription drugs; and vandalism. 5Primary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is

Total...................................................... School level5 Primary ..................................................... Middle ....................................................... High school ............................................... Combined ................................................. Enrollment size Less than 300 ........................................... 300–499.................................................... 500–999.................................................... 1,000 or more ........................................... Locale City............................................................ Suburban .................................................. Town.......................................................... Rural ......................................................... Percent combined enrollment of Black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native students Less than 5 percent .................................. 5 percent to less than 20 percent ............. 20 percent to less than 50 percent ........... 50 percent or more ................................... Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch 0–25.......................................................... 26–50........................................................ 51–75........................................................ 76–100...................................................... Student/teacher ratio6 Less than 12 ............................................. 12–16........................................................ More than 16.............................................

1

School characteristic

Total number of schools

All violent1

[Standard parentheses] [Standarderrors errorsappear appear ininparentheses]

Table 6.3. Percentage of public schools reporting incidents of crime at school to the police, number of incidents, and rate per 1,000 students, by type of crime schoolincidents characteristics: Table 229.40. Percentage of and publicselected schools reporting of crime at 2009–10 school to the police, number of incidents, and rate per 1,000 students, by type of crime and selected school characteristics: 2009–-10

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 317 School Crime Incidents

t n emn o r i v nE

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

See notes at end of table.

2013–145 All schools .............................................. School level4 Primary ........................................................ Middle .......................................................... High school/combined ................................. Enrollment size Less than 300 .............................................. 300–499....................................................... 500–999....................................................... 1,000 or more .............................................. Locale City............................................................... Suburban ..................................................... Town............................................................. Rural ............................................................

All schools 1999–2000....................................................... 2003–04........................................................... 2005–06........................................................... 2007–08........................................................... 2009–10 All schools .............................................. School level4 Primary ........................................................ Middle .......................................................... High school .................................................. Combined .................................................... Enrollment size Less than 300 .............................................. 300–499....................................................... 500–999....................................................... 1,000 or more .............................................. Locale City............................................................... Suburban ..................................................... Town............................................................. Rural ............................................................ Percent combined enrollment of Black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native students Less than 5 percent ..................................... 5 percent to less than 20 percent ................ 20 percent to less than 50 percent .............. 50 percent or more ...................................... Percent of students eligible for free or reduced–price lunch 0–25............................................................. 26–50........................................................... 51–75........................................................... 76–100.........................................................

1

Year and school characteristic

l ooh c S

(1.14) (0.61) (0.36) (0.63)

5.3 2.7 1.0 ! 1.6 !

(0.31) (0.47) (0.84) (0.37) (†) (†) (0.73) (1.01) (1.08) (0.59) (†) (†)

1.4 1.2 ! 2.5 ! 1.1 ! ‡ ‡ 2.1 ! 3.7 3.1 ! 2.0 ! ‡ ‡

(0.40) (0.85) (0.83) (1.16)

(†) (0.72) (0.54) (1.10)

‡ 2.5 3.0 5.5

1.9 2.6 ! 2.4 ! 4.3

(0.62) (0.81) (0.56) (†)

2.1 5.4 3.3 ‡

(†) (0.33) (0.96) (0.95)

(0.39)

2.8

‡ 1.5 3.2 4.3

(0.41) (0.28) (0.31) (0.49)

3.4 2.1 2.8 3.7

2

Student racial/ ethnic tensions3

14.8 12.9 24.0 15.4

13.5 14.6 16.1 22.1

12.2 24.5 17.2

15.7

19.7 21.9 24.1 26.1

22.0 21.3 22.3 25.2

27.0 19.9 26.2 21.2

16.5 24.0 25.3 27.0

19.6 38.6 19.8 18.6

23.1

29.3 26.8 24.5 25.3

(2.11) (1.66) (3.39) (2.35)

(2.93) (2.10) (1.54) (2.40)

(1.64) (2.11) (1.84)

(1.12)

(1.99) (1.58) (2.24) (3.07)

(3.36) (1.66) (1.70) (2.35)

(2.08) (1.96) (2.71) (2.11)

(2.48) (2.19) (1.55) (2.12)

(1.75) (1.60) (1.41) (4.38)

(1.12)

(1.21) (1.09) (1.14) (1.11)

3

Student bullying

2.5 ! 1.5 ! ‡ ‡

‡ 1.8 ! 1.3 3.8 !

‡ 3.4 1.8 !

1.4

2.6 3.2 3.2 ! 3.9 !

4.5 ! 1.8 ! 2.6 4.1 !

3.6 ! 2.6 2.9 ! 3.6

4.5 ! 2.4 ! 2.6 4.7

1.8 ! 6.1 3.2 7.5 !

3.2

— 4.0 3.5 3.0

(0.84) (0.47) (†) (†)

(†) (0.69) (0.36) (1.19)

(†) (0.84) (0.54)

(0.26)

(0.74) (0.80) (0.98) (1.47)

(1.91) (0.58) (0.45) (1.25)

(1.16) (0.69) (0.99) (1.01)

(1.38) (0.75) (0.55) (1.01)

(0.70) (0.89) (0.58) (2.92)

(0.55)

(†) (0.40) (0.40) (0.39)

4

Student sexual harassment of other students

‡ 1.0 ! ‡ ‡

‡ 0.7 ! 0.4 ! 2.0 !

‡ 2.4 ! 1.4 !

0.8

2.1 3.0 2.7 ! 2.1 !

2.7 ! 1.9 2.6 2.9 !

2.9 ! 2.0 2.0 2.9

4.3 ! 1.0 2.4 3.8

0.8 ! 6.2 3.1 6.0 !

2.5

— — — —

(†) (0.35) (†) (†)

(†) (0.34) (0.22) (0.74)

(†) (0.81) (0.54)

(0.19)

(0.55) (0.67) (0.86) (0.87)

(1.19) (0.46) (0.47) (0.87)

(1.06) (0.42) (0.56) (0.69)

(1.33) (0.28) (0.48) (0.82)

(0.35) (0.92) (0.55) (2.74)

(0.41)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

5

Student harassment of other students based on sexual orientation or gender identity

Happens at least once a week1

8.1 6.2 3.9 ! 2.5

‡ 6.1 5.4 8.4

4.4 6.1 6.2

5.1

1.5 2.3 5.6 9.6

‡ 1.8 4.5 8.5

9.1 4.7 3.3 ! 1.9 !

‡ 5.2 4.3 11.2

3.4 6.8 8.6 ‡

4.8

12.5 10.7 9.5 6.0

(1.52) (1.35) (1.67) (0.70)

(†) (1.41) (0.94) (1.47)

(0.83) (1.08) (1.10)

(0.54)

(0.28) (0.52) (0.95) (1.64)

(†) (0.48) (1.08) (1.17)

(1.38) (0.92) (1.24) (0.58)

(†) (1.03) (0.64) (1.37)

(0.67) (0.83) (1.00) (†)

(0.49)

(0.69) (0.80) (0.61) (0.48)

6

4.9 2.4 ! ‡ 1.2 !

‡ 3.7 ! 2.4 2.6 !

2.1 ! 2.5 ! 2.8

2.3

0.7 ! 1.3 ! 1.0 ! 7.5

‡ 0.5 ! 1.1 ! 5.7

4.5 3.0 0.6 ! 1.3 !

‡ 2.4 2.6 4.3

1.9 ! 4.1 4.4 #

2.5

3.1 2.8 2.3 4.0

(1.38) (0.99) (†) (0.52)

(†) (1.20) (0.71) (0.85)

(0.64) (0.87) (0.76)

(0.45)

(0.21) (0.43) (0.37) (1.38)

(†) (0.16) (0.48) (0.94)

(0.85) (0.77) (0.26) (0.62)

(†) (0.70) (0.60) (0.96)

(0.60) (0.67) (0.80) (†)

(0.37)

(0.44) (0.39) (0.24) (0.45)

7

Student verbal Widespread abuse of teachers disorder in classrooms

[Standard errorsappear appear ininparentheses] [Standard errors parentheses]

12.5 9.0 8.6 5.4

5.1 ! 7.8 9.5 15.6

6.2 11.1 12.8

8.6

3.6 6.9 10.7 12.5

3.6 ! 6.1 9.6 11.7

11.7 8.1 11.6 5.0

3.3 ! 9.5 8.3 18.2

6.1 13.7 14.3 4.4 !

8.6

— — — 10.5

(1.72) (1.81) (2.08) (1.15)

(1.72) (1.53) (1.23) (2.53)

(1.11) (1.58) (1.68)

(0.74)

(0.60) (0.91) (1.42) (1.49)

(1.18) (1.22) (1.12) (1.22)

(1.46) (1.10) (2.16) (0.93)

(1.09) (1.57) (1.00) (1.64)

(0.92) (1.15) (1.27) (2.05)

(0.67)

(†) (†) (†) (0.71)

8

Student acts of disrespect for teachers other than verbal abuse

— — — —

— — — —

— — —



7.9 13.2 17.4 26.5

1.5 5.8 16.9 29.1

28.3 14.6 13.9 9.1

6.5 11.9 16.4 49.8

7.5 29.2 38.4 11.1

16.4

18.7 16.7 16.9 19.8

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†)

(†)

(0.91) (1.33) (1.46) (2.19)

(0.39) (0.80) (1.40) (1.88)

(2.10) (1.16) (1.56) (1.13)

(1.34) (1.49) (1.24) (1.72)

(1.11) (1.48) (1.50) (2.89)

(0.84)

(0.85) (0.78) (0.76) (0.88)

9

Gang activities

— — — —

— — — —

— — —



1.4 1.9 ! 1.3 ! 2.3 !

0.4 ! 1.8 ! 1.4 2.4

2.5 1.2 ! 1.7 ! 1.6 !

‡ ‡ 1.3 ! 5.6

1.4 ! 1.4 3.9 ‡

1.7

6.7 3.4 3.7 2.6

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†)

(†)

(0.39) (0.68) (0.57) (0.87)

(0.19) (0.75) (0.23) (0.64)

(0.72) (0.41) (0.75) (0.70)

(†) (†) (0.44) (0.95)

(0.48) (0.36) (0.48) (†)

(0.31)

(0.46) (0.35) (0.41) (0.36)

10

Cult or extremist group activities

Happens at all2

Percentage of public schools reporting selected discipline problems that occurred at school, by frequency and selected school characteristics: Selected years, 1999–2000 through 2013–14 Table 230.10. Percentage of public schools reporting selected discipline problems that occurred at school, by frequency and selected school characteristics: Selected years, 1999–2000 through 2013–14

Table 7.1.

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 323 School Environment

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

141

t n emn o r i v nE

142

Supplemental Tables (†) (†) (0.57) (0.72) (†) (0.56) (†) (1.18)

‡ 1.4 ! ‡ 3.4 !

8.2 14.2 18.3 20.2

14.6 ! 11.9 18.1 16.8 (2.15) (2.02) (2.26) (2.36)

(4.52) (2.03) (2.52) (1.67)

3

2

‡ ‡ 1.5 ! 2.5

Student bullying

Student racial/ ethnic tensions3

‡ 1.2 ! 2.2 ! 1.4 !

‡ ‡ 2.2 ! 1.5 (†) (0.42) (0.69) (0.67)

(†) (†) (0.79) (0.38)

4

‡ 1.0 ! ‡ ‡

‡ ‡ ‡ 1.1 !

—Not available. †Not applicable. #Rounds to zero. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. ‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater. 1Includes schools that reported the activity happens either at least once a week or daily. 2Includes schools that reported the activity happens at all at their school during the school year. In the 1999–2000 survey administration, the questionnaire specified “undesirable” gang activities and “undesirable” cult or extremist group activities. 3Prior to the 2007–08 survey administration, the questionnaire wording was “student racial tensions.” 4Primary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9. High schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 12. Combined schools include all other combinations of grades, including K–12 schools. Separate data on high schools and combined schools are not available for 2013–14. 5Data for 2013–14 were collected using the Fast Response Survey System, while data for earlier years were collected using the School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS). The 2013–14 survey was designed to allow comparisons with SSOCS

Percent combined enrollment of Black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native students Less than 5 percent ..................................... 5 percent to less than 20 percent ................ 20 percent to less than 50 percent .............. 50 percent or more ...................................... Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch6 0–25............................................................. 26–50........................................................... 51–75........................................................... 76–100.........................................................

1

Year and school characteristic

Student sexual harassment of other students

‡ 3.0 ! 6.2 8.2

‡ 1.6 ! 6.0 7.8 (†) (0.94) (1.19) (1.80)

(†) (0.71) (1.36) (1.15)

6

‡ 1.6 ! 1.9 ! 5.1

‡ ‡ 3.6 ! 3.4 (†) (0.76) (0.70) (1.39)

(†) (†) (1.13) (0.86)

7

2.0 6.7 11.1 12.4

‡ 4.1 10.1 11.6

(0.59) (1.28) (1.75) (1.72)

(†) (1.00) (1.72) (1.51)

8

Student acts of disrespect for teachers Student verbal Widespread other than verbal abuse of teachers disorder in classrooms abuse

— — — —

— — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

9

Gang activities

— — — —

— — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

10

Cult or extremist group activities

Happens at all2

data. However, respondents to the 2013–14 survey could choose either to complete the survey on paper (and mail it back) or to complete the survey online, whereas respondents to SSOCS did not have the option of completing the survey online. The 2013–14 survey also relied on a smaller sample. The smaller sample size and change in survey administration may have impacted 2013–14 results. 6Because the 2013–14 survey did not collect data on the percentage of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch, the classification of schools by the percentage of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch was computed based on data obtained from the Common Core of Data. NOTE: Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school. “At school” was defined to include activities that happen in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that hold school-sponsored events or activities. Respondents were instructed to respond only for those times that were during normal school hours or when school activities or events were in session, unless the survey specified otherwise. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1999–2000, 2003–04, 2005–06, 2007–08, and 2009–10 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2000, 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010; Fast Response Survey System (FRSS), “School Safety and Discipline: 2013–14,” FRSS 106, 2014; and Common Core of Data (CCD), “Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey,” 2013–14. (This table was prepared September 2015.)

(†) (0.45) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (0.39)

5

Student harassment of other students based on sexual orientation or gender identity

Happens at least once a week1

[Standarderrors errorsappear appear in [Standard in parentheses] parentheses]

Percentage of public schools reporting selected discipline problems that occurred at school, by frequency and selected school

characteristics: Selected years, 1999–2000 throughthat 2013–14—Continued Table 230.10. Percentage of public schools reporting selected discipline problems occurred at school, by frequency and selected school characteristics: Selected years, 1999–2000 through 2013–14—Continued

Table 7.1.

l ooh c S

324 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education School Environment

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

332 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education

Table 7.2. Environment Percentage of public schools reporting selected types of cyber-bullying problems occurring School at school or away from school at least once a week, by selected school characteristics: Table 230.65. Percentage of public schools reporting selected types of cyber-bullying problems occurring at school or away from school at least 2009–10 once a week, by selected school characteristics: 2009–10

[Standarderrors errorsappear appear in in parentheses] parentheses] [Standard

School characteristic

Cyber-bullying among students

1 All public schools ................................ School level1 Primary ........................................................ Middle .......................................................... High school .................................................. Combined .................................................... Enrollment size Less than 300 .............................................. 300–499....................................................... 500–999....................................................... 1,000 or more .............................................. Locale City............................................................... Suburban ..................................................... Town............................................................. Rural ............................................................ Percent combined enrollment of Black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native students Less than 5 percent ..................................... 5 percent to less than 20 percent ................ 20 percent to less than 50 percent .............. 50 percent or more ...................................... Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch 0–25............................................................. 26–50........................................................... 51–75........................................................... 76–100......................................................... Student/teacher ratio2 Less than 12 ................................................ 12–16........................................................... More than 16................................................ Prevalence of violent incidents3 No violent incidents...................................... Any violent incidents ....................................

School environment is affected by cyber-bullying Staff resources are used to deal with cyber-bullying

2

3

4

7.9

(0.49)

4.4

(0.34)

3.8

(0.39)

1.5 18.6 17.6 12.6

(0.43) (1.48) (1.11) (3.34)

0.9 ! 9.8 9.9 7.4 !

(0.38) (1.07) (0.85) (2.64)

0.9 ! 8.5 8.6 ‡

(0.34) (1.01) (0.81) (†)

4.8 4.6 9.3 19.2

(1.21) (0.74) (0.63) (1.42)

3.2 ! 2.8 4.6 10.7

(1.05) (0.57) (0.57) (1.26)

2.9 ! 2.7 3.7 9.4

(0.89) (0.64) (0.58) (0.96)

5.7 8.5 9.6 8.4

(0.62) (0.85) (1.45) (1.07)

3.8 4.0 5.8 4.5

(0.57) (0.48) (1.15) (0.89)

3.6 3.7 4.1 4.0

(0.70) (0.46) (1.06) (0.82)

12.8 10.1 6.7 5.3

(2.05) (0.90) (0.77) (0.60)

7.7 5.1 3.6 3.1

(1.66) (0.59) (0.67) (0.41)

4.7 4.7 3.9 2.8

(1.32) (0.72) (0.74) (0.54)

10.8 9.7 6.8 4.5

(1.08) (1.14) (0.83) (0.96)

5.0 4.3 4.9 3.3

(0.62) (0.55) (0.78) (0.91)

4.9 3.4 4.1 3.0

(0.72) (0.48) (0.78) (0.73)

6.8 7.4 8.7

(1.36) (0.71) (0.75)

4.1 4.0 4.8

(1.20) (0.48) (0.60)

3.5 3.8 3.9

(1.02) (0.66) (0.56)

2.4 ! 9.9

(0.90) (0.53)

‡ 5.6

(†) (0.40)

‡ 5.1

(†) (0.53)

†Not applicable. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. ‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater. 1Primary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9. High schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 12. Combined schools include all other combinations of grades, including K–12 schools. 2Student/teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent (FTE) teachers. Information regarding the total number of FTE teachers was obtained from the Common Core of Data (CCD), the sampling frame for SSOCS.

3“Violent incidents” include rape or attempted rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon. “At school” was defined for respondents to include activities that happen in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that hold school-sponsored events or activities. Respondents were instructed to respond only for those times that were during normal school hours or when school activities and events were in session. NOTE: Includes schools reporting that cyber-bullying happens either “daily” or “at least once a week.” “Cyber-bullying” was defined for respondents as occurring “when willful and repeated harm is inflicted through the use of computers, cell phones, or other electronic devices.” Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school. Respondents were instructed to include cyber-bullying “problems that can occur anywhere (both at your school and away from school).” SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2009–10 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2010. (This table was prepared September 2013.)

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

143

144

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Supplemental Tables

20.9 30.9 18.4 12.3

24.2 36.2 20.8 16.4

23.2 32.3 21.0 15.5

20.4 30.7 16.6 16.0

17.5 22.8 16.1 12.1

12.4 18.3 10.8 6.8

2003 Total................... Urban..................... Suburban ............... Rural ......................

2005 Total................... Urban..................... Suburban ............... Rural ......................

20072 Total................... Urban..................... Suburban ............... Rural ......................

20092 Total................... Urban..................... Suburban ............... Rural ......................

20112 Total................... Urban..................... Suburban ............... Rural ......................

20132 Total................... Urban..................... Suburban ............... Rural ......................

(0.62) (1.23) (0.76) (1.44)

(0.71) (1.34) (0.97) (2.42)

(0.85) (1.86) (0.80) (3.08)

(0.80) (1.49) (0.97) (2.78)

(0.93) (2.00) (0.93) (2.53)

(0.70) (1.33) (0.84) (1.81)

(0.71) (1.23) (0.72) (1.71)

2

Total

12.9 18.6 11.7 5.7

17.5 23.0 16.5 10.2

20.9 32.8 17.2 13.7

25.1 35.3 23.1 14.9

25.3 37.4 22.4 16.1

22.3 32.1 20.5 12.2

21.4 31.9 18.9 14.0

(0.85) (1.61) (1.09) (1.38)

(0.95) (1.90) (1.24) (2.23)

(1.12) (2.35) (1.10) (3.37)

(1.07) (2.01) (1.36) (2.69)

(1.07) (2.31) (1.14) (3.20)

(0.95) (1.71) (1.07) (2.00)

(0.86) (1.62) (0.92) (2.08)

3

Male

12.0 18.0 9.8 7.9

17.5 22.6 15.6 14.1

19.9 28.6 16.0 18.1

21.3 29.2 18.9 16.1

22.9 35.0 19.1 16.7

19.5 29.7 16.3 12.4

18.8 25.9 17.5 12.5

(0.73) (1.38) (0.92) (1.92)

(0.88) (1.53) (1.18) (3.18)

(1.03) (2.29) (1.17) (3.18)

(0.87) (1.62) (1.19) (3.18)

(1.09) (2.42) (1.15) (2.79)

(0.79) (1.84) (0.92) (2.34)

(0.90) (1.52) (1.08) (1.84)

4

Female

7.5 14.3 6.5 4.1

11.1 13.9 11.3 7.7

14.1 19.4 13.5 11.8

16.0 23.4 15.9 10.9

16.8 23.7 16.0 14.1

14.2 19.8 13.8 10.7

15.5 20.5 15.4 12.1

(0.63) (1.73) (0.76) (1.20)

(0.67) (1.60) (0.89) (1.31)

(0.79) (1.99) (0.91) (2.09)

(0.70) (1.98) (0.92) (1.59)

(0.83) (1.87) (0.87) (2.46)

(0.59) (1.71) (0.67) (1.42)

(0.72) (1.28) (0.75) (1.70)

5

White

(2.41) (2.93) (4.41) (6.75)

(2.14) (2.43) (3.93) (7.17)

(1.90) (2.79) (2.79) (5.78)

18.6 20.6 17.3 16.1

32.7 31.6 33.5 34.5

31.4 40.0 20.2 35.4

(1.72) (2.36) (3.02) (4.49)

(2.23) (2.75) (4.08) (6.62)

(2.62) (3.76) (2.75) (9.77)

37.6 (2.26) 39.7 (3.07) 35.5 (3.16) 36.8 (10.42)

37.6 41.8 36.2 24.4

29.5 32.8 28.3 21.8 !

28.6 32.4 25.4 22.5

6

Black

20.1 22.6 19.3 9.4 !

26.4 31.0 23.2 22.1 !

33.0 38.9 28.3 27.3 !

36.1 40.4 33.3 27.5 !

38.9 48.9 32.1 26.2

37.2 42.6 34.6 12.7 !

32.0 40.3 27.1 16.8 !

(1.34) (2.15) (1.69) (4.52)

(1.55) (2.34) (1.95) (10.47)

(2.20) (3.31) (2.64) (10.84)

(2.04) (2.90) (2.66) (10.34)

(2.69) (4.44) (2.52) (6.51)

(1.76) (2.17) (2.14) (4.11)

(1.82) (2.45) (2.25) (7.49)

7

Hispanic

Race/ethnicity1

(3.21) (4.63) (3.95) (†)

(2.72) (4.30) (3.63) (†)

(2.59) (5.16) (2.87) (9.22)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

9.4 (1.85) 10.4 (2.61) 8.2 ! (2.59) ‡ (†)

9.9 (2.24) 7.6 ! (2.29) 12.0 ! (3.69) ‡ (†)

17.2 18.9 14.5 ‡

17.4 18.4 16.3 ‡

20.2 25.0 18.1 19.0 !

— — — —

— — — —

8

Asian

(3.63) (6.10) (5.14) (6.01)

(4.62) (8.68) (6.12) (†)

(2.54) (4.09) (2.96) (†)

(2.18) (4.41) (2.95) (†)

9

Other

14.3 17.9 ! 13.0 11.9 !

(2.68) (5.59) (3.29) (5.43)

9.9 (2.12) 12.3 (3.41) 10.4 ! (3.54) ‡ (†)

15.3 (4.07) 23.2 ! (9.05) 14.8 ! (6.41) ‡ (†)

26.4 31.9 29.0 14.3 !

27.7 33.9 29.0 ‡

22.0 30.6 18.2 ‡

21.4 27.0 20.0 ‡

—Not available. †Not applicable. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. ‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater. 1Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. “Other” includes American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians (prior to 2005), Pacific Islanders, and, from 2003 onward, persons of Two or more races. Due to changes in racial/ethnic categories, comparisons of race/ethnicity across years should be made with caution.

20.1 28.9 18.3 13.3

2001 Total................... Urban..................... Suburban ............... Rural ......................

1

Year and urbanicity

Sex

(1.20) (1.98) (1.79) (2.97)

(1.76) (4.13) (1.90) (3.11)

(1.99) (3.45) (2.40) (6.21)

(1.41) (3.11) (1.52) (3.29)

(1.28) (3.42) (1.25) (†)

(1.28) (2.45) (1.52) (2.78)

7.7 12.0 6.6 4.2 !

10.2 11.7 9.3 10.1

14.8 21.0 11.2 16.5

17.4 24.1 15.4 13.1

17.3 24.2 14.9 15.2

16.3 25.5 13.2 9.4

15.7 23.7 13.7 8.9

(0.96) (2.44) (1.14) (1.88)

(1.08) (2.02) (1.37) (2.64)

(1.70) (3.37) (1.89) (4.19)

(1.28) (2.96) (1.67) (2.79)

(1.21) (2.64) (1.46) (3.46)

(1.14) (2.32) (1.28) (2.56)

(1.09) (2.54) (1.16) (1.87)

11

7th grade

7.8 13.2 6.3 ‡

11.3 16.2 9.0 9.6 !

15.9 24.4 11.8 14.2 !

20.6 25.9 19.6 14.7

19.1 30.5 14.6 14.7

17.9 25.2 16.2 10.9 !

17.3 24.0 16.6 10.1

(0.96) (2.30) (1.19) (†)

(1.02) (2.29) (1.22) (2.89)

(1.60) (3.24) (1.73) (4.41)

(1.68) (2.90) (2.23) (4.26)

(1.79) (3.81) (2.01) (4.22)

(1.29) (2.63) (1.65) (3.26)

(1.22) (2.66) (1.50) (2.24)

12

8th grade

13.9 19.6 12.2 8.0 !

21.7 27.5 18.9 19.3

24.9 34.2 22.4 18.8

28.0 41.1 23.1 21.7

28.3 40.3 24.8 21.0

26.1 38.2 24.3 13.8

24.3 35.3 20.8 18.9

(1.43) (2.53) (1.95) (3.19)

(1.47) (3.12) (1.79) (4.99)

(2.01) (4.01) (2.10) (5.04)

(1.51) (3.40) (1.78) (4.43)

(1.59) (3.70) (1.92) (4.00)

(1.44) (3.25) (1.58) (3.00)

(1.27) (2.77) (1.48) (3.03)

13

9th grade

Grade

17.7 24.8 15.4 11.3

23.0 31.1 21.5 13.9

27.7 44.8 21.0 19.6

28.1 38.6 26.6 15.2

32.6 50.6 27.9 22.0

26.3 35.3 24.1 18.0

23.6 33.1 22.3 14.4

(1.46) (2.86) (1.91) (3.37)

(1.63) (3.13) (2.10) (4.02)

(1.75) (3.41) (2.07) (5.02)

(1.73) (3.36) (2.01) (3.39)

(1.89) (3.79) (2.37) (3.61)

(1.37) (2.82) (1.72) (3.50)

(1.48) (3.08) (1.58) (3.05)

14

10th grade

17.1 26.7 15.1 8.1 !

23.2 28.1 23.7 10.6

22.6 34.9 19.4 13.4

25.9 34.7 23.6 18.7

28.0 44.3 25.5 13.3 !

23.4 34.6 20.4 15.0

24.2 34.2 22.7 15.8

(1.65) (3.21) (2.00) (3.32)

(1.74) (3.17) (2.46) (3.69)

(1.53) (4.08) (1.88) (3.50)

(1.61) (3.05) (2.22) (3.98)

(1.89) (3.89) (2.21) (4.36)

(1.64) (2.81) (2.34) (3.30)

(1.56) (3.18) (1.71) (3.85)

15

11th grade

14.6 18.2 14.1 9.0 !

21.3 32.9 18.5 9.2 !

21.9 36.0 17.6 17.3 !

24.4 38.4 22.4 7.6 !

27.9 39.5 25.1 15.8 !

22.2 34.8 19.3 13.3

21.1 34.1 18.6 11.5 !

(1.58) (3.07) (2.06) (3.56)

(1.82) (3.88) (2.27) (3.04)

(2.02) (4.32) (2.29) (5.37)

(1.69) (4.01) (2.26) (2.90)

(2.16) (3.73) (2.60) (5.82)

(1.50) (2.75) (1.91) (3.60)

(1.54) (3.21) (1.81) (4.51)

16

12th grade

13.3 19.9 11.7 6.8

18.9 25.7 17.1 12.5

22.0 33.7 18.1 16.2

24.9 35.6 22.7 15.6

25.8 39.1 22.3 17.2

22.5 33.7 19.9 12.8

21.6 31.9 19.5 13.7

(0.67) (1.35) (0.82) (1.47)

(0.77) (1.47) (1.01) (2.49)

(0.89) (1.94) (0.85) (3.18)

(0.87) (1.61) (1.05) (2.91)

(1.01) (2.12) (1.01) (2.67)

(0.78) (1.50) (0.91) (2.02)

(0.77) (1.35) (0.80) (1.80)

17

Public

(1.14) (2.07) (1.09) (5.84)

2.3 ! (0.94) 4.6 ! (2.08) ‡ (†) ‡ (†)

1.9 ! (0.69) ‡ (†) 2.9 ! (1.20) ‡ (†)

2.3 ! (0.82) 4.1 ! (1.83) ‡ (†) ‡ (†)

5.2 7.3 2.8 ! 11.8 !

4.2 (0.94) 7.7 (2.26) 3.0 ! (1.02) ‡ (†)

3.9 (0.82) 6.0 (1.62) 2.4 ! (0.78) ‡ (†)

4.9 (1.05) 5.0 (1.38) 4.3 ! (1.45) ‡ (†)

18

Private

Control of school

in 2007, the reference period was the school year, whereas in prior survey years the reference period was the previous 6 months. Cognitive testing showed that estimates from 2007 onward are comparable to previous years. NOTE: Urbanicity refers to the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) status of the respondent’s household as defined in 2000 by the U.S. Census Bureau. Categories include “central city of an MSA (Urban),” “in MSA but not in central city (Suburban),” and “not MSA (Rural).” All gangs, whether or not they are involved in violent or illegal activity, are included. “At school” includes in the school building, on school property, on a school bus, and going to and from school. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, selected years, 2001 through 2013. (This table was prepared August 2014.)

2Starting

5.0 (1.15) 9.6 (2.75) 3.0 ! (1.25) ‡ (†)

8.2 5.4 ! 8.6 11.1

11.0 14.5 9.7 8.3 !

15.3 17.8 14.0 15.6 !

12.1 19.9 8.9 8.3

10.9 21.6 7.5 ‡

11.2 14.9 9.0 11.0

10

6th grade

Table 8.1. Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported that gangs were present at school during the school year, by selected student and school Table 230.20. Percentage of studentsand ages urbanicity: 12–18 who reported that gangs were present at school during the school year, by selected student and school characteristics and urbanicity: Selected characteristics Selected years, 2001 through 2013 years, 2001 through 2013

322 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education School Environment

(1.50) (1.31) (1.69) (1.49) (1.58) (†) (†) (4.55) (†) (1.24) (1.86) (1.61) (1.82) (†) (†) (†)

24.1 17.5 34.1 — — 20.9 — 21.8 23.7 27.5 23.0 — — —

(1.33)

28.5 19.1

24.0

2

1993

— — —

31.1 35.0 32.8 29.1

31.7 28.5 40.7 — — 22.8 —

38.8 24.8

32.1

(†) (†) (†)

(1.69) (1.54) (1.88) (2.63)

(2.24) (1.98) (2.45) (†) (†) (4.78) (†)

(1.73) (1.43)

(1.55)

3

1995

31.2 34.2 22.7

31.4 33.4 33.2 29.0

31.0 25.4 41.1 — — 30.1 —

37.4 24.7

31.7

(1.11) (0.94) (1.91)

(2.33) (1.71) (1.42) (1.80)

(1.36) (1.69) (2.04) (†) (†) (4.54) (†)

(1.19) (1.22)

(0.90)

4

1997

30.3 29.7 32.1

27.6 32.1 31.1 30.5

28.8 25.3 36.9 25.7 46.9 30.6 36.0

34.7 25.7

30.2

(1.50) (1.87) (5.76)

(2.51) (1.94) (2.16) (1.11)

(1.50) (2.03) (2.10) (2.65) (4.33) (5.90) (2.72)

(1.69) (1.26)

(1.23)

5

1999

—Not available. †Not applicable. 1Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. 2Before 1999, Asian students and Pacific Islander students were not categorized separately, and students were not given the option of choosing two or more races. Because the response categories changed in 1999, caution should be used in comparing data on race from 1993, 1995, and 1997 with data from later years.

Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity1 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian2........................................................... Pacific Islander2 ........................................... American Indian/Alaska Native.................... Two or more races2 ...................................... Grade 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th.............................................................. Urbanicity3 Urban ........................................................... Suburban ..................................................... Rural ............................................................

Total.........................................................

Student characteristic

1

32.0 26.6 28.2

29.0 29.0 28.7 26.9

28.3 21.9 34.2 25.7 50.2 34.5 34.5

34.6 22.7

28.5

31.1 28.4 26.2

29.5 29.2 29.9 24.9

27.5 23.1 36.5 22.5 34.7 31.3 36.6

31.9 25.0

28.7

(2.12) (2.16) (5.08)

(2.39) (2.02) (2.33) (2.24)

(2.68) (1.42) (1.91) (3.71) (6.19) (5.64) (3.99)

(2.07) (1.92)

(1.95)

7

2003

(†) (†) (†)

(1.21) (1.68) (1.03) (1.40)

24.0 27.5 24.9 24.9 — — —

(1.32) (2.22) (1.18) (2.68) (5.75) (3.57) (3.13)

(1.23) (1.03)

(1.05)

23.6 23.9 33.5 15.9 41.3 24.4 31.6

28.8 21.8

25.4

8

2005

— — —

21.2 25.3 22.8 19.6

20.8 19.2 29.1 21.0 38.5 25.1 24.6

25.7 18.7

22.3

(†) (†) (†)

(1.23) (1.29) (1.42) (1.26)

(1.23) (1.36) (1.94) (2.78) (5.45) (2.04) (3.55)

(1.15) (1.16)

(1.04)

9

2007

— — —

22.0 23.7 24.3 20.6

19.8 22.2 31.2 18.3 27.6 34.0 26.9

25.9 19.3

22.7

(†) (†) (†)

(1.32) (1.11) (1.44) (1.21)

(1.13) (1.42) (1.53) (2.03) (5.10) (4.81) (2.62)

(1.36) (1.01)

(1.04)

10

2009

— — —

23.7 27.8 27.0 23.8

22.7 22.8 33.2 23.3 38.9 40.5 33.3

29.2 21.7

25.6

(†) (†) (†)

(1.22) (1.21) (1.51) (1.13)

(0.96) (1.82) (1.70) (2.46) (5.01) (2.80) (2.79)

(1.10) (1.17)

(0.99)

11

2011

— — —

22.4 23.2 23.2 18.8

20.4 18.6 27.4 22.6 27.7 25.5 26.4

24.5 19.7

22.1

(†) (†) (†)

(1.15) (1.54) (1.32) (1.11)

(1.11) (1.11) (1.42) (2.57) (3.68) (4.10) (2.67)

(1.21) (0.89)

(0.96)

12

2013

to the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) status of the respondent’s household as defined in 2000 by the U.S. Census Bureau. Categories include “central city of an MSA (Urban),” “in MSA but not in central city (Suburban),” and “not MSA (Rural).” NOTE: “On school property” was not defined for survey respondents. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 1993 through 2013. (This table was prepared June 2014.)

3Refers

(1.36) (1.34) (3.10)

(1.59) (1.39) (1.39) (1.30)

(1.31) (1.72) (1.17) (2.92) (5.73) (5.15) (3.22)

(1.20) (1.03)

(1.01)

6

2001

[Standarderrors errorsappear appear in [Standard inparentheses] parentheses]

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported that illegal drugs were made available to them on school property during the previous 12 months, by selected 1993 through Table 232.70. Percentage of students in grades student 9–12 who characteristics: reported that illegal Selected drugs wereyears, made available to them on2013 school property during the previous 12 months, by selected student characteristics: Selected years, 1993 through 2013

Table 9.1.

352 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education Alcohol, Illicit Drugs, and Cigarettes

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

145

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 353

Table 9.2.

Percentage of public school students in grades 9–12 who reported Alcohol, that illegal drugsand Cigarettes Illicit Drugs, were made available to them on school property during the previous 12 months, by state: Table 232.80. Percentage of public school students in grades Selected years, 2003 through 2013 9–12 who reported that illegal drugs were made available to them on school property during the previous 12 months, by state: Selected years, 2003 through 2013 [Standard errorsappear appearinin parentheses] parentheses] [Standard errors

State 1

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011

2

3

4

5

6

7

United States1............... Alabama ............................ Alaska................................ Arizona .............................. Arkansas............................ California ...........................

28.7 26.0 28.4 28.6 — —

(1.95) (1.78) (1.24) (1.23) (†) (†)

25.4 26.2 — 38.7 29.2 —

(1.05) (1.90) (†) (1.18) (1.35) (†)

22.3 — 25.1 37.1 28.1 —

(1.04) (†) (1.36) (1.45) (1.28) (†)

22.7 27.6 24.8 34.6 31.4 —

(1.04) (1.30) (1.25) (1.43) (1.56) (†)

25.6 20.3 23.2 34.6 26.1 —

(0.99) (1.32) (0.98) (1.55) (1.30) (†)

22.1 25.3 — 31.3 27.4 —

(0.96) (1.11) (†) (1.46) (1.28) (†)

Colorado ............................ Connecticut........................ Delaware............................ District of Columbia ........... Florida................................

— — 27.9 30.2 25.7

(†) (†) (0.90) (1.46) (0.81)

21.2 31.5 26.1 20.3 23.2

(1.81) (0.90) (1.05) (1.18) (0.85)

— 30.5 22.9 25.7 19.0

(†) (1.52) (0.99) (1.20) (0.80)

22.7 28.9 20.9 — 21.8

(1.52) (1.25) (0.87) (†) (0.72)

17.2 27.8 23.1 22.6 22.9

(1.28) (1.43) (1.20) (1.53) (0.84)

— 27.1 19.1 — 20.0

(†) (0.85) (0.83) (†) (0.64)

Georgia.............................. Hawaii ................................ Idaho.................................. Illinois................................. Indiana...............................

33.3 — 19.6 — 28.3

(1.00) (†) (1.26) (†) (1.55)

30.7 32.7 24.8 — 28.9

(1.25) (1.74) (1.52) (†) (1.33)

32.0 36.2 25.1 21.2 20.5

(1.23) (2.46) (1.63) (1.18) (1.02)

32.9 36.1 22.7 27.5 25.5

(1.22) (1.51) (1.39) (1.97) (1.24)

32.1 31.7 24.4 27.3 28.3

(1.34) (1.48) (1.56) (1.46) (1.33)

26.5 31.2 22.1 27.2 —

(1.32) (0.99) (1.31) (1.06) (†)

Iowa ................................... Kansas............................... Kentucky ............................ Louisiana ........................... Maine.................................

— — 30.4 — 32.6

(†) (†) (1.51) (†) (1.73)

15.5 16.7 19.8 — 33.5

(1.37) (1.27) (1.23) (†) (1.89)

10.1 15.0 27.0 — 29.1

(1.08) (1.24) (1.11) (†) (1.67)

— 15.1 25.6 22.8 21.2

(†) (0.78) (1.49) (1.66) (0.51)

11.9 24.9 24.4 25.1 21.7

(1.16) (1.19) (1.40) (1.82) (0.80)

— 19.4 20.6 — 18.4

(†) (1.06) (1.15) (†) (0.87)

Maryland............................ Massachusetts................... Michigan ............................ Minnesota .......................... Mississippi .........................

— 31.9 31.3 — 22.3

(†) (1.08) (1.50) (†) (1.31)

28.9 29.9 28.8 — —

(2.04) (1.09) (1.37) (†) (†)

27.4 27.3 29.1 — 15.6

(1.46) (1.06) (1.07) (†) (1.53)

29.3 26.1 29.5 — 18.0

(1.35) (1.34) (0.90) (†) (1.07)

30.4 27.1 25.4 — 15.9

(1.99) (1.04) (0.90) (†) (0.89)

29.1 23.0 23.8 — 12.1

(0.37) (0.90) (0.94) (†) (1.00)

Missouri ............................. Montana............................. Nebraska ........................... Nevada .............................. New Hampshire .................

21.6 26.9 23.3 34.5 28.2

(2.09) (1.23) (1.04) (1.30) (1.87)

18.2 25.3 22.0 32.6 26.9

(1.92) (1.09) (0.82) (1.53) (1.40)

17.8 24.9 — 28.8 22.5

(1.49) (0.83) (†) (1.39) (1.25)

17.3 20.7 — 35.6 22.1

(1.32) (1.10) (†) (1.30) (1.44)

— 25.2 20.3 — 23.2

(†) (0.93) (1.01) (†) (1.44)

— 22.8 19.2 31.2 20.1

(†) (0.71) (1.15) (1.90) (1.03)

New Jersey ........................ New Mexico ....................... New York............................ North Carolina ................... North Dakota .....................

— — 23.0 31.9 21.3

(†) (†) (0.97) (1.74) (1.07)

32.6 33.5 23.7 27.4 19.6

(1.32) (1.37) (0.76) (1.66) (1.10)

— 31.3 26.6 28.5 18.7

(†) (1.39) (1.09) (1.37) (1.05)

32.2 30.9 24.0 30.2 19.5

(1.38) (1.54) (1.05) (1.51) (1.16)

27.3 34.5 — 29.8 20.8

(1.41) (1.24) (†) (1.87) (1.03)

30.7 32.8 — 23.6 14.1

(1.70) (1.04) (†) (1.61) (0.79)

Ohio2 .................................. Oklahoma .......................... Oregon............................... Pennsylvania...................... Rhode Island .....................

31.1 22.2 — — 26.0

(1.68) (1.23) (†) (†) (1.26)

30.9 18.4 — — 24.1

(1.88) (1.49) (†) (†) (1.11)

26.7 19.1 — — 25.3

(1.26) (1.12) (†) (†) (1.33)

— 16.8 — 16.1 25.2

(†) (1.50) (†) (1.07) (1.52)

24.3 17.2 — — 22.4

(1.70) (1.36) (†) (†) (0.95)

19.9 14.0 — — 22.6

(1.41) (1.07) (†) (†) (1.16)

South Carolina................... South Dakota2 .................... Tennessee ......................... Texas ................................. Utah ...................................

— 22.1 24.3 — 24.7

(†) (1.25) (2.25) (†) (2.04)

29.1 20.9 26.6 30.7 20.6

(1.45) (2.30) (1.21) (1.73) (1.36)

26.6 21.1 21.6 26.5 23.2

(1.58) (1.98) (1.35) (0.83) (1.83)

27.6 17.7 18.8 25.9 19.7

(1.74) (0.64) (1.06) (1.25) (1.52)

29.3 16.0 16.6 29.4 21.4

(1.83) (1.81) (0.88) (1.34) (1.55)

24.5 15.4 24.8 26.4 20.0

(1.43) (1.70) (1.57) (1.24) (1.57)

Vermont ............................. Virginia............................... Washington........................ West Virginia...................... Wisconsin .......................... Wyoming............................

29.4 — — 26.5 26.3 18.1

(1.67) (†) (†) (2.06) (1.18) (0.99)

23.1 — — 24.8 21.7 22.7

(1.59) (†) (†) (1.36) (1.18) (0.97)

22.0 — — 28.6 22.7 24.7

(0.99) (†) (†) (2.76) (1.34) (1.08)

21.1 — — 28.0 20.5 23.7

(1.21) (†) (†) (1.27) (1.03) (0.93)

17.6 24.0 — 17.3 20.9 25.2

(1.51) (1.67) (†) (1.04) (1.29) (0.97)

— — — 17.1 18.3 20.2

(†) (†) (†) (1.16) (1.01) (0.74)

— Not available. †Not applicable. 1Data for the U.S. total include both public and private schools and were collected through a national survey representing the entire country. 2Data include both public and private schools. NOTE: “On school property” was not defined for survey respondents. State-level data include public schools only, with the exception of data for Ohio and South Dakota. Data for the U.S. total, Ohio, and South Dakota include both public and private schools. For specific states, a

146

2013

given year’s data may be unavailable (1) because the state did not participate in the survey that year; (2) because the state omitted this particular survey item from the state-level questionnaire; or (3) because the state had an overall response rate of less than 60 percent (the overall response rate is the school response rate multiplied by the student response rate). SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 2003 through 2013. (This table was prepared June 2014.)

Supplemental Tables DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

366 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education

Table 9.3. Safety, Number of discipline Discipline, and Security Measures incidents resulting in removal of a student from a regular education program for at least an entire school day and rate of incidents per 100,000 students, by Table 233.45. Number of discipline incidents resulting in removal of a student from a regular education program for at least an entire school day discipline reason and state: 2013–14 and rate of incidents per 100,000 students, by discipline reason and state: 2013–14 Number of discipline incidents State 1

Total

Alcohol

Illicit drug

Rate of discipline incidents per 100,000 students Violent incident1

Weapons possession

Total

Alcohol

Illicit drug

Violent incident1

Weapons possession

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

United States ......................... Alabama...................................... Alaska ......................................... Arizona........................................ Arkansas..................................... California.....................................

1,308,568 41,991 2,755 30,463 20,890 285,039

24,015 560 116 816 410 —2

197,171 5,931 580 3,774 1,894 46,425 2

1,020,894 33,808 1,915 25,050 17,743 224,727

66,488 1,692 144 823 843 13,887

2,615 5,627 2,104 2,763 4,263 4,515

48 75 89 74 84 —2

394 795 443 342 387 735 2

2,040 4,531 1,462 2,272 3,621 3,560

133 227 110 75 172 220

Colorado ..................................... Connecticut ................................. Delaware..................................... District of Columbia..................... Florida.........................................

61,546 25,670 597 7,088 16,755

711 418 56 33 992

6,866 1,379 315 198 10,642

53,262 22,643 63 6,655 3,605

707 1,230 163 202 1,516

7,018 4,700 453 9,069 616

81 77 43 42 36

783 252 239 253 391

6,073 4,146 48 8,515 133

81 225 124 258 56

Georgia ....................................... Hawaii ......................................... Idaho ........................................... Illinois .......................................... Indiana ........................................

67,772 1,956 946 16,502 42,221

725 155 62 1,106 931

10,145 610 481 6,043 3,229

53,974 946 233 4,795 36,447

2,928 245 170 4,558 1,614

3,931 1,047 319 798 4,031

42 83 21 54 89

588 327 162 292 308

3,131 506 79 232 3,480

170 131 57 221 154

Iowa............................................. Kansas ........................................ Kentucky ..................................... Louisiana..................................... Maine ..........................................

12,410 11,106 44,472 47,602 3,257

301 237 649 340 110

2,000 2,068 9,521 5,339 595

9,336 8,186 33,947 40,574 2,381

773 615 355 1,349 171

2,467 2,237 6,565 6,690 1,770

60 48 96 48 60

398 417 1,406 750 323

1,856 1,649 5,011 5,703 1,294

154 124 52 190 93

Maryland ..................................... Massachusetts3 ........................... Michigan...................................... Minnesota3 .................................. Mississippi...................................

33,586 24,272 11,677 21,097 15,040

584 542 245 478 304

3,077 2,727 1,450 4,045 803

28,215 19,795 9,101 15,511 13,276

1,710 1,208 881 1,063 657

3,878 2,540 754 2,479 3,053

67 57 16 56 62

355 285 94 475 163

3,257 2,071 588 1,823 2,695

197 126 57 125 133

Missouri....................................... Montana ...................................... Nebraska..................................... Nevada........................................ New Hampshire ..........................

19,993 4,768 8,229 10,015 5,022

917 162 169 278 124

6,732 1,030 1,307 1,968 701

10,904 3,334 6,305 7,317 3,855

1,440 242 448 452 342

2,177 3,308 2,675 2,217 2,696

100 112 55 62 67

733 715 425 436 376

1,187 2,313 2,049 1,619 2,069

157 168 146 100 184

New Jersey ................................. New Mexico................................. New York ..................................... North Carolina............................. North Dakota...............................

12,026 13,878 18,625 65,259 1,460

371 303 1,373 858 58

2,320 3,619 5,160 10,413 432

8,541 9,117 7,037 51,417 899

794 839 5,055 2,571 71

878 4,091 682 4,263 1,405

27 89 50 56 56

169 1,067 189 680 416

623 2,687 258 3,359 865

58 247 185 168 68

Ohio ............................................ Oklahoma.................................... Oregon ........................................ Pennsylvania............................... Rhode Island...............................

76,271 14,483 15,104 39,744 14,735

1,047 418 379 698 60

8,175 2,199 2,850 2,793 834

64,108 10,702 11,332 33,741 13,603

2,941 1,164 543 2,512 238

4,424 2,124 2,547 2,264 10,376

61 61 64 40 42

474 323 481 159 587

3,718 1,570 1,911 1,922 9,579

171 171 92 143 168

South Carolina ............................ South Dakota3 ............................. Tennessee................................... Texas........................................... Utah3 ...........................................

21,622 3,297 36,335 2,468 6,162

403 100 2,643 37 112

1,631 827 525 1,422 1,732

19,271 2,154 33,075 517 3,899

317 216 92 492 419

2,900 2,519 3,657 48 985

54 76 266 1 18

219 632 53 28 277

2,584 1,646 3,329 10 623

43 165 9 10 67

Vermont....................................... Virginia ........................................ Washington ................................. West Virginia............................... Wisconsin.................................... Wyoming .....................................

— 21,210 23,172 3,213 24,116 651

— 856 1,187 42 535 4

— 937 6,177 507 2,735 8

— 17,336 13,472 2,604 19,797 369

— 2,081 2,336 60 1,049 270

— 1,665 2,188 1,144 2,758 702

— 67 112 15 61 4

— 74 583 180 313 9

— 1,361 1,272 927 2,264 398

— 163 221 21 120 291

—Not available. 1Includes violent incidents with and without physical injury. 2Alcohol incidents were reported in the illicit drug category. 3This state did not report state-level counts of discipline incidents, but did report schoollevel counts. The sums of the school-level counts are displayed in place of the unreported state-level counts.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, EDFacts file 030, Data Group 523, extracted October 14, 2015, from the EDFacts Data Warehouse (internal U.S. Department of Education source); Common Core of Data (CCD), “State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary and Secondary Education,” 2013–14. (This table was prepared October 2015.)

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

147

148

Supplemental Tables

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015 (1.20) (1.71) (1.46) (†) (2.53) (1.82) (1.43) (1.51) (1.55) (1.77) (1.74) (2.04) (1.18) (1.12) (2.60) (0.97) (1.85)

30.3 34.9 35.6 39.2 38.9 37.0 35.6 37.0 37.3 32.7 38.0 20.7

(†) (†)

— —

36.4 37.6 35.6 — 32.2

(†) (†) (†)

— — —

(1.06) (1.14)

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

— — — — — — —

33.8 38.9

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

— — — — —

(0.94)

(†) (†)

— —

36.3

(†)



2

1999

37.3 16.8

35.7 36.0 33.8

34.9 34.9 36.7 35.7 36.2 36.1 33.0

36.2 33.6 35.1 — 32.1

34.9 36.1

35.5

12.7 8.2

11.9 12.4 12.4

12.1 14.1 13.0 12.1 13.1 12.7 7.9

12.1 13.9 11.0 — 13.6

12.8 11.7

12.3

(0.80) (1.34)

(1.21) (0.87) (2.56)

(1.88) (1.36) (1.40) (1.55) (1.49) (1.76) (1.79)

(0.95) (1.52) (1.87) (†) (2.82)

(0.89) (0.92)

(0.75)

(0.51) (1.13)

(0.73) (0.63) (1.11)

(1.26) (1.13) (1.07) (1.00) (0.95) (1.13) (0.87)

(0.58) (1.08) (1.15) (†) (2.05)

(0.65) (0.52)

(0.46)

3

2001

37.9 19.5

38.6 35.9 33.9

35.7 37.2 34.2 37.0 40.7 36.6 32.2

35.2 38.1 40.3 — 31.4

35.0 37.6

36.3

11.9 9.7

13.2 10.7 12.2

11.9 12.5 12.8 13.5 11.6 8.3 10.8

10.9 14.2 11.4 — 14.1

12.0 11.3

11.7

(0.90) (1.75)

(1.27) (1.16) (1.97)

(1.83) (1.41) (1.53) (1.48) (1.67) (1.74) (1.78)

(0.86) (1.95) (2.24) (†) (2.83)

(0.97) (1.06)

(0.84)

(0.49) (1.11)

(0.83) (0.58) (1.35)

(1.31) (1.04) (0.92) (1.23) (1.12) (0.97) (1.25)

(0.56) (1.35) (0.96) (†) (2.03)

(0.61) (0.64)

(0.47)

4

2003

—Not available. †Not applicable. 1Starting in 2007, the reference period was the school year, whereas in prior survey years the reference period was the previous 6 months. Cognitive testing showed that estimates from 2007 onward are comparable to previous years. 2Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. “Other” includes American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians (prior to 2005), Pacific Islanders, and, from 2003 onward, persons of Two or more races. Due to changes in racial/ethnic categories, comparisons of race/ethnicity across years should be made with caution.

Hate-related graffiti Total.................................................... Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity2 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian............................................................ Other............................................................ Grade 6th................................................................ 7th................................................................ 8th................................................................ 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th.............................................................. Urbanicity3 Urban ........................................................... Suburban ..................................................... Rural ............................................................ Control of school Public ........................................................... Private..........................................................

Hate-related words Total.................................................... Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity2 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian............................................................ Other............................................................ Grade 6th................................................................ 7th................................................................ 8th................................................................ 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th.............................................................. Urbanicity3 Urban ........................................................... Suburban ..................................................... Rural ............................................................ Control of school Public ........................................................... Private..........................................................

1

Student or school characteristic

(0.87) (1.97)

(1.43) (1.02) (2.40)

(2.24) (1.63) (1.61) (1.64) (1.83) (1.70) (2.34)

(0.96) (2.29) (1.78) (3.76) (4.68)

(1.10) (0.93)

(0.83)

(0.53) (1.18)

(0.86) (0.52) (1.74)

(1.58) (1.16) (1.04) (1.12) (1.04) (1.17) (1.35)

(0.60) (1.48) (1.15) (2.56) (3.27)

(0.68) (0.64)

(0.50)

36.4 18.5

34.4 34.2 37.8

35.5 32.3 33.5 34.5 36.4 35.3 37.7

35.5 33.7 34.8 28.2 38.7

34.4 35.4

34.9

10.1 6.1

9.7 9.3 11.0

12.1 10.7 11.0 10.9 9.0 8.6 6.0

8.9 11.4 10.6 11.1 10.6

9.9 9.6

9.7

(0.93) (2.07)

(1.36) (1.03) (3.06)

(2.30) (1.52) (1.81) (1.77) (1.69) (1.81) (2.03)

(1.05) (2.37) (1.76) (3.01) (3.44)

(1.12) (1.12)

(0.89)

(0.46) (1.25)

(0.83) (0.62) (1.07)

(1.54) (1.02) (1.19) (1.08) (0.99) (1.01) (0.98)

(0.50) (1.35) (1.18) (1.97) (2.71)

(0.61) (0.57)

(0.43)

6

20071

30.7 11.8

31.1 28.6 27.7

28.1 27.9 30.8 28.1 31.0 27.4 30.4

28.3 29.0 32.2 31.2 25.8

29.0 29.3

29.2

8.9 6.6

9.9 8.3 8.1

8.3 9.6 10.9 8.0 9.7 8.4 5.8

7.2 11.1 11.2 10.7 10.0

8.5 8.9

8.7

(1.01) (1.93)

(1.56) (1.15) (2.43)

(2.26) (1.88) (1.80) (1.83) (2.03) (2.01) (2.00)

(1.10) (2.44) (1.61) (3.59) (4.20)

(1.26) (1.09)

(0.96)

(0.54) (1.62)

(0.93) (0.64) (1.37)

(1.39) (1.22) (1.22) (1.09) (1.18) (1.14) (0.96)

(0.59) (1.35) (1.13) (2.81) (2.37)

(0.62) (0.72)

(0.52)

7

20091

29.7 13.4

27.5 29.9 24.9

25.9 26.0 25.9 28.7 33.3 32.1 25.7

28.2 28.1 29.1 29.9 25.9

28.6 28.1

28.4

9.3 6.9

8.0 9.8 8.5

9.0 9.9 8.4 10.2 9.6 8.7 7.5

8.3 10.7 9.8 9.0 10.4

9.0 9.1

9.1

27.8 23.7 21.6 25.6 12.6

(0.95) (1.56)

21.9 21.7 24.0 27.2 26.0 25.8 24.2

23.7 26.3 25.6 20.8 28.4

(1.49) (1.08) (2.25)

(2.13) (1.70) (1.55) (1.69) (1.78) (1.70) (1.51)

(1.19) (1.90) (1.33) (4.56) (3.79)

24.1 25.1

(1.11) (1.07)

(0.94) (1.74)

(1.48) (1.11) (2.71)

(1.77) (1.49) (1.80) (1.74) (1.58) (2.03) (1.91)

(1.20) (2.10) (1.52) (3.22) (3.52)

(1.11) (1.05)

(0.88)

(0.41) (1.41)

6.6 6.7 24.6

(0.76) (0.50) (0.80)

(1.33) (0.89) (1.01) (0.94) (0.97) (1.01) (0.78)

(0.43) (1.20) (0.84) (2.19) (2.47)

(0.51) (0.53)

(0.40)

9

20131

7.2 6.6 5.7

6.7 7.5 7.4 6.6 6.4 7.5 4.1

5.3 7.8 7.4 10.3 11.2

6.6 6.7

6.6

(0.88)

(0.50) (1.29)

(0.77) (0.71) (1.00)

(1.43) (1.02) (0.94) (1.10) (1.14) (1.01) (1.01)

(0.59) (1.30) (0.98) (2.00) (2.61)

(0.60) (0.68)

(0.48)

8

20111

3Refers to the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) status of the respondent’s household as defined in 2000 by the U.S. Census Bureau. Categories include “central city of an MSA (Urban),” “in MSA but not in central city (Suburban),” and “not MSA (Rural).” NOTE: “At school” includes in the school building, on school property, on a school bus, and, from 2001 onward, going to and from school. “Hate-related” refers to derogatory terms used by others in reference to students’ personal characteristics. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, selected years, 1999 through 2013. (This table was prepared August 2014.)

40.0 18.6

40.9 38.0 35.8

34.0 37.0 35.7 41.6 40.7 40.2 37.8

38.5 38.0 38.0 34.5 46.9

37.7 39.1

38.4

11.6 6.8

12.2 9.4 15.5

11.1 13.1 11.2 12.8 10.9 9.0 9.7

10.3 15.1 10.5 10.9 14.2

11.7 10.7

11.2

5

2005

[Standard errorsappear appear parentheses] [Standard errors in in parentheses]

Table 10.1. Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being the target of hate-related words and seeing hate-related graffiti at school during the schoolofyear, by selected andbeing school characteristics: 1999 through Table 230.30. Percentage students ages 12–18student who reported the target of hate-relatedSelected words and years, seeing hate-related graffiti2013 at school during the school year, by selected student and school characteristics: Selected years, 1999 through 2013

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 323 School Environment

324 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education School Environment

Table 10.2.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being the target of hate-related words at

school, by type of12–18 hate-related word selected student and 2013 Table 230.35. Percentage of students ages who reported beingand the target of hate-related words at school school, bycharacteristics: type of hate-related word and selected student and school characteristics: 2013 [Standard errors errors appear appear in [Standard in parentheses] parentheses]

Hate-related words related to student’s characteristic Student or school characteristic 1 Total......................................................... Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity2 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian............................................................ Other............................................................ Grade 6th................................................................ 7th................................................................ 8th................................................................ 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th.............................................................. Urbanicity3 Urban ........................................................... Suburban ..................................................... Rural ............................................................ Control of school Public ........................................................... Private..........................................................

Total1

Race

Ethnicity

Religion

Disability

Gender

2

3

4

5

6

7

Sexual orientation 8

6.6

(0.40)

3.3

(0.31)

1.9

(0.21)

1.2

(0.15)

0.8

(0.14)

1.0

(0.14)

1.1

(0.13)

6.6 6.7

(0.51) (0.53)

3.5 3.1

(0.41) (0.40)

1.9 1.9

(0.27) (0.30)

1.0 1.4

(0.19) (0.22)

0.7 0.9

(0.16) (0.21)

0.3 1.7

(0.09) (0.29)

0.9 1.3

(0.16) (0.22)

5.3 7.8 7.4 10.3 11.2

(0.43) (1.20) (0.84) (2.19) (2.47)

1.6 5.8 3.9 8.5 8.3

(0.25) (1.03) (0.64) (2.05) (2.10)

0.8 1.9 3.7 7.1 ‡

(0.18) (0.48) (0.62) (2.00) (†)

1.2 1.0 ! 1.0 2.1 ! ‡

(0.22) (0.39) (0.27) (0.87) (†)

1.2 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

(0.22) (†) (†) (†) (†)

1.1 1.0 ! 0.9 ‡ ‡

(0.20) (0.41) (0.25) (†) (†)

1.3 1.1 ! 0.8 ! ‡ ‡

(0.22) (0.43) (0.27) (†) (†)

6.7 7.5 7.4 6.6 6.4 7.5 4.1

(1.33) (0.89) (1.01) (0.94) (0.97) (1.01) (0.78)

3.5 3.6 3.3 3.0 3.9 3.9 1.8

(0.98) (0.64) (0.72) (0.68) (0.76) (0.74) (0.55)

1.9 ! 2.0 1.8 ! 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.9

(0.67) (0.46) (0.54) (0.58) (0.50) (0.53) (0.53)

1.1 ! 0.8 ! 1.7 2.1 1.2 ! 1.1 ! ‡

(0.52) (0.32) (0.48) (0.56) (0.39) (0.40) (†)

‡ 1.1 ! 1.0 ! 0.9 ! 0.9 ! ‡ ‡

(†) (0.35) (0.33) (0.36) (0.32) (†) (†)

‡ 1.1 ! 1.4 0.9 ! 0.7 ! 1.4 ! 0.6 !

(†) (0.36) (0.40) (0.33) (0.28) (0.45) (0.32)

‡ 0.9 ! 1.4 ! 0.8 ! 0.8 ! 2.3 0.8 !

(†) (0.35) (0.43) (0.31) (0.32) (0.48) (0.36)

7.2 6.6 5.7

(0.76) (0.50) (0.80)

4.2 3.1 2.3

(0.65) (0.39) (0.56)

2.2 1.9 1.5 !

(0.37) (0.29) (0.49)

0.9 1.3 1.5 !

(0.21) (0.21) (0.45)

0.6 ! 0.8 1.2 !

(0.23) (0.19) (0.44)

0.8 1.0 1.4 !

(0.23) (0.18) (0.46)

1.2 0.9 1.4

(0.25) (0.18) (0.39)

6.6 6.7

(0.41) (1.41)

3.3 3.7

(0.30) (1.08)

1.9 1.9 !

(0.21) (0.79)

1.2 ‡

(0.15) (†)

0.8 ‡

(0.14) (†)

1.0 1.2 !

(0.15) (0.55)

1.1 ‡

(0.13) (†)

†Not applicable. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. ‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater. 1Students who indicated that they had been called a hate-related word were asked to choose the specific characteristics that the hate-related word or words targeted. Students were allowed to choose more than one characteristic. If a student chose more than one characteristic, he or she is counted only once in the total percentage of students who reported being called a hate-related word; therefore, the total is less than the sum of the students’ individual characteristics. 2Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. “Other” includes American Indians/

Alaska Natives, Pacific Islanders, and persons of Two or more races. 3Refers to the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) status of the respondent’s household as defined in 2000 by the U.S. Census Bureau. Categories include “central city of an MSA (Urban),” “in MSA but not in central city (Suburban),” “and not MSA (Rural).” NOTE: “At school” includes in the school building, on school property, on a school bus, or going to and from school. “Hate-related” refers to derogatory terms used by others in reference to students’ personal characteristics. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and because students may have reported being targets of hate-related words related to more than one student characteristic. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 2013. (This table was prepared August 2014.)

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

149

150

Supplemental Tables

Total.........................................................

2

(0.84) (0.99) (0.94) (1.85) (1.32) (2.02) (3.83) (2.31) (1.65) (1.43) (1.46) (1.52) (1.50) (1.45) (1.10) (0.93) (1.87) (0.69) (2.79)

25.3 21.2 20.5 11.8 29.7 29.9 27.3 22.7 24.4 21.4 22.4 15.4 22.6 23.5 22.7 23.0 23.8

(0.67)

21.1 25.2

23.1

6.9 6.4

7.1 7.0 5.9

5.9 7.0 6.4 6.7 8.6 6.8 5.9

7.6 4.5 5.8 5.8 13.4

5.2 8.6

6.9

3

(0.45) (1.44)

(0.73) (0.61) (1.02)

(1.20) (0.91) (0.86) (0.97) (1.16) (0.87) (0.93)

(0.57) (0.94) (0.78) (1.67) (2.43)

(0.43) (0.63)

(0.42)

21.5 22.4

20.7 22.0 21.4

27.8 26.4 21.7 23.0 19.5 20.0 14.1

23.7 20.3 19.2 9.2 25.2

19.5 23.7

21.5

(0.67) (2.71)

(1.10) (0.90) (1.86)

(2.31) (1.65) (1.42) (1.42) (1.48) (1.50) (1.51)

(0.93) (1.81) (1.30) (1.67) (3.60)

(0.81) (0.98)

(0.66)

4

Total bullied at school4

13.5 15.3

12.8 14.2 13.2

21.3 17.9 14.5 13.7 12.9 11.2 6.4

15.6 10.5 12.1 7.5 16.5

12.6 14.7

13.6

(0.53) (2.01)

(0.80) (0.69) (1.49)

(2.15) (1.35) (1.23) (1.16) (1.21) (1.20) (1.04)

(0.74) (1.22) (1.13) (1.63) (2.99)

(0.70) (0.75)

(0.51)

5

Made fun of, called names, or insulted

13.2 13.4

12.7 13.4 13.3

16.1 15.5 12.7 13.8 12.9 12.5 9.7

14.6 12.7 11.5 3.7 17.3

9.6 17.0

13.2

†Not applicable. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. ‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater. 1Only students who reported that they were pushed, shoved, tripped, or spit on were asked if they suffered injuries as a result of the incident. 2Students who reported that they were both bullied at school and cyber-bullied anywhere were counted only once in the total for students bullied at school or cyber-bullied anywhere. 3Students who reported being cyber-bullied are those who responded that another student had done one or more of the following: posted hurtful information about them on the Internet; purposely shared private information about them on the Internet; threatened or insulted them through instant messaging; threatened or insulted them through text messaging; threatened or insulted them through e-

Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity5 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian............................................................ Other............................................................ Grade 6th................................................................ 7th................................................................ 8th................................................................ 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th.............................................................. Urbanicity6 Urban ........................................................... Suburban ..................................................... Rural ............................................................ Control of school Public ........................................................... Private..........................................................

1

Student or school characteristic

Total cyber-bullied anywhere3

Bullied at school or cyber-bullied anywhere Total bullied at school or cyber-bullied anywhere2

3.9 3.9

3.9 3.9 4.1

5.9 6.1 3.9 3.6 4.3 3.0 1.0 !

4.4 3.2 4.0 ‡ 4.3 !

4.1 3.7

3.9

(0.28) (1.14)

(0.47) (0.39) (0.67)

(1.13) (0.88) (0.68) (0.61) (0.73) (0.60) (0.43)

(0.40) (0.68) (0.58) (†) (1.56)

(0.38) (0.37)

(0.27)

7

Threatened with harm

2.2 2.7 !

2.7 2.0 1.7

3.4 3.0 2.3 2.6 1.7 1.5 1.3 !

2.0 2.7 1.6 3.8 ! 4.0 !

2.4 1.9

2.2

(0.22) (0.82)

9

(0.51) (0.43) (0.73) (0.31) (1.31)

4.3 6.7

(1.20) (0.86) (0.80) (0.70) (0.72) (0.61) (0.67)

(0.46) (0.71) (0.53) (0.71) (1.85)

(0.34) (0.47)

(0.30)

4.1 4.7 4.2

6.5 6.3 5.2 4.3 4.6 2.4 2.5

(0.88) (0.52) (0.54) (0.58) (0.47) (0.45) (0.48) (0.45) (0.28) (0.42)

5.4 2.7 3.5 2.2 ! 6.5

3.5 5.5

4.5

Excluded from activities on purpose

(0.28) (0.59) (0.32) (1.32) (1.38)

(0.30) (0.27)

(0.21)

8

Tried to make do things did not want to do

Type of bullying at school

1.6 1.3 !

1.4 1.3 2.8

3.1 2.2 1.5 ! 1.2 ! 1.3 1.6 ! 0.7 !

1.5 2.0 1.4 1.6 ! 2.1 !

1.8 1.3

1.6

(0.19) (0.60)

(0.27) (0.24) (0.66)

(0.77) (0.52) (0.45) (0.40) (0.37) (0.50) (0.31)

(0.24) (0.54) (0.38) (0.78) (1.00)

(0.28) (0.25)

(0.20)

10

Property destroyed on purpose

6.1 5.2

5.6 6.4 5.8

11.0 11.6 6.5 4.9 3.7 3.4 3.0

6.1 6.0 6.3 2.0 ! 8.5

7.4 4.6

6.0

(0.41) (1.24)

(0.60) (0.52) (0.88)

(1.46) (1.12) (0.85) (0.83) (0.68) (0.72) (0.71)

(0.49) (0.97) (0.79) (0.85) (1.90)

(0.59) (0.42)

(0.39)

11

Pushed, shoved, tripped, or spit on

20.3 ‡

20.9 21.8 16.7 !

26.8 24.0 20.8 18.2 ! 21.2 ! ‡ ‡

22.3 15.6 ! 18.3 ‡ ‡

20.6 21.1

20.8

(2.57) (†)

(4.99) (3.31) (5.31)

(6.90) (4.11) (5.92) (7.32) (7.78) (†) (†)

(3.39) (6.04) (4.15) (†) (†)

(3.21) (3.63)

(2.48)

12

Of students who were pushed, shoved, tripped, or spit on, percent reporting injury1

mail; threatened or insulted them while gaming; or excluded them online. Students who reported more than one of these types of cyber-bullying were counted only once in the total for students cyber-bullied anywhere. 4Students who reported experiencing more than one type of bullying at school were counted only once in the total for students bullied at school. 5Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. “Other” includes American Indians/Alaska Natives, Pacific Islanders, and persons of Two or more races. 6Refers to the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) status of the respondent’s household as defined in 2000 by the U.S. Census Bureau. Categories include “central city of an MSA (Urban),” “in MSA but not in central city (Suburban),” and “not MSA (Rural).” NOTE: “At school” includes the school building, on school property, on a school bus, or going to and from school. Bullying types do not sum to totals because students could have experienced more than one type of bullying. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 2013. (This table was prepared August 2014.)

(0.52) (2.20)

(0.87) (0.71) (1.45)

(1.61) (1.35) (1.11) (1.22) (1.28) (1.31) (1.15)

(0.76) (1.40) (1.02) (0.95) (3.05)

(0.60) (0.80)

(0.50)

6

Subject of rumors

[Standarderrors errorsappear appear ininparentheses] [Standard parentheses]

Table 11.1. Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being bullied at school or cyber-bullied anywhere during the school year, by type of bullying school, of reported injury, and student and school characteristics: 2013year, by type of bullying at school, reports of injury, and selected Table 230.40. Percentage of at students agesreports 12–18 who beingselected bullied at school or cyber-bullied anywhere during the school student and school characteristics: 2013

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 325 School Environment

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

328 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education

TableSchool 11.2. Environment Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being bullied at school during the school year and, among bullied students, percentage who reported being bullied in various Table 230.50. Percentage of students ages 12–18student who reported bulliedcharacteristics: at school during the2013 school year and, among bullied students, locations, by selected andbeing school percentage who reported being bullied in various locations, by selected student and school characteristics: 2013 [Standard [Standarderrors errorsappear appear in in parentheses] parentheses]

Among students who were bullied, percent by location1 Student or school characteristic 1 Total......................................................... Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity2 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian............................................................ Other............................................................ Grade 6th................................................................ 7th................................................................ 8th................................................................ 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th.............................................................. Urbanicity3 Urban ........................................................... Suburban ..................................................... Rural ............................................................ Control of school Public ........................................................... Private..........................................................

Total

Inside classroom

In hallway or stairwell

In bathroom or locker room

2

3

4

5

Somewhere else Cafeteria in school building 6

Outside on school grounds

7

On school bus

8

9

21.5

(0.66)

33.6

(1.54)

45.6

(1.73)

9.1

(0.84)

18.9

(1.17)

0.8 !

(0.30)

22.9

(1.44)

7.8

(0.86)

19.5 23.7

(0.81) (0.98)

31.1 35.8

(2.13) (2.03)

45.8 45.3

(2.37) (2.37)

11.6 7.0

(1.46) (1.01)

17.9 19.7

(1.76) (1.69)

‡ 1.2 !

(†) (0.54)

22.3 23.4

(1.85) (1.92)

8.9 6.9

(1.41) (1.12)

23.7 20.3 19.2 9.2 25.2

(0.93) (1.81) (1.30) (1.67) (3.60)

33.9 28.7 35.6 ‡ 31.9

(2.08) (4.03) (3.02) (†) (5.92)

46.9 39.5 44.8 ‡ 48.3

(2.09) (4.27) (3.47) (†) (7.19)

11.0 5.1 ! 7.1 ‡ ‡

(1.24) (2.00) (1.66) (†) (†)

19.8 19.2 15.5 ‡ 14.3 !

(1.53) (3.36) (2.45) (†) (5.14)

0.8 ! ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

(0.34) (†) (†) (†) (†)

22.9 18.7 26.4 ‡ 25.1

(1.89) (3.10) (3.08) (†) (5.03)

9.6 6.4 ! 2.3 ! ‡ 17.0 !

(1.18) (2.15) (1.00) (†) (5.47)

27.8 26.4 21.7 23.0 19.5 20.0 14.1

(2.31) (1.65) (1.42) (1.42) (1.48) (1.50) (1.51)

34.9 32.4 38.0 29.9 40.1 29.5 30.1

(4.23) (2.88) (4.12) (3.44) (4.32) (3.66) (5.29)

40.9 43.6 41.2 42.0 52.6 52.2 47.4

(4.91) (3.35) (4.00) (3.61) (4.63) (4.05) (5.92)

7.3 ! 12.9 7.7 9.5 9.0 8.2 6.2 !

(2.57) (2.25) (2.06) (2.01) (2.24) (2.43) (2.47)

11.6 20.8 18.0 23.9 19.2 18.8 14.9

(2.98) (2.63) (2.97) (3.22) (3.15) (3.35) (4.18)

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

36.4 26.8 26.1 19.0 20.0 16.6 14.1

(4.37) (3.03) (3.53) (2.76) (3.79) (3.52) (3.80)

17.1 10.2 8.7 5.7 ! 7.9 ‡ ‡

(3.61) (1.92) (2.40) (1.80) (2.17) (†) (†)

20.7 22.0 21.4

(1.10) (0.90) (1.86)

34.3 32.9 35.1

(3.05) (2.01) (4.17)

42.2 48.3 41.9

(3.07) (2.18) (3.93)

7.9 9.5 10.2

(1.59) (1.12) (2.07)

21.5 18.0 17.0

(2.35) (1.61) (2.79)

‡ ‡ ‡

(†) (†) (†)

26.2 22.3 18.7

(2.86) (1.89) (3.57)

4.8 9.0 9.2

(1.29) (1.25) (1.84)

21.5 22.4

(0.67) (2.71)

33.3 36.7

(1.61) (5.32)

46.1 39.2

(1.80) (5.26)

(0.90) (2.64)

18.7 20.5

(1.22) (4.47)

0.8 ! ‡

(0.33) (†)

22.3 30.1

(1.47) (5.17)

8.2 ‡

(0.91) (†)

†Not applicable. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. ‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater. 1Includes only students who indicated the location of bullying. Excludes students who indicated that they were bullied but did not answer the question about where the bullying occurred. 2Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. “Other” includes American Indians/ Alaska Natives, Pacific Islanders, and persons of Two or more races.

9.3 6.7 ! 3Refers

to the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) status of the respondent’s household as defined in 2000 by the U.S. Census Bureau. Categories include “central city of an MSA (Urban),” “in MSA but not in central city (Suburban),” and “not MSA (Rural).” NOTE: “At school” includes the school building, on school property, on a school bus, or going to and from school. Location totals may sum to more than 100 percent because students could have been bullied in more than one location. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 2013. (This table was prepared August 2014.)

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

151

Table 11.3.

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 329 School Environment

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being cyber-bullied anywhere during the

Table 230.55. Percentage students who reported beingand cyber-bullied during schoolcharacteristics: year, by type of cyber-bullying schoolofyear, byages type12–18 of cyber-bullying selectedanywhere student andthe school 2013 and selected student and school characteristics: 2013 [Standard parentheses] [Standarderrors errorsappear appear in in parentheses] Type of cyber-bullying

Student or school characteristic

Total cyberbullying1

1

Private Hurtful information Subject of information purposely shared harassing instant on Internet on Internet messages

2 Total.........................................................

Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity2 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian............................................................ Other............................................................ Grade 6th................................................................ 7th................................................................ 8th................................................................ 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th.............................................................. Urbanicity3 Urban ........................................................... Suburban ..................................................... Rural ............................................................ Control of school Public ........................................................... Private..........................................................

3

4

Subject of harassing text messages

5

6

8

9

(0.42)

2.8

(0.24)

0.9

(0.15)

2.1

(0.22)

3.2

(0.28)

0.9

(0.15)

1.5

(0.18)

0.9

(0.13)

5.2 8.6

(0.43) (0.63)

1.2 4.5

(0.22) (0.42)

0.4 1.5

(0.12) (0.27)

1.0 3.4

(0.19) (0.39)

1.6 4.9

(0.25) (0.51)

0.2 ! 1.7

(0.09) (0.30)

2.5 0.4 !

(0.31) (0.14)

0.9 0.9

(0.18) (0.18)

7.6 4.5 5.8 5.8 13.4

(0.57) (0.94) (0.78) (1.67) (2.43)

2.9 2.2 2.6 1.8 ! 6.9

(0.35) (0.63) (0.52) (0.85) (1.86)

1.0 ‡ 1.0 ! ‡ 1.9 !

(0.22) (†) (0.34) (†) (0.96)

2.2 1.8 ! 1.9 ‡ 4.9 !

(0.27) (0.57) (0.41) (†) (1.63)

3.8 1.9 2.6 ‡ 6.2

(0.42) (0.49) (0.52) (†) (1.69)

0.8 (0.19) 0.8 ! (0.35) 0.8 ! (0.28) ‡ (†) 4.7 ! (1.62)

1.8 (0.26) ‡ (†) 0.9 ! (0.30) 3.1 ! (1.20) 3.2 ! (1.30)

1.0 ‡ 1.0 ‡ ‡

(0.18) (†) (0.29) (†) (†)

5.9 7.0 6.4 6.7 8.6 6.8 5.9

(1.20) (0.91) (0.86) (0.97) (1.16) (0.87) (0.93)

1.4 ! 2.1 3.1 2.0 4.1 3.9 2.6

(0.58) (0.53) (0.59) (0.49) (0.84) (0.71) (0.67)

‡ 1.1 ! 0.9 ! ‡ 1.2 ! 1.3 ! ‡

(†) (0.36) (0.26) (†) (0.41) (0.41) (†)

1.2 ! 2.3 2.3 2.9 2.8 1.1 ! 1.9

(0.54) (0.51) (0.55) (0.58) (0.61) (0.43) (0.55)

2.3 ! 3.8 3.2 2.8 4.5 2.7 2.3

(0.78) (0.74) (0.64) (0.62) (0.81) (0.55) (0.59)

‡ 1.0 ! 1.5 ! ‡ 1.4 ! ‡ 1.1 !

(†) (0.35) (0.48) (†) (0.41) (†) (0.40)

1.5 ! (0.61) 1.8 (0.44) 1.7 (0.50) 1.6 (0.48) 1.0 ! (0.35) 1.3 (0.39) 1.4 ! (0.51)

‡ 0.8 ! 1.5 ! 1.4 ! 1.0 ! ‡ ‡

(†) (0.30) (0.46) (0.43) (0.34) (†) (†)

7.1 7.0 5.9

(0.73) (0.61) (1.02)

3.4 2.7 2.2

(0.50) (0.35) (0.43)

1.1 0.9 0.8 !

(0.32) (0.20) (0.29)

2.4 2.0 2.0 !

(0.45) (0.27) (0.62)

3.1 3.3 2.9

(0.50) (0.40) (0.72)

1.4 0.8 0.7 !

(0.34) (0.18) (0.31)

1.5 1.6 1.0 !

(0.25) (0.27) (0.48)

1.2 0.9 ‡

(0.33) (0.17) (†)

6.9 6.4

(0.45) (1.44)

2.9 2.0 !

(0.26) (0.76)

0.9 1.2 !

(0.16) (0.54)

2.2 ‡

(0.23) (†)

3.2 2.9 !

(0.30) (0.98)

0.9 ‡

(0.16) (†)

1.5 ‡

(0.19) (†)

0.9 ‡

(0.14) (†)

3Refers

to the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) status of the respondent’s household as defined in 2000 by the U.S. Census Bureau. Categories include “central city of an MSA (Urban),” “in MSA but not in central city (Suburban),” and “not MSA (Rural).” NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and because students could have experienced more than one type of cyber-bullying. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 2013. (This table was prepared August 2014.)

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Supplemental Tables

7

Excluded online

6.9

†Not applicable. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. ‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater. 1Students who reported experiencing more than one type of cyber-bullying were counted only once in the total for students cyber-bullied. 2Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. “Other” includes American Indians/ Alaska Natives, Pacific Islanders, and persons of Two or more races.

152

Subject of Subject of harassing harassment while e-mails gaming

(2.04) (3.93) (3.24) (†) (7.42) (4.19) (2.92) (3.74) (3.49) (4.11) (3.60) (5.35) (2.86) (1.94) (4.96)

64.6 70.2 73.8 ‡ 66.9 62.4 63.8 64.0 67.4 65.6 75.8 75.2 71.8 67.0 59.7

38.3 31.8 43.8

19.7 16.7

14.9 20.6 23.4

22.7 17.3 19.1 24.7 21.5 12.9 17.4

20.6 18.0 17.9 ‡ 15.2 !

19.2 19.6

19.4

(3.29) (4.54) (4.83)

(1.40) (3.74)

(2.21) (1.64) (3.83)

(3.64) (2.60) (3.05) (3.48) (3.56) (2.83) (4.42)

(1.70) (3.40) (2.88) (†) (5.49)

(1.98) (1.89)

(1.32)

3

Once or twice a month

55.0 45.9 62.5

7.4 9.6 !

7.0 7.1 10.2

6.5 ! 11.4 7.9 3.7 ! 7.8 8.2 6.1 !

9.1 5.6 ! 4.4 ‡ ‡

7.4 7.8

7.6

(5.81) (9.12) (7.39)

(0.81) (2.96)

(1.36) (1.09) (2.51)

(2.00) (2.18) (2.12) (1.41) (2.29) (2.09) (2.63)

(1.20) (2.07) (1.30) (†) (†)

(1.09) (1.11)

(0.78)

4

Once or twice a week

Frequency of bullying

50.0 ‡ 43.7

5.7 5.8 !

6.3 5.2 6.6

8.4 ! 7.5 9.1 4.2 ! 5.0 ! 3.2 ! ‡

5.7 6.2 ! 4.0 ! ‡ 12.8 !

5.5 6.0

5.7

(6.95) (†) (8.65)

(0.74) (2.09)

(1.46) (0.85) (1.66)

(3.10) (1.69) (2.30) (1.59) (1.79) (1.41) (†)

(0.87) (2.13) (1.26) (†) (5.30)

(1.01) (0.94)

(0.71)

5

Almost every day

†Not applicable. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. ‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater. 1Students who reported being cyber-bullied are those who responded that another student had done one or more of the following: posted hurtful information about them on the Internet; purposely shared private information about them on the Internet; threatened or insulted them through instant messaging; threatened or insulted them through text messaging; threatened or insulted them through e-mail; threatened or insulted them while gaming; or excluded them online. 2Teacher or other adult at school notified.

(1.86) (2.55) (2.64)

(1.63) (5.01)

(2.19) (2.13)

36.9 39.4 34.7

2 (1.53)

68.0 66.6

Total indicating adult at school notified,2 by frequency of bullying ... Males indicating adult notified ......................... Females indicating adult notified .....................

67.3

67.2 67.9

Total.........................................................

Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity3 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian............................................................ Other............................................................ Grade 6th................................................................ 7th................................................................ 8th................................................................ 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th.............................................................. Urbanicity4 Urban ........................................................... Suburban ..................................................... Rural ............................................................ Control of school Public ........................................................... Private..........................................................

1

Student or school characteristic

Once or twice in the school year

Among students who reported being bullied at school

6

(†) (†) (†)

(1.48) (5.50)

(2.64) (2.01) (4.03)

(4.71) (3.53) (3.82) (3.89) (3.84) (3.37) (4.32)

(2.04) (3.44) (3.15) (†) (6.34)

(2.01) (2.20)

(1.45)

20.2 8.6 ! 28.2

72.0 ‡

68.4 77.9 65.2

‡ 65.5 70.5 79.6 73.8 71.4 74.6

76.9 68.2 73.5 ‡ ‡

75.2 71.9

73.2

(2.57) (2.75) (4.02)

(2.78) (†)

(4.76) (3.29) (8.87)

(†) (6.74) (6.04) (5.43) (5.76) (7.36) (7.15)

(3.27) (7.99) (6.28) (†) (†)

(3.80) (3.40)

(2.72)

7

Once or twice in the school year

21.6 ‡ 28.6

16.1 ‡

15.1 13.2 22.2

‡ 24.9 17.1 ! 7.7 ! 16.7 ! 14.2 ! 13.3 !

15.2 18.9 ! 8.9 ! ‡ ‡

9.3 18.8

15.0

(6.11) (†) (7.67)

(2.20) (†)

(3.76) (2.67) (5.79)

(†) (6.48) (5.69) (3.68) (5.09) (5.62) (5.46)

(2.80) (6.71) (3.78) (†) (†)

(2.62) (2.90)

(2.08)

8

Once or twice a month

‡ ‡ ‡

7.8 ‡

11.9 5.0 ! 10.8 !

‡ ‡ 8.6 ! 9.2 ! 6.7 ! 12.3 ! ‡

4.6 ! ‡ 12.5 ! ‡ ‡

8.1 7.9

7.9

(†) (†) (†)

(1.48) (†)

(3.17) (1.59) (4.91)

(†) (†) (3.16) (3.89) (3.30) (5.36) (†)

(1.53) (†) (4.48) (†) (†)

(2.24) (1.82)

(1.46)

9

Once or twice a week

Frequency of cyber-bullying

‡ ‡ ‡

4.1 ‡

4.6 ! 3.9 ! ‡

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

3.3 ! ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

7.4 ! ‡

3.8

(†) (†) (†)

(1.13) (†)

(1.99) (1.48) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

(1.23) (†) (†) (†) (†)

(2.23) (†)

(1.05)

10

Almost every day

Among students who reported being cyber-bullied anywhere1

† † †

22.5 ‡

21.7 24.1 24.1

‡ 28.0 30.4 12.4 ! 23.9 26.7 21.0 !

24.4 24.5 ! 23.7 ‡ ‡

10.5 31.6

23.3

(†) (†) (†)

(2.61) (†)

(4.81) (3.25) (5.37)

(†) (5.87) (6.05) (4.90) (5.47) (6.87) (6.70)

(3.08) (10.44) (4.92) (†) (†)

(2.53) (3.54)

(2.55)

11

Adult at school was notified2

categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. “Other” includes American Indians/Alaska Natives, Pacific Islanders, and persons of Two or more races. to the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) status of the respondent’s household as defined in 2000 by the U.S. Census Bureau. Categories include “central city of an MSA (Urban),” “in MSA but not in central city (Suburban),” and “not MSA (Rural).” NOTE: “At school” includes the school building, on school property, on a school bus, or going to and from school. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 2013. (This table was prepared September 2014.) 4Refers

3Race

† † †

38.9 39.5

36.6 40.7 36.9

58.3 52.3 38.1 35.2 34.6 25.8 22.4

40.5 40.0 37.5 ‡ 36.8

38.5 39.3

38.9

Adult at school was notified2

[Standarderrors errors appear appear ininparentheses] [Standard parentheses]

Among students ages 12–18 who reported being bullied at school and cyber-bullied anywhere during the school year, percentage reporting various frequencies of bullying and the notification of an adult at school, by selected student and school characteristics: 2013 Table 230.60. Among students ages 12–18 who reported being bullied at school or cyber-bullied anywhere during the school year, percentage reporting various frequencies of bullying and the notification of an adult at school, by selected student and school characteristics: 2013

Table 11.4.

330 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education School Environment

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

153

326 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education

TableSchool 11.5. Environment Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being bullied at school during the school year, by type of bullying and selected student and school characteristics: Selected years, Table 230.45. Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being bullied at school during the school year, by type of bullying and selected 2005 through 2013 student and school characteristics: Selected years, 2005 through 2013

[Standard [Standarderrors errorsappear appear in in parentheses] parentheses] Type of bullying at school

Year and student or school characteristic

Total bullied at school

Made fun of, called names, or insulted

Subject of rumors

Threatened with harm

Tried to make do things did not want to do

Excluded from activities on purpose

Property destroyed on purpose

Pushed, shoved, tripped, or spit on

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1 2005 Total......................................................... Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity1 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian............................................................ Other............................................................ Grade 6th................................................................ 7th................................................................ 8th................................................................ 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th.............................................................. Urbanicity2 Urban ........................................................... Suburban ..................................................... Rural ............................................................ Control of school3 Public ........................................................... Private.......................................................... 2007 Total......................................................... Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity1 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian............................................................ Other............................................................ Grade 6th................................................................ 7th................................................................ 8th................................................................ 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th.............................................................. Urbanicity2 Urban ........................................................... Suburban ..................................................... Rural ............................................................ Control of school3 Public ........................................................... Private.......................................................... 2009 Total......................................................... Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity1 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian............................................................ Other............................................................ Grade 6th................................................................ 7th................................................................ 8th................................................................ 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th.............................................................. Urbanicity2 Urban ........................................................... Suburban ..................................................... Rural ............................................................ Control of school3 Public ........................................................... Private..........................................................

28.1

(0.70)

18.7

(0.58)

14.7

(0.53)

4.8

(0.31)

3.5

(0.27)

4.6

(0.30)

3.4

(0.29)

9.0

(0.45)

27.1 29.2

(0.90) (0.84)

18.5 19.0

(0.73) (0.79)

11.0 18.5

(0.64) (0.74)

5.2 4.4

(0.51) (0.37)

3.9 3.1

(0.39) (0.32)

4.1 5.2

(0.40) (0.40)

3.5 3.3

(0.41) (0.35)

10.9 7.1

(0.70) (0.50)

30.0 28.5 22.3 — 24.6

(0.84) (2.21) (1.28) (†) (2.06)

20.1 18.5 14.7 — 16.3

(0.72) (1.72) (1.11) (†) (1.82)

15.8 14.2 12.4 — 11.6

(0.66) (1.36) (1.00) (†) (1.71)

5.1 4.9 4.6 — 2.1

(0.47) (0.76) (0.64) (†) (0.59)

3.6 4.7 2.6 — 2.1 !

(0.35) (1.00) (0.55) (†) (0.74)

5.3 4.5 3.0 — 2.5 !

(0.36) (0.91) (0.53) (†) (0.79)

3.4 4.6 2.7 — 2.5 !

(0.35) (0.89) (0.49) (†) (0.77)

9.7 8.9 7.6 — 6.8

(0.62) (1.14) (0.94) (†) (1.19)

36.6 35.0 30.4 28.1 24.9 23.0 19.9

(1.99) (1.72) (1.50) (1.57) (1.43) (1.58) (1.75)

26.3 25.2 20.4 18.9 15.5 14.7 11.3

(2.05) (1.57) (1.30) (1.33) (1.14) (1.32) (1.52)

16.4 18.9 14.3 13.8 13.6 13.4 12.5

(1.60) (1.27) (1.10) (1.23) (1.19) (1.29) (1.54)

6.4 6.3 4.3 5.3 4.9 3.2 3.5

(1.18) (0.80) (0.64) (0.67) (0.82) (0.61) (0.71)

4.4 4.7 3.8 3.2 3.6 2.8 1.8

(0.92) (0.83) (0.71) (0.58) (0.64) (0.59) (0.51)

7.4 7.1 5.4 3.8 3.6 3.3 2.2 !

(1.19) (0.85) (0.68) (0.63) (0.63) (0.61) (0.72)

3.9 4.6 4.5 2.7 2.9 2.6 2.4

(0.91) (0.79) (0.75) (0.53) (0.64) (0.56) (0.63)

15.1 15.4 11.3 8.2 6.8 4.2 2.9

(1.75) (1.25) (1.23) (0.91) (0.78) (0.69) (0.66)

26.0 28.9 29.0

(1.29) (0.81) (1.96)

17.7 18.9 19.8

(0.95) (0.75) (1.76)

13.3 14.6 17.2

(1.07) (0.64) (1.32)

5.5 4.4 5.0

(0.49) (0.42) (1.10)

4.1 3.1 3.7

(0.53) (0.33) (0.74)

4.9 4.5 4.5

(0.63) (0.37) (0.88)

3.9 3.0 3.8

(0.58) (0.32) (0.87)

8.5 9.0 9.9

(0.73) (0.56) (1.23)

28.6 22.7

(0.74) (2.09)

19.0 15.3

(0.61) (1.67)

14.9 12.4

(0.55) (1.66)

5.1 0.9 !

(0.33) (0.40)

3.5 3.0 !

(0.27) (0.90)

4.5 6.2

(0.30) (1.06)

3.5 2.0 !

(0.31) (0.70)

9.3 5.5

(0.48) (1.03)

31.7

(0.74)

21.0

(0.62)

18.1

(0.61)

5.8

(0.35)

4.1

(0.27)

5.2

(0.30)

4.2

(0.28)

11.0

(0.42)

30.3 33.2

(0.96) (0.99)

20.3 21.7

(0.83) (0.89)

13.5 22.8

(0.73) (0.91)

6.0 5.6

(0.50) (0.45)

4.8 3.4

(0.43) (0.32)

4.6 5.8

(0.40) (0.43)

4.0 4.4

(0.35) (0.41)

12.2 9.7

(0.58) (0.59)

34.1 30.4 27.3 18.1 34.1

(0.97) (2.18) (1.53) (2.60) (3.03)

23.5 19.5 16.1 10.6 20.1

(0.84) (1.71) (1.25) (2.19) (3.12)

20.3 15.7 14.4 8.2 20.8

(0.84) (1.51) (1.27) (1.93) (2.98)

6.3 5.8 4.9 ‡ 7.7

(0.47) (0.89) (0.75) (†) (2.01)

4.8 3.2 3.0 ‡ 3.1 !

(0.36) (0.69) (0.71) (†) (1.23)

6.1 3.7 4.0 ‡ 7.7

(0.44) (0.72) (0.60) (†) (2.08)

4.2 5.6 3.6 1.8 ! 3.4 !

(0.35) (0.96) (0.67) (0.89) (1.30)

11.5 11.3 9.9 3.8 ! 14.4

(0.56) (1.42) (1.05) (1.25) (2.73)

42.7 35.6 36.9 30.6 27.7 28.5 23.0

(2.23) (1.78) (1.84) (1.72) (1.44) (1.48) (1.60)

31.2 27.6 25.1 20.3 17.7 15.3 12.1

(2.00) (1.58) (1.65) (1.39) (1.22) (1.25) (1.36)

21.3 20.2 19.7 18.1 15.0 18.7 14.1

(1.84) (1.33) (1.41) (1.45) (1.13) (1.40) (1.38)

7.0 7.4 6.9 4.6 5.8 4.9 4.3

(1.13) (0.92) (0.84) (0.77) (0.81) (0.80) (0.83)

5.4 4.1 3.6 5.1 4.6 4.2 2.1

(0.98) (0.64) (0.64) (0.67) (0.68) (0.73) (0.53)

7.4 7.7 5.4 4.5 4.6 3.9 3.5

(1.20) (0.92) (0.77) (0.69) (0.74) (0.68) (0.75)

5.2 6.0 4.6 3.5 3.4 4.4 2.4

(0.98) (0.81) (0.79) (0.63) (0.59) (0.78) (0.61)

17.6 15.8 14.2 11.4 8.6 6.5 4.1

(1.56) (1.28) (1.23) (1.13) (0.89) (0.92) (0.81)

30.7 31.2 35.2

(1.36) (1.07) (1.73)

20.0 21.1 22.1

(1.09) (0.84) (1.43)

15.5 17.4 24.1

(1.02) (0.87) (1.42)

5.2 5.7 7.0

(0.54) (0.48) (0.78)

3.6 4.1 5.1

(0.46) (0.37) (0.69)

4.9 5.0 6.3

(0.57) (0.42) (0.79)

4.2 4.0 4.9

(0.59) (0.38) (0.63)

9.2 11.2 13.1

(0.76) (0.60) (0.98)

32.0 29.1

(0.76) (2.10)

21.1 20.1

(0.65) (1.79)

18.3 16.0

(0.64) (1.76)

6.2 1.3 !

(0.38) (0.50)

4.2 3.6

(0.28) (0.92)

5.2 5.9

(0.32) (1.11)

4.1 5.0

(0.28) (1.11)

11.4 6.5

(0.45) (1.14)

28.0

(0.83)

18.8

(0.65)

16.5

(0.66)

5.7

(0.34)

3.6

(0.28)

4.7

(0.34)

3.3

(0.28)

9.0

(0.48)

26.6 29.5

(1.04) (1.08)

18.4 19.2

(0.89) (0.95)

12.8 20.3

(0.79) (0.92)

5.6 5.8

(0.50) (0.50)

4.0 3.2

(0.43) (0.37)

3.8 5.7

(0.39) (0.52)

3.4 3.2

(0.40) (0.39)

10.1 7.9

(0.65) (0.64)

29.3 29.1 25.5 17.3 26.7

(1.03) (2.29) (1.71) (3.01) (4.61)

20.5 18.4 15.8 9.6 17.4

(0.89) (1.78) (1.34) (2.38) (3.83)

17.4 17.7 14.8 8.1 12.9

(0.86) (1.60) (1.44) (2.11) (3.21)

5.4 7.8 5.8 ‡ 9.7 !

(0.40) (1.20) (0.87) (†) (3.01)

3.7 4.8 2.7 ‡ 4.5 !

(0.38) (0.92) (0.59) (†) (1.97)

5.2 4.6 3.6 3.4 ! 4.5 !

(0.44) (0.97) (0.68) (1.41) (1.85)

3.3 4.6 2.6 ‡ 3.8 !

(0.32) (0.99) (0.55) (†) (1.67)

39.4 33.1 31.7 28.0 26.6 21.1 20.4

(2.60) (1.87) (1.85) (1.90) (1.71) (1.69) (1.63)

30.6 23.6 22.8 19.2 15.0 13.9 11.1

(2.32) (1.76) (1.64) (1.66) (1.41) (1.42) (1.20)

21.4 17.3 18.1 16.6 17.0 13.9 13.1

(2.20) (1.58) (1.50) (1.53) (1.32) (1.42) (1.32)

9.3 5.7 6.8 7.1 5.8 4.8 2.0

(1.34) (1.00) (0.94) (1.00) (0.91) (0.84) (0.57)

4.2 ! 4.6 5.4 4.0 3.1 2.5 1.7 !

(1.27) (0.82) (0.91) (0.74) (0.63) (0.63) (0.52)

6.6 5.6 6.9 4.5 4.0 3.6 2.6

(1.31) (0.95) (1.04) (0.78) (0.76) (0.76) (0.64)

4.0 4.6 6.1 2.9 2.9 1.5 ! 1.3 !

(1.00) (0.85) (0.92) (0.71) (0.63) (0.49) (0.46)

14.5 13.1 12.8 9.7 7.3 4.4 3.0

(1.89) (1.34) (1.29) (1.24) (1.03) (0.84) (0.65)

27.4 27.5 30.7

(1.25) (1.06) (1.99)

17.0 19.3 20.2

(1.00) (0.87) (1.60)

16.5 15.5 19.9

(1.01) (0.97) (1.56)

6.6 5.2 6.1

(0.67) (0.44) (0.79)

4.2 3.2 4.1

(0.59) (0.33) (0.80)

4.0 5.0 5.2

(0.57) (0.46) (0.85)

4.2 2.9 3.3

(0.63) (0.34) (0.64)

9.0 8.9 9.5

(0.98) (0.56) (1.27)

28.8 18.9

(0.88) (2.16)

19.3 13.3

(0.68) (1.87)

16.9 11.6

(0.69) (1.75)

5.9 4.4

(0.37) (1.12)

3.8 1.9 !

(0.30) (0.76)

4.7 4.9

(0.36) (1.16)

3.4 1.8 !

(0.29) (0.68)

9.4 4.5

(0.52) (1.14)

See notes at end of table.

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

154

Supplemental Tables

9.1 9.9 9.1 5.5 ! 7.1 !

(0.61) (1.55) (0.97) (1.75) (2.39)

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 327 Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being bullied at school during the school School Environment year, by type of bullying and selected student and school characteristics: Selected years, Table 230.45. Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being bullied at school during the school year, by type of bullying and selected 2005 through 2013—Continued

Table 11.5.

student and school characteristics: Selected years, 2005 through 2013—Continued [Standarderrors errorsappear appear in [Standard in parentheses] parentheses]

Type of bullying at school

Year and student or school characteristic

Total bullied at school

Made fun of, called names, or insulted

Subject of rumors

Threatened with harm

Tried to make do things did not want to do

Excluded from activities on purpose

Property destroyed on purpose

Pushed, shoved, tripped, or spit on

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1 2011 Total......................................................... Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity1 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian............................................................ Other............................................................ Grade 6th................................................................ 7th................................................................ 8th................................................................ 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th.............................................................. Urbanicity2 Urban ........................................................... Suburban ..................................................... Rural ............................................................ Control of school3 Public ........................................................... Private.......................................................... 2013 Total......................................................... Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity1 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian............................................................ Other............................................................ Grade 6th................................................................ 7th................................................................ 8th................................................................ 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th.............................................................. Urbanicity2 Urban ........................................................... Suburban ..................................................... Rural ............................................................ Control of school3 Public ........................................................... Private..........................................................

27.8

(0.76)

17.6

(0.62)

18.3

(0.61)

5.0

(0.30)

3.3

(0.26)

5.6

(0.34)

2.8

(0.23)

7.9

(0.38)

24.5 31.4

(0.91) (0.99)

16.2 19.1

(0.73) (0.84)

13.2 23.8

(0.66) (0.93)

5.0 5.1

(0.44) (0.41)

3.6 3.0

(0.34) (0.36)

4.8 6.4

(0.41) (0.49)

3.3 2.3

(0.34) (0.30)

8.9 6.8

(0.57) (0.49)

31.5 27.2 21.9 14.9 23.7

(1.07) (1.97) (1.07) (2.70) (3.38)

20.6 16.4 12.7 9.0 15.0

(0.89) (1.45) (0.93) (2.04) (2.47)

20.3 18.6 15.1 7.7 17.0

(0.81) (1.79) (0.87) (2.03) (2.94)

5.8 5.5 3.3 ‡ 6.5

(0.44) (0.83) (0.53) (†) (1.73)

3.3 4.3 2.9 2.7 ! ‡

(0.35) (0.79) (0.46) (1.10) (†)

7.1 4.7 2.8 2.9 ! 5.0 !

(0.51) (0.90) (0.52) (1.13) (1.62)

3.1 3.3 2.4 ‡ ‡

(0.33) (0.72) (0.52) (†) (†)

8.6 9.3 6.2 2.1 ! 7.2

(0.55) (1.00) (0.75) (0.95) (1.81)

37.0 30.3 30.7 26.5 28.0 23.8 22.0

(2.17) (1.64) (1.68) (1.66) (1.56) (1.72) (1.34)

27.0 22.4 20.7 16.4 16.9 12.7 10.6

(2.03) (1.35) (1.51) (1.28) (1.26) (1.17) (1.12)

23.1 18.3 19.0 16.3 19.6 17.1 16.7

(1.90) (1.31) (1.40) (1.38) (1.24) (1.48) (1.23)

4.9 6.9 5.3 5.4 5.1 4.0 3.5

(0.94) (0.89) (0.75) (0.73) (0.75) (0.68) (0.65)

3.9 4.5 2.9 3.3 3.9 2.4 2.3

(0.85) (0.72) (0.56) (0.64) (0.65) (0.60) (0.55)

6.6 7.8 6.4 4.1 5.3 4.7 4.3

(1.19) (0.95) (0.80) (0.87) (0.71) (0.71) (0.75)

3.7 4.0 4.0 2.5 2.2 1.8 1.9

(0.87) (0.68) (0.73) (0.60) (0.48) (0.50) (0.51)

12.7 12.6 10.8 7.3 6.7 3.9 2.7

(1.56) (1.16) (1.07) (0.85) (0.82) (0.73) (0.59)

24.8 29.0 29.7

(1.28) (1.07) (1.82)

15.9 18.4 18.4

(1.07) (0.85) (1.33)

16.1 18.7 21.4

(1.05) (0.86) (1.47)

4.4 5.0 6.3

(0.49) (0.47) (0.69)

3.1 3.2 3.9

(0.38) (0.33) (0.80)

4.6 6.0 5.8

(0.50) (0.46) (0.89)

2.5 3.0 3.0

(0.38) (0.35) (0.54)

7.6 8.2 7.3

(0.66) (0.56) (0.78)

28.4 21.5

(0.82) (1.91)

17.9 13.9

(0.66) (1.68)

18.8 12.6

(0.65) (1.59)

5.3 1.6 !

(0.33) (0.62)

3.3 2.9

(0.28) (0.76)

5.5 5.6

(0.37) (1.07)

2.9 2.1 !

(0.24) (0.71)

8.1 4.7

(0.42) (1.03)

21.5

(0.66)

13.6

(0.51)

13.2

(0.50)

3.9

(0.27)

2.2

(0.21)

4.5

(0.30)

1.6

(0.20)

6.0

(0.39)

19.5 23.7

(0.81) (0.98)

12.6 14.7

(0.70) (0.75)

9.6 17.0

(0.60) (0.80)

4.1 3.7

(0.38) (0.37)

2.4 1.9

(0.30) (0.27)

3.5 5.5

(0.34) (0.47)

1.8 1.3

(0.28) (0.25)

7.4 4.6

(0.59) (0.42)

23.7 20.3 19.2 9.2 25.2

(0.93) (1.81) (1.30) (1.67) (3.60)

15.6 10.5 12.1 7.5 16.5

(0.74) (1.22) (1.13) (1.63) (2.99)

14.6 12.7 11.5 3.7 17.3

(0.76) (1.40) (1.02) (0.95) (3.05)

4.4 3.2 4.0 ‡ 4.3 !

(0.40) (0.68) (0.58) (†) (1.56)

2.0 2.7 1.6 3.8 ! 4.0 !

(0.28) (0.59) (0.32) (1.32) (1.38)

5.4 2.7 3.5 2.2 ! 6.5

(0.46) (0.71) (0.53) (0.71) (1.85)

1.5 2.0 1.4 1.6 ! 2.1 !

(0.24) (0.54) (0.38) (0.78) (1.00)

6.1 6.0 6.3 2.0 ! 8.5

(0.49) (0.97) (0.79) (0.85) (1.90)

27.8 26.4 21.7 23.0 19.5 20.0 14.1

(2.31) (1.65) (1.42) (1.42) (1.48) (1.50) (1.51)

21.3 17.9 14.5 13.7 12.9 11.2 6.4

(2.15) (1.35) (1.23) (1.16) (1.21) (1.20) (1.04)

16.1 15.5 12.7 13.8 12.9 12.5 9.7

(1.61) (1.35) (1.11) (1.22) (1.28) (1.31) (1.15)

5.9 6.1 3.9 3.6 4.3 3.0 1.0 !

(1.13) (0.88) (0.68) (0.61) (0.73) (0.60) (0.43)

3.4 3.0 2.3 2.6 1.7 1.5 1.3 !

(0.88) (0.52) (0.54) (0.58) (0.47) (0.45) (0.48)

6.5 6.3 5.2 4.3 4.6 2.4 2.5

(1.20) (0.86) (0.80) (0.70) (0.72) (0.61) (0.67)

3.1 2.2 1.5 ! 1.2 ! 1.3 1.6 ! 0.7 !

(0.77) (0.52) (0.45) (0.40) (0.37) (0.50) (0.31)

11.0 11.6 6.5 4.9 3.7 3.4 3.0

(1.46) (1.12) (0.85) (0.83) (0.68) (0.72) (0.71)

20.7 22.0 21.4

(1.10) (0.90) (1.86)

12.8 14.2 13.2

(0.80) (0.69) (1.49)

12.7 13.4 13.3

(0.87) (0.71) (1.45)

3.9 3.9 4.1

(0.47) (0.39) (0.67)

2.7 2.0 1.7

(0.45) (0.28) (0.42)

4.1 4.7 4.2

(0.51) (0.43) (0.73)

1.4 1.3 2.8

(0.27) (0.24) (0.66)

5.6 6.4 5.8

(0.60) (0.52) (0.88)

21.5 22.4

(0.67) (2.71)

13.5 15.3

(0.53) (2.01)

13.2 13.4

(0.52) (2.20)

3.9 3.9

(0.28) (1.14)

2.2 2.7 !

(0.22) (0.82)

4.3 6.7

(0.31) (1.31)

1.6 1.3 !

(0.19) (0.60)

6.1 5.2

(0.41) (1.24)

—Not available. †Not applicable. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. ‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater. 1Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. “Other” includes American Indians/ Alaska Natives, Pacific Islanders, and persons of Two or more races. 2Refers to the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) status of the respondent’s household as defined in 2000 by the U.S. Census Bureau. Categories include “central city of an MSA (Urban),” “in MSA but not in central city (Suburban),” and “not MSA (Rural).” These data by metropolitan status were based on the location of households and differ from those published in Student Reports of Bullying and Cyber-Bullying: Results from the 2011 School

Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey, which were based on the urban-centric measure of the location of the school that the child attended. 3Control of school as reported by the respondent. These data differ from those based on a matching of the respondent-reported school name to the Common Core of Data’s Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey or the Private School Survey, as reported in Student Reports of Bullying and Cyber-Bullying: Results from the 2011 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. NOTE: “At school” includes the school building, on school property, on a school bus, or going to and from school. Bullying types do not sum to totals because students could have experienced more than one type of bullying. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, selected years, 2005 through 2013. (This table was prepared August 2014.)

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

155

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 331

Table 11.6.

Percentage of public school students in grades 9–12 who reported having School been bullied on Environment school property or electronically bullied during the previous 12 months, by state: Selected Table 230.62. Percentage public through school students years,of2009 2013in grades 9–12 who reported having been bullied on school property or electronically bullied during the previous 12 months, by state: Selected years, 2009 through 2013 [Standard [Standarderrors errorsappear appearininparentheses] parentheses]

Electronically bullied2

Bullied on school property1 State 1

2009

2011

2013

2009

2011

2

3

4

5

6

7

United States3 ........... Alabama ............................ Alaska................................ Arizona .............................. Arkansas............................ California ...........................

19.9 19.3 20.7 — — —

(0.58) (1.45) (1.29) (†) (†) (†)

20.1 14.1 23.0 — 21.9 —

(0.68) (1.22) (1.32) (†) (1.74) (†)

19.6 20.8 20.7 — 25.0 —

(0.55) (1.28) (1.35) (†) (1.51) (†)

— — — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

16.2 12.3 15.3 — 16.7 —

(0.45) (1.64) (1.04) (†) (1.48) (†)

14.8 13.5 14.7 — 17.6 —

(0.54) (0.95) (1.10) (†) (1.05) (†)

Colorado ............................ Connecticut........................ Delaware............................ District of Columbia ........... Florida................................

18.8 — 15.9 — 13.4

(1.60) (†) (1.11) (†) (0.51)

19.3 21.6 16.5 — 14.0

(1.33) (1.09) (1.03) (†) (0.54)

— 21.9 18.5 — 15.7

(†) (0.96) (0.96) (†) (0.50)

— — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

14.4 16.3 — — 12.4

(1.09) (0.81) (†) (†) (0.53)

— 17.5 13.4 — 12.3

(†) (1.23) (0.78) (†) (0.54)

Georgia.............................. Hawaii ................................ Idaho.................................. Illinois................................. Indiana...............................

— — 22.3 19.6 22.8

(†) (†) (1.03) (1.46) (1.69)

19.1 20.3 22.8 19.3 25.0

(1.66) (1.29) (1.76) (1.31) (1.38)

19.5 18.7 25.4 22.2 —

(1.36) (1.00) (1.12) (1.00) (†)

— — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

13.6 14.9 17.0 16.0 18.7

(1.09) (0.80) (1.18) (1.38) (1.15)

13.9 15.6 18.8 16.9 —

(0.93) (0.98) (1.18) (0.77) (†)

Iowa ................................... Kansas............................... Kentucky ............................ Louisiana ........................... Maine.................................

— 18.5 20.8 15.9 22.4

(†) (1.21) (1.30) (1.88) (0.49)

22.5 20.5 18.9 19.2 22.4

(1.47) (1.31) (1.24) (1.40) (0.43)

— 22.1 21.4 24.2 24.2

(†) (1.57) (1.41) (1.64) (0.66)

— — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

16.8 15.5 17.4 18.0 19.7

(0.97) (0.88) (1.14) (1.53) (0.55)

— 16.9 13.2 16.9 20.6

(†) (0.97) (1.06) (1.91) (0.61)

Maryland............................ Massachusetts................... Michigan ............................ Minnesota .......................... Mississippi .........................

20.9 19.4 24.0 — 16.0

(0.96) (0.89) (1.77) (†) (1.04)

21.2 18.1 22.7 — 15.6

(1.28) (1.04) (1.40) (†) (1.32)

19.6 16.6 25.3 — 19.2

(0.25) (0.98) (1.47) (†) (0.93)

— — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

14.2 — 18.0 — 12.5

(0.78) (†) (0.91) (†) (0.93)

14.0 13.8 18.8 — 11.9

(0.22) (0.79) (1.20) (†) (0.74)

Missouri ............................. Montana............................. Nebraska ........................... Nevada .............................. New Hampshire .................

22.8 23.1 — — 22.1

(1.74) (1.32) (†) (†) (1.53)

— 26.0 22.9 — 25.3

(†) (1.06) (0.85) (†) (1.21)

25.2 26.3 20.8 19.7 22.8

(1.72) (0.68) (1.10) (1.09) (1.05)

— — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

— 19.2 15.8 — 21.6

(†) (0.92) (0.81) (†) (1.27)

— 18.1 15.7 15.0 18.1

(†) (0.62) (0.91) (1.28) (1.02)

New Jersey ........................ New Mexico ....................... New York............................ North Carolina ................... North Dakota .....................

20.7 19.5 18.2 16.6 21.1

(1.44) (0.80) (1.01) (1.00) (1.29)

20.0 18.7 17.7 20.5 24.9

(1.57) (0.72) (0.66) (1.34) (1.24)

21.3 18.2 19.7 19.2 25.4

(1.12) (0.95) (1.43) (0.94) (1.28)

— — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

15.6 13.2 16.2 15.7 17.4

(1.65) (0.66) (0.68) (0.83) (1.15)

14.8 13.1 15.3 12.5 17.1

(1.25) (0.67) (0.89) (1.11) (0.82)

Ohio4 .................................. Oklahoma .......................... Oregon............................... Pennsylvania...................... Rhode Island .....................

— 17.5 — 19.2 16.3

(†) (1.25) (†) (1.18) (0.85)

22.7 16.7 — — 19.1

(1.83) (1.27) (†) (†) (1.74)

20.8 18.6 — — 18.1

(1.40) (1.08) (†) (†) (1.00)

— — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

14.7 15.6 — — 15.3

(1.08) (1.21) (†) (†) (1.14)

15.1 14.3 — — 14.3

(1.31) (1.33) (†) (†) (1.11)

South Carolina................... South Dakota4 .................... Tennessee ......................... Texas ................................. Utah ...................................

15.1 — 17.3 18.7 18.8

(1.53) (†) (1.24) (1.06) (1.05)

18.3 26.7 17.5 16.5 21.7

(1.36) (1.25) (0.88) (0.73) (0.97)

20.2 24.3 21.1 19.1 21.8

(1.33) (2.05) (1.22) (1.06) (0.99)

— — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

15.6 19.6 13.9 13.0 16.6

(1.44) (0.94) (0.69) (0.66) (1.12)

13.8 17.8 15.5 13.8 16.9

(1.00) (1.05) (0.94) (1.04) (0.87)

Vermont ............................. Virginia............................... Washington........................ West Virginia...................... Wisconsin .......................... Wyoming............................

— — — 23.5 22.5 24.4

(†) (†) (†) (1.33) (1.28) (0.93)

— 20.3 — 18.6 24.0 25.0

(†) (1.37) (†) (1.71) (1.35) (0.98)

— 21.9 — 22.1 22.7 23.3

(†) (0.87) (†) (1.72) (1.23) (0.82)

— — — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

15.2 14.8 — 15.5 16.6 18.7

(0.54) (1.49) (†) (1.18) (0.74) (0.80)

18.0 14.5 — 17.2 17.6 16.1

(0.32) (0.61) (†) (0.89) (0.86) (0.71)

—Not available. †Not applicable. 1Bullying was defined for respondents as “when one or more students tease, threaten, spread rumors about, hit, shove, or hurt another student over and over again.” “On school property” was not defined for survey respondents. 2Survey respondents were asked about being electronically bullied (“being bullied through email, chat rooms, instant messaging, websites, or texting”). Data on electronic bullying were not collected in 2009. 3Data for the U.S. total include both public and private schools and were collected through a national survey representing the entire country. 4Data include both public and private schools.

NOTE: State-level data include public schools only, with the exception of data for Ohio and South Dakota. Data for the U.S. total, Ohio, and South Dakota include both public and private schools. For specific states, a given year’s data may be unavailable (1) because the state did not participate in the survey that year; (2) because the state omitted this particular survey item from the state-level questionnaire; or (3) because the state had an overall response rate of less than 60 percent (the overall response rate is the school response rate multiplied by the student response rate). SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 2009 through 2013. (This table was prepared September 2014.)

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

156

2013

Supplemental Tables

2

3

25.0 30.6 34.9 39.3 38.8

(0.89) (0.52) (0.63) (1.10) (0.75)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

31.9 36.6 41.2 44.6 47.0

— — — —

— — — —

35.7 (0.34) 20.0 (0.63)

42.3 (0.36) 24.2 (0.95)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(0.82) (0.60) (0.64) (1.03) (0.76)

34.1 (0.45) 34.9 (0.43)

39.2 (0.53) 43.2 (0.43)

(0.75) (0.69) (0.52) (0.70)

33.8 (0.31) 35.5 33.6 33.0 34.1

(0.33)

1990–91

42.1 (0.95) 40.1 (0.65) 39.5 (0.41) 40.7 (0.73)

40.2

1987–88 4 (0.34)

(0.54) (0.35)

— — — —

31.1 36.9 41.9 47.6 48.0 (†) (†) (†) (†)

(0.72) (0.72) (0.74) (0.85) (0.69)

44.1 (0.40) 22.4 (0.43)

40.9 43.7

44.8 (0.98) 41.9 (0.61) 40.7 (0.57) 40.1 (0.53)

41.3

1993–94

— — — —

32.5 36.4 40.0 39.8 41.9 (†) (†) (†) (†)

(0.93) (0.57) (0.82) (1.32) (0.65)

40.8 (0.42) 24.1 (0.61)

39.1 (0.57) 39.5 (0.42)

41.8 32.3 34.7 31.1

29.4 30.7 34.0 37.2 43.7 (1.14) (0.77) (1.32) (1.31)

(2.44) (0.91) (0.94) (1.45) (0.85)

37.2 (0.52) 20.7 (2.47)

33.8 (0.74) 40.0 (0.60)

(2.15) (0.75) (0.83) (0.68)

39.2 36.2 34.0 32.8

41.5 40.5 36.4 37.6

(0.79) (0.66) (0.65) (0.57)

35.1 (0.58)

6

2003–04

38.6 (0.39)

5

1999–2000

Student misbehavior interfered with teaching

7

(0.73) (0.74)

(1.00) (1.02) (0.83) (0.82)

(0.50)

(1.10) (0.87) (1.28) (1.34) (1.01)

39.9 (1.08) 31.7 (0.78) 34.7 (1.32) 30.8 (0.97)

29.9 32.9 34.4 32.4 37.9

36.0 (0.57) 20.6 (0.72)

32.6 38.8

37.3 35.1 33.6 31.5

34.1

2007–08

—Not available. †Not applicable. ‡Reporting standards not met. Data may be suppressed because the response rate is under 50 percent, there are too few cases for a reliable estimate, or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater. 1Elementary schools are those with any of grades kindergarten through grade 6 and none of grades 9 through 12. Secondary schools have any of grades 7 through 12 and none of grades kindergarten through grade 6. Combined elementary/secondary schools are included in totals but are not shown separately. 2Includes traditional public and public charter schools.

Total........................... Years of teaching experience 3 or fewer ....................... 4 to 9.............................. 10 to 19.......................... 20 or more ..................... School level1 Elementary..................... Secondary...................... School control Public2 ............................ Private............................ School enrollment Under 200 ...................... 200 to 499...................... 500 to 749...................... 750 to 999...................... 1,000 or more ................ Locale3 City................................. Suburban ....................... Town............................... Rural ..............................

1

Teacher or school characteristic

(1.21) (1.05) (0.92) (0.97)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(1.27) (0.87) (1.38) (1.82) (0.97)

9 (0.28)

(0.35) (0.45)

— — — —

24.5 23.9 29.0 35.6 54.2 (†) (†) (†) (†)

(0.94) (0.37) (0.66) (1.05) (0.72)

34.7 (0.29) 17.2 (0.73)

22.6 49.9

34.6 (0.89) 31.4 (0.50) 31.7 (0.35) 34.3 (0.61)

32.6

1987–88

— — — —

— — — — —

— —

— —

— — — —



10

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†)

(†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (0.71) (0.59) (0.48) (0.35)

— — — —

14.7 16.9 21.2 30.2 46.8

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(0.51) (0.52) (0.67) (1.19) (0.70)

27.9 (0.32) 8.6 (0.42)

17.2 (0.41) 43.0 (0.37)

27.8 25.5 24.3 25.5

25.4 (0.28)

11

1993–94 12 (0.30)

(0.42) (0.46)

— — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†)

21.7 (0.71) 25.0 (0.60) 27.1 (0.63) 27.7 (1.00) 41.7 (0.77)

31.5 (0.35) 15.0 (0.43)

24.2 41.5

32.3 (0.73) 30.1 (0.55) 26.7 (0.55) 29.3 (0.51)

29.3

1999–2000

(1.20) (0.70) (0.75) (0.67)

37.3 28.5 31.7 27.9

24.9 26.2 28.2 31.0 44.9

(0.89) (0.74) (1.12) (0.88)

(1.52) (0.73) (0.83) (1.15) (0.97)

33.4 (0.45) 16.9 (1.11)

26.5 (0.57) 43.8 (0.65)

34.0 32.0 30.7 29.7

31.3 (0.44)

13

2003–04

(0.76) (0.81)

38.5 (0.95) 28.8 (0.86) 34.0 (1.68) 26.4 (0.92)

26.1 (0.91) 27.4 (0.94) 28.4 (1.25) 29.6 (1.24) 43.1 (1.13)

33.4 (0.64) 17.9 (0.72)

25.6 45.4

34.3 (1.01) 32.6 (1.01) 30.9 (1.04) 29.1 (0.90)

(0.60)

14

2007–08 31.5

Student tardiness and class cutting interfered with teaching 1990–91

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

29.4 32.1 32.5 36.7 44.2

37.6 18.8

31.0 45.3

38.5 36.0 35.3 33.0

35.3

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(1.03) (0.92) (1.02) (1.87) (0.92)

(0.51) (1.06)

(0.71) (0.69)

(1.28) (0.96) (0.93) (0.95)

(0.46)

15

2011–12

3Substantial improvements in geocoding technology and changes in the Office of Management and Budget’s definition of metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas allow for more precision in describing an area as of 2003–04. Comparisons with earlier years are not possible. NOTE: Teachers who taught only prekindergarten students are excluded. Includes both teachers who “strongly” agreed and those who “somewhat” agreed that student misbehavior or student tardiness and class cutting interfered with their teaching. Some data have been revised from previously published figures. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), “Public School Teacher Data File” and “Private School Teacher Data File,” 1987–88, 1990–91, 1993–94, 1999–2000, 2003–04, 2007–08, and 2011–12; and “Charter School Teacher Data File,” 1999–2000. (This table was prepared October 2013.)

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

33.9 37.3 37.4 41.9 40.9

40.7 (0.65) 22.0 (1.05)

38.6 (0.92) 40.5 (0.80)

43.2 39.8 38.0 35.4

38.5 (0.61)

8

2011–12

[Standarderrors errors appear appear ininparentheses] [Standard parentheses]

Percentage of public and private school teachers who agreed that student misbehavior and student tardiness and class cutting interfered with their teaching, by selected teacher and school characteristics: years,and 1987–88 through 2011–12 Table 230.90. Percentage of public and private school teachers who agreed that student misbehavior andSelected student tardiness class cutting interfered with their teaching, by selected teacher and school characteristics: Selected years, 1987–88 through 2011–12

Table 12.1.

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 335 School Environment

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

157

158

Supplemental Tables 83.7 79.4 75.8 68.5 57.5

(0.90) (0.42) (0.74) (1.00) (0.89)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

76.1 72.6 66.6 59.8 48.1

— — — —

— — — —

71.9 (0.36) 84.3 (0.61)

63.8 (0.31) 75.4 (0.98)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(0.60) (0.55) (0.74) (1.01) (0.67)

80.5 (0.52) 60.2 (0.43)

74.2 (0.41) 49.9 (0.60)

(0.88) (0.69) (0.48) (0.57)

73.4 (0.34) 76.1 72.7 72.9 73.5

(0.30)

3

1990–91

68.6 (0.93) 65.3 (0.71) 64.3 (0.49) 64.9 (0.58)

65.1

2

1987–88 (0.36)

— — — —

76.5 71.2 66.8 58.6 45.8 (†) (†) (†) (†)

(0.84) (0.65) (0.81) (1.10) (0.77)

61.8 (0.42) 77.6 (0.50)

72.2 (0.48) 47.0 (0.34)

68.8 (0.92) 63.0 (0.78) 63.1 (0.55) 63.1 (0.58)

63.8

4

1993–94

— — — —

75.4 71.6 67.7 63.0 47.3 (†) (†) (†) (†)

(0.81) (0.58) (0.66) (0.97) (0.75)

62.6 (0.39) 75.9 (0.51)

72.2 (0.49) 47.2 (0.46)

69.6 73.5 72.4 74.3

84.0 78.9 75.8 69.4 56.3 (0.86) (0.70) (1.03) (0.74)

(1.54) (0.62) (0.68) (1.32) (0.88)

71.1 (0.46) 81.0 (1.52)

79.5 (0.54) 55.7 (0.55)

(0.91) (0.70) (0.76) (0.64)

76.6 70.6 71.4 72.5

69.4 61.6 64.6 63.6

(0.71) (0.62) (0.65) (0.59)

72.4 (0.41)

6

2003–04

64.4 (0.35)

5

1999–2000

Other teachers enforced school rules1

(0.61) (0.64)

(1.07) (0.88) (0.73) (0.80)

(0.47)

69.4 (0.98) 72.6 (0.76) 71.7 (1.32) 73.6 (0.81)

81.0 (0.85) 78.6 (0.71) 74.1 (1.04) 71.7 (1.50) 57.1 (1.17)

70.6 (0.55) 80.1 (0.81)

79.4 56.1

73.6 69.5 71.0 73.8

71.8

7

2007–08

—Not available. †Not applicable. ‡Reporting standards not met. Data may be suppressed because the response rate is under 50 percent, there are too few cases for a reliable estimate, or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater. 1Respondents were asked whether “rules for student behavior are consistently enforced by teachers in this school, even for students not in their classes.” 2Respondents were asked whether their “principal enforces school rules for student conduct and backs me up when I need it.” 3Elementary schools are those with any of grades kindergarten through grade 6 and none of grades 9 through 12. Secondary schools have any of grades 7 through 12 and none of grades kindergarten through grade 6. Combined elementary/secondary schools are included in totals but are not shown separately.

Total........................... Years of teaching experience 3 or fewer ....................... 4 to 9.............................. 10 to 19.......................... 20 or more ..................... School level3 Elementary..................... Secondary...................... School control Public4 ............................ Private............................ School enrollment Under 200 ...................... 200 to 499...................... 500 to 749...................... 750 to 999...................... 1,000 or more ................ Locale5 City................................. Suburban ....................... Town............................... Rural ..............................

1

Teacher or school characteristic

(1.27) (0.88) (0.86) (0.84)

(0.52) (0.45) (0.35) (0.56)

(0.22)

— — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†)

86.6 (0.54) 84.6 (0.38) 84.4 (0.55) 83.0 (0.80) 80.7 (0.62)

83.1 (0.22) 88.6 (0.57)

85.1 (0.36) 81.5 (0.37)

85.0 84.1 83.9 82.8

83.7

9

1987–88

(0.49) (0.55) (0.43) (0.41)

— — — —

89.3 88.1 88.5 85.7 84.9 (†) (†) (†) (†)

(0.54) (0.42) (0.53) (0.81) (0.66)

86.7 (0.29) 92.0 (0.42)

88.0 (0.41) 85.8 (0.37)

88.1 87.4 87.5 86.9

87.4 (0.26)

10

1990–91

(0.59) (0.63) (0.41) (0.38)

— — — —

85.2 83.5 82.3 79.6 78.0

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(0.61) (0.47) (0.76) (0.87) (0.58)

80.8 (0.35) 88.4 (0.41)

82.8 (0.45) 79.0 (0.31)

85.1 80.7 82.4 80.6

81.8 (0.31)

11

1993–94 (0.28)

— — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†)

87.1 (0.48) 84.2 (0.46) 83.5 (0.55) 82.5 (0.83) 79.4 (0.57)

82.2 (0.33) 88.3 (0.39)

84.2 (0.41) 80.0 (0.39)

84.5 (0.52) 82.7 (0.49) 83.1 (0.49) 82.4 (0.41)

83.0

12

1999–2000 13

2003–04

(0.66) (0.57) (0.53) (0.43)

85.5 89.1 88.9 88.5

90.9 89.3 87.7 86.0 85.8

(0.60) (0.47) (0.71) (0.61)

(0.86) (0.48) (0.66) (1.14) (0.63)

87.2 (0.34) 92.2 (0.75)

88.3 (0.45) 86.2 (0.41)

88.6 86.9 87.8 88.3

87.8 (0.30)

Principal enforced school rules2

(0.34)

86.5 (0.72) 89.7 (0.53) 87.5 (1.26) 89.5 (0.58)

90.8 (0.60) 89.4 (0.60) 88.6 (0.68) 88.4 (0.89) 86.5 (0.73)

88.0 (0.37) 92.2 (0.57)

89.5 (0.44) 86.3 (0.48)

89.9 (0.68) 88.2 (0.61) 87.2 (0.62) 89.4 (0.55)

88.5

14

2007–08

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

88.7 84.7 85.2 82.7 82.3

83.7 89.4

85.0 82.5

86.6 84.6 82.3 85.9

84.4

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(0.84) (0.87) (0.75) (1.30) (0.81)

(0.43) (0.98)

(0.60) (0.56)

(1.15) (0.72) (0.74) (0.79)

(0.41)

15

2011–12

5Substantial

traditional public and public charter schools. improvements in geocoding technology and changes in the Office of Management and Budget’s definition of metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas allow for more precision in describing an area as of 2003–04. Comparisons with earlier years are not possible. NOTE: Teachers who taught only prekindergarten students are excluded. Includes both teachers who “strongly” agreed and those who “somewhat” agreed that rules were enforced by other teachers and the principal. Some data have been revised from previously published figures. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), “Public School Teacher Data File” and “Private School Teacher Data File,” 1987–88, 1990–91, 1993–94, 1999–2000, 2003–04, 2007–08, and 2011–12; and “Charter School Teacher Data File,” 1999–2000. (This table was prepared October 2013.)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(0.91) (1.00) (1.06) (1.33) (1.04)

4Includes

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

78.7 74.2 72.2 66.0 55.4

67.6 (0.51) 77.4 (1.49)

75.6 (0.71) 54.4 (0.69)

70.2 66.6 68.3 71.1

68.8 (0.48)

8

2011–12

[Standarderrors errors appear appear ininparentheses] [Standard parentheses]

Table 12.2. Percentage of public and private school teachers who agreed that other teachers and the principal enforced school rules, by selected teacher characteristics: 1987–88 2011–12 Table 230.92. Percentage ofand publicschool and private school teachersSelected who agreedyears, that other teachersthrough and the principal enforced school rules, by selected teacher and school characteristics: Selected years, 1987–88 through 2011–12

336 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education School Environment

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 337

Table 12.3.

Percentage of public school teachers who agreed that student misbehaviorSchool and student Environment tardiness and class cutting interfered with their teaching and that other teachers and the Table 230.95. Percentage of public school teachers agreed student misbehavior and student tardiness and class cutting interfered with principal enforced schoolwho rules, bythat state: 2011–12 their teaching and that other teachers and the principal enforced school rules, by state: 2011–12 [Standard [Standarderrors errorsappear appear in in parentheses] parentheses]

Interfered with teaching State 1

Enforced school rules

Student misbehavior

Student tardiness and class cutting

Other teachers1

2

3

4

Principal2 5

United States................ Alabama ............................ Alaska................................ Arizona .............................. Arkansas............................ California ...........................

40.7 40.9 35.8 41.3 39.5 38.9

(0.65) (3.36) (5.73) (2.56) (3.56) (2.47)

37.6 38.6 56.8 44.5 38.5 39.7

(0.51) (2.82) (6.73) (2.67) (3.80) (2.36)

67.6 71.8 72.2 67.9 74.0 69.7

(0.51) (2.84) (4.41) (2.72) (2.60) (1.83)

83.7 86.8 83.2 83.4 90.0 83.0

(0.43) (2.26) (5.16) (2.06) (2.16) (1.63)

Colorado ............................ Connecticut........................ Delaware............................ District of Columbia ........... Florida................................

45.5 37.2 46.7 ‡ ‡

(3.54) (2.35) (4.47) (†) (†)

47.6 28.6 35.2 ‡ ‡

(4.02) (3.81) (4.58) (†) (†)

61.7 61.7 68.7 ‡ ‡

(3.39) (3.91) (3.58) (†) (†)

80.6 80.7 82.9 ‡ ‡

(3.28) (2.98) (3.32) (†) (†)

Georgia.............................. Hawaii ................................ Idaho.................................. Illinois................................. Indiana...............................

38.2 ‡ 34.6 40.0 38.8

(3.56) (†) (3.54) (2.96) (3.33)

32.1 ‡ 36.1 33.9 41.0

(3.36) (†) (3.08) (3.07) (2.95)

71.9 ‡ 74.7 66.0 68.4

(2.64) (†) (2.48) (3.18) (2.47)

85.5 ‡ 87.9 83.6 81.8

(2.29) (†) (2.18) (2.31) (2.99)

Iowa ................................... Kansas............................... Kentucky ............................ Louisiana ........................... Maine.................................

37.9 32.0 42.8 55.1 39.1

(3.12) (3.57) (3.06) (3.92) (3.00)

34.6 24.9 32.8 36.1 39.2

(3.18) (2.34) (2.92) (3.60) (3.02)

68.5 70.9 67.4 62.5 62.9

(2.77) (3.29) (2.80) (3.19) (2.90)

81.8 91.8 86.9 82.1 83.2

(2.40) (1.61) (2.47) (3.89) (3.06)

Maryland............................ Massachusetts................... Michigan ............................ Minnesota .......................... Mississippi .........................

‡ 37.2 46.6 43.7 37.4

(†) (3.07) (2.87) (2.49) (3.30)

‡ 32.0 40.9 37.3 35.6

(†) (2.74) (2.63) (2.50) (3.40)

‡ 66.6 67.6 68.7 72.4

(†) (3.04) (2.12) (1.88) (2.96)

‡ 83.1 84.4 84.5 84.5

(†) (2.80) (2.08) (1.84) (2.51)

Missouri ............................. Montana............................. Nebraska ........................... Nevada .............................. New Hampshire .................

33.2 41.3 38.2 45.5 38.3

(2.10) (3.43) (3.01) (3.77) (4.36)

33.6 45.3 33.6 42.3 30.9

(2.87) (4.08) (2.81) (4.86) (3.11)

68.9 66.5 70.9 65.5 62.0

(2.17) (3.65) (2.73) (3.42) (3.93)

86.6 83.1 86.7 79.3 83.2

(1.76) (2.97) (1.66) (3.22) (2.66)

New Jersey ........................ New Mexico ....................... New York............................ North Carolina ................... North Dakota .....................

35.9 39.0 40.3 41.9 34.6

(2.36) (4.55) (2.91) (3.13) (3.26)

29.9 54.5 45.3 37.0 33.5

(2.29) (5.87) (3.06) (2.94) (3.52)

66.8 64.2 65.9 69.0 70.4

(2.06) (3.80) (2.47) (2.58) (2.77)

84.4 78.7 80.7 84.0 86.7

(1.70) (4.23) (2.46) (2.34) (2.45)

Ohio ................................... Oklahoma .......................... Oregon............................... Pennsylvania...................... Rhode Island .....................

41.8 40.1 33.1 40.0 ‡

(1.95) (2.74) (3.24) (2.64) (†)

38.8 40.8 35.6 33.4 ‡

(1.96) (2.87) (3.73) (2.55) (†)

66.4 72.5 77.3 65.2 ‡

(1.73) (2.47) (2.90) (2.18) (†)

84.7 86.5 88.1 82.5 ‡

(1.55) (2.12) (1.77) (1.88) (†)

South Carolina................... South Dakota..................... Tennessee ......................... Texas ................................. Utah ...................................

40.9 40.1 41.5 45.6 39.7

(3.22) (3.10) (3.56) (2.29) (3.67)

33.7 37.2 40.0 35.1 45.1

(3.40) (3.92) (3.56) (2.13) (4.30)

71.8 73.2 71.4 65.8 75.8

(3.23) (2.91) (3.14) (2.56) (3.56)

86.8 84.8 88.7 81.8 89.9

(2.15) (2.53) (2.14) (1.99) (2.27)

Vermont ............................. Virginia............................... Washington........................ West Virginia...................... Wisconsin .......................... Wyoming............................

39.9 40.8 39.2 43.9 42.7 30.7

(2.61) (3.46) (2.89) (3.87) (2.70) (4.76)

36.2 35.6 39.5 42.4 34.2 40.0

(2.62) (3.06) (3.16) (4.09) (3.07) (4.78)

59.2 64.9 73.1 73.4 69.5 73.9

(2.59) (2.87) (2.60) (2.90) (2.87) (3.55)

80.5 82.5 85.6 90.4 85.8 89.1

(2.28) (2.52) (2.18) (2.58) (1.70) (3.41)

†Not applicable. ‡Reporting standards not met. Data may be suppressed because the response rate is under 50 percent, there are too few cases for a reliable estimate, or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater. 1Respondents were asked whether “rules for student behavior are consistently enforced by teachers in this school, even for students not in their classes.” 2Respondents were asked whether their “principal enforces school rules for student conduct

and backs me up when I need it.” NOTE: Teachers who taught only prekindergarten students are excluded. Includes traditional public and public charter school teachers. Includes both teachers who “strongly” agreed and those who “somewhat” agreed. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), “Public School Teacher Data File,” 2011–12. (This table was prepared July 2013.)

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

159

s n o p a eW d n a

160

Location and student characteristic

Supplemental Tables

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015 (0.68) (1.39) (1.75) (†) (†) (2.74) (†) (1.55) (1.07) (1.27) (0.66) (†) (†) (†)

15.0 22.0 17.9 — — 18.6 — 23.1 17.2 13.8 11.4 — — —

(†) (†) (†)

— — —

(0.71) (0.73)

(1.54) (1.45) (1.52) (1.56)

50.4 42.2 40.5 34.8

23.5 8.6

(1.13) (1.82) (1.58) (†) (†) (4.79) (†)

40.3 49.5 43.2 — — 49.8 —

(0.59)

(1.05) (1.19)

51.2 31.7

16.2

(0.99)

41.8

2

1993

— — —

21.6 16.5 13.6 10.6

12.9 20.3 21.1 — — 31.4 —

21.0 9.5

15.5

— — —

47.3 40.4 36.9 31.0

36.0 41.6 47.9 — — 47.2 —

46.1 30.6

38.7

(†) (†) (†)

(1.79) (1.57) (1.00) (0.73)

(0.62) (1.25) (1.68) (†) (†) (5.58) (†)

(0.90) (1.03)

(0.79)

(†) (†) (†)

(2.22) (1.49) (1.48) (1.71)

(1.06) (1.99) (2.69) (†) (†) (6.44) (†)

(1.09) (1.49)

(1.14)

3

1995

15.8 14.2 14.7

21.3 17.0 12.5 9.5

13.3 20.7 19.0 — — 18.9 —

20.0 8.6

14.8

38.2 36.7 32.9

44.8 40.2 34.2 28.8

33.7 43.0 40.7 — — 54.7 —

45.5 26.0

36.6

(1.50) (0.95) (2.09)

(1.29) (1.67) (0.87) (0.73)

(0.84) (1.20) (1.50) (†) (†) (5.55) (†)

(1.04) (0.78)

(0.64)

(2.00) (1.59) (2.91)

(1.98) (1.91) (1.72) (1.36)

(1.29) (1.92) (1.68) (†) (†) (5.75) (†)

(1.07) (1.26)

(1.01)

4

1997

14.4 13.7 16.3

18.6 17.2 10.8 8.1

12.3 18.7 15.7 10.4 25.3 16.2 ! 16.9

18.5 9.8

14.2

37.0 35.0 36.6

41.1 37.7 31.3 30.4

33.1 41.4 39.9 22.7 50.7 48.7 40.2

44.0 27.3

35.7

(1.08) (0.86) (2.33)

(1.02) (1.23) (1.01) (1.00)

(0.86) (1.51) (0.91) (0.95) (4.60) (5.23) (2.40)

(0.66) (0.95)

(0.62)

(2.66) (1.56) (2.14)

(1.96) (2.11) (1.55) (1.91)

(1.45) (3.12) (1.65) (2.71) (3.42) (6.78) (2.76)

(1.27) (1.70)

(1.17)

5

1999

—Not available. †Not applicable. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. 1The term “anywhere” is not used in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire; students were simply asked how many times in the past 12 months they had been in a physical fight. 2Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity.

On school property5 Total......................................................... Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity2 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian3........................................................... Pacific Islander3 ........................................... American Indian/Alaska Native.................... Two or more races3 ...................................... Grade 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th.............................................................. Urbanicity4 Urban ........................................................... Suburban ..................................................... Rural ............................................................

Anywhere (including on school property)1 Total......................................................... Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity2 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian3........................................................... Pacific Islander3 ........................................... American Indian/Alaska Native.................... Two or more races3 ...................................... Grade 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th.............................................................. Urbanicity4 Urban ........................................................... Suburban ..................................................... Rural ............................................................

1

14.8 11.0 13.8

17.3 13.5 9.4 7.5

11.2 16.8 14.1 10.8 29.1 18.2 14.7

18.0 7.2

12.5

36.8 31.3 33.8

39.5 34.7 29.1 26.5

32.2 36.5 35.8 22.3 51.7 49.2 39.6

43.1 23.9

33.2

14.8 12.8 10.0

18.0 12.8 10.4 7.3

10.0 17.1 16.7 13.1 22.2 24.2 20.2

17.1 8.0

12.8

35.5 33.1 29.7

38.6 33.5 30.9 26.5

30.5 39.7 36.1 25.9 30.0 46.6 38.2

40.5 25.1

33.0

(1.31) (1.23) (1.36)

(1.24) (0.89) (0.89) (0.70)

(0.73) (1.30) (1.14) (2.26) (4.82) (5.03) (3.83)

(0.92) (0.70)

(0.76)

(2.17) (1.23) (1.61)

(1.38) (1.20) (1.38) (1.08)

(1.11) (1.23) (0.98) (2.99) (5.21) (6.53) (3.64)

(1.32) (0.85)

(0.99)

7

2003

(†) (†) (†)

(0.93) (1.08) (0.75) (0.70)

18.9 14.4 10.4 8.5 — — —

(0.66) (1.39) (1.62) (1.53) (5.60) (3.16) (2.61)

(0.93) (0.52)

(0.56)

11.6 16.9 18.3 5.9 24.5 22.0 15.8

18.2 8.8

13.6

(†) (†) (†)

(1.15) (1.09) (1.44) (1.26)

43.5 36.6 31.6 29.1 — — —

(0.88) (1.74) (1.64) (2.43) (5.58) (3.40) (4.16)

(1.01) (0.94)

(0.77)

33.1 43.1 41.0 21.6 34.4 44.2 46.9

43.4 28.1

35.9

8

2005

— — —

17.0 11.7 11.0 8.6

10.2 17.6 15.5 8.5 9.6 ! 15.0 19.6

16.3 8.5

12.4

— — —

40.9 36.2 34.8 28.0

31.7 44.7 40.4 24.3 42.6 36.0 47.8

44.4 26.5

35.5

(†) (†) (†)

(0.67) (0.86) (0.73) (0.62)

(0.56) (1.10) (0.81) (1.99) (3.47) (1.12) (2.39)

(0.60) (0.62)

(0.48)

(†) (†) (†)

(1.16) (1.34) (1.36) (1.42)

(0.96) (1.33) (1.25) (3.50) (7.74) (1.49) (3.30)

(0.89) (0.99)

(0.77)

9

2007

— — —

14.9 12.1 9.5 6.6

8.6 17.4 13.5 7.7 14.8 20.7 12.4

15.1 6.7

11.1

— — —

37.0 33.5 28.6 24.9

27.8 41.1 36.2 18.9 32.6 42.4 34.2

39.3 22.9

31.5

(†) (†) (†)

(0.98) (0.83) (0.63) (0.59)

(0.58) (0.99) (0.82) (1.09) (2.37) (3.73) (2.19)

(1.05) (0.42)

(0.54)

(†) (†) (†)

(1.21) (1.19) (0.93) (0.99)

(0.88) (1.71) (0.95) (1.72) (3.50) (5.23) (3.51)

(1.20) (0.74)

(0.70)

10

2009

— — —

16.2 12.8 9.2 8.8

9.9 16.4 14.4 6.2 20.9 12.0 16.6

16.0 7.8

12.0

— — —

37.7 35.3 29.7 26.9

29.4 39.1 36.8 18.4 43.0 42.4 45.0

40.7 24.4

32.8

(†) (†) (†)

(0.77) (0.86) (0.55) (0.69)

(0.51) (0.89) (0.79) (1.06) (4.41) (1.77) (1.41)

(0.58) (0.43)

(0.39)

(†) (†) (†)

(1.11) (1.35) (1.14) (0.95)

(0.74) (1.52) (1.44) (1.87) (5.14) (2.12) (2.60)

(0.74) (0.92)

(0.65)

11

2011

— — —

10.9 8.3 7.5 4.9

6.4 12.8 9.4 5.5 7.1 ! 10.7 10.0

10.7 5.6

8.1

— — —

28.3 26.4 24.0 18.8

20.9 34.7 28.4 16.1 22.0 32.1 28.5

30.2 19.2

24.7

(†) (†) (†)

(0.78) (0.61) (0.53) (0.63)

(0.45) (0.84) (0.44) (1.39) (2.58) (3.13) (1.04)

(0.55) (0.38)

(0.35)

(†) (†) (†)

(1.17) (1.42) (1.04) (1.19)

(0.70) (1.67) (1.15) (1.87) (4.95) (7.39) (2.31)

(1.10) (0.72)

(0.74)

12

2013

3Before 1999, Asian students and Pacific Islander students were not categorized separately, and students could not be classified as Two or more races. Because the response categories changed in 1999, caution should be used in comparing data on race from 1993, 1995, and 1997 with data from later years. 4Refers to the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) status of the respondent’s household as defined in 2000 by the U.S. Census Bureau. Categories include “central city of an MSA (Urban),” “in MSA but not in central city (Suburban),” and “not MSA (Rural).” 5In the question asking students about physical fights at school, “on school property” was not defined for survey respondents. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 1993 through 2013. (This table was prepared June 2014.)

(0.90) (0.75) (1.10)

(0.77) (0.88) (0.71) (0.56)

(0.60) (1.26) (0.89) (1.92) (7.63) (4.41) (1.97)

(0.74) (0.47)

(0.49)

(1.53) (0.80) (2.58)

(1.27) (1.37) (1.10) (1.01)

(0.95) (1.60) (0.91) (2.73) (6.25) (6.58) (2.85)

(0.84) (0.95)

(0.71)

6

2001

[Standard parentheses] [Standarderrors errors appear appear ininparentheses]

Table 13.1. Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported having been in a physical fight at least one time during the previous 12 months, by Table 231.10. Percentage students in grades 9–12 who reported having been in a physical fight1993 at least one time 2013 during the previous 12 months, by location and selected student characteristics: locationofand selected student characteristics: Selected years, through Selected years, 1993 through 2013

s t hg i F

338 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education Fights and Weapons

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 339

Table 13.2.

Percentage distribution of students in grades 9–12, by number of times theyFights reported having and Weapons been in a physical fight anywhere or on school property during the previous 12 months and Table 231.20. Percentage distribution of students in grades 9–12, by number of times they reported having been in a physical fight anywhere or selected student characteristics: 2013 on school property during the previous 12 months and selected student characteristics: 2013 [Standarderrors errorsappear appear in [Standard in parentheses] parentheses]

On school property2

Anywhere (including on school property)1 Student characteristic 1 Total......................................................... Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity3 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian............................................................ Pacific Islander............................................. American Indian/Alaska Native.................... Two or more races ....................................... Grade 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th..............................................................

0 times

1 to 3 times

2

3

4 to 11 times 12 or more times 4

5

0 times

1 to 3 times

6

7

4 to 11 times 12 or more times 8

9

75.3

(0.74)

18.8

(0.59)

4.0

(0.26)

1.9

(0.18)

91.9

(0.35)

7.1

(0.34)

0.6

(0.08)

0.5

(0.07)

69.8 80.8

(1.10) (0.72)

22.1 15.6

(0.82) (0.64)

5.4 2.6

(0.43) (0.21)

2.7 1.0

(0.30) (0.17)

89.3 94.4

(0.55) (0.38)

9.1 5.1

(0.48) (0.38)

0.8 0.3 !

(0.15) (0.09)

0.7 0.3

(0.12) (0.07)

79.1 65.3 71.6 83.9 78.0 67.9 71.5

(0.70) (1.67) (1.15) (1.87) (4.95) (7.39) (2.31)

16.5 26.3 20.4 10.4 19.9 23.0 22.3

(0.61) (1.49) (1.30) (1.55) (3.98) (5.74) (2.03)

3.2 5.9 5.2 2.1 ! ‡ ‡ 3.7

(0.30) (0.66) (0.55) (0.80) (†) (†) (0.83)

1.2 2.5 2.8 3.7 ! ‡ ‡ 2.6 !

(0.18) (0.31) (0.44) (1.28) (†) (†) (0.81)

93.6 87.2 90.6 94.5 92.9 89.3 90.0

(0.45) (0.84) (0.44) (1.39) (2.58) (3.13) (1.04)

5.7 11.1 7.9 3.1 ! 7.1 ! 9.1 ! 9.1

(0.44) (0.90) (0.41) (0.94) (2.58) (3.14) (1.03)

0.4 1.2 0.7 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

(0.11) (0.30) (0.17) (†) (†) (†) (†)

0.3 0.5 0.7 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

(0.08) (0.13) (0.14) (†) (†) (†) (†)

71.7 73.6 76.0 81.2

(1.17) (1.42) (1.04) (1.19)

20.8 20.8 18.7 14.5

(1.02) (1.21) (0.82) (0.91)

5.1 3.8 3.4 3.1

(0.38) (0.46) (0.46) (0.45)

2.4 1.8 1.9 1.1

(0.35) (0.31) (0.31) (0.19)

89.1 91.7 92.5 95.1

(0.78) (0.61) (0.53) (0.63)

9.5 7.4 6.4 4.1

(0.77) (0.59) (0.52) (0.54)

0.9 0.4 0.4 ! 0.5 !

(0.24) (0.10) (0.15) (0.14)

0.5 0.5 0.6 0.4

(0.12) (0.14) (0.17) (0.10)

†Not applicable. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. ‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater. 1The term “anywhere” is not used in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire; students were simply asked how many times in the past 12 months they had been in a physical fight.

2In

the question asking students about physical fights at school, “on school property” was not defined for respondents. categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 2013. (This table was prepared June 2014.)

3Race

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

161

340 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education

Table 13.3. Percentage of public school students in grades 9–12 who reported having been in a physical Fights and Weapons fight at least one time during the previous 12 months, by location and state: Selected years, Table 231.30. Percentage public school students in grades 9–12 who reported having been in a physical fight at least one time during the 2003 of through 2013 previous 12 months, by location and state: Selected years, 2003 through 2013 [Standard [Standarderrors errorsappear appearinin parentheses] parentheses] On school property2

Anywhere (including on school property)1 State 1

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011

2013

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

United States3............... Alabama ............................ Alaska................................ Arizona .............................. Arkansas............................ California ...........................

33.0 30.0 27.1 32.4 — —

(0.99) (1.78) (1.55) (1.79) (†) (†)

35.9 31.7 — 32.4 32.1 —

(0.77) (1.84) (†) (1.43) (1.67) (†)

35.5 — 29.2 31.3 32.8 —

(0.77) (†) (1.77) (1.54) (1.79) (†)

31.5 31.7 27.8 35.9 34.7 —

(0.70) (2.44) (1.52) (1.83) (2.08) (†)

32.8 28.4 23.7 27.7 29.1 —

(0.65) (1.79) (1.17) (1.41) (1.76) (†)

24.7 29.2 22.7 23.9 27.0 —

Colorado ............................ Connecticut........................ Delaware............................ District of Columbia ........... Florida................................

— (†) — (†) 34.9 (1.15) 38.0 (1.61) 32.1 (0.74)

32.2 32.7 30.3 36.3 30.0

(1.54) (1.45) (1.38) (1.26) (0.94)

— 31.4 33.0 43.0 32.3

(†) (1.39) (1.31) (1.45) (1.24)

32.0 28.3 30.4 — 29.8

(1.51) (1.26) (1.22) (†) (0.83)

24.9 25.1 28.0 37.9 28.0

(1.69) (1.53) (1.59) (1.71) (0.72)

Georgia.............................. Hawaii ................................ Idaho.................................. Illinois................................. Indiana...............................

31.4 (1.20) — (†) 28.3 (2.00) — (†) 30.6 (2.01)

33.8 27.0 32.3 — 29.3

(1.40) (1.37) (1.38) (†) (1.51)

34.0 28.6 30.0 33.9 29.5

(1.26) (2.20) (1.39) (1.91) (1.35)

32.3 29.5 29.0 33.0 29.1

(1.76) (1.92) (1.08) (1.38) (1.51)

33.1 22.3 26.4 29.5 29.0

Iowa ................................... Kansas............................... Kentucky ............................ Louisiana ........................... Maine.................................

— (†) — (†) 26.4 (1.66) — (†) 26.5 (1.39)

28.3 27.9 29.6 — 28.2

(1.61) (1.51) (1.17) (†) (1.11)

24.0 30.3 27.0 — 26.5

(1.39) (1.62) (0.98) (†) (1.93)

— 27.8 28.7 36.1 22.8

(†) (1.37) (1.66) (1.60) (0.55)

Maryland............................ Massachusetts................... Michigan ............................ Minnesota .......................... Mississippi .........................

— (†) 30.7 (1.05) 30.8 (1.51) — (†) 30.6 (1.66)

36.6 (1.83) 28.6 (1.33) 30.1 (2.02) — (†) — (†)

35.7 27.5 30.7 — 30.6

(2.62) (1.34) (1.89) (†) (1.43)

32.5 29.2 31.6 — 34.1

Missouri ............................. Montana............................. Nebraska ........................... Nevada .............................. New Hampshire .................

28.2 28.6 29.6 35.0 30.5

(2.07) (1.16) (1.14) (1.56) (1.84)

29.8 30.5 28.5 34.5 26.4

(2.12) (1.19) (1.02) (1.78) (1.84)

30.9 32.8 — 31.6 27.0

(2.18) (1.08) (†) (1.53) (1.40)

New Jersey ........................ New Mexico ....................... New York............................ North Carolina ................... North Dakota .....................

— (†) — (†) 32.1 (0.82) 30.9 (1.41) 27.2 (1.60)

30.7 36.7 32.1 29.9 —

(2.18) (1.47) (1.07) (1.41) (†)

Ohio4 .................................. Oklahoma .......................... Oregon............................... Pennsylvania...................... Rhode Island .....................

31.5 (2.83) 28.4 (2.61) — (†) — (†) 27.6 (1.59)

South Carolina................... South Dakota4 .................... Tennessee ......................... Texas ................................. Utah ................................... Vermont ............................. Virginia............................... Washington........................ West Virginia...................... Wisconsin .......................... Wyoming............................

13.6 14.6 — 11.7 13.9 —

(0.56) (1.29) (†) (0.87) (1.33) (†)

12.4 — 10.4 11.3 13.0 —

(0.48) (†) (1.17) (0.72) (1.03) (†)

11.1 13.1 9.8 12.0 14.8 —

(0.54) (1.41) (1.04) (0.82) (1.30) (†)

12.0 11.8 7.7 10.8 11.0 —

(0.39) (1.30) (0.90) (0.78) (1.36) (†)

— (†) 22.4 (1.23) 25.1 (1.24) — (†) 22.0 (0.77)

— (†) — (†) 11.4 (0.70) 15.2 (1.07) 13.3 (0.65)

12.1 10.5 9.8 16.4 11.5

(0.89) (0.72) (0.82) (0.88) (0.77)

— 10.5 10.5 19.8 12.5

(†) (0.83) (0.72) (1.21) (0.84)

10.7 9.6 8.6 — 10.5

(0.83) (0.79) (0.72) (†) (0.47)

— 8.7 8.8 15.8 10.2

(†) (0.84) (1.02) (1.55) (0.44)

— (†) — (†) 9.3 (0.82) — (†) 8.1 (0.52)

(1.65) (1.11) (1.45) (1.41) (1.34)

21.4 16.7 21.6 24.6 —

(1.24) (0.87) (1.18) (1.67) (†)

11.1 (0.74) — (†) 11.7 (1.20) — (†) 10.9 (1.14)

12.1 10.0 12.1 — 11.2

(1.01) (1.01) (1.14) (†) (0.98)

13.1 7.0 12.3 11.3 11.5

(1.07) (0.78) (0.98) (1.11) (0.92)

11.7 10.2 10.2 11.5 9.5

(1.21) (0.99) (0.79) (0.82) (1.18)

11.9 8.2 9.4 9.8 8.9

(1.07) (0.75) (0.81) (0.69) (0.80)

10.3 (1.37) — (†) 7.3 (0.75) 8.2 (0.66) — (†)

24.4 22.4 28.7 36.0 19.5

(1.87) (1.40) (1.65) (2.72) (0.46)

— 20.4 21.2 30.8 17.0

(†) (1.21) (1.20) (2.59) (0.40)

— (†) — (†) 10.1 (1.05) — (†) 9.1 (1.01)

11.3 10.1 12.7 — 10.0

(1.12) (0.92) (0.81) (†) (1.03)

9.1 10.6 10.6 — 10.1

(0.96) (1.04) (0.65) (†) (1.09)

— 9.0 9.5 13.7 9.1

(†) (0.81) (0.93) (1.28) (0.33)

9.6 7.8 11.4 15.8 7.9

(0.89) (0.84) (0.93) (2.17) (0.27)

— 7.2 6.0 12.0 5.7

(†) (0.72) (0.94) (1.68) (0.29)

(2.23) (1.24) (1.72) (†) (1.73)

29.1 25.4 27.4 — 29.3

(1.80) (0.92) (1.32) (†) (1.72)

— (†) 20.3 (0.91) 21.6 (0.88) — (†) 31.0 (1.84)

— (†) 10.2 (0.67) 12.2 (1.02) — (†) 10.2 (1.26)

14.9 (1.33) 10.2 (0.67) 11.4 (1.11) — (†) — (†)

12.4 9.1 11.4 — 11.9

(1.69) (0.81) (0.89) (†) (0.96)

11.2 8.7 11.3 — 12.6

(1.30) (0.68) (1.02) (†) (1.02)

11.1 7.1 9.1 — 12.3

(1.24) (0.65) (0.68) (†) (1.06)

14.3 4.6 6.9 — 13.6

(0.32) (0.49) (0.55) (†) (1.40)

28.7 31.7 — 35.0 25.9

(1.34) (2.25) (†) (1.45) (1.59)

— (†) 25.4 (0.73) 26.7 (1.09) — (†) 23.8 (1.27)

— (†) 22.8 (0.90) 20.1 (1.22) 23.6 (1.93) — (†)

9.8 10.3 10.6 12.6 11.6

(0.95) (0.68) (0.81) (1.01) (1.20)

10.2 10.9 9.3 14.2 10.7

(1.31) (0.67) (0.60) (1.32) (1.06)

10.7 12.0 — 11.3 11.3

(1.21) (0.75) (†) (1.10) (0.70)

9.0 10.8 — 10.0 9.1

(0.97) (1.33) (†) (0.82) (0.87)

— (†) 9.1 (0.51) 7.4 (0.68) — (†) 9.9 (0.89)

— 7.3 5.7 6.8 6.9

(†) (0.37) (0.70) (1.12) (0.81)

— (†) 37.1 (1.06) 31.7 (1.08) 30.1 (1.54) — (†)

27.5 37.3 29.6 28.6 —

(1.46) (1.07) (1.23) (0.96) (†)

23.9 31.5 27.0 27.6 —

21.8 27.2 22.8 24.1 —

(1.34) (1.27) (1.10) (1.49) (†)

— (†) — (†) 14.6 (0.73) 10.7 (1.00) 8.6 (0.96)

10.1 15.6 12.5 11.6 10.7

(1.31) (1.19) (0.74) (0.85) (1.13)

— 16.9 12.2 10.4 9.6

(†) (0.70) (0.91) (0.84) (0.79)

— 15.0 11.4 9.4 7.4

(†) (0.85) (0.91) (0.43) (0.78)

— (†) 11.3 (0.78) — (†) 10.6 (1.01) 8.2 (0.73)

— (†) 9.7 (0.61) — (†) 7.6 (0.94) 8.8 (0.75)

30.2 (1.95) 31.1 (1.63) — (†) — (†) 28.4 (1.34)

30.4 (1.57) 29.2 (1.37) — (†) — (†) 26.3 (1.61)

— (†) 30.8 (2.10) — (†) 29.6 (1.76) 25.1 (0.83)

31.2 (1.58) 28.5 (1.96) — (†) — (†) 23.5 (0.81)

19.8 (1.49) 25.1 (1.79) — (†) — (†) 18.8 (1.12)

11.3 (1.67) 11.4 (1.15) — (†) — (†) 11.4 (1.18)

10.2 (1.17) 12.1 (1.13) — (†) — (†) 11.2 (0.80)

9.4 (0.82) 10.6 (0.81) — (†) — (†) 9.6 (0.93)

— (†) 12.8 (1.43) — (†) 9.9 (1.01) 9.1 (0.73)

8.8 (0.68) 9.4 (1.25) — (†) — (†) 7.8 (0.52)

6.2 (0.88) 7.2 (1.05) — (†) — (†) 6.4 (0.52)

— (†) 27.0 (2.72) 28.3 (1.94) — (†) 28.7 (2.74)

31.3 26.5 30.9 34.2 25.9

(1.68) (2.86) (1.66) (1.57) (1.84)

29.1 29.8 31.8 34.9 30.1

(1.37) (2.00) (1.55) (1.17) (2.01)

36.4 27.1 32.3 33.3 28.2

(2.06) (1.36) (1.31) (1.05) (1.61)

32.6 24.5 30.8 34.1 23.9

(2.04) (2.22) (1.24) (0.92) (1.88)

26.7 24.2 25.7 25.4 21.3

(1.42) (2.04) (1.69) (1.33) (1.16)

— (†) 9.0 (1.12) 12.2 (1.33) — (†) 11.9 (1.80)

12.7 8.4 10.9 14.5 10.4

(1.18) (1.56) (1.00) (0.94) (1.57)

10.8 9.3 12.4 13.9 11.6

(0.86) (1.32) (1.13) (0.90) (1.36)

12.1 8.3 11.3 13.2 10.6

(1.43) (0.52) (0.96) (0.67) (0.84)

12.2 8.2 10.5 12.5 8.1

(1.48) (0.92) (0.83) (0.65) (1.18)

9.6 6.6 10.4 9.1 6.9

(1.17) (0.52) (1.02) (0.79) (0.65)

26.9 — — 26.5 31.4 31.2

24.3 — — 29.1 32.6 30.4

(1.36) (†) (†) (1.88) (1.51) (1.08)

26.0 — — 29.9 31.2 27.9

(1.44) (†) (†) (2.39) (1.46) (1.12)

25.6 — — 31.7 25.8 30.9

(0.71) (†) (†) (1.96) (1.52) (1.17)

23.1 24.9 — 25.7 25.3 26.5

(1.42) (1.71) (†) (1.66) (1.72) (1.08)

— 23.5 — 25.2 22.4 24.3

(†) (0.90) (†) (1.84) (1.46) (1.11)

12.2 — — 10.3 11.6 12.7

12.2 — — 12.1 12.2 12.2

(0.98) (†) (†) (1.41) (1.03) (0.72)

11.5 — — 12.9 11.4 11.6

(0.88) (†) (†) (1.70) (0.97) (0.83)

11.0 — — 11.3 9.6 12.6

(0.36) (†) (†) (1.07) (0.87) (0.73)

8.8 7.9 — 10.3 9.1 11.3

(0.72) (0.93) (†) (1.02) (0.95) (0.65)

9.4 — — 9.1 6.8 8.9

(0.50) (†) (†) (1.08) (0.69) (0.60)

(0.92) (†) (†) (1.62) (1.68) (1.23)

—Not available. †Not applicable. 1The term “anywhere” is not used in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire; students were simply asked how many times in the past 12 months they had been in a physical fight. 2In the question asking students about physical fights at school, “on school property” was not defined for survey respondents. 3Data for the U.S. total include both public and private schools and were collected through a national survey representing the entire country. 4Data include both public and private schools.

12.8 12.9 8.6 11.4 — —

(0.71) (†) (†) (1.39) (0.92) (0.93)

Supplemental Tables

8.1 10.9 — 8.8 11.4 —

(0.35) (0.93) (†) (0.94) (0.89) (†)

NOTE: State-level data include public schools only, with the exception of data for Ohio and South Dakota. Data for the U.S. total, Ohio, and South Dakota include both public and private schools. For specific states, a given year’s data may be unavailable (1) because the state did not participate in the survey that year; (2) because the state omitted this particular survey item from the state-level questionnaire; or (3) because the state had an overall response rate of less than 60 percent (the overall response rate is the school response rate multiplied by the student response rate). SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 2003 through 2013. (This table was prepared June 2014.)

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

162

13

(0.76) (1.21) (0.92) (0.86) (†) (†)

(1.56) (1.02) (1.25) (1.37) (†)

(0.74) (2.32) (1.64) (1.48) (1.30) (†)

2013

Location and student characteristic

(0.86) (0.85) (1.09) (†) (†) (5.70) (†) (0.73) (0.97) (1.41) (0.83) (†) (†) (†)

12.6 11.5 11.9 10.8 — — —

(0.96) (0.65)

17.9 5.1 10.9 15.0 13.3 — — 17.6 ! —

(0.73)

11.8

(†) (†) (†)

— — —

(1.43) (1.24) (1.35) (†) (†) (8.08) (†)

20.6 28.5 24.4 — — 34.2 — (1.42) (1.11) (1.66) (1.46)

(1.68) (0.85)

34.3 9.2

25.5 21.4 21.5 19.9

(1.18)

22.1

2

1993

— — —

10.7 10.4 10.2 7.6

9.0 10.3 14.1 — — 13.0 ! —

14.3 4.9

9.8

— — —

22.6 21.1 20.3 16.1

18.9 21.8 24.7 — — 32.0 —

31.1 8.3

20.0

(†) (†) (†)

(0.76) (0.78) (0.94) (0.68)

(0.65) (1.13) (1.63) (†) (†) (4.35) (†)

(0.76) (0.53)

(0.45)

(†) (†) (†)

(1.24) (0.94) (1.40) (0.93)

(0.93) (2.03) (1.87) (†) (†) (5.69) (†)

(1.03) (0.72)

(0.66)

3

1995

7.0 8.7 11.2

10.2 7.7 9.4 7.0

7.8 9.2 10.4 — — 15.9 —

12.5 3.7

8.5

18.7 16.8 22.3

22.6 17.4 18.2 15.4

17.0 21.7 23.3 — — 26.2 —

27.7 7.0

18.3

(0.67) (0.68) (2.19)

(0.90) (0.99) (1.33) (0.91)

(1.16) (0.98) (0.99) (†) (†) (3.68) (†)

(1.50) (0.37)

(0.79)

(1.34) (1.02) (2.12)

(1.34) (1.33) (1.69) (1.65)

(1.29) (1.99) (1.44) (†) (†) (3.65) (†)

(1.57) (0.54)

(0.91)

4

1997

7.2 6.2 9.6

7.2 6.6 7.0 6.2

6.4 5.0 7.9 6.5 9.3 11.6 ! 11.4

11.0 2.8

6.9

15.8 17.0 22.3

17.6 18.7 16.1 15.9

16.4 17.2 18.7 13.0 25.3 21.8 22.2

28.6 6.0

17.3

(1.09) (0.74) (1.61)

(1.07) (0.83) (0.60) (0.78)

(0.87) (0.50) (0.73) (1.44) (2.66) (5.13) (2.76)

(1.07) (0.38)

(0.60)

(0.85) (1.34) (2.19)

(1.58) (1.31) (1.31) (1.44)

(1.36) (2.68) (1.35) (2.01) (5.02) (5.68) (3.34)

(1.71) (0.56)

(0.97)

5

1999

—Not available. †Not applicable. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. 1The term “anywhere” is not used in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire; students were simply asked how many days they carried a weapon during the past 30 days. 2Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. 3Before 1999, Asian students and Pacific Islander students were not categorized separately, and students could not be classified as Two or more races. Because the response categories changed in 1999, caution should be used in comparing data on race from 1993, 1995, and 1997 with data from later years.

On school property5 Total......................................................... Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity2 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian3........................................................... Pacific Islander3 ........................................... American Indian/Alaska Native.................... Two or more races3 ...................................... Grade 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th.............................................................. Urbanicity4 Urban ........................................................... Suburban ..................................................... Rural ............................................................

Anywhere (including on school property)1 Total......................................................... Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity2 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian3........................................................... Pacific Islander3 ........................................... American Indian/Alaska Native.................... Two or more races3 ...................................... Grade 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th.............................................................. Urbanicity4 Urban ........................................................... Suburban ..................................................... Rural ............................................................

1

6.0 6.3 8.3

6.7 6.7 6.1 6.1

6.1 6.3 6.4 7.2 10.0 ! 16.4 13.2

10.2 2.9

6.4

15.3 17.4 23.0

19.8 16.7 16.8 15.1

17.9 15.2 16.5 10.6 17.4 31.2 25.2

29.3 6.2

17.4

5.6 6.4 6.3

5.3 6.0 6.6 6.4

5.5 6.9 6.0 6.6 ! 4.9 ! 12.9 13.3 !

8.9 3.1

6.1

17.0 16.5 18.9

18.0 15.9 18.2 15.5

16.7 17.3 16.5 11.6 16.3 ! 29.3 29.8

26.9 6.7

17.1

(0.81) (1.01) (0.67)

(1.13) (0.53) (0.80) (0.64)

(0.57) (0.96) (0.56) (2.44) (2.05) (3.40) (4.10)

(0.74) (0.50)

(0.57)

(1.32) (1.36) (1.91)

(1.81) (1.14) (1.21) (1.06)

(0.95) (1.77) (1.31) (2.67) (6.37) (4.58) (5.03)

(1.31) (0.60)

(0.90)

7

2003

— — —

6.4 6.9 5.9 6.7

6.1 5.1 8.2 2.8 ! 15.4 ! 7.2 11.9

10.2 2.6

6.5

— — —

19.9 19.4 17.1 16.9

18.7 16.4 19.0 7.0 20.0 ! 25.6 26.7

29.8 7.1

18.5

(†) (†) (†)

(0.75) (0.70) (0.71) (0.64)

— — —

6.0 5.8 5.5 6.0

5.3 6.0 7.3 4.1 9.5 ! 7.7 5.0

9.0 2.7

(0.83) (0.30) (0.66) (0.66) (0.91) (1.24) (6.10) (1.60) (2.99)

5.9

— — —

20.1 18.8 16.7 15.5

(0.46)

(†) (†) (†)

(1.21) (1.19) (1.13) (0.95)

18.2 17.2 18.5 7.8 25.5 20.6 19.0

28.5 7.5

(1.35) (0.43) (1.13) (0.81) (1.10) (1.70) (6.52) (3.79) (3.11)

18.0

(0.80)

8

2005

(†) (†) (†)

(0.59) (0.61) (0.68) (0.58)

(0.55) (0.46) (0.82) (1.01) (3.40) (2.08) (1.11)

(0.65) (0.33)

(0.37)

(†) (†) (†)

(1.41) (1.21) (1.08) (1.28)

(1.28) (1.05) (1.21) (1.41) (4.35) (3.02) (2.46)

(1.41) (0.66)

(0.87)

9

2007

— — —

4.9 6.1 5.2 6.0

5.6 5.3 5.8 3.6 9.8 4.2 ! 5.8

8.0 2.9

5.6

— — —

18.0 18.4 16.2 16.6

18.6 14.4 17.2 8.4 20.3 20.7 17.9

27.1 7.1

17.5

(†) (†) (†)

(0.46) (0.57) (0.44) (0.57)

(0.44) (0.74) (0.58) (0.84) (2.33) (1.50) (1.35)

(0.52) (0.24)

(0.32)

(†) (†) (†)

(0.87) (1.51) (0.93) (0.85)

(1.16) (1.33) (0.94) (1.28) (3.40) (3.40) (1.61)

(1.45) (0.38)

(0.73)

10

2009

— — —

4.8 6.1 4.7 5.6

5.1 4.6 5.8 4.3 ! 10.9 ! 7.5 7.5

8.2 2.3

5.4

— — —

17.3 16.6 16.2 15.8

17.0 14.2 16.2 9.1 20.7 27.6 23.7

25.9 6.8

16.6

(†) (†) (†)

(0.50) (0.72) (0.44) (0.51)

(0.40) (0.67) (0.70) (1.66) (3.73) (1.62) (1.87)

(0.59) (0.19)

(0.35)

(†) (†) (†)

(1.07) (0.89) (0.84) (0.90)

(1.05) (0.85) (0.82) (1.57) (5.00) (2.41) (2.58)

(1.07) (0.41)

(0.65)

11

2011

— — —

4.8 4.8 5.9 5.3

5.7 3.9 4.7 3.8 4.0 ! 7.0 ! 6.3

7.6 3.0

5.2

— — —

17.5 17.8 17.9 18.3

20.8 12.5 15.5 8.7 12.6 ! 17.8 18.8

28.1 7.9

17.9

(†) (†) (†)

(0.69) (0.58) (1.19) (0.88)

(0.65) (0.42) (0.61) (1.13) (1.95) (3.22) (1.58)

(0.70) (0.40)

(0.44)

(†) (†) (†)

(0.99) (1.09) (1.43) (1.17)

(0.90) (0.96) (0.95) (1.79) (3.98) (4.01) (2.09)

(1.31) (0.56)

(0.73)

12

2013

4Refers to the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) status of the respondent’s household as defined in 2000 by the U.S. Census Bureau. Categories include “central city of an MSA (Urban),” “in MSA but not in central city (Suburban),” and “not MSA (Rural).” 5In the question asking students about carrying a weapon at school, “on school property” was not defined for survey respondents. NOTE: Respondents were asked about carrying “a weapon such as a gun, knife, or club.” SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 1993 through 2013. (This table was prepared June 2014.)

(0.67) (0.68) (1.48)

(0.66) (0.60) (0.74) (0.71)

(0.62) (0.92) (0.53) (2.05) (3.05) (4.02) (3.61)

(0.88) (0.27)

(0.52)

(0.99) (1.39) (1.86)

(1.44) (1.11) (1.26) (1.28)

(1.30) (1.23) (0.78) (2.10) (4.35) (5.52) (3.41)

(1.67) (0.41)

(0.99)

6

2001

[Standard parentheses] [Standarderrors errorsappear appear ininparentheses]

Table 14.1. Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported carrying a weapon at least 1 day during the previous 30 days, by location and selected student characteristics: Selected years, 1993 through 2013 Table 231.40. Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported carrying a weapon at least 1 day during the previous 30 days, by location and selected student characteristics: Selected years, 1993 through 2013

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 341 Fights and Weapons

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

163

342 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education

Table 14.2. Percentage distribution of students in grades 9–12, by number of days they reported Fights and Weapons carrying a weapon anywhere or on school property during the previous 30 days and Table 231.50. Percentage distribution of students in grades 9–12, by number of days they reported carrying a weapon anywhere or on school selected student characteristics: 2013 property during the previous 30 days and selected student characteristics: 2013 [Standarderrors errorsappear appear in in parentheses] parentheses] [Standard

On school property2

Anywhere (including on school property)1 Student characteristic 1 Total......................................................... Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity3 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian............................................................ Pacific Islander............................................. American Indian/Alaska Native.................... Two or more races ....................................... Grade 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th..............................................................

0 days

1 day

2 to 5 days

6 or more days

0 days

1 day

2 to 5 days

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

(0.73)

3.4

(0.19)

5.5

(0.22)

9.0

(0.67)

94.8

(0.44)

1.4

(0.14)

1.2

(0.13)

2.6

(0.42)

71.9 92.1

(1.31) (0.56)

5.0 1.8

(0.31) (0.20)

8.9 2.2

(0.45) (0.19)

14.2 3.8

(1.23) (0.39)

92.4 97.0

(0.70) (0.40)

2.0 0.8

(0.23) (0.15)

1.9 0.5

(0.23) (0.14)

3.7 1.6

(0.64) (0.33)

79.2 87.5 84.5 91.3 87.4 82.2 81.2

(0.90) (0.96) (0.95) (1.79) (3.98) (4.01) (2.09)

3.4 2.8 4.0 1.5 ! ‡ ‡ 5.3

(0.31) (0.42) (0.37) (0.55) (†) (†) (1.26)

6.1 4.2 5.1 2.5 ! 6.8 ‡ 6.8

(0.30) (0.63) (0.46) (0.76) (1.95) (†) (1.14)

11.3 5.5 6.4 4.7 ! 4.5 ! 9.9 6.6

(0.97) (0.57) (0.59) (1.49) (1.99) (2.12) (1.08)

94.3 96.1 95.3 96.2 96.0 93.0 93.7

(0.65) (0.42) (0.61) (1.13) (1.95) (3.22) (1.58)

1.3 1.6 1.5 0.8 ! ‡ ‡ 2.4 !

(0.19) (0.29) (0.33) (0.41) (†) (†) (0.93)

1.1 1.4 1.3 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

(0.15) (0.31) (0.28) (†) (†) (†) (†)

3.3 0.9 1.9 2.4 ! ‡ 2.7 ! 2.6

(0.67) (0.18) (0.29) (1.01) (†) (1.31) (0.69)

82.5 82.2 82.1 81.7

(0.99) (1.09) (1.43) (1.17)

4.0 3.8 2.8 2.9

(0.37) (0.42) (0.34) (0.37)

5.7 5.9 5.5 4.9

(0.69) (0.72) (0.49) (0.60)

7.8 8.0 9.6 10.5

(0.69) (0.64) (1.29) (0.86)

95.2 95.2 94.1 94.7

(0.69) (0.58) (1.19) (0.88)

1.6 1.7 1.3 0.9

(0.28) (0.26) (0.34) (0.18)

1.1 1.0 1.4 1.4

(0.28) (0.21) (0.25) (0.37)

2.1 2.1 3.3 ! 3.1

(0.38) (0.44) (1.10) (0.60)

2In the question asking students about carrying a weapon at school, “on school property” was not defined for survey respondents. 3Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. NOTE: Respondents were asked about carrying “a weapon such as a gun, knife, or club.” Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 2013. (This table was prepared June 2014.)

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Supplemental Tables

9

82.1

†Not applicable. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. ‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater. 1The term “anywhere” is not used in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire; students were simply asked how many days they carried a weapon during the past 30 days.

164

6 or more days

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 343

Table 14.3.

Fights and Weapons Percentage of public school students in grades 9–12 who reported carrying a weapon at least 1 day during the previous 30 days, by location and state: Selected years, 2003 Table 231.60. Percentage of public school students in grades 9–12 who reported carrying a weapon at least 1 day during the previous 30 days, through 2013

by location and state: Selected years, 2003 through 2013

[Standard [Standarderrors errorsappear appearinin parentheses] parentheses] On school property2

Anywhere (including on school property)1 State 1

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011

2013

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

17.1 19.9 18.4 18.4 — —

(0.90) (1.44) (1.14) (0.82) (†) (†)

18.5 21.0 — 20.6 25.9 —

(0.80) (1.72) (†) (0.84) (1.15) (†)

18.0 — 24.4 20.5 20.7 —

(0.87) (†) (1.61) (0.91) (1.36) (†)

17.5 22.9 20.0 19.9 22.9 —

(0.73) (2.27) (1.30) (1.25) (1.82) (†)

16.6 21.5 19.0 17.5 21.1 —

(0.65) (1.54) (1.19) (1.17) (1.76) (†)

17.9 23.1 19.2 17.5 27.1 —

Colorado ............................ Connecticut........................ Delaware............................ District of Columbia ........... Florida................................

— (†) — (†) 16.0 (0.88) 25.0 (1.40) 17.2 (0.76)

17.0 16.3 16.6 17.2 15.2

(1.57) (1.30) (1.04) (1.11) (0.68)

— 17.2 17.1 21.3 18.0

(†) (1.72) (1.00) (1.45) (0.93)

16.7 12.4 18.5 — 17.3

(1.27) (0.89) (0.92) (†) (0.60)

15.5 — 13.5 18.9 15.6

(1.31) (†) (0.88) (1.34) (0.76)

— (†) — (†) 14.4 (0.80) — (†) 15.7 (0.67)

Georgia.............................. Hawaii ................................ Idaho.................................. Illinois................................. Indiana...............................

18.7 (1.17) — (†) — (†) — (†) 17.8 (1.93)

22.1 13.3 23.9 — 19.2

(1.99) (1.03) (1.45) (†) (1.25)

19.5 14.8 23.6 14.3 20.9

(0.96) (1.56) (1.35) (1.01) (0.80)

18.8 15.9 21.8 16.0 18.1

(1.11) (2.06) (1.15) (1.04) (1.58)

22.8 13.9 22.8 12.6 17.0

(2.25) (0.81) (1.30) (0.91) (1.46)

18.5 10.5 27.1 15.8 —

Iowa ................................... Kansas............................... Kentucky ............................ Louisiana ........................... Maine.................................

— (†) — (†) 18.5 (1.20) — (†) 16.5 (1.20)

15.7 16.2 23.1 — 18.3

(1.49) (1.37) (1.49) (†) (2.00)

12.8 18.4 24.4 — 15.0

(1.13) (1.19) (1.08) (†) (1.47)

— (†) 16.0 (1.26) 21.7 (1.72) 19.6 (1.73) — (†)

Maryland............................ Massachusetts................... Michigan ............................ Minnesota .......................... Mississippi .........................

— (†) 13.5 (0.89) 15.2 (0.89) — (†) 20.0 (1.78)

19.1 (1.59) 15.2 (0.88) 15.8 (1.49) — (†) — (†)

19.3 14.9 17.9 — 17.3

(1.51) (0.88) (1.30) (†) (1.33)

16.6 12.8 16.6 — 17.2

Missouri ............................. Montana............................. Nebraska ........................... Nevada .............................. New Hampshire .................

16.8 19.4 16.0 14.9 15.1

(1.87) (0.88) (1.06) (1.09) (1.59)

19.4 21.4 17.9 18.4 16.2

(1.79) (1.20) (0.89) (1.32) (1.26)

18.6 22.1 — 14.5 18.1

(1.48) (0.76) (†) (1.08) (1.46)

16.0 (1.44) 23.0 (1.07) — (†) 19.1 (1.08) — (†)

— (†) 23.5 (0.96) 18.6 (0.90) — (†) 14.5 (1.04)

22.2 (1.93) 25.7 (0.84) — (†) 16.0 (1.50) — (†)

5.5 7.2 5.0 6.3 5.8

(1.04) (0.56) (0.53) (0.67) (1.00)

7.3 10.2 4.8 6.8 6.5

New Jersey ........................ New Mexico ....................... New York............................ North Carolina ................... North Dakota .....................

— (†) — (†) 13.5 (1.01) 19.2 (1.49) — (†)

10.5 24.5 14.3 21.5 —

(0.95) (1.44) (0.74) (1.35) (†)

— (†) 27.5 (1.20) 14.2 (0.76) 21.2 (1.19) — (†)

9.6 27.4 13.9 19.6 —

9.6 22.8 12.6 20.8 —

10.2 22.2 12.8 20.6 —

(1.08) (0.88) (0.82) (1.34) (†)

— (†) — (†) 5.2 (0.51) 6.3 (0.79) 5.7 (0.98)

3.1 8.0 5.2 6.4 6.0

Ohio4 .................................. Oklahoma .......................... Oregon............................... Pennsylvania...................... Rhode Island .....................

12.5 (1.40) 21.8 (1.72) — (†) — (†) 12.3 (1.01)

15.2 (1.27) 18.9 (1.38) — (†) — (†) 12.4 (0.90)

16.6 (1.42) 22.3 (1.65) — (†) — (†) 12.0 (0.74)

— (†) 19.0 (1.44) — (†) 14.8 (1.28) 10.4 (0.50)

16.4 (1.37) 19.4 (1.86) — (†) — (†) 11.2 (0.82)

14.2 (1.61) 19.9 (1.41) — (†) — (†) — (†)

3.6 (0.75) 8.0 (1.01) — (†) — (†) 5.9 (0.85)

4.4 (0.63) 7.0 (0.77) — (†) — (†) 4.9 (0.41)

4.1 (0.51) 9.0 (1.43) — (†) — (†) 4.9 (0.63)

— (†) 5.6 (0.79) — (†) 3.3 (0.47) 4.0 (0.33)

— (†) 6.1 (1.14) — (†) — (†) 4.0 (0.39)

— (†) 6.0 (0.77) — (†) — (†) 5.0 (0.78)

South Carolina................... South Dakota4 .................... Tennessee ......................... Texas ................................. Utah ...................................

— (†) — (†) 21.3 (2.06) — (†) 15.3 (1.80)

20.5 — 24.1 19.3 17.7

19.8 — 22.6 18.8 17.1

20.4 — 20.5 18.2 16.0

(2.22) (†) (1.64) (0.89) (1.40)

23.4 — 21.1 17.6 16.8

(1.86) (†) (1.34) (0.73) (1.48)

21.2 — 19.2 18.4 17.2

(1.25) (†) (1.70) (1.33) (1.19)

— (†) 7.1 (0.73) 5.4 (0.80) — (†) 5.6 (1.24)

6.7 8.3 8.1 7.9 7.0

(0.82) (0.72) (0.92) (0.63) (1.03)

4.8 6.3 5.6 6.8 7.5

(0.79) (0.80) (0.70) (0.55) (1.00)

4.6 9.2 5.1 6.4 4.6

(0.67) (0.76) (0.70) (0.76) (0.63)

6.3 5.7 5.2 4.9 5.9

(0.89) (0.52) (0.80) (0.45) (1.01)

3.7 6.8 5.4 5.6 5.0

(0.48) (0.87) (0.79) (0.68) (0.57)

Vermont ............................. Virginia............................... Washington........................ West Virginia...................... Wisconsin .......................... Wyoming............................

— (†) — (†) — (†) 20.7 (1.37) 13.2 (0.81) 24.6 (1.49)

— (†) — (†) — (†) 22.3 (1.32) 15.8 (1.19) 28.0 (1.17)

— (†) — (†) — (†) 24.4 (1.05) 10.9 (0.81) 26.0 (1.04)

— 20.4 — 20.7 10.4 27.1

(†) (1.26) (†) (1.64) (0.66) (1.19)

— 15.8 — 24.3 14.4 28.8

(†) (0.69) (†) (2.16) (1.32) (0.95)

9.1 — — 8.5 3.9 10.0

(0.90) (†) (†) (1.00) (0.54) (0.71)

9.6 — — 6.9 3.6 11.4

(1.05) (†) (†) (0.89) (0.49) (0.76)

9.0 — — 6.5 3.4 11.5

(0.61) (†) (†) (0.72) (0.50) (0.81)

9.1 5.7 — 5.5 3.1 10.5

(0.73) (0.64) (†) (0.75) (0.41) (0.71)

10.4 — — 5.5 3.2 9.9

(1.28) (†) (†) (0.99) (0.52) (0.62)

(1.42) (†) (1.58) (0.93) (1.70)

(1.69) (†) (1.41) (0.71) (1.38)

— (†) — (†) — (†) 21.3 (1.52) 12.7 (0.76) 26.8 (1.28)

(0.81) (0.90) (0.98) (0.95) (†)

6.1 7.3 7.1 5.8 — —

13

United States3............... Alabama ............................ Alaska................................ Arizona .............................. Arkansas............................ California ...........................

(1.19) (1.00) (0.69) (†) (1.02)

(0.73) (1.55) (1.31) (1.17) (1.76) (†)

2013

(0.57) (1.35) (0.81) (0.68) (†) (†)

6.5 8.4 — 7.4 10.5 —

(0.46) (1.44) (†) (0.53) (1.10) (†)

5.9 — 8.4 7.0 6.8 —

(0.37) (†) (1.07) (0.75) (0.85) (†)

5.6 8.7 7.8 6.5 8.4 —

(0.32) (1.42) (0.83) (0.64) (1.02) (†)

5.4 8.2 5.7 5.7 6.5 —

(0.35) (1.02) (0.72) (0.59) (0.95) (†)

5.2 5.5 6.1 4.8 9.1 —

(0.44) (0.56) (0.80) (0.86) (1.10) (†)

— (†) — (†) 5.0 (0.47) 10.6 (0.96) 5.3 (0.38)

5.4 6.4 5.7 6.7 4.7

(0.81) (0.83) (0.54) (0.60) (0.41)

— 5.5 5.4 7.4 5.6

(†) (1.03) (0.55) (0.76) (0.41)

5.5 3.9 5.1 — 4.7

(0.90) (0.45) (0.59) (†) (0.35)

5.5 6.6 5.2 5.5 —

(0.69) (0.67) (0.57) (0.88) (†)

— (†) 6.6 (0.82) 3.1 (0.34) — (†) — (†)

(1.51) (0.87) (1.31) (1.22) (†)

5.0 (0.52) — (†) 7.7 (0.90) — (†) 6.2 (0.91)

7.5 (1.50) 4.9 (0.72) — (†) — (†) 5.8 (0.71)

5.3 3.7 8.9 3.7 6.9

(0.48) (0.92) (0.96) (0.67) (0.64)

6.0 4.7 6.7 4.8 5.7

(0.90) (0.63) (0.59) (0.59) (0.80)

8.6 4.2 6.3 3.9 3.7

(1.80) (0.45) (0.78) (0.53) (0.46)

4.2 (0.66) — (†) 6.5 (0.92) 4.7 (0.57) — (†)

15.8 (1.26) — (†) 22.8 (1.72) 22.2 (0.98) — (†)

— (†) 16.1 (0.87) 20.7 (1.35) 22.8 (2.78) — (†)

— (†) — (†) 7.4 (0.86) — (†) 6.6 (0.91)

4.3 4.9 6.8 — 5.9

(0.70) (0.85) (0.72) (†) (1.03)

4.4 5.7 8.0 — 4.9

(0.61) (0.75) (0.59) (†) (0.70)

— (†) 5.1 (0.65) 6.5 (0.77) 5.8 (1.12) — (†)

4.5 5.2 7.4 4.2 8.0

(0.76) (0.72) (1.25) (1.01) (0.45)

— (†) — (†) 6.4 (0.73) 7.0 (1.37) 7.1 (0.46)

15.9 12.3 15.7 — 18.0

15.8 11.6 15.5 — 19.1

— (†) 5.0 (0.50) 5.1 (0.66) — (†) 5.2 (0.78)

6.9 (0.88) 5.8 (0.59) 4.7 (0.54) — (†) — (†)

5.9 5.0 5.0 — 4.8

(0.81) (0.48) (0.66) (†) (0.60)

4.6 4.4 5.4 — 4.5

(0.58) (0.58) (0.33) (†) (0.48)

5.3 3.7 3.5 — 4.2

(0.55) (0.46) (0.37) (†) (0.76)

4.8 3.1 3.8 — 4.1

(0.99) (0.89) (0.48) (0.91) (0.93)

4.6 9.7 — 4.7 5.8

(0.83) (0.57) (†) (0.61) (0.61)

5.3 7.9 — 6.2 8.8

(1.02) (0.67) (†) (0.62) (1.00)

— (†) 9.3 (0.69) 3.8 (0.45) — (†) — (†)

— (†) 9.9 (0.58) — (†) 3.3 (0.64) — (†)

(0.53) (0.29) (0.42) (0.77) (0.74)

— 9.3 4.7 6.8 5.0

(†) (0.66) (0.41) (0.94) (0.57)

3.1 8.1 4.8 4.7 5.4

(0.45) (0.59) (0.64) (0.57) (0.64)

— 6.5 4.2 6.1 5.7

2.7 5.4 4.0 4.5 6.4

(1.10) (0.95) (0.94) (†) (1.39)

(1.17) (0.93) (0.76) (1.24) (†)

—Not available. †Not applicable. 1The term “anywhere” is not used in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire; students were simply asked how many days they carried a weapon during the past 30 days. 2In the question asking students about carrying a weapon at school, “on school property” was not defined for survey respondents. 3Data for the U.S. total include both public and private schools and were collected through a national survey representing the entire country. 4Data include both public and private schools. NOTE: Respondents were asked about carrying “a weapon such as a gun, knife, or club.” State-level data include public schools only, with the exception of data for Ohio and South

(0.27) (0.83) (1.06) (†) (1.56)

8.3 — — 6.6 3.2 10.1

(0.31) (†) (†) (1.25) (0.43) (0.91)

(†) (0.51) (0.32) (0.64) (0.73)

(0.13) (0.50) (0.35) (†) (0.66)

(0.34) (0.42) (0.38) (0.67) (0.75)

Dakota. Data for the U.S. total, Ohio, and South Dakota include both public and private schools. For specific states, a given year’s data may be unavailable (1) because the state did not participate in the survey that year; (2) because the state omitted this particular survey item from the state-level questionnaire; or (3) because the state had an overall response rate of less than 60 percent (the overall response rate is the school response rate multiplied by the student response rate). SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 2003 through 2013. (This table was prepared June 2014.)

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

165

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 345

Table 14.4.

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported having access to a loaded gun, without Fights and Weapons adult permission, at school or away from school during the school year, by selected student and school characteristics: Selected years, through 2013 adult permission, at school or away from Table 231.70. Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported having access2007 to a loaded gun, without school during the school year, by selected student and school characteristics: Selected years, 2007 through 2013 [Standarderrors errorsappear appear in in parentheses] parentheses] [Standard

Student or school characteristic 1 Total......................................................... Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity1 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian............................................................ Other............................................................ Grade 6th................................................................ 7th................................................................ 8th................................................................ 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th.............................................................. Urbanicity2 Urban ........................................................... Suburban ..................................................... Rural ............................................................ Control of school Public ........................................................... Private..........................................................

2007

2009

2011

2

3

4

(0.40)

5.5

(0.47)

4.7

(0.43)

3.7

(0.38)

8.4 5.0

(0.56) (0.47)

7.6 3.4

(0.72) (0.44)

5.6 3.6

(0.59) (0.44)

3.9 3.4

(0.56) (0.35)

7.7 6.2 4.8 ‡ 9.3

(0.55) (0.98) (0.79) (†) (2.30)

6.4 3.9 4.9 ‡ 5.4 !

(0.60) (0.92) (0.90) (†) (2.40)

5.3 4.1 4.1 ‡ ‡

(0.50) (0.86) (0.89) (†) (†)

4.2 3.4 3.0 ‡ 4.7 !

(0.45) (0.78) (0.71) (†) (1.79)

2.4 2.6 3.2 6.8 9.2 9.9 12.3

(0.64) (0.56) (0.63) (0.98) (1.13) (1.00) (1.33)

0.8 ! 3.6 3.2 4.4 7.3 7.6 9.8

(0.40) (0.84) (0.63) (0.80) (1.02) (1.16) (1.44)

2.0 ! 3.0 2.9 4.0 5.3 6.4 8.2

(0.89) (0.63) (0.60) (0.75) (0.70) (1.06) (1.06)

‡ 2.0 2.4 3.3 4.7 5.9 5.8

(†) (0.50) (0.62) (0.80) (0.80) (0.99) (0.99)

5.8 6.4 9.1

(0.67) (0.59) (1.04)

4.7 5.5 7.1

(0.72) (0.57) (1.39)

4.1 4.9 4.9

(0.61) (0.55) (0.92)

3.2 3.7 4.6

(0.54) (0.46) (0.91)

6.9 4.5

(0.44) (0.88)

5.8 2.3 !

(0.49) (0.83)

4.8 3.2 !

(0.42) (0.98)

3.7 3.6

(0.40) (1.01)

2Refers

to the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) status of the respondent’s household as defined in 2000 by the U.S. Census Bureau. Categories include “central city of an MSA (Urban),” “in MSA but not in central city (Suburban),” and “not MSA (Rural).” SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, 2007 through 2013. (This table was prepared October 2014.)

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Supplemental Tables

5

6.7

†Not applicable. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. ‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater. 1Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. “Other” includes American Indians/ Alaska Natives, Pacific Islanders, and persons reporting that they are of Two or more races.

166

2013

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 347 Fights and Weapons

Table 14.5.

Number of incidents of students bringing firearms to or possessing firearms at a public

Table 231.65. Number of incidents of students bringing firearms to or possessing firearms at a public school and rate of incidents per 100,000 school and rate of incidents per 100,000 students, by state: 2009–10 through 2013–14 students, by state: 2009–10 through 2013–14 Number of firearm incidents State

Rate of firearm incidents per 100,000 students

2009–10

2010–11

2011–12

2012–13

2013–14

2009–10

2010–11

2011–12

2012–13

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

1

2013–14

United States ............ Alabama ............................ Alaska................................ Arizona .............................. Arkansas............................ California ...........................

1,749 23 7 18 32 267

1,685 15 3 7 45 220

1,333 5 5 22 50 79

1,556 46 5 18 65 129

1,501 29 4 17 51 92

3.5 3.1 5.3 1.7 6.7 4.3

3.4 2.0 2.3 0.7 9.3 3.5

2.7 0.7 3.8 2.0 10.3 1.3

3.1 6.2 3.8 1.7 13.4 2.0

3.0 3.9 3.1 1.5 10.4 1.5

Colorado ............................ Connecticut........................ Delaware............................ District of Columbia ........... Florida................................

23 29 7 2 66

19 12 2 2 63

17 21 1 2 51

23 19 2 0 62

21 7 5 2 71

2.8 5.1 5.5 2.9 2.5

2.3 2.1 1.5 2.8 2.4

2.0 3.8 0.8 2.7 1.9

2.7 3.4 1.6 0.0 2.3

2.4 1.3 3.8 2.6 2.6

Georgia.............................. Hawaii ................................ Idaho.................................. Illinois................................. Indiana...............................

132 1 12 21 42

154 2 — 5 28

104 1 10 5 26

118 0 5 9 27

83 0 4 4 25

7.9 0.6 4.3 1.0 4.0

9.2 1.1 — 0.2 2.7

6.2 0.5 3.6 0.2 2.5

6.9 0.0 1.8 0.4 2.6

4.8 0.0 1.3 0.2 2.4

Iowa ................................... Kansas............................... Kentucky ............................ Louisiana ........................... Maine.................................

5 32 12 50 2

2 20 15 49 2

2 9 23 43 4

3 28 20 66 2

3 19 43 80 0

1.0 6.7 1.8 7.2 1.1

0.4 4.1 2.2 7.0 1.1

0.4 1.9 3.4 6.1 2.1

0.6 5.7 2.9 9.3 1.1

0.6 3.8 6.3 11.2 0.0

Maryland............................ Massachusetts................... Michigan ............................ Minnesota .......................... Mississippi .........................

8 11 37 21 42

8 12 80 23 32

10 7 60 10 32

11 10 70 19 38

7 19 41 22 49

0.9 1.1 2.2 2.5 8.5

0.9 1.3 5.0 2.7 6.5

1.2 0.7 3.8 1.2 6.5

1.3 1.0 4.5 2.2 7.7

0.8 2.0 2.6 2.6 9.9

Missouri ............................. Montana............................. Nebraska ........................... Nevada .............................. New Hampshire .................

104 14 8 18 2

120 11 13 14 5

81 9 10 14 6

110 8 16 8 4

88 8 14 29 9

11.3 9.9 2.7 4.2 1.0

13.1 7.8 4.4 3.2 2.6

8.8 6.3 3.3 3.2 3.1

12.0 5.6 5.3 1.8 2.1

9.6 5.6 4.6 6.4 4.8

5 25 18 1 9 11

6 18 46 9 2

5 13 28 11 5

5 15 45 19 6

0.4 5.4 0.6 1 1.6 2.1

0.4 7.4 0.7 1 0.6 11.4

0.4 5.3 1.7 0.6 2.0

0.4 3.8 1.0 0.7 4.9

0.4 4.4 1.6 1.2 5.8

New Jersey ........................ New Mexico ....................... New York............................ North Carolina ................... North Dakota .....................

5 18 17 1 23 2

Ohio ................................... Oklahoma .......................... Oregon............................... Pennsylvania...................... Rhode Island .....................

103 37 14 27 3

91 22 17 24 7

76 27 19 23 1

71 39 16 34 0

102 21 15 23 2

5.8 5.7 2.4 1.5 2.1

5.2 3.3 3.0 1.3 4.9

4.4 4.1 3.3 1.3 0.7

4.1 5.8 2.7 1.9 0.0

5.9 3.1 2.5 1.3 1.4

South Carolina................... South Dakota..................... Tennessee ......................... Texas ................................. Utah ...................................

32 8 79 103 5

8 2 43 93 76

26 10 82 85 99 2

49 9 64 100 49

51 4 57 103 45

4.4 6.5 8.1 2.1 0.9

1.1 1.6 4.4 1.9 13.0

3.6 7.8 8.2 1.7 16.5 2

6.7 6.9 6.4 2.0 8.0

6.8 3.1 5.7 2.0 7.2

Vermont ............................. Virginia............................... Washington........................ West Virginia...................... Wisconsin .......................... Wyoming............................

1 34 162 4 19 5

3 30 173 3 33 9

1 32 26 14 8 4

2 31 33 1 37 18

9 22 46 16 40 9

1.1 2.7 15.6 1.4 2.2 5.7

3.1 2.4 16.6 1.1 3.8 10.1

1.1 2.5 2.5 4.9 0.9 4.4

2.2 2.4 3.1 0.4 4.2 19.7

10.1 1.7 4.3 5.7 4.6 9.7

—Not available. 1Data for New York City Public Schools were not reported. 2The state reported a total state-level firearm incident count that was less than the sum of its reported district-level counts. The sum of the district-level firearm incident counts is displayed instead of the reported state-level count. NOTE: Separate counts were collected for incidents involving handguns, rifles/shotguns, other firearms, and multiple types of firearms. The counts reported here exclude the “other firearms’ category.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, EDFacts file 094, Data Group 601, extracted September 23, 2015, from the EDFacts Data Warehouse (internal U.S. Department of Education source); Common Core of Data (CCD), “State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary and Secondary Education,” 2009–10 through 2013–14. (This table was prepared September 2015.)

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

167

168

, s gu r D

Supplemental Tables

s e t t e r a g i C dn a

t i c i l l I

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015 (0.44) (0.98) (0.84) (†) (†) (3.06) (†) (0.38) (0.43) (0.80) (0.64) (†) (†) (†)

4.6 6.9 6.8 — — 6.7 ! — 5.2 4.7 5.2 5.5 — — —

(†) (†) (†)

— — —

(0.39) (0.54)

(1.79) (2.00) (1.73) (1.35)

40.5 44.0 49.7 56.4

6.2 4.2

(1.26) (1.82) (2.82) (†) (†) (7.18) (†)

49.9 42.5 50.8 — — 45.3 —

(0.39)

(1.23) (1.32)

50.1 45.9

5.2

(1.06)

48.0

2

1993

— — —

7.5 5.9 5.7 6.2

5.6 7.6 9.6 — — 8.1 ! —

7.2 5.3

6.3

— — —

45.6 49.5 53.7 56.5

54.1 42.0 54.7 — — 51.4 —

53.2 49.9

51.6

(†) (†) (†)

(0.90) (0.88) (0.86) (0.58)

(0.62) (0.87) (1.73) (†) (†) (3.30) (†)

(0.50) (0.70)

(0.45)

(†) (†) (†)

(1.87) (2.38) (1.51) (1.64)

(1.77) (2.24) (2.56) (†) (†) (7.18) (†)

(1.33) (1.79)

(1.19)

3

1995

6.4 5.2 5.3

5.9 4.6 6.0 5.9

4.8 5.6 8.2 — — 8.6 ! —

7.2 3.6

5.6

48.9 50.5 55.4

44.2 47.2 53.2 57.3

54.0 36.9 53.9 — — 57.6 —

53.3 47.8

50.8

(0.85) (0.43) (0.55)

(0.83) (0.71) (0.86) (0.66)

(0.42) (0.72) (0.96) (†) (†) (4.15) (†)

(0.66) (0.37)

(0.34)

(2.07) (2.11) (5.36)

(3.12) (2.19) (1.49) (2.50)

(1.51) (1.46) (1.96) (†) (†) (3.79) (†)

(1.22) (1.99)

(1.43)

4

1997

5.0 4.6 5.6

4.4 5.0 4.7 5.0

4.8 4.3 7.0 2.0 6.7 ‡ 5.2

6.1 3.6

4.9

46.5 51.4 52.2

40.6 49.7 50.9 61.7

52.5 39.9 52.8 25.7 60.8 49.4 51.1

52.3 47.7

50.0

(0.60) (0.61) (0.67)

(0.60) (0.67) (0.57) (0.89)

(0.55) (0.52) (0.88) (0.42) (1.59) (†) (1.09)

(0.54) (0.39)

(0.39)

(2.75) (1.32) (4.51)

(2.17) (1.89) (1.98) (2.25)

(1.62) (4.07) (2.41) (2.24) (5.11) (6.43) (3.98)

(1.47) (1.45)

(1.30)

5

1999

5.4 4.9 4.0

5.3 5.1 4.7 4.3

4.2 5.3 7.0 6.8 12.4 8.2 7.0 !

6.1 3.8

4.9

45.2 47.6 50.2

41.1 45.2 49.3 55.2

50.4 32.7 49.2 28.4 52.3 51.4 45.4

49.2 45.0

47.1

6.1 4.8 4.7

5.1 5.6 5.0 4.5

3.9 5.8 7.6 5.6 8.5 ! 7.1 ! 13.3

6.0 4.2

5.2

41.5 46.5 45.3

36.2 43.5 47.0 55.9

47.1 37.4 45.6 27.5 40.0 51.9 47.1

43.8 45.8

44.9

(0.94) (0.54) (0.49)

(0.69) (0.60) (0.57) (0.68)

(0.45) (0.80) (1.08) (1.55) (3.29) (2.61) (2.93)

(0.61) (0.41)

(0.46)

(1.48) (2.10) (2.35)

(1.43) (1.66) (2.08) (1.65)

(1.51) (1.67) (1.39) (3.47) (7.04) (5.29) (3.59)

(1.31) (1.29)

(1.21)

7

2003

— — —

3.7 4.5 4.0 4.8

3.8 3.2 7.7 1.3 ! ‡ 6.2 ! 3.5

5.3 3.3

4.3

— — —

(†) (†) (†)

(0.48) (0.45) (0.47) (0.57)

(0.38) (0.45) (1.04) (0.62) (†) (2.05) (1.02)

(0.39) (0.32)

(0.30)

(†) (†) (†)

(1.23) (1.95) (1.98) (2.12)

36.2 42.0 46.0 50.8

(†) (†) (†)

(0.43) (0.50) (0.54) (0.55)

3.4 4.1 4.2 4.8 — — —

(0.35) (0.63) (0.86) (1.17) (†) (0.89) (1.25)

(0.35) (0.37)

4.6 3.6 3.2 3.4 7.5 4.4 ‡ 5.0 5.4

(0.32)

(†) (†) (†)

(1.15) (1.68) (1.83) (2.09)

(1.67) (1.65) (1.80) (2.17) (6.58) (1.77) (2.89)

(1.39) (1.42)

(1.15)

9

2007

4.1

— — —

35.7 41.8 49.0 54.9

47.3 34.5 47.6 25.4 48.8 34.5 46.2

44.7 44.6

(1.40) (1.56) (1.84) (1.05) (1.39) (1.98) (8.43) (4.13) (3.59)

44.7

(1.38)

46.4 31.2 46.8 21.5 38.7 57.4 39.0

43.8 42.8

43.3

8

2005

— — —

4.4 4.8 4.6 4.1

3.3 5.4 6.9 2.9 10.0 4.3 ! 6.7

5.3 3.6

4.5

— — —

31.5 40.6 45.7 51.7

44.7 33.4 42.9 18.3 34.8 42.8 44.3

40.8 42.9

41.8

(†) (†) (†)

(0.37) (0.46) (0.44) (0.44)

(0.27) (0.59) (0.70) (0.65) (2.34) (1.58) (1.37)

(0.41) (0.34)

(0.29)

(†) (†) (†)

(1.28) (1.42) (2.05) (1.37)

(1.16) (1.45) (1.43) (1.60) (4.36) (5.43) (2.42)

(1.11) (0.85)

(0.80)

10

2009

— — —

5.4 4.4 5.2 5.1

4.0 5.1 7.3 3.5 ! 8.3 ! 20.9 5.8

5.4 4.7

5.1

— — —

29.8 35.7 42.7 48.4

40.3 30.5 42.3 25.6 38.4 44.9 36.9

39.5 37.9

38.7

(†) (†) (†)

(0.56) (0.51) (0.56) (0.48)

(0.38) (0.50) (0.68) (1.21) (3.61) (4.15) (1.32)

(0.43) (0.35)

(0.33)

(†) (†) (†)

(1.35) (1.37) (1.28) (1.29)

(0.97) (1.40) (1.38) (2.90) (6.40) (2.26) (3.08)

(0.93) (0.91)

(0.75)

11

2011

— — —

— — — —

— — — — — — —

— —



— — —

24.4 30.9 39.2 46.8

36.3 29.6 37.5 21.7 26.8 33.4 36.1

34.4 35.5

34.9

(†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†)

(†)

(†) (†) (†)

(1.13) (1.84) (1.52) (1.85)

(1.63) (1.65) (2.11) (1.80) (5.84) (5.13) (2.87)

(1.30) (1.39)

(1.08)

12

2013

to the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) status of the respondent’s household as defined in 2000 by the U.S. Census Bureau. Categories include “central city of an MSA (Urban),” “in MSA but not in central city (Suburban),” and “not MSA (Rural).” 5In the question about drinking alcohol at school, “on school property” was not defined for survey respondents. Data on alcohol use at school were not collected in 2013. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 1993 through 2013. (This table was prepared June 2014.)

4Refers

(0.61) (0.37) (0.83)

(0.47) (0.45) (0.45) (0.44)

(0.26) (0.65) (0.71) (1.42) (3.50) (1.69) (2.36)

(0.43) (0.39)

(0.28)

(1.97) (1.26) (1.91)

(1.82) (1.29) (1.70) (1.53)

(1.12) (2.33) (1.52) (3.22) (8.54) (3.97) (4.11)

(1.42) (1.11)

(1.11)

6

2001

[Standard errorsappear appear in [Standard errors in parentheses] parentheses]

—Not available. †Not applicable. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. ‡Reporting standards not met. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is 50 percent or greater. 1The term “anywhere” is not used in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire; students were simply asked how many days during the previous 30 days they had at least one drink of alcohol. 2Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. 3Before 1999, Asian students and Pacific Islander students were not categorized separately, and students could not be classified as Two or more races. Because the response categories changed in 1999, caution should be used in comparing data on race from 1993, 1995, and 1997 with data from later years.

On school property5 Total......................................................... Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity2 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian3........................................................... Pacific Islander3 ........................................... American Indian/Alaska Native.................... Two or more races3 ...................................... Grade 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th.............................................................. Urbanicity4 Urban ........................................................... Suburban ..................................................... Rural ............................................................

Anywhere (including on school property)1 Total......................................................... Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity2 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian3........................................................... Pacific Islander3 ........................................... American Indian/Alaska Native.................... Two or more races3 ...................................... Grade 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th.............................................................. Urbanicity4 Urban ........................................................... Suburban ..................................................... Rural ............................................................

1

Location and student characteristic

, l o ho c l A

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported using alcohol at least 1 day during the previous 30 days, by location and selected student characteristics: Selected years, 1993 through Table 232.10. Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported using alcohol at least2013 1 day during the previous 30 days, by location and selected student characteristics: Selected years, 1993 through 2013

Table 15.1.

346 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education Alcohol, Illicit Drugs, and Cigarettes

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 347

Table 15.2.

Percentage distribution of students in grades 9–12, by number ofAlcohol, days Illicit theyDrugs, reported using and Cigarettes alcohol anywhere or on school property during the previous 30 days and selected student characteristics: 2009bythrough Table 232.20. Percentage distribution ofSelected students inyears, grades 9–12, number of2013 days they reported using alcohol anywhere or on school property during the previous 30 days and selected student characteristics: Selected years, 2009 through 2013 [Standarderrors errorsappear appear in in parentheses] [Standard parentheses]

On school property2

Anywhere (including on school property)1 Year and student characteristic 1 2009 Total......................................................... Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity3 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian............................................................ Pacific Islander............................................. American Indian/Alaska Native.................... Two or more races ....................................... Grade 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th.............................................................. 2011 Total......................................................... Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity3 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian............................................................ Pacific Islander............................................. American Indian/Alaska Native.................... Two or more races ....................................... Grade 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th.............................................................. 20134 Total......................................................... Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity3 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian............................................................ Pacific Islander............................................. American Indian/Alaska Native.................... Two or more races ....................................... Grade 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th..............................................................

0 days

1 or 2 days

3 to 29 days

All 30 days

0 days

1 or 2 days

3 to 29 days

All 30 days

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

58.2

(0.80)

20.5

(0.40)

20.5

(0.73)

0.8

(0.09)

95.5

(0.29)

2.8

(0.21)

1.3

(0.14)

0.4

(0.07)

59.2 57.1

(1.11) (0.85)

17.9 23.4

(0.59) (0.73)

21.7 19.2

(0.90) (0.74)

1.3 0.3

(0.19) (0.05)

94.7 96.4

(0.41) (0.34)

3.0 2.6

(0.27) (0.26)

1.7 0.9

(0.20) (0.16)

0.6 0.1 !

(0.14) (0.03)

55.3 66.6 57.1 81.7 65.2 57.2 55.7

(1.16) (1.45) (1.43) (1.60) (4.36) (5.43) (2.42)

20.9 18.5 21.9 11.5 12.4 17.0 ! 26.8

(0.50) (0.80) (0.82) (1.90) (2.86) (5.28) (2.58)

23.2 14.0 19.6 5.9 22.0 24.7 16.1

(1.10) (1.04) (1.12) (1.22) (3.42) (5.33) (1.90)

0.6 0.9 1.3 0.9 ! ‡ ‡ 1.4 !

(0.10) (0.25) (0.22) (0.44) (†) (†) (0.56)

96.7 94.6 93.1 97.1 90.0 95.7 93.3

(0.27) (0.59) (0.70) (0.65) (2.34) (1.58) (1.37)

2.0 3.0 4.4 1.4 ! 5.9 3.5 ! 4.7

(0.20) (0.36) (0.46) (0.47) (1.68) (1.45) (0.98)

1.0 1.8 1.9 0.9 ! 3.8 ! ‡ 1.6 !

(0.14) (0.32) (0.37) (0.43) (1.56) (†) (0.64)

0.2 0.5 ! 0.6 ‡ ‡ # ‡

(0.06) (0.22) (0.16) (†) (†) (†) (†)

68.5 59.4 54.3 48.3

(1.28) (1.42) (2.05) (1.37)

17.9 19.5 21.7 23.6

(1.00) (0.79) (1.41) (0.95)

12.9 20.3 23.2 27.3

(0.64) (1.27) (1.36) (1.55)

0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8

(0.16) (0.21) (0.13) (0.19)

95.6 95.2 95.4 95.9

(0.37) (0.46) (0.44) (0.44)

3.0 2.9 2.9 2.3

(0.28) (0.35) (0.40) (0.29)

1.0 1.5 1.4 1.5

(0.17) (0.25) (0.24) (0.25)

0.4 ! 0.4 ! 0.3 0.3 !

(0.13) (0.15) (0.09) (0.12)

61.3

(0.75)

19.4

(0.62)

18.3

(0.47)

0.9

(0.11)

94.9

(0.33)

3.3

(0.23)

1.3

(0.15)

0.5

(0.07)

60.5 62.1

(0.93) (0.91)

18.5 20.5

(0.68) (0.74)

19.5 17.1

(0.65) (0.63)

1.5 0.3

(0.19) (0.08)

94.6 95.3

(0.43) (0.35)

3.1 3.4

(0.26) (0.29)

1.5 1.1

(0.21) (0.16)

0.8 0.1 !

(0.14) (0.04)

59.7 69.5 57.7 74.4 61.6 55.1 63.1

(0.97) (1.40) (1.38) (2.90) (6.40) (2.26) (3.08)

19.5 17.5 21.5 16.7 15.6 23.8 19.6

(0.83) (1.06) (0.75) (2.86) (3.98) (2.23) (2.94)

20.1 12.1 19.4 7.3 21.9 20.1 15.0

(0.62) (0.97) (0.94) (1.42) (4.87) (1.51) (1.88)

0.7 0.9 1.4 1.6 ! ‡ ‡ 2.3 !

(0.13) (0.21) (0.25) (0.73) (†) (†) (0.96)

96.0 94.9 92.7 96.5 91.7 79.1 94.2

(0.38) (0.50) (0.68) (1.21) (3.61) (4.15) (1.32)

2.8 3.2 4.3 2.2 ! 3.6 ! 15.0 3.3

(0.29) (0.41) (0.31) (0.96) (1.62) (3.14) (0.86)

0.9 1.4 2.2 ‡ ‡ 5.3 ‡

(0.12) (0.28) (0.45) (†) (†) (0.96) (†)

0.3 0.5 ! 0.7 ‡ ‡ ‡ 1.6 !

(0.06) (0.18) (0.17) (†) (†) (†) (0.74)

70.2 64.3 57.3 51.6

(1.35) (1.37) (1.28) (1.29)

17.8 19.2 21.1 20.1

(0.99) (1.11) (0.87) (0.93)

11.2 15.8 20.6 27.1

(0.95) (0.66) (1.31) (1.25)

0.7 0.6 1.1 1.1

(0.18) (0.15) (0.21) (0.24)

94.6 95.6 94.8 94.9

(0.56) (0.51) (0.56) (0.48)

3.7 2.8 3.2 3.5

(0.41) (0.40) (0.39) (0.38)

1.4 1.2 1.3 1.3

(0.31) (0.24) (0.26) (0.26)

0.4 0.4 0.7 0.3 !

(0.09) (0.11) (0.16) (0.10)

65.1

(1.08)

17.3

(0.56)

16.9

(0.78)

0.8

(0.12)



(†)



(†)



(†)



(†)

65.6 64.5

(1.30) (1.39)

15.7 18.8

(0.75) (0.98)

17.4 16.3

(0.90) (0.88)

1.2 0.3

(0.19) (0.09)

— —

(†) (†)

— —

(†) (†)

— —

(†) (†)

— —

(†) (†)

63.7 70.4 62.5 78.3 73.2 66.6 63.9

(1.63) (1.65) (2.11) (1.80) (5.84) (5.13) (2.87)

17.6 15.5 18.0 14.8 18.2 14.8 18.7

(0.87) (0.90) (1.30) (2.26) (4.71) (4.41) (1.71)

18.0 13.6 18.3 6.3 7.5 17.4 ! 16.4

(1.11) (1.46) (1.27) (1.27) (2.24) (5.62) (2.12)

0.6 0.6 1.2 ‡ ‡ ‡ 1.0 !

(0.13) (0.16) (0.35) (†) (†) (†) (0.42)

— — — — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

— — — — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

— — — — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

— — — — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

75.6 69.1 60.8 53.2

(1.13) (1.84) (1.52) (1.85)

13.6 15.9 18.6 21.5

(0.89) (1.17) (1.01) (0.93)

10.0 14.5 19.7 24.6

(0.85) (1.22) (1.26) (1.31)

0.7 0.6 0.9 0.7

(0.22) (0.16) (0.23) (0.17)

— — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†)

— — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†)

— — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†)

— — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†)

—Not available. †Not applicable. #Rounds to zero. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. ‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater. 1The term “anywhere” is not used in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire; students were simply asked how many days during the previous 30 days they had at least one drink of alcohol.

2In the question about drinking alcohol at school, “on school property” was not defined for survey respondents. 3Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. 4Data on alcohol use at school were not collected in 2013. NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 2009 through 2013. (This table was prepared September 2014.)

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

169

348 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education Alcohol, Illicit Drugs, and Cigarettes

Table 15.3.

Percentage of public school students in grades 9–12 who reported using alcohol at least 1

day during previous days,9–12 by who location state: years, through 2013 Table 232.30. Percentage of publicthe school students 30 in grades reportedand using alcoholSelected at least 1 day during2003 the previous 30 days, by location and state: Selected years, 2003 through 2013 [Standard [Standarderrors errorsappear appearinin parentheses] parentheses] On school property2

Anywhere (including on school property)1 State 1

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011

2013

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

United States3............... Alabama ............................ Alaska................................ Arizona .............................. Arkansas............................ California ...........................

44.9 40.2 38.7 51.8 — —

(1.21) (2.04) (2.05) (1.93) (†) (†)

43.3 39.4 — 47.1 43.1 —

(1.38) (2.55) (†) (1.73) (1.99) (†)

44.7 — 39.7 45.6 42.2 —

(1.15) (†) (2.11) (1.73) (1.75) (†)

41.8 39.5 33.2 44.5 39.7 —

(0.80) (2.22) (1.66) (1.67) (1.91) (†)

38.7 35.6 28.6 43.8 33.9 —

(0.75) (1.99) (1.95) (1.47) (1.81) (†)

34.9 35.0 22.5 36.0 36.3 —

Colorado ............................ Connecticut........................ Delaware............................ District of Columbia ........... Florida................................

— (†) — (†) 45.4 (1.30) 33.8 (1.72) 42.7 (1.10)

47.4 45.3 43.1 23.1 39.7

(4.42) (2.16) (1.16) (1.40) (1.43)

— 46.0 45.2 32.6 42.3

(†) (2.13) (1.40) (1.47) (1.30)

40.8 43.5 43.7 — 40.5

(2.44) (2.22) (1.65) (†) (1.03)

36.4 41.5 40.4 32.8 37.0

(2.29) (1.90) (1.55) (1.89) (0.98)

Georgia.............................. Hawaii ................................ Idaho.................................. Illinois................................. Indiana...............................

37.7 (1.41) — (†) 34.8 (2.44) — (†) 44.9 (1.57)

39.9 34.8 39.8 — 41.4

(2.12) (2.05) (2.62) (†) (2.12)

37.7 29.1 42.5 43.7 43.9

(1.52) (2.93) (2.73) (2.72) (2.24)

34.3 37.8 34.2 39.8 38.5

(1.65) (3.02) (1.97) (1.91) (2.13)

34.6 29.1 36.2 37.8 33.5

Iowa ................................... Kansas............................... Kentucky ............................ Louisiana ........................... Maine.................................

— (†) — (†) 45.1 (1.87) — (†) 42.2 (1.78)

43.8 43.9 37.4 — 43.0

(2.56) (1.74) (1.77) (†) (2.15)

41.0 42.4 40.6 — 39.3

(2.36) (1.69) (1.25) (†) (2.29)

— 38.7 37.8 47.5 32.2

(†) (1.93) (1.30) (2.80) (0.66)

Maryland............................ Massachusetts................... Michigan ............................ Minnesota .......................... Mississippi .........................

— (†) 45.7 (1.19) 44.0 (1.40) — (†) 41.8 (1.74)

39.8 (2.17) 47.8 (1.36) 38.1 (1.73) — (†) — (†)

42.9 46.2 42.8 — 40.6

(3.13) (1.57) (1.70) (†) (1.57)

37.0 43.6 37.0 — 39.2

Missouri ............................. Montana............................. Nebraska ........................... Nevada .............................. New Hampshire .................

49.2 49.5 46.5 43.4 47.1

(2.16) (1.68) (1.29) (1.51) (2.70)

40.8 48.6 42.9 41.4 44.0

(2.04) (1.50) (1.27) (1.73) (2.31)

44.4 46.5 — 37.0 44.8

(2.35) (1.39) (†) (1.52) (1.83)

New Jersey ........................ New Mexico ....................... New York............................ North Carolina ................... North Dakota .....................

— (†) — (†) 44.2 (1.53) 39.4 (2.68) 54.2 (1.74)

46.5 42.3 43.4 42.3 49.0

(2.65) (1.93) (1.47) (2.16) (1.89)

— 43.2 43.7 37.7 46.1

(†) (1.07) (1.41) (1.36) (1.82)

Ohio4 .................................. Oklahoma .......................... Oregon............................... Pennsylvania...................... Rhode Island .....................

42.2 (2.40) 47.8 (1.41) — (†) — (†) 44.5 (1.92)

42.4 (1.96) 40.5 (1.62) — (†) — (†) 42.7 (1.15)

45.7 (1.70) 43.1 (1.88) — (†) — (†) 42.9 (1.76)

— (†) 39.0 (1.97) — (†) 38.4 (2.10) 34.0 (2.01)

South Carolina................... South Dakota4 .................... Tennessee ......................... Texas ................................. Utah ...................................

— (†) 50.2 (2.58) 41.1 (2.04) — (†) 21.3 (2.19)

43.2 46.6 41.8 47.3 15.8

(1.64) (2.12) (1.90) (1.93) (1.92)

36.8 44.5 36.7 48.3 17.0

(2.31) (1.80) (1.90) (1.64) (1.88)

35.2 40.1 33.5 44.8 18.2

Vermont ............................. Virginia............................... Washington........................ West Virginia...................... Wisconsin .......................... Wyoming............................

43.5 — — 44.4 47.3 49.0

41.8 — — 41.5 49.2 45.4

(1.53) (†) (†) (1.41) (1.51) (1.47)

42.6 — — 43.5 48.9 42.4

(1.04) (†) (†) (1.45) (1.56) (1.22)

39.0 — — 40.4 41.3 41.7

(1.48) (†) (†) (1.81) (1.63) (2.16)

4.3 4.5 — 7.5 5.2 —

(0.30) (0.59) (†) (0.88) (0.62) (†)

4.1 — 4.1 6.0 5.1 —

(0.32) (†) (0.58) (0.54) (0.65) (†)

4.5 5.4 3.0 5.9 6.1 —

(0.29) (0.76) (0.48) (0.61) (0.89) (†)

5.1 5.7 3.4 6.2 4.2 —

(0.33) (1.08) (0.52) (0.55) (0.68) (†)

— — — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

— (†) 36.7 (2.02) 36.3 (1.34) — (†) 34.9 (0.87)

— (†) — (†) 4.8 (0.44) 4.9 (0.64) 5.1 (0.36)

5.9 6.6 5.5 4.6 4.5

(1.08) (0.71) (0.66) (0.55) (0.30)

— 5.6 4.5 6.1 5.3

(†) (0.99) (0.48) (0.92) (0.31)

4.1 5.0 5.0 — 4.9

(0.61) (0.47) (0.73) (†) (0.26)

5.3 4.6 5.0 6.8 5.1

(0.87) (0.61) (0.50) (0.91) (0.29)

— — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

(1.93) (1.64) (2.28) (1.87) (1.65)

27.9 25.2 28.3 36.6 —

(2.04) (1.75) (2.23) (2.41) (†)

3.7 (0.55) — (†) 3.8 (0.56) — (†) 3.9 (0.57)

4.3 8.8 4.3 — 3.4

(0.67) (0.93) (0.69) (†) (0.64)

4.4 6.0 6.2 5.5 4.1

(0.58) (0.93) (0.81) (0.75) (0.47)

4.2 7.9 3.5 4.4 3.5

(0.48) (1.31) (0.53) (0.64) (0.52)

5.4 5.0 4.1 3.3 2.0

(0.80) (0.42) (0.50) (0.40) (0.36)

— — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

37.1 32.6 34.6 44.4 28.7

(2.58) (1.53) (1.56) (2.00) (0.69)

— 27.6 30.4 38.6 26.6

(†) (1.02) (1.37) (2.75) (0.90)

— (†) — (†) 4.8 (0.69) — (†) 3.7 (0.48)

4.6 5.1 3.5 — 3.9

(0.89) (0.74) (0.37) (†) (0.44)

3.4 4.8 4.7 — 5.6

(0.78) (0.66) (0.47) (†) (0.89)

— 3.2 5.2 5.6 4.0

(†) (0.55) (0.87) (1.33) (0.23)

2.3 2.9 4.1 6.0 3.1

(0.41) (0.45) (0.53) (1.36) (0.21)

— — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

(1.44) (1.28) (1.28) (†) (1.43)

34.8 40.1 30.6 — 36.2

(1.98) (1.54) (1.64) (†) (2.07)

31.2 35.6 28.3 — 32.9

(0.45) (1.14) (1.81) (†) (2.09)

— (†) 5.3 (0.50) 4.6 (0.33) — (†) 4.9 (0.70)

3.2 (0.42) 4.2 (0.32) 3.6 (0.46) — (†) — (†)

6.2 4.7 3.6 — 5.1

(1.10) (0.45) (0.51) (†) (0.71)

4.8 3.8 3.7 — 4.3

(0.67) (0.48) (0.40) (†) (0.45)

5.4 3.6 2.7 — 4.6

(0.63) (0.44) (0.37) (†) (0.67)

— — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

39.3 42.8 — 38.6 39.3

(2.71) (1.81) (†) (1.66) (2.18)

— (†) 38.3 (1.08) 26.6 (1.24) — (†) 38.4 (1.83)

35.6 37.1 22.1 34.0 32.9

(1.33) (1.20) (1.46) (2.11) (1.71)

2.6 6.7 4.6 7.4 4.0

(0.58) (0.70) (0.61) (0.74) (0.79)

3.3 6.4 3.6 6.8 —

(0.57) (0.73) (0.42) (0.92) (†)

3.4 5.7 — 4.4 5.1

(0.74) (0.47) (†) (0.58) (0.73)

3.0 5.1 — 4.4 4.3

(0.55) (0.69) (†) (0.52) (0.68)

— (†) 3.5 (0.35) 3.0 (0.41) — (†) 5.6 (0.70)

— — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

45.2 40.5 41.4 35.0 43.3

(2.21) (1.41) (1.38) (2.43) (1.79)

42.9 36.9 38.4 34.3 38.8

39.3 28.9 32.5 32.2 35.3

(1.92) (1.25) (1.36) (1.27) (1.59)

— (†) — (†) 5.2 (0.39) 3.6 (0.47) 5.1 (0.79)

3.7 7.6 4.1 5.4 3.6

(0.42) (0.87) (0.45) (0.74) (0.52)

— 8.7 5.1 4.7 4.4

(†) (1.35) (0.58) (0.65) (0.65)

— (†) 8.0 (0.90) — (†) 4.1 (0.57) 4.2 (0.53)

— (†) 6.4 (0.54) — (†) 5.5 (0.77) 3.1 (0.51)

— — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

38.0 (2.94) 38.3 (1.75) — (†) — (†) 34.0 (1.25)

29.5 (2.21) 33.4 (1.91) — (†) — (†) 30.9 (1.78)

3.9 (0.69) 3.2 (0.64) — (†) — (†) 4.6 (0.73)

3.2 (0.59) 3.8 (0.49) — (†) — (†) 5.3 (0.66)

3.2 (0.50) 5.0 (0.59) — (†) — (†) 4.8 (0.54)

— (†) 3.9 (0.55) — (†) 2.8 (0.50) 3.2 (0.50)

— (†) 2.6 (0.65) — (†) — (†) — (†)

— — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

(2.80) (1.54) (1.71) (1.25) (2.72)

39.7 39.3 33.3 39.7 15.1

(1.72) (2.14) (1.39) (1.15) (1.54)

28.9 30.8 28.4 36.1 11.0

(1.34) (1.45) (1.35) (1.75) (0.90)

— (†) 5.4 (1.13) 4.2 (0.48) — (†) 3.8 (0.74)

6.0 4.0 3.7 5.7 2.1

4.7 3.6 4.1 4.9 4.7 !

3.6 — 3.0 4.7 2.7

(0.79) (†) (0.38) (0.36) (0.45)

5.9 — 3.2 3.9 2.7

(0.90) (†) (0.34) (0.35) (0.54)

— — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

(1.57) (†) (†) (1.10) (1.83) (1.36)

35.3 30.5 — 34.3 39.2 36.1

(1.10) (2.49) (†) (2.40) (1.35) (1.34)

— 27.3 — 37.1 32.7 34.4

(†) (1.22) (†) (2.04) (1.21) (1.14)

5.3 (0.60) — (†) — (†) 4.1 (0.84) — (†) 6.2 (0.75)

4.8 (0.54) — (†) — (†) 6.4 (1.08) — (†) 6.2 (0.56)

3.3 (0.28) — (†) — (†) 5.7 (0.61) — (†) 6.4 (0.50)

3.3 3.3 — 4.2 — 5.1

(0.50) (0.59) (†) (0.67) (†) (0.48)

— — — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

—Not available. †Not applicable. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. 1The term “anywhere” is not used in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire; students were simply asked how many days during the previous 30 days they had at least one drink of alcohol. 2In the question about drinking alcohol at school, “on school property” was not defined for survey respondents. Data on alcohol use at school were not collected in 2013. 3Data for the U.S. total include both public and private schools and were collected through a national survey representing the entire country.

5.2 4.1 4.9 7.1 — —

4Data

Supplemental Tables

(0.96) (0.70) (0.66) (0.56) (0.39)

(0.73) (0.92) (0.54) (0.57) (1.69)

4.6 (0.40) — (†) — (†) 5.5 (0.89) — (†) 6.9 (0.63)

include both public and private schools. NOTE: State-level data include public schools only, with the exception of data for Ohio and South Dakota. Data for the U.S. total, Ohio, and South Dakota include both public and private schools. For specific states, a given year’s data may be unavailable (1) because the state did not participate in the survey that year; (2) because the state omitted this particular survey item from the state-level questionnaire; or (3) because the state had an overall response rate of less than 60 percent (the overall response rate is the school response rate multiplied by the student response rate). SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 2003 through 2013. (This table was prepared June 2014.)

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

170

13

(0.46) (0.82) (0.81) (0.67) (†) (†)

(2.46) (1.40) (1.96) (1.41) (1.67)

(1.08) (2.45) (1.69) (2.25) (1.97) (†)

2013

366 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education Discipline, and Security Measures incidents resulting in removal of a student from a regular education Table 15.4. Safety, Number of discipline program for at least an entire school day and rate of incidents per 100,000 students, by Table 233.45. Number of discipline incidents resulting in removal of a student from a regular education program for at least an entire school day discipline reason andstudents, state: 2013–14 and rate of incidents per 100,000 by discipline reason and state: 2013–14 Number of discipline incidents State 1

Total

Alcohol

Illicit drug

Rate of discipline incidents per 100,000 students Violent incident1

Weapons possession

Total

Alcohol

Illicit drug

Violent incident1

Weapons possession

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

United States ......................... Alabama...................................... Alaska ......................................... Arizona........................................ Arkansas..................................... California.....................................

1,308,568 41,991 2,755 30,463 20,890 285,039

24,015 560 116 816 410 —2

197,171 5,931 580 3,774 1,894 46,425 2

1,020,894 33,808 1,915 25,050 17,743 224,727

66,488 1,692 144 823 843 13,887

2,615 5,627 2,104 2,763 4,263 4,515

48 75 89 74 84 —2

394 795 443 342 387 735 2

2,040 4,531 1,462 2,272 3,621 3,560

133 227 110 75 172 220

Colorado ..................................... Connecticut ................................. Delaware..................................... District of Columbia..................... Florida.........................................

61,546 25,670 597 7,088 16,755

711 418 56 33 992

6,866 1,379 315 198 10,642

53,262 22,643 63 6,655 3,605

707 1,230 163 202 1,516

7,018 4,700 453 9,069 616

81 77 43 42 36

783 252 239 253 391

6,073 4,146 48 8,515 133

81 225 124 258 56

Georgia ....................................... Hawaii ......................................... Idaho ........................................... Illinois .......................................... Indiana ........................................

67,772 1,956 946 16,502 42,221

725 155 62 1,106 931

10,145 610 481 6,043 3,229

53,974 946 233 4,795 36,447

2,928 245 170 4,558 1,614

3,931 1,047 319 798 4,031

42 83 21 54 89

588 327 162 292 308

3,131 506 79 232 3,480

170 131 57 221 154

Iowa............................................. Kansas ........................................ Kentucky ..................................... Louisiana..................................... Maine ..........................................

12,410 11,106 44,472 47,602 3,257

301 237 649 340 110

2,000 2,068 9,521 5,339 595

9,336 8,186 33,947 40,574 2,381

773 615 355 1,349 171

2,467 2,237 6,565 6,690 1,770

60 48 96 48 60

398 417 1,406 750 323

1,856 1,649 5,011 5,703 1,294

154 124 52 190 93

Maryland ..................................... Massachusetts3 ........................... Michigan...................................... Minnesota3 .................................. Mississippi...................................

33,586 24,272 11,677 21,097 15,040

584 542 245 478 304

3,077 2,727 1,450 4,045 803

28,215 19,795 9,101 15,511 13,276

1,710 1,208 881 1,063 657

3,878 2,540 754 2,479 3,053

67 57 16 56 62

355 285 94 475 163

3,257 2,071 588 1,823 2,695

197 126 57 125 133

Missouri....................................... Montana ...................................... Nebraska..................................... Nevada........................................ New Hampshire ..........................

19,993 4,768 8,229 10,015 5,022

917 162 169 278 124

6,732 1,030 1,307 1,968 701

10,904 3,334 6,305 7,317 3,855

1,440 242 448 452 342

2,177 3,308 2,675 2,217 2,696

100 112 55 62 67

733 715 425 436 376

1,187 2,313 2,049 1,619 2,069

157 168 146 100 184

New Jersey ................................. New Mexico................................. New York ..................................... North Carolina............................. North Dakota...............................

12,026 13,878 18,625 65,259 1,460

371 303 1,373 858 58

2,320 3,619 5,160 10,413 432

8,541 9,117 7,037 51,417 899

794 839 5,055 2,571 71

878 4,091 682 4,263 1,405

27 89 50 56 56

169 1,067 189 680 416

623 2,687 258 3,359 865

58 247 185 168 68

Ohio ............................................ Oklahoma.................................... Oregon ........................................ Pennsylvania............................... Rhode Island...............................

76,271 14,483 15,104 39,744 14,735

1,047 418 379 698 60

8,175 2,199 2,850 2,793 834

64,108 10,702 11,332 33,741 13,603

2,941 1,164 543 2,512 238

4,424 2,124 2,547 2,264 10,376

61 61 64 40 42

474 323 481 159 587

3,718 1,570 1,911 1,922 9,579

171 171 92 143 168

South Carolina ............................ South Dakota3 ............................. Tennessee................................... Texas........................................... Utah3 ...........................................

21,622 3,297 36,335 2,468 6,162

403 100 2,643 37 112

1,631 827 525 1,422 1,732

19,271 2,154 33,075 517 3,899

317 216 92 492 419

2,900 2,519 3,657 48 985

54 76 266 1 18

219 632 53 28 277

2,584 1,646 3,329 10 623

43 165 9 10 67

Vermont....................................... Virginia ........................................ Washington ................................. West Virginia............................... Wisconsin.................................... Wyoming .....................................

— 21,210 23,172 3,213 24,116 651

— 856 1,187 42 535 4

— 937 6,177 507 2,735 8

— 17,336 13,472 2,604 19,797 369

— 2,081 2,336 60 1,049 270

— 1,665 2,188 1,144 2,758 702

— 67 112 15 61 4

— 74 583 180 313 9

— 1,361 1,272 927 2,264 398

— 163 221 21 120 291

—Not available. 1Includes violent incidents with and without physical injury. 2Alcohol incidents were reported in the illicit drug category. 3This state did not report state-level counts of discipline incidents, but did report schoollevel counts. The sums of the school-level counts are displayed in place of the unreported state-level counts.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, EDFacts file 030, Data Group 523, extracted October 14, 2015, from the EDFacts Data Warehouse (internal U.S. Department of Education source); Common Core of Data (CCD), “State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary and Secondary Education,” 2013–14. (This table was prepared October 2015.)

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

171

172

Location and student characteristic

Supplemental Tables

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015 (0.65) (0.83) (0.48) (0.72) (1.23) (1.10) (†) (†) (†) (†) (0.40) (0.94) (1.07) (0.78) (†) (†) (†)

5.6 7.8 3.3 5.0 7.3 7.5 — — ‡ — 4.4 6.5 6.5 5.1 — — —

(†) (†) (†)

— — —

(1.41) (1.84) (1.33) (†) (†) (4.77) (†)

17.3 18.6 19.4 — — 17.4 — (1.10) (1.79) (1.77) (1.40)

(1.61) (1.02)

20.6 14.6

13.2 16.5 18.4 22.0

(1.22)

17.7

2

1993

— — —

8.7 9.8 8.6 8.0

7.1 12.3 12.9 — — 10.1 ! —

11.9 5.5

8.8

— — —

20.9 25.5 27.6 26.2

24.5 28.6 27.8 — — 28.0 —

28.4 22.0

25.3

(†) (†) (†)

(1.38) (0.87) (0.62) (1.15)

(0.62) (1.88) (2.20) (†) (†) (3.39) (†)

(0.85) (0.72)

(0.59)

(†) (†) (†)

(1.83) (1.89) (1.35) (2.35)

(1.49) (2.62) (2.92) (†) (†) (5.72) (†)

(1.08) (1.44)

(1.03)

3

1995

8.0 7.0 4.9 !

8.1 6.4 7.9 5.7

5.8 9.1 10.4 — — 16.2 ! —

9.0 4.6

7.0

26.8 27.0 21.9

23.6 25.0 29.3 26.6

25.0 28.2 28.6 — — 44.2 —

30.2 21.4

26.2

(1.11) (0.67) (2.02)

(0.90) (0.73) (1.17) (0.61)

(0.69) (1.07) (1.03) (†) (†) (5.56) (†)

(0.68) (0.56)

(0.52)

(1.50) (1.05) (3.23)

(1.95) (1.29) (1.81) (2.09)

(1.56) (1.67) (2.06) (†) (†) (4.31) (†)

(1.46) (1.04)

(1.11)

4

1997

8.5 6.4 8.1

6.6 7.6 7.0 7.3

6.5 7.2 10.7 4.3 11.0 ‡ 7.8

10.1 4.4

7.2

27.5 26.1 28.0

21.7 27.8 26.7 31.5

26.4 26.4 28.2 13.5 33.8 36.2 29.1

30.8 22.6

26.7

(1.03) (1.03) (1.57)

(0.97) (1.14) (0.72) (1.14)

(0.84) (1.10) (1.21) (0.71) (3.21) (†) (1.81)

(1.30) (0.40)

(0.73)

(2.32) (1.60) (4.36)

(1.84) (2.21) (2.47) (2.81)

6.8 4.7 5.3

5.5 5.8 5.1 4.9

4.8 6.1 7.4 4.7 ! 6.4 ! 21.5 ! 5.2

8.0 2.9

5.4

25.6 22.5 26.2

19.4 24.8 25.8 26.9

24.4 21.8 24.6 10.9 21.9 36.4 31.8

27.9 20.0

(1.92) (0.96) (1.59) (3.49) (2.29) (2.04) (4.11) (6.55) (4.00)

23.9

(1.30)

5

1999

—Not available. †Not applicable. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. ‡Reporting standards not met. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is 50 percent or greater. 1The term “anywhere” is not used in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire; students were simply asked how many times during the previous 30 days they had used marijuana. 2Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity.

On school property5 Total......................................................... Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity2 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian3........................................................... Pacific Islander3 ........................................... American Indian/Alaska Native.................... Two or more races3 ...................................... Grade 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th.............................................................. Urbanicity4 Urban ........................................................... Suburban ..................................................... Rural ............................................................

Anywhere (including on school property)1 Total......................................................... Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity2 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian3........................................................... Pacific Islander3 ........................................... American Indian/Alaska Native.................... Two or more races3 ...................................... Grade 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th.............................................................. Urbanicity4 Urban ........................................................... Suburban ..................................................... Rural ............................................................

1

6.8 6.0 3.9

6.6 5.2 5.6 5.0

4.5 6.6 8.2 4.3 ! 9.1 ! 11.4 ! 11.4 !

7.6 3.7

5.8

23.4 22.8 19.9

18.5 22.0 24.1 25.8

21.7 23.9 23.8 9.5 28.1 32.8 28.3

25.1 19.3

22.4

(1.05) (1.03) (0.64)

(1.03) (0.70) (0.71) (0.75)

(0.66) (0.89) (0.72) (1.38) (3.17) (4.42) (5.49)

(0.88) (0.48)

(0.68)

(1.65) (1.90) (2.80)

(1.52) (1.47) (1.56) (1.19)

(1.20) (1.58) (1.16) (2.21) (6.47) (5.29) (5.57)

(1.25) (0.96)

(1.09)

7

2003

— — —

5.0 4.6 4.1 4.1

3.8 4.9 7.7 ‡ ‡ 9.2 3.6

6.0 3.0

4.5

— — —

17.4 20.2 21.0 22.8

20.3 20.4 23.0 6.7 12.4 ! 30.3 16.9

22.1 18.2

20.2

(†) (†) (†)

(0.59) (0.54) (0.49) (0.45)

(0.41) (0.65) (0.76) (†) (†) (1.85) (0.91)

(0.44) (0.31)

(0.32)

(†) (†) (†)

(1.16) (1.27) (1.24) (1.23)

(1.11) (1.11) (1.22) (1.64) (3.87) (4.36) (2.43)

(0.98) (0.99)

(0.84)

8

2005

— — —

4.0 4.8 4.1 5.1

(†) (†) (†)

(0.52) (0.60) (0.73) (0.73)

(0.63) (0.73) (0.80) (1.06) (5.38) (2.30) (1.08)

(0.61) (0.39)

5.9 3.0 4.0 5.0 5.4 2.7 ! 13.4 ! 8.2 3.6 !

(0.46)

(†) (†) (†)

(1.02) (1.12) (1.49) (1.96)

(1.28) (1.64) (1.41) (1.63) (6.14) (3.50) (2.73)

(1.02) (1.13)

(0.97)

4.5

— — —

14.7 19.3 21.4 25.1

19.9 21.5 18.5 9.4 28.7 27.4 20.5

22.4 17.0

19.7

9

2007

— — —

4.3 4.6 5.0 4.6

3.8 5.6 6.5 2.0 9.0 2.9 ! 5.4

6.3 2.8

4.6

— — —

15.5 21.1 23.2 24.6

20.7 22.2 21.6 7.5 24.8 31.6 21.7

23.4 17.9

20.8

(†) (†) (†)

(0.38) (0.50) (0.55) (0.49)

(0.38) (0.64) (0.76) (0.54) (2.40) (1.25) (1.34)

(0.54) (0.32)

(0.35)

(†) (†) (†)

(0.97) (1.11) (1.52) (1.49)

(0.93) (1.44) (1.04) (1.40) (5.50) (5.26) (2.33)

(0.80) (0.87)

(0.70)

10

2009

— — —

5.4 6.2 6.2 5.4

4.5 6.7 7.7 4.5 12.5 ! 20.9 8.1

7.5 4.1

5.9

— — —

18.0 21.6 25.5 28.0

21.7 25.1 24.4 13.6 31.1 47.4 26.8

25.9 20.1

23.1

(†) (†) (†)

(0.65) (0.63) (0.70) (0.39)

(0.42) (0.77) (0.54) (1.34) (4.94) (4.05) (1.79)

(0.56) (0.32)

(0.39)

(†) (†) (†)

(1.11) (1.15) (1.44) (1.08)

(1.09) (1.35) (1.27) (3.75) (7.08) (3.20) (2.10)

(1.01) (0.95)

(0.80)

11

2011

— — —

— — — —

— — — — — — —

— —



— — —

17.7 23.5 25.5 27.7

20.4 28.9 27.6 16.4 23.4 ! 35.5 28.8

25.0 21.9

23.4

(†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†)

(†)

(†) (†) (†)

(1.13) (1.89) (1.37) (1.58)

(1.36) (1.30) (1.50) (2.99) (7.35) (6.37) (2.55)

(1.14) (1.28)

(1.08)

12

2013

3Before 1999, Asian students and Pacific Islander students were not categorized separately, and students could not be classified as Two or more races. Because the response categories changed in 1999, caution should be used in comparing data on race from 1993, 1995, and 1997 with data from later years. 4Refers to the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) status of the respondent’s household as defined in 2000 by the U.S. Census Bureau. Categories include “central city of an MSA (Urban),” “in MSA but not in central city (Suburban),” and “not MSA (Rural).” 5In the question about using marijuana at school, “on school property” was not defined for survey respondents. Data on marijuana use at school were not collected in 2013. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 1993 through 2013. (This table was prepared June 2014.)

(0.56) (0.46) (0.93)

(0.62) (0.51) (0.48) (0.71)

(0.45) (0.60) (0.58) (1.56) (2.46) (6.55) (1.24)

(0.54) (0.28)

(0.37)

(1.23) (0.96) (2.49)

(1.25) (1.12) (1.33) (1.77)

(1.04) (2.12) (0.81) (2.12) (4.07) (5.48) (3.22)

(0.81) (0.87)

(0.77)

6

2001

[Standard errorsappear appear in [Standard errors in parentheses] parentheses]

Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported using marijuana at least one time during the previous 30 days, by location and selected student characteristics: Selected 1993 through Table 232.40. Percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported using years, marijuana at least one time2013 during the previous 30 days, by location and selected student characteristics: Selected years, 1993 through 2013

Table 16.1.

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 349 Alcohol, Illicit Drugs, and Cigarettes

350 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education

Table 16.2. Illicit Drugs, Percentage distribution of students in grades 9–12, by number of times they reported using Alcohol, and Cigarettes marijuana anywhere or on school property during the previous 30 days and selected student Table 232.50. Percentage distribution of Selected students in grades by number of times characteristics: years,9–12, 2009 through 2013they reported using marijuana anywhere or on school property during the previous 30 days and selected student characteristics: Selected years, 2009 through 2013 [Standard parentheses] [Standard errors errors appear appear ininparentheses]

On school property2

Anywhere (including on school property)1 Year and student characteristic 1 2009 Total......................................................... Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity3 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian............................................................ Pacific Islander............................................. American Indian/Alaska Native.................... Two or more races ....................................... Grade 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th.............................................................. 2011 Total......................................................... Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity3 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian............................................................ Pacific Islander............................................. American Indian/Alaska Native.................... Two or more races ....................................... Grade 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th.............................................................. 20134 Total......................................................... Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity3 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian............................................................ Pacific Islander............................................. American Indian/Alaska Native.................... Two or more races ....................................... Grade 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th..............................................................

0 times

1 or 2 times

2

3

3 to 39 times 40 or more times 4

5

0 times

1 or 2 times

3 to 39 times

40 or more times

6

7

8

9

79.2

(0.70)

7.2

(0.30)

9.7

(0.37)

3.8

(0.27)

95.4

(0.35)

2.1

(0.16)

1.8

(0.18)

0.7

(0.10)

76.6 82.1

(0.80) (0.87)

6.8 7.7

(0.38) (0.39)

10.8 8.5

(0.48) (0.56)

5.8 1.7

(0.46) (0.20)

93.7 97.2

(0.54) (0.32)

2.6 1.7

(0.24) (0.19)

2.6 1.0

(0.27) (0.21)

1.1 0.2

(0.18) (0.06)

79.3 77.8 78.4 92.5 75.2 68.4 78.3

(0.93) (1.44) (1.04) (1.40) (5.50) (5.26) (2.33)

7.4 6.7 8.2 3.0 5.0 ! 6.7 ! 7.8

(0.43) (0.62) (0.57) (0.69) (1.61) (2.47) (1.40)

9.6 10.9 9.8 3.3 13.0 19.6 9.8

(0.49) (0.90) (0.71) (0.85) (2.95) (3.43) (1.51)

3.7 4.6 3.6 1.2 ! 6.8 ! 5.3 ! 4.1 !

(0.38) (0.68) (0.37) (0.55) (2.56) (2.11) (1.27)

96.2 94.4 93.5 98.0 91.0 97.1 94.6

(0.38) (0.64) (0.76) (0.54) (2.40) (1.25) (1.34)

1.9 2.2 3.2 ‡ 4.4 ! ‡ 1.4 !

(0.21) (0.31) (0.43) (†) (1.59) (†) (0.51)

1.4 2.8 2.3 1.1 ! 3.7 ! ‡ 2.2 !

(0.18) (0.44) (0.39) (0.50) (1.58) (†) (0.90)

0.5 0.6 ! 1.0 ‡ ‡ # 1.8 !

(0.10) (0.24) (0.22) (†) (†) (†) (0.66)

84.5 78.9 76.8 75.4

(0.97) (1.11) (1.52) (1.49)

5.8 7.9 7.9 7.7

(0.55) (0.59) (0.66) (0.60)

7.6 9.6 11.2 10.9

(0.55) (0.64) (0.89) (0.86)

2.1 3.6 4.1 6.0

(0.29) (0.44) (0.42) (0.64)

95.7 95.4 95.0 95.4

(0.38) (0.50) (0.55) (0.49)

2.3 1.9 2.5 1.9

(0.22) (0.28) (0.37) (0.30)

1.4 2.1 2.0 1.9

(0.21) (0.35) (0.31) (0.27)

0.6 0.6 0.5 0.8

(0.15) (0.12) (0.12) (0.23)

76.9

(0.80)

7.4

(0.30)

10.9

(0.42)

4.8

(0.30)

94.1

(0.39)

2.8

(0.22)

2.3

(0.21)

0.7

(0.09)

74.1 79.9

(1.01) (0.95)

7.1 7.7

(0.40) (0.48)

11.8 9.9

(0.57) (0.56)

7.0 2.4

(0.47) (0.26)

92.5 95.9

(0.56) (0.32)

3.1 2.5

(0.28) (0.21)

3.2 1.4

(0.31) (0.19)

1.2 0.2

(0.17) (0.04)

78.3 74.9 75.6 86.4 68.9 52.6 73.2

(1.09) (1.35) (1.27) (3.75) (7.08) (3.20) (2.10)

6.9 7.9 8.3 ‡ 11.3 10.5 7.2

(0.42) (0.69) (0.59) (†) (3.34) (2.82) (1.20)

10.2 12.5 11.5 5.5 13.2 ! 23.6 12.9

(0.59) (0.81) (0.67) (0.96) (5.20) (2.57) (1.44)

4.6 4.7 4.7 3.2 ! 6.6 ! 13.2 6.7

(0.44) (0.63) (0.46) (1.34) (2.27) (1.81) (1.33)

95.5 93.3 92.3 95.5 87.5 79.1 91.9

(0.42) (0.77) (0.54) (1.34) (4.94) (4.05) (1.79)

2.2 3.2 3.6 2.4 ! 5.6 ! 8.6 3.7

(0.26) (0.43) (0.26) (1.15) (2.24) (2.18) (0.98)

1.9 2.8 3.1 ‡ ‡ 9.8 2.4 !

(0.23) (0.52) (0.40) (†) (†) (1.79) (0.86)

0.4 0.7 1.0 1.5 ! ‡ 2.5 2.0 !

(0.09) (0.18) (0.21) (0.70) (†) (0.67) (0.69)

82.0 78.4 74.5 72.0

(1.11) (1.15) (1.44) (1.08)

6.2 7.4 8.0 8.3

(0.47) (0.60) (0.59) (0.59)

8.2 10.0 12.9 13.0

(0.63) (0.65) (0.82) (0.69)

3.6 4.3 4.5 6.7

(0.42) (0.50) (0.50) (0.53)

94.6 93.8 93.8 94.6

(0.65) (0.63) (0.70) (0.39)

2.7 3.2 3.2 2.2

(0.41) (0.38) (0.47) (0.30)

2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4

(0.33) (0.40) (0.35) (0.30)

0.5 0.7 0.7 0.8

(0.11) (0.16) (0.16) (0.18)

76.6

(1.08)

7.1

(0.42)

11.3

(0.68)

5.0

(0.39)



(†)



(†)



(†)



(†)

75.0 78.1

(1.14) (1.28)

6.5 7.8

(0.42) (0.59)

12.0 10.7

(0.72) (0.77)

6.5 3.4

(0.53) (0.36)

— —

(†) (†)

— —

(†) (†)

— —

(†) (†)

— —

(†) (†)

79.6 71.1 72.4 83.6 76.6 64.5 71.2

(1.36) (1.30) (1.50) (2.99) (7.35) (6.37) (2.55)

6.3 8.2 8.6 4.1 4.9 ! 8.8 ! 9.7

(0.63) (0.52) (0.52) (1.02) (2.31) (2.70) (1.36)

9.7 14.3 13.4 7.6 17.1 ! 18.9 12.4

(0.75) (0.90) (1.22) (1.32) (5.82) (4.54) (1.45)

4.4 6.3 5.6 4.7 ! ‡ 7.9 ! 6.7

(0.42) (0.71) (0.70) (2.03) (†) (2.77) (1.29)

— — — — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

— — — — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

— — — — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

— — — — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

82.3 76.5 74.5 72.3

(1.13) (1.89) (1.37) (1.58)

6.3 7.2 7.6 7.6

(0.59) (0.65) (0.68) (0.68)

8.6 11.3 12.0 13.8

(0.70) (1.35) (0.85) (1.00)

2.8 5.0 6.0 6.4

(0.38) (0.81) (0.56) (0.63)

— — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†)

— — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†)

— — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†)

— — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†)

—Not available. †Not applicable. #Rounds to zero. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. ‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater. 1The term “anywhere” is not used in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire; students were simply asked how many times during the previous 30 days they had used marijuana.

2In

the question about using marijuana at school, “on school property” was not defined for survey respondents. categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. 4Data on marijuana use at school were not collected in 2013. NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 2009 through 2013. (This table was prepared September 2014.) 3Race

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

173

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 351 Alcohol, Illicit Drugs, and Cigarettes Percentage of public school students in grades 9–12 who reported using marijuana at least one time during the previous 30 days, by location and state: Selected years, 2003 Table 232.60. Percentage of public school students in grades 9–12 who reported using marijuana at least one time during the previous 30 days, through 2013 by location and state: Selected years, 2003 through 2013

Table 16.3.

[Standard parentheses] [Standarderrors errors appear appear ininparentheses]

On school property2

Anywhere (including on school property)1 State 1

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011

2013

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

United States3............... Alabama ............................ Alaska................................ Arizona .............................. Arkansas............................ California ...........................

22.4 17.7 23.9 25.6 — —

(1.09) (1.38) (1.29) (1.08) (†) (†)

20.2 18.5 — 20.0 18.9 —

(0.84) (1.49) (†) (1.08) (1.70) (†)

19.7 — 20.5 22.0 16.4 —

(0.97) (†) (1.47) (1.38) (1.08) (†)

20.8 16.2 22.7 23.7 17.8 —

(0.70) (1.28) (1.65) (1.90) (1.24) (†)

23.1 20.8 21.2 22.9 16.8 —

(0.80) (1.62) (1.68) (1.59) (1.72) (†)

23.4 19.2 19.7 23.5 19.0 —

Colorado ............................ Connecticut........................ Delaware............................ District of Columbia ........... Florida................................

— (†) — (†) 27.3 (1.13) 23.5 (1.23) 21.4 (0.89)

22.7 23.1 22.8 14.5 16.8

(2.99) (1.37) (1.12) (1.08) (0.86)

— 23.2 25.1 20.8 18.9

(†) (1.35) (1.03) (1.33) (0.88)

24.8 21.8 25.8 — 21.4

(2.22) (1.52) (1.30) (†) (0.72)

22.0 24.2 27.6 26.1 22.5

(1.16) (1.44) (1.37) (1.29) (0.86)

Georgia.............................. Hawaii ................................ Idaho.................................. Illinois................................. Indiana...............................

19.5 (0.94) — (†) 14.7 (1.56) — (†) 22.1 (1.19)

18.9 17.2 17.1 — 18.9

(1.59) (1.73) (1.32) (†) (1.38)

19.6 15.7 17.9 20.3 18.9

(0.96) (1.78) (1.73) (1.38) (1.19)

18.3 22.1 13.7 21.0 20.9

(1.02) (2.03) (1.07) (1.53) (1.83)

21.2 22.0 18.8 23.1 20.0

Iowa ................................... Kansas............................... Kentucky ............................ Louisiana ........................... Maine.................................

— (†) — (†) 21.1 (1.09) — (†) 26.4 (1.69)

15.6 15.6 15.8 — 22.2

(1.74) (1.46) (1.19) (†) (2.13)

11.5 15.3 16.4 — 22.0

(1.53) (0.93) (1.07) (†) (1.55)

— 14.7 16.1 16.3 20.5

(†) (1.19) (1.15) (1.29) (0.57)

Maryland............................ Massachusetts................... Michigan ............................ Minnesota .......................... Mississippi .........................

— (†) 27.7 (1.39) 24.0 (1.96) — (†) 20.6 (1.57)

18.5 (2.25) 26.2 (1.22) 18.8 (1.29) — (†) — (†)

19.4 24.6 18.0 — 16.7

(1.91) (1.43) (1.10) (†) (1.02)

21.9 27.1 20.7 — 17.7

Missouri ............................. Montana............................. Nebraska ........................... Nevada .............................. New Hampshire .................

21.8 23.1 18.3 22.3 30.6

(1.37) (1.45) (1.23) (1.31) (2.51)

18.1 22.3 17.5 17.3 25.9

(2.23) (1.43) (1.05) (1.34) (1.69)

19.0 21.0 — 15.5 22.9

(1.23) (1.44) (†) (1.07) (1.39)

New Jersey ........................ New Mexico ....................... New York............................ North Carolina ................... North Dakota .....................

— (†) — (†) 20.7 (1.05) 24.3 (1.99) 20.6 (1.58)

19.9 26.2 18.3 21.4 15.5

(2.18) (2.00) (1.13) (1.61) (1.62)

— 25.0 18.6 19.1 14.8

(†) (2.07) (0.78) (1.27) (1.18)

Ohio4 .................................. Oklahoma .......................... Oregon............................... Pennsylvania...................... Rhode Island .....................

21.4 (2.33) 22.0 (2.20) — (†) — (†) 27.6 (1.11)

20.9 (1.79) 18.7 (1.12) — (†) — (†) 25.0 (1.16)

17.7 (1.50) 15.9 (1.37) — (†) — (†) 23.2 (1.85)

— (†) 17.2 (2.04) — (†) 19.3 (1.43) 26.3 (1.33)

South Carolina................... South Dakota4 .................... Tennessee ......................... Texas ................................. Utah ...................................

— (†) 21.5 (3.35) 23.6 (2.10) — (†) 11.4 (1.28)

19.0 16.8 19.5 21.7 7.6

(1.24) (1.87) (1.38) (0.99) (1.18)

18.6 17.7 19.4 19.3 8.7

(1.44) (3.72) (1.29) (1.01) (2.00)

20.4 15.2 20.1 19.5 10.0

Vermont ............................. Virginia............................... Washington........................ West Virginia...................... Wisconsin .......................... Wyoming............................

28.2 — — 23.1 21.8 20.4

25.3 — — 19.6 15.9 17.8

(1.59) (†) (†) (1.70) (1.07) (1.05)

24.1 — — 23.5 20.3 14.4

(0.88) (†) (†) (1.05) (1.30) (0.79)

24.6 — — 20.3 18.9 16.9

(1.58) (†) (†) (2.13) (1.18) (1.56)

4.5 3.5 — 5.1 4.1 —

(0.32) (0.80) (†) (0.63) (0.61) (†)

4.5 — 5.9 6.1 2.8 —

(0.46) (†) (0.70) (0.68) (0.50) (†)

4.6 4.6 5.9 6.4 4.5 —

(0.35) (0.81) (0.69) (0.74) (1.02) (†)

5.9 4.0 4.3 5.6 3.9 —

(0.39) (0.68) (0.59) (0.75) (0.78) (†)

— — — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

— (†) 26.1 (1.44) 25.6 (1.17) — (†) 22.0 (0.81)

— (†) — (†) 6.0 (0.54) 7.5 (0.88) 4.9 (0.41)

6.0 5.1 5.6 4.8 4.0

(0.88) (0.49) (0.57) (0.62) (0.31)

— 5.9 5.4 5.8 4.7

(†) (0.77) (0.53) (0.66) (0.40)

6.1 6.2 5.6 — 5.2

(0.89) (0.76) (0.71) (†) (0.39)

6.0 5.2 6.1 7.9 6.3

(0.77) (0.68) (0.65) (0.91) (0.39)

— — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

(1.23) (1.32) (1.76) (1.59) (1.13)

20.3 18.9 15.3 24.0 —

(1.64) (1.54) (1.10) (1.70) (†)

3.2 (0.45) — (†) 2.7 (0.55) — (†) 3.8 (0.67)

3.3 7.2 3.9 — 3.4

(0.58) (1.14) (0.61) (†) (0.57)

3.6 5.7 4.7 4.2 4.1

(0.58) (0.85) (0.80) (0.76) (0.45)

3.4 8.3 3.0 5.0 4.4

(0.62) (1.86) (0.44) (0.77) (0.62)

5.6 7.6 4.9 4.7 3.3

(0.70) (0.67) (0.73) (0.50) (0.66)

— — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

14.6 16.8 19.2 16.8 21.2

(1.99) (0.87) (1.47) (1.02) (0.72)

— 14.3 17.7 17.5 21.3

(†) (1.19) (1.50) (1.38) (0.89)

— (†) — (†) 4.3 (0.55) — (†) 6.3 (0.76)

2.7 3.2 3.2 — 4.6

(0.64) (0.51) (0.45) (†) (0.72)

2.5 3.8 3.9 — 5.2

(0.66) (0.53) (0.44) (†) (0.65)

— (†) 2.7 (0.35) 3.1 (0.54) 3.6 (0.89) — (†)

3.4 2.9 4.2 4.1 —

(0.88) (0.53) (0.65) (0.59) (†)

— — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

(1.57) (1.24) (0.91) (†) (1.21)

23.2 27.9 18.6 — 17.5

(1.51) (1.31) (1.15) (†) (1.18)

19.8 24.8 18.2 — 17.7

(0.36) (0.92) (0.73) (†) (1.28)

— (†) 6.3 (0.44) 7.0 (1.20) — (†) 4.4 (0.90)

3.7 (0.82) 5.3 (0.54) 3.7 (0.50) — (†) — (†)

4.7 4.8 4.0 — 2.7

(1.13) (0.44) (0.57) (†) (0.35)

5.0 5.9 4.8 — 2.5

(0.65) (0.79) (0.59) (†) (0.46)

5.7 6.3 3.3 — 3.2

(0.70) (0.51) (0.44) (†) (0.58)

— — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

20.6 23.1 — 20.0 25.6

(2.02) (1.58) (†) (1.36) (1.86)

— (†) 21.2 (1.50) 12.7 (1.06) — (†) 28.4 (1.82)

20.5 21.0 11.7 18.7 24.4

(1.69) (1.18) (1.10) (1.57) (1.36)

3.0 6.4 3.9 5.3 6.6

(0.58) (0.70) (0.51) (0.69) (0.86)

4.0 6.1 3.1 5.7 —

(0.82) (0.70) (0.41) (0.81) (†)

3.6 5.0 — 3.6 4.7

(0.63) (0.49) (†) (0.55) (0.64)

3.4 5.8 — 4.9 6.8

(0.48) (0.67) (†) (0.53) (0.78)

— (†) 5.5 (0.59) 2.7 (0.43) — (†) 7.3 (0.87)

— — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

20.3 28.0 20.9 19.8 16.9

(1.53) (1.52) (1.32) (1.67) (1.55)

21.1 27.6 20.6 24.2 15.3

21.0 27.8 21.4 23.2 15.9

(1.20) (1.70) (1.04) (1.83) (1.26)

— (†) — (†) 4.5 (0.41) 3.5 (0.71) 6.3 (0.98)

3.4 8.4 3.6 4.1 4.0

(0.67) (0.98) (0.41) (0.65) (0.71)

— 7.9 4.1 4.3 2.7

(†) (0.86) (0.44) (0.54) (0.43)

— (†) 9.7 (1.06) — (†) 4.0 (0.63) 3.8 (0.59)

— (†) 9.7 (0.84) — (†) 5.2 (0.91) 3.4 (0.45)

— — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

23.6 (1.95) 19.1 (1.90) — (†) — (†) 26.3 (1.35)

20.7 (2.30) 16.3 (1.57) — (†) — (†) 23.9 (1.92)

4.2 (0.96) 4.3 (0.70) — (†) — (†) 7.4 (0.70)

4.3 (0.62) 3.0 (0.38) — (†) — (†) 7.2 (0.65)

3.7 (0.67) 2.6 (0.40) — (†) — (†) 6.5 (0.93)

— (†) 2.9 (0.70) — (†) 3.5 (0.58) 5.1 (0.60)

— (†) 2.4 (0.58) — (†) — (†) — (†)

— — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

(1.56) (1.36) (1.31) (0.71) (1.53)

24.1 17.8 20.6 20.8 9.6

(1.99) (3.57) (0.96) (1.30) (1.26)

19.7 16.1 21.4 20.5 7.6

(1.22) (3.01) (1.70) (1.26) (0.79)

— (†) 4.5 ! (1.50) 4.1 (0.86) — (†) 3.7 (0.59)

4.6 2.9 3.5 3.8 1.7

3.3 5.0 ! 4.1 3.6 3.8 !

3.7 2.9 3.8 4.6 2.5

(0.63) (0.49) (0.65) (0.51) (0.48)

5.2 — 3.6 4.8 4.0

(0.75) (†) (0.40) (0.47) (0.72)

— — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

(1.14) (†) (†) (1.73) (1.64) (0.91)

24.4 18.0 — 19.7 21.6 18.5

(1.43) (1.79) (†) (1.61) (1.78) (1.23)

25.7 17.9 — 18.9 17.3 17.8

(0.83) (0.85) (†) (1.39) (1.12) (0.81)

8.0 (0.44) — (†) — (†) 4.5 (0.72) — (†) 5.1 (0.66)

7.0 (0.80) — (†) — (†) 4.9 (0.85) — (†) 4.0 (0.43)

6.3 (0.57) — (†) — (†) 3.9 (0.37) — (†) 5.3 (0.45)

6.0 3.5 — 3.0 — 4.7

(0.84) (0.70) (†) (0.45) (†) (0.44)

— — — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

—Not available. †Not applicable. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. 1The term “anywhere” is not used in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire; students were simply asked how many times during the previous 30 days they had used marijuana. 2In the question about using marijuana at school, “on school property” was not defined for survey respondents. Data on marijuana use at school were not collected in 2013. 3Data for the U.S. total include both public and private schools and were collected through a national survey representing the entire country.

5.8 2.6 6.5 6.5 — —

4Data

Supplemental Tables

(0.64) (0.73) (0.67) (0.52) (0.42)

(0.52) (2.41) (0.60) (0.30) (1.24)

6.3 (0.63) — (†) — (†) 5.8 (0.97) — (†) 4.7 (0.52)

include both public and private schools. NOTE: State-level data include public schools only, with the exception of data for Ohio and South Dakota. Data for the U.S. total, Ohio, and South Dakota include both public and private schools. For specific states, a given year’s data may be unavailable (1) because the state did not participate in the survey that year; (2) because the state omitted this particular survey item from the state-level questionnaire; or (3) because the state had an overall response rate of less than 60 percent (the overall response rate is the school response rate multiplied by the student response rate). SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), 2003 through 2013. (This table was prepared June 2014.)

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

174

13

(0.68) (0.54) (0.80) (0.52) (†) (†)

(1.33) (1.58) (1.07) (1.25) (1.52)

(1.08) (1.46) (1.35) (1.75) (0.98) (†)

2013

Table 17.1.

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 333 School Environment

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being afraid of attack or harm, by location

Table 230.70. Percentage of studentsstudent ages 12–18 whoschool reportedcharacteristics: being afraid of attackSelected or harm, byyears, location1995 and selected student and school and selected and through 2013 characteristics: Selected years, 1995 through 2013 [Standard errors parentheses] [Standard errorsappear appearin in parentheses]

1995

1999

2001

2003

2005

20071

20091

20111

20131

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11.8 (0.39)

7.3 (0.37)

6.4 (0.31)

6.1 (0.31)

6.4

(0.39)

5.3

(0.33)

4.2

(0.33)

3.7

(0.28)

3.5

(0.33)

10.8 (0.51) 12.8 (0.58)

6.5 (0.44) 8.2 (0.53)

6.4 (0.38) 6.4 (0.43)

5.3 (0.34) 6.9 (0.48)

6.1 6.7

(0.56) (0.47)

4.6 6.0

(0.42) (0.45)

3.7 4.8

(0.38) (0.51)

3.7 3.8

(0.41) (0.36)

3.1 4.0

(0.38) (0.48)

Student or school characteristic 1 At school Total......................................................... Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity2 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian............................................................ Other............................................................ Grade 6th................................................................ 7th................................................................ 8th................................................................ 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th.............................................................. Urbanicity3 Urban ........................................................... Suburban ..................................................... Rural ............................................................ Control of school Public ........................................................... Private.......................................................... Away from school Total......................................................... Sex Male ............................................................. Female ......................................................... Race/ethnicity2 White............................................................ Black ............................................................ Hispanic ....................................................... Asian............................................................ Other............................................................ Grade 6th................................................................ 7th................................................................ 8th................................................................ 9th................................................................ 10th.............................................................. 11th.............................................................. 12th.............................................................. Urbanicity3 Urban ........................................................... Suburban ..................................................... Rural ............................................................ Control of school Public ........................................................... Private..........................................................

8.1 20.3 20.9 — 13.5

(0.36) (1.31) (1.27) (†) (1.58)

5.0 13.5 11.7 — 6.7

(0.32) (1.27) (1.20) (†) (1.09)

4.9 8.9 10.6 — 6.4

(0.35) (0.87) (1.07) (†) (1.11)

4.1 10.7 9.5 — 5.0

(0.35) (1.22) (0.65) (†) (1.31)

4.6 9.2 10.3 6.2 ! 5.7

(0.39) (1.19) (1.16) (2.09) (1.63)

4.2 8.6 7.1 2.3 ! 3.3 !

(0.37) (1.18) (0.88) (1.05) (1.09)

3.3 7.0 4.9 5.9 ! ‡

(0.35) (1.12) (0.89) (2.25) (†)

3.0 4.9 4.8 4.2 ! 4.1 !

(0.31) (1.03) (0.59) (1.52) (1.31)

2.6 4.6 4.9 3.1 ! 3.8 !

(0.33) (0.85) (0.78) (1.09) (1.44)

14.3 15.3 13.0 11.6 11.0 8.9 7.8

(1.13) (1.02) (0.84) (0.82) (0.82) (0.80) (0.94)

10.9 9.5 8.1 7.1 7.1 4.8 4.8

(1.37) (0.79) (0.74) (0.74) (0.77) (0.68) (0.88)

10.6 9.2 7.6 5.5 5.0 4.8 2.9

(1.26) (0.95) (0.69) (0.63) (0.71) (0.65) (0.55)

10.0 8.2 6.3 6.3 4.4 4.7 3.7

(1.35) (0.86) (0.68) (0.61) (0.67) (0.66) (0.53)

9.5 9.1 7.1 5.9 5.5 4.6 3.3

(1.14) (1.04) (0.95) (0.71) (0.89) (0.73) (0.69)

9.9 6.7 4.6 5.5 5.2 3.1 3.1

(1.33) (0.86) (0.71) (0.87) (0.87) (0.63) (0.65)

6.4 6.2 3.5 4.6 4.6 3.3 1.9 !

(1.20) (1.06) (0.75) (0.75) (0.79) (0.74) (0.57)

5.6 4.5 4.6 4.2 3.9 1.8 2.2

(1.08) (0.69) (0.71) (0.66) (0.63) (0.48) (0.57)

4.7 4.3 3.3 3.4 4.4 2.6 2.0

(1.01) (0.69) (0.78) (0.71) (0.75) (0.55) (0.56)

(0.81) (0.41) (0.59)

6.9 3.0 3.9

(0.84) (0.33) (0.63)

5.2 3.1 3.0

(0.60) (0.39) (0.63)

4.5 3.0 3.3

(0.60) (0.38) (0.62)

18.4 (0.84) 9.8 (0.49) 8.6 (0.80)

11.6 (0.81) 6.2 (0.42) 4.8 (0.70)

9.7 (0.59) 4.8 (0.33) 6.0 (0.97)

9.5 (0.68) 4.8 (0.30) 4.7 (0.93)

10.5 4.7 5.1

(0.92) (0.41) (0.97)

7.1 4.4 4.9

12.2 (0.43) 7.3 (1.01)

7.7 (0.38) 3.6 (0.81)

6.6 (0.33) 4.6 (0.92)

6.4 (0.34) 3.0 (0.73)

6.6 3.8

(0.42) (0.82)

5.5 (0.34) 2.5 ! (0.89)

4.4 (0.35) 1.9 ! (0.74)

3.9 (0.30) 1.5 ! (0.64)

3.5 (0.35) 2.6 ! (0.83)



(†)

5.7 (0.32)

4.6 (0.28)

5.4 (0.29)

5.2

(0.33)

3.5

(0.29)

3.3

(0.32)

2.4

(0.23)

2.7

(0.35)

— —

(†) (†)

4.1 (0.34) 7.4 (0.49)

3.7 (0.31) 5.6 (0.42)

4.0 (0.30) 6.8 (0.48)

4.6 5.8

(0.42) (0.48)

2.4 4.5

(0.31) (0.40)

2.5 4.1

(0.34) (0.51)

2.0 2.7

(0.27) (0.30)

2.4 3.0

(0.40) (0.44)

— — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

4.3 8.7 8.9 — 5.4

(0.32) (1.00) (1.03) (†) (1.04)

3.7 6.3 6.5 — 6.6

(0.29) (0.87) (0.75) (†) (1.32)

3.8 10.0 7.4 — 3.9

(0.31) (1.13) (0.80) (†) (1.02)

4.2 7.3 6.2 7.4 ! 3.1 !

(0.40) (0.96) (0.84) (2.89) (1.28)

2.5 4.9 5.9 ‡ ‡

(0.28) (0.73) (0.80) (†) (†)

2.2 5.7 3.9 7.1 ! 4.0 !

(0.28) (1.10) (0.70) (2.50) (1.79)

1.6 3.5 3.3 3.2 ! 2.5 !

(0.24) (0.86) (0.50) (1.15) (1.05)

1.6 3.6 4.5 2.9 ! 3.2 !

(0.30) (0.78) (0.86) (1.03) (1.42)

— — — — — — —

(†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)

7.8 6.1 5.5 4.6 4.8 5.9 6.1

(1.11) (0.72) (0.66) (0.63) (0.63) (0.72) (0.86)

6.3 5.5 4.4 4.5 4.2 4.7 3.3

(1.15) (0.80) (0.61) (0.62) (0.63) (0.62) (0.62)

6.8 6.7 5.3 4.3 5.3 4.7 4.9

(1.01) (0.80) (0.71) (0.55) (0.67) (0.69) (0.72)

5.6 7.5 5.0 3.8 4.7 4.2 5.4

(0.99) (0.89) (0.72) (0.61) (0.66) (0.74) (0.98)

5.9 3.0 3.6 4.0 3.0 2.3 3.2

(1.20) (0.55) (0.65) (0.75) (0.60) (0.56) (0.61)

3.3 4.0 3.3 2.6 5.5 2.2 2.1

(0.89) (0.78) (0.72) (0.62) (0.96) (0.56) (0.63)

3.0 2.7 2.1 3.5 1.7 2.9 1.0 !

(0.86) (0.58) (0.43) (0.65) (0.46) (0.70) (0.37)

3.9 2.2 2.4 ! 2.8 4.4 2.2 1.3 !

(0.88) (0.54) (0.80) (0.59) (0.83) (0.47) (0.46)

— — —

(†) (†) (†)

9.1 (0.82) 5.0 (0.31) 3.0 (0.71)

7.4 (0.68) 3.8 (0.33) 3.0 (0.59)

8.1 (0.60) 4.4 (0.34) 4.0 (0.69)

6.7 4.6 4.7

(0.61) (0.43) (0.98)

5.3 2.7 2.8

(0.67) (0.36) (0.54)

5.8 2.5 1.9

(0.87) (0.33) (0.48)

3.4 (0.42) 2.2 (0.30) 1.0 ! (0.35)

4.0 2.2 1.7

(0.54) (0.42) (0.49)

— —

(†) (†)

5.8 (0.32) 5.0 (0.92)

4.6 (0.30) 5.1 (1.08)

5.4 (0.31) 4.7 (0.89)

5.2 4.9

(0.34) (1.41)

3.6 (0.30) 2.1 ! (0.72)

3.5 (0.33) 1.8 ! (0.71)

2.4 (0.23) 1.6 ! (0.68)

2.7 (0.36) 2.0 ! (0.70)

—Not available. †Not applicable. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. ‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater. 1Starting in 2007, the reference period was the school year, whereas in prior survey years the reference period was the previous 6 months. Cognitive testing showed that estimates from 2007 onward are comparable to previous years. 2Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. “Other” includes American Indians/ Alaska Natives, Asians (prior to 2005), Pacific Islanders, and, from 2003 onward, persons of Two or more races. Due to changes in racial/ethnic categories, comparisons of race/ethnicity across years should be made with caution.

3Refers

to the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) status of the respondent’s household as defined in 2000 by the U.S. Census Bureau. Categories include “central city of an MSA (Urban),” “in MSA but not in central city (Suburban),” and “not MSA (Rural).” NOTE: “At school” includes the school building, on school property, on a school bus, and, from 2001 onward, going to and from school. Students were asked if they “never,” “almost never,” “sometimes,” or “most of the time” feared that someone would attack or harm them at school or away from school. Students responding “sometimes” or “most of the time” were considered fearful. For the 2001 survey only, the wording was changed from “attack or harm” to “attack or threaten to attack.” SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, selected years, 1995 through 2013. (This table was prepared September 2014.)

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

175

334 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education

Table 18.1. Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported avoiding one or more places in school or School Environment avoiding school activities or classes because of fear of attack or harm, by selected student and school characteristics: Selected years, 1995 2013or avoiding school activities or classes Table 230.80. Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported avoiding one or morethrough places in school because of fear of attack or harm, by selected student and school characteristics: Selected years, 1995 through 2013 [Standard parentheses] [Standarderrors errors appear appear ininparentheses]

Type of avoidance and student or school characteristic

1995

1 Total, any avoidance....................... Avoided one or more places in school Total ............................................................. Entrance to the school ............................. Hallways or stairs in school...................... Parts of the school cafeteria..................... Any school restrooms............................... Other places inside the school building.... Sex Male ......................................................... Female ..................................................... Race/ethnicity2 White........................................................ Black ........................................................ Hispanic ................................................... Asian ........................................................ Other ........................................................ Grade 6th ............................................................ 7th ............................................................ 8th ............................................................ 9th ............................................................ 10th .......................................................... 11th .......................................................... 12th .......................................................... Urbanicity3 Urban ....................................................... Suburban.................................................. Rural......................................................... School control Public ....................................................... Private...................................................... Avoided school activities or classes Total ............................................................. Any activities4 ........................................... Any classes .............................................. Stayed home from school.........................

1999

2001

2003 5

6

8

20131

2

3 6.9 (0.34)

6.1

(0.32)

5.0

(0.30)

5.5

(0.32)

7.2

(0.36)

5.0

(0.35)

5.5

(0.34)

4.7

(0.31)

8.7 2.1 4.2 2.5 4.4 2.5

(0.29) (0.15) (0.21) (0.18) (0.22) (0.18)

4.6 1.1 2.1 1.3 2.1 1.4

(0.29) (0.14) (0.17) (0.15) (0.19) (0.17)

4.7 1.2 2.1 1.4 2.2 1.4

(0.27) (0.11) (0.18) (0.16) (0.19) (0.14)

4.0 1.2 1.7 1.2 2.0 1.2

(0.27) (0.11) (0.17) (0.13) (0.16) (0.14)

4.5 1.0 2.1 1.8 2.1 1.4

(0.28) (0.14) (0.21) (0.16) (0.20) (0.18)

5.8 1.5 2.6 1.9 2.6 1.5

(0.31) (0.15) (0.21) (0.19) (0.24) (0.17)

4.0 0.9 2.2 1.1 1.4 1.0

(0.32) (0.15) (0.23) (0.17) (0.19) (0.16)

4.7 0.9 2.5 1.8 1.7 1.1

(0.30) (0.13) (0.21) (0.18) (0.19) (0.15)

3.7 0.8 1.7 1.4 1.3 0.8

(0.27) (0.14) (0.18) (0.19) (0.16) (0.13)

4.6 (0.35) 4.6 (0.39)

4.7 4.6

(0.40) (0.35)

3.9 4.1

(0.34) (0.37)

4.9 4.1

(0.46) (0.40)

6.1 5.5

(0.47) (0.41)

3.9 4.0

(0.45) (0.42)

3.9 5.5

(0.42) (0.40)

3.4 3.9

(0.34) (0.43)

9

10

7.1 12.1 12.9 — 11.1

(0.32) (1.01) (0.97) (†) (1.61)

3.8 6.7 6.2 — 5.4

(0.27) (0.90) (0.73) (†) (0.99)

3.9 6.6 5.5 — 6.2

(0.30) (0.75) (0.71) (†) (1.16)

3.0 5.1 6.3 — 4.4

(0.27) (0.79) (0.70) (†) (1.02)

3.6 7.2 6.0 2.5 ! 4.3 !

(0.30) (0.98) (0.80) (0.87) (1.86)

5.3 8.3 6.8 ‡ 3.5 !

(0.36) (1.02) (0.82) (†) (1.22)

3.3 6.1 4.8 3.7 ! ‡

(0.38) (1.04) (0.86) (1.53) (†)

4.4 4.5 6.0 2.7 ! 3.3 !

(0.38) (0.80) (0.68) (1.06) (1.04)

3.0 3.3 4.9 3.8 ! 5.9

(0.34) (0.79) (0.63) (1.26) (1.72)

11.6 11.8 8.8 9.5 7.8 6.9 4.1

(0.99) (0.89) (0.77) (0.71) (0.75) (0.64) (0.74)

5.9 6.1 5.5 5.3 4.7 2.5 2.4

(0.92) (0.72) (0.70) (0.63) (0.61) (0.46) (0.51)

6.8 6.2 5.2 5.0 4.2 2.8 3.0

(0.93) (0.79) (0.62) (0.61) (0.64) (0.43) (0.64)

5.6 5.7 4.7 5.1 3.1 2.5 1.2 !

(0.94) (0.73) (0.63) (0.62) (0.54) (0.53) (0.41)

7.9 5.8 4.5 5.2 4.2 3.3 1.3 !

(1.27) (0.93) (0.67) (0.78) (0.65) (0.58) (0.41)

7.8 7.5 5.9 6.7 5.5 4.2 3.2

(1.20) (0.86) (0.84) (0.81) (0.80) (0.70) (0.71)

7.1 5.5 4.8 4.5 4.2 1.2 ! 1.6 !

(1.13) (0.86) (0.93) (0.89) (0.88) (0.44) (0.50)

6.9 5.1 5.2 3.7 5.4 3.6 3.7

(0.99) (0.76) (0.75) (0.67) (0.72) (0.65) (0.71)

4.4 4.6 2.7 5.1 4.0 2.5 2.3

(0.92) (0.72) (0.62) (0.78) (0.72) (0.61) (0.62)

11.7 (0.73) 7.9 (0.40) 7.0 (0.65)

5.8 (0.48) 4.7 (0.38) 3.0 (0.56)

6.0 4.3 3.9

(0.52) (0.38) (0.70)

5.7 3.5 2.8

(0.59) (0.30) (0.53)

6.3 3.8 4.2

(0.67) (0.36) (0.74)

6.1 5.2 6.9

(0.65) (0.38) (0.69)

5.5 3.1 4.3

(0.69) (0.38) (0.80)

5.3 4.6 3.5

(0.61) (0.36) (0.54)

4.3 3.3 3.5

(0.54) (0.33) (0.68)

9.3 (0.33) 2.2 (0.47)

5.0 (0.31) 1.6 (0.45)

4.9 (0.29) 2.0 ! (0.69)

4.2 (0.29) 1.5 ! (0.49)

4.8 (0.30) 1.4 ! (0.55)

6.2 (0.35) 1.4 ! (0.54)

4.2 (0.34) 1.8 ! (0.73)

4.9 (0.32) 2.1 ! (0.70)

3.9 (0.29) 1.0 ! (0.49)

— (†) 1.7 (0.15) — (†) — (†)

3.2 0.8 0.6 2.3

2.3 1.1 0.6 1.1

1.9 1.0 0.6 0.8

2.1 1.0 0.7 0.7

2.6 1.8 0.7 0.8

2.1 1.3 0.6 0.6

2.0 1.2 0.7 0.8

2.0 1.0 0.5 0.9

(0.22) (0.10) (0.09) (0.19)

(0.18) (0.12) (0.09) (0.13)

(0.18) (0.11) (0.10) (0.11)

(0.23) (0.16) (0.13) (0.11)

3Refers

(0.23) (0.20) (0.12) (0.13)

(0.25) (0.20) (0.13) (0.14)

(0.20) (0.16) (0.10) (0.12)

(0.21) (0.13) (0.10) (0.13)

to the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) status of the respondent’s household as defined in 2000 by the U.S. Census Bureau. Categories include “central city of an MSA (Urban),” “in MSA but not in central city (Suburban),” and “not MSA (Rural).” 4Before 2007, students were asked whether they avoided “any extracurricular activities.” Starting in 2007, the survey wording was changed to “any activities.” NOTE: Students were asked whether they avoided places or activities because they thought that someone might attack or harm them. For the 2001 survey only, the wording was changed from “attack or harm” to “attack or threaten to attack.” Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and because students reporting more than one type of avoidance were counted only once in the totals. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, selected years, 1995 through 2013. (This table was prepared September 2014.)

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Supplemental Tables

7

20111

(†)

—Not available. †Not applicable. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. ‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater. 1Starting in 2007, the reference period was the school year, whereas in prior survey years the reference period was the previous 6 months. Cognitive testing showed that estimates from 2007 onward are comparable to previous years. 2Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. “Other” includes American Indians/ Alaska Natives, Asians (prior to 2005), Pacific Islanders, and, from 2003 onward, persons of Two or more races. Due to changes in racial/ethnic categories, comparisons of race/ethnicity across years should be made with caution.

176

20091

20071



8.8 (0.43) 8.5 (0.46)

4

2005

358 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education and Security Measures TableDiscipline, 19.1. Safety, Number of students receiving selected disciplinary actions in public elementary and secondary by type of disciplinary action, disability status, sex, and Table 233.27. Number of studentsschools, receiving selected disciplinary actions in public elementary and secondary schools, by race/ethnicity: type of disciplinary 2011–12 action, disability status, sex, and race/ethnicity: 2011–12 Out-of-school suspensions3

Expulsions4 Total7

Disability status, sex, and race/ethnicity 1 All students Total........................................... Sex Male ............................................... Female ........................................... Race/ethnicity9 White.............................................. Black .............................................. Hispanic ......................................... Asian.............................................. Pacific Islander............................... American Indian/Alaska Native...... Two or more races ......................... Race/ethnicity by sex9 Male White.......................................... Black .......................................... Hispanic ..................................... Asian .......................................... Pacific Islander........................... American Indian/Alaska Native .. Two or more races...................... Female White.......................................... Black .......................................... Hispanic ..................................... Asian .......................................... Pacific Islander........................... American Indian/Alaska Native .. Two or more races...................... Students with disabilities Total........................................... Sex Male ............................................... Female ........................................... Race/ethnicity9 White.............................................. Black .............................................. Hispanic ......................................... Asian.............................................. Pacific Islander............................... American Indian/Alaska Native...... Two or more races ......................... Race/ethnicity by sex9 Male White.......................................... Black .......................................... Hispanic ..................................... Asian .......................................... Pacific Islander........................... American Indian/Alaska Native .. Two or more races...................... Female White.......................................... Black .......................................... Hispanic ..................................... Asian .......................................... Pacific Islander........................... American Indian/Alaska Native .. Two or more races......................

Corporal punishment1

One or more in-school suspension2

Total

Only one

More than one

All expulsions

Under zerotolerance policies8

With educational services

Without Referral educational to law services enforcement5

Schoolrelated arrest6

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

166,807

3,385,868

3,172,403

1,752,997

1,419,690

111,018

29,677

69,995

40,989

249,752

64,218

130,591 36,216

2,271,265 1,114,603

2,215,608 956,795

1,193,437 559,560

1,022,224 397,466

83,283 27,735

22,310 7,367

52,937 17,058

30,343 10,646

178,132 71,620

45,802 18,416

87,607 57,215 14,085 439 87 3,922 2,087

1,381,239 1,045,021 756,254 34,539 5,541 43,686 80,418

1,084,048 1,200,401 688,774 34,526 8,258 44,549 80,738

639,584 596,261 400,155 24,510 5,219 26,035 43,667

444,670 604,181 288,672 9,999 3,045 18,492 37,087

39,766 39,443 23,696 1,096 266 2,443 2,845

11,597 6,924 8,746 372 229 523 846

24,812 22,544 17,551 816 179 1,340 1,623

14,947 16,895 6,130 282 87 1,104 1,224

104,484 67,907 60,187 3,343 513 5,588 5,565

25,113 19,149 15,426 728 201 1,357 1,586

71,152 42,211 11,017 361 65 3,054 1,642

977,726 650,932 502,718 25,395 3,842 28,552 52,641

807,781 776,082 487,822 27,045 5,931 30,389 56,314

465,059 371,985 273,471 18,970 3,668 17,259 29,668

342,736 404,088 214,426 8,064 2,263 13,126 26,644

30,700 27,985 18,508 887 197 1,745 2,056

8,778 5,285 6,408 291 186 385 636

19,261 16,136 13,655 648 146 977 1,191

11,452 11,844 4,849 239 50 771 866

76,763 45,689 43,214 2,626 370 3,884 3,880

18,413 12,906 11,262 575 144 934 1,060

16,455 15,004 3,068 78 22 868 445

403,513 394,089 253,536 9,144 1,699 15,134 27,777

276,267 424,319 200,952 7,481 2,327 14,160 24,424

174,525 224,276 126,684 5,540 1,551 8,776 13,999

101,934 200,093 74,246 1,935 782 5,366 10,443

9,066 11,458 5,188 209 69 698 789

2,819 1,639 2,338 81 43 138 210

5,551 6,408 3,896 168 33 363 432

3,495 5,051 1,281 43 37 333 358

27,721 22,218 16,973 717 143 1,704 1,685

6,700 6,243 4,164 153 57 423 526

25,668

666,499

720,928

361,018

360,049

23,032

6,260

17,444

5,577

58,805

16,576

21,525 4,143

510,812 155,687

569,752 151,176

278,742 82,276

291,093 68,956

18,917 4,115

5,121 1,139

14,355 3,089

4,563 1,014

46,884 11,921

13,049 3,527

13,390 7,824 1,968 36 10 703 372

281,208 192,218 124,261 3,582 1,101 9,193 15,766

275,051 237,998 138,982 4,971 2,389 10,812 19,616

144,286 110,605 68,749 3,102 1,371 5,906 9,433

130,825 127,491 70,217 1,863 1,018 4,900 10,191

8,448 7,547 4,157 133 47 615 622

2,501 1,349 1,385 74 169 112 230

6,499 5,606 3,265 104 35 405 400

1,953 1,938 889 29 12 212 224

25,399 15,735 12,415 447 88 1,242 1,314

6,317 5,005 3,553 145 107 329 462

11,453 6,429 1,631 28 8 574 313

221,833 142,039 94,865 2,889 881 6,918 11,928

225,121 180,611 109,707 4,208 1,908 8,406 15,547

115,240 81,592 53,127 2,602 1,069 4,471 7,284

109,887 99,093 56,596 1,600 839 3,936 8,265

6,976 6,041 3,540 115 37 494 509

2,061 1,121 1,121 60 139 94 184

5,379 4,488 2,780 90 29 328 338

1,608 1,552 757 24 8 169 173

20,631 12,207 9,882 378 65 971 1,044

5,069 3,807 2,846 113 75 260 371

1,937 1,395 337 8 1-3 129 59

59,375 50,179 29,396 693 220 2,275 3,838

49,930 57,387 29,275 763 481 2,406 4,069

29,046 29,013 15,622 500 302 1,435 2,149

20,938 28,398 13,621 263 179 964 1,926

1,472 1,506 617 18 10 121 113

440 228 264 14 30 18 46

1,120 1,118 485 14 6 77 62

345 386 132 5 4 43 51

4,768 3,528 2,533 69 23 271 270

1,248 1,198 707 32 32 69 91

1Corporal punishment is paddling, spanking, or other forms of physical punishment imposed on a student. 2An in-school suspension is an instance in which a student is temporarily removed from his or her regular classroom(s) for at least half a day but remains under the direct supervision of school personnel. 3For students without disabilities and students with disabilities served only under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, out-of-school suspensions are instances in which a student is excluded from school for disciplinary reasons for 1 school day or longer. This does not include students who served their suspension in the school. For students with disabilities served under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), out-of-school suspensions are instances in which a student is temporarily removed from his or her regular school for disciplinary purposes to another setting (e.g., home, behavior center). This includes both removals in which no Individualized Education Program (IEP) services are provided because the removal is 10 days or less and removals in which IEP services continue to be provided. 4Expulsions are actions taken by a local education agency that result in the removal of a student from his or her regular school for disciplinary purposes for the remainder of the school year or longer in accordance with local education agency policy. Expulsions also include removals resulting from violations of the Gun Free Schools Act that are modified to less than 365 days. 5Referral to law enforcement is an action by which a student is reported to any law enforcement agency or official, including a school police unit, for an incident that occurs on school

grounds, during school-related events, or while taking school transportation, regardless of whether official action is taken. 6A school-related arrest is an arrest of a student for any activity conducted on school grounds, during off-campus school activities (including while taking school transportation), or due to a referral by any school official. 7Totals include expulsions with and without educational services. 8Includes all expulsions under zero-tolerance policies, including expulsions with and without educational services. A zero-tolerance policy results in mandatory expulsion of any student who commits one or more specified offenses (for example, offenses involving guns, other weapons, violence, or similar factors, or combinations of these factors). A policy is considered zero tolerance even if there are some exceptions to the mandatory aspect of the expulsion, such as allowing the chief administering officer of a local education agency to modify the expulsion on a case-by-case basis. 9Data by race/ethnicity exclude data for students with disabilities served only under Section 504 (not receiving services under IDEA). NOTE: Student counts between 1 and 3 are displayed as 1-3 to protect student privacy. Detail may not sum to totals because of privacy protection routines applied to the data. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights, Civil Rights Data Collection, “2011–12 Discipline Estimations by State.” (This table was prepared November 2015.)

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

177

Table 19.2.

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 359 Discipline, Safety, and Security Measures

Percentage of students receiving selected disciplinary actions in public elementary and

secondary schools, byselected type of disciplinary status, sex,schools, and race/ethnicity: Table 233.28. Percentage of students receiving disciplinary actionsaction, in public disability elementary and secondary by type of disciplinary action, disability status, sex, and race/ethnicity: 2011–12 2011–12 Out-of-school suspensions3

Expulsions4 Total7

Disability status, sex, and race/ethnicity 1 All students Total........................................... Sex Male ............................................... Female ........................................... Race/ethnicity9 White.............................................. Black .............................................. Hispanic ......................................... Asian.............................................. Pacific Islander............................... American Indian/Alaska Native...... Two or more races ......................... Race/ethnicity by sex9 Male White.......................................... Black .......................................... Hispanic ..................................... Asian .......................................... Pacific Islander........................... American Indian/Alaska Native .. Two or more races...................... Female White.......................................... Black .......................................... Hispanic ..................................... Asian .......................................... Pacific Islander........................... American Indian/Alaska Native .. Two or more races...................... Students with disabilities Total........................................... Sex Male ............................................... Female ........................................... Race/ethnicity9 White.............................................. Black .............................................. Hispanic ......................................... Asian.............................................. Pacific Islander............................... American Indian/Alaska Native...... Two or more races ......................... Race/ethnicity by sex9 Male White.......................................... Black .......................................... Hispanic ..................................... Asian .......................................... Pacific Islander........................... American Indian/Alaska Native .. Two or more races...................... Female White.......................................... Black .......................................... Hispanic ..................................... Asian .......................................... Pacific Islander........................... American Indian/Alaska Native .. Two or more races......................

Corporal punishment1

One or more in-school suspension2

Total

2

3

4

Only one

More than one

All expulsions

Under zerotolerance policies8

With educational services

5

6

7

8

9

10

12

0.34

6.83

6.40

3.53

2.86

0.22

0.06

0.14

0.08

0.50

0.13

8.91 4.62

8.69 3.97

4.68 2.32

4.01 1.65

0.33 0.12

0.09 0.03

0.21 0.07

0.12 0.04

0.70 0.30

0.18 0.08

0.35 0.74 0.12 0.02 0.04 0.69 0.16

5.49 13.43 6.53 1.50 2.52 7.70 6.34

4.31 15.43 5.95 1.50 3.75 7.85 6.37

2.54 7.66 3.46 1.06 2.37 4.59 3.44

1.77 7.76 2.49 0.43 1.38 3.26 2.92

0.16 0.51 0.20 0.05 0.12 0.43 0.22

0.05 0.09 0.08 0.02 0.10 0.09 0.07

0.10 0.29 0.15 0.04 0.08 0.24 0.13

0.06 0.22 0.05 0.01 0.04 0.19 0.10

0.42 0.87 0.52 0.15 0.23 0.98 0.44

0.10 0.25 0.13 0.03 0.09 0.24 0.13

0.55 1.06 0.19 0.03 0.06 1.05 0.26

7.56 16.42 8.49 2.17 3.38 9.82 8.24

6.24 19.57 8.24 2.31 5.22 10.46 8.81

3.60 9.38 4.62 1.62 3.23 5.94 4.64

2.65 10.19 3.62 0.69 1.99 4.52 4.17

0.24 0.71 0.31 0.08 0.17 0.60 0.32

0.07 0.13 0.11 0.02 0.16 0.13 0.10

0.15 0.41 0.23 0.06 0.13 0.34 0.19

0.09 0.30 0.08 0.02 0.04 0.27 0.14

0.59 1.15 0.73 0.22 0.33 1.34 0.61

0.14 0.33 0.19 0.05 0.13 0.32 0.17

0.13 0.39 0.05 0.01 0.02 0.31 0.07

3.30 10.33 4.48 0.81 1.60 5.46 4.41

2.26 11.12 3.55 0.66 2.19 5.11 3.88

1.43 5.88 2.24 0.49 1.46 3.17 2.22

0.83 5.24 1.31 0.17 0.73 1.94 1.66

0.07 0.30 0.09 0.02 0.06 0.25 0.13

0.02 0.04 0.04 0.01 0.04 0.05 0.03

0.05 0.17 0.07 0.01 0.03 0.13 0.07

0.03 0.13 0.02 0.00 0.03 0.12 0.06

0.23 0.58 0.30 0.06 0.13 0.62 0.27

0.05 0.16 0.07 0.01 0.05 0.15 0.08

0.42

10.95

11.84

5.93

5.92

0.38

0.10

0.29

0.09

0.97

0.27

0.53 0.20

12.59 7.67

14.04 7.45

6.87 4.05

7.17 3.40

0.47 0.20

0.13 0.06

0.35 0.15

0.11 0.05

1.16 0.59

0.32 0.17

0.41 0.67 0.15 0.03 0.04 0.79 0.25

8.71 16.57 9.57 2.61 4.74 10.32 10.64

8.51 20.52 10.70 3.62 10.28 12.14 13.24

4.47 9.54 5.29 2.26 5.90 6.63 6.37

4.05 10.99 5.41 1.36 4.38 5.50 6.88

0.26 0.65 0.32 0.10 0.20 0.69 0.42

0.08 0.12 0.11 0.05 0.73 0.13 0.16

0.20 0.48 0.25 0.08 0.15 0.45 0.27

0.06 0.17 0.07 0.02 0.05 0.24 0.15

0.79 1.36 0.96 0.33 0.38 1.39 0.89

0.20 0.43 0.27 0.11 0.46 0.37 0.31

0.53 0.83 0.19 0.03 0.05 0.98 0.32

10.32 18.24 10.98 3.10 5.55 11.85 12.12

10.48 23.19 12.70 4.52 12.01 14.40 15.79

5.36 10.48 6.15 2.80 6.73 7.66 7.40

5.11 12.72 6.55 1.72 5.28 6.74 8.40

0.32 0.78 0.41 0.12 0.23 0.85 0.52

0.10 0.14 0.13 0.06 0.87 0.16 0.19

0.25 0.58 0.32 0.10 0.18 0.56 0.34

0.07 0.20 0.09 0.03 0.05 0.29 0.18

0.96 1.57 1.14 0.41 0.41 1.66 1.06

0.24 0.49 0.33 0.12 0.47 0.45 0.38

0.18 0.37 0.08 0.02 ‡ 0.42 0.12

5.49 13.17 6.76 1.57 2.99 7.42 7.73

4.62 15.06 6.73 1.73 6.55 7.84 8.19

2.69 7.61 3.59 1.13 4.11 4.68 4.33

1.94 7.45 3.13 0.60 2.44 3.14 3.88

0.14 0.40 0.14 0.04 0.14 0.39 0.23

0.04 0.06 0.06 0.03 0.41 0.06 0.09

0.10 0.29 0.11 0.03 0.08 0.25 0.12

0.03 0.10 0.03 0.01 0.05 0.14 0.10

0.44 0.93 0.58 0.16 0.31 0.88 0.54

0.12 0.31 0.16 0.07 0.44 0.22 0.18

grounds, during school-related events, or while taking school transportation, regardless of whether official action is taken. school-related arrest is an arrest of a student for any activity conducted on school grounds, during off-campus school activities (including while taking school transportation), or due to a referral by any school official. 7Totals include expulsions with and without educational services. 8Includes all expulsions under zero-tolerance policies, including expulsions with and without educational services. A zero-tolerance policy results in mandatory expulsion of any student who commits one or more specified offenses (for example, offenses involving guns, other weapons, violence, or similar factors, or combinations of these factors). A policy is considered zero tolerance even if there are some exceptions to the mandatory aspect of the expulsion, such as allowing the chief administering officer of a local education agency to modify the expulsion on a case-by-case basis. 9Data by race/ethnicity exclude data for students with disabilities served only under Section 504 (not receiving services under IDEA). NOTE: The percentage of students receiving a disciplinary action is calculated by dividing the cumulative number of students receiving that type of disciplinary action for the entire 2011–12 school year by the student enrollment based on a count of students taken on a single day between September 27 and December 31. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights, Civil Rights Data Collection, “2011–12 Discipline Estimations by State” and “2011–12 Estimations for Enrollment.” (This table was prepared November 2015.) 6A

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Supplemental Tables

11

Schoolrelated arrest6

0.51 0.15

‡Reporting standards not met (too few cases). 1Corporal punishment is paddling, spanking, or other forms of physical punishment imposed on a student. 2An in-school suspension is an instance in which a student is temporarily removed from his or her regular classroom(s) for at least half a day but remains under the direct supervision of school personnel. 3For students without disabilities and students with disabilities served only under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, out-of-school suspensions are instances in which a student is excluded from school for disciplinary reasons for 1 school day or longer. This does not include students who served their suspension in the school. For students with disabilities served under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), out-of-school suspensions are instances in which a student is temporarily removed from his or her regular school for disciplinary purposes to another setting (e.g., home, behavior center). This includes both removals in which no Individualized Education Program (IEP) services are provided because the removal is 10 days or less and removals in which IEP services continue to be provided. 4Expulsions are actions taken by a local education agency that result in the removal of a student from his or her regular school for disciplinary purposes for the remainder of the school year or longer in accordance with local education agency policy. Expulsions also include removals resulting from violations of the Gun Free Schools Act that are modified to less than 365 days. 5Referral to law enforcement is an action by which a student is reported to any law enforcement agency or official, including a school police unit, for an incident that occurs on school

178

Referral Without to law educational services enforcement5

Table 19.3.

2 6.40 9.63 4.99 6.08 7.66 5.75 4.87 4.61 10.30 13.17 11.64 8.94 1.37 3.27 5.94 7.44 3.64 4.01 5.35 9.49 4.01 5.63 5.00 8.39 3.64 10.31 7.11 4.39 4.64 5.56 5.42 4.68 7.25 3.43 8.64 1.94 6.84 5.96 5.25 6.11 8.77 10.31 3.37 7.92 5.39 2.45 4.53 6.78 5.40 8.43 5.41 3.65

1

3 8.69 12.44 7.10 8.66 10.34 8.13 6.87 5.97 13.39 16.38 15.88 11.67 2.13 4.90 7.71 10.10 5.02 5.67 7.34 12.43 5.75 7.41 6.80 11.21 5.08 13.51 9.61 6.33 6.38 7.73 7.64 6.31 9.49 4.66 11.84 2.67 9.25 8.10 7.58 8.15 11.69 13.70 4.61 10.38 7.35 3.59 6.34 9.24 7.78 11.62 7.23 5.28

Male 4 3.97 6.67 2.72 3.36 4.85 3.24 2.77 3.17 7.02 9.95 7.15 6.07 0.54 1.53 4.07 4.64 2.17 2.25 3.23 6.39 2.15 3.75 3.11 5.39 2.13 6.96 4.44 2.34 2.78 3.25 3.07 2.97 4.89 2.13 5.27 1.15 4.27 3.68 2.78 3.95 5.64 6.71 2.04 5.32 3.32 1.25 2.60 4.15 2.87 5.00 3.48 1.92

Female 5 4.31 5.52 3.69 4.62 4.98 4.88 3.46 2.20 5.98 0.88 9.04 4.50 1.17 3.00 3.47 5.29 2.68 2.82 4.48 5.68 3.95 3.85 3.51 5.45 2.23 5.43 4.45 3.34 3.21 4.28 5.37 2.85 4.93 3.12 5.38 1.37 4.38 4.74 4.86 3.53 6.59 6.47 2.20 4.42 2.83 1.99 4.51 4.69 4.71 8.08 2.71 3.33

White 6 15.43 18.02 8.69 12.43 18.47 14.56 11.18 12.40 18.72 16.42 20.16 16.17 1.56 5.99 15.54 20.72 15.30 12.91 13.14 13.99 8.17 9.12 10.82 20.86 13.64 15.54 20.64 5.36 18.34 12.51 13.71 11.54 10.87 6.77 17.19 2.88 18.51 15.20 12.03 17.25 16.43 17.18 8.10 19.48 13.13 6.61 6.99 14.26 11.83 17.68 25.72 8.55

Black 7 5.95 3.77 4.61 6.51 4.88 5.86 6.64 8.18 8.33 4.84 10.07 5.55 1.45 4.40 5.02 7.26 5.54 5.11 3.70 5.17 4.94 3.49 8.89 7.72 4.57 4.13 5.60 4.39 4.86 5.77 7.31 5.71 8.07 2.45 6.50 2.29 6.82 7.29 5.97 9.85 12.74 6.17 4.68 4.76 5.30 4.12 5.40 4.33 6.34 6.58 6.16 4.74

Hispanic 8 1.50 1.94 1.93 1.99 1.91 1.87 2.10 0.84 2.02 1.70 2.07 1.98 0.45 1.24 1.14 1.93 1.35 1.56 1.33 2.10 1.55 1.04 1.58 2.01 1.68 2.46 1.99 1.45 2.25 1.79 1.83 1.00 2.48 0.53 1.64 0.41 1.55 1.97 1.75 1.46 4.85 2.22 2.24 2.23 1.16 1.48 0.83 1.04 1.87 1.85 1.45 1.14

Asian

Race/ethnicity3

Percent receiving out-of-school suspensions1

9 3.75 4.79 6.41 5.07 6.91 5.40 4.13 3.78 6.59 ‡ 6.92 8.20 2.04 3.59 3.38 5.00 3.37 2.36 1.68 3.92 2.60 1.03 3.63 3.26 1.85 9.09 4.00 3.22 3.57 4.74 2.38 2.50 2.63 1.02 4.62 3.38 5.53 5.14 5.22 2.60 9.95 6.73 3.33 3.30 3.84 3.70 4.49 3.92 7.42 3.64 2.64 1.46

10 7.85 6.32 8.29 10.37 3.89 9.20 8.24 5.94 5.28 1.80 11.68 6.60 1.78 6.05 5.01 6.93 5.17 4.85 4.72 8.72 4.88 5.60 8.10 8.58 10.41 4.39 6.69 11.66 8.77 7.69 3.81 4.21 8.31 4.65 14.14 6.76 6.30 4.79 8.05 4.23 14.24 10.50 10.72 5.57 3.88 5.89 10.71 6.34 9.95 3.68 8.98 6.56

American Indian/ Pacific Alaska Islander Native

#Rounds to zero. ‡Reporting standards not met (too few cases). 1For students without disabilities and students with disabilities served only under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, out-ofschool suspensions are instances in which a student is excluded from school for disciplinary reasons for 1 school day or longer. This does not include students who served their suspension in the school. For students with disabilities served under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), out-of-school suspensions are instances in which a student is temporarily removed from his or her regular school for disciplinary purposes to another setting (e.g., home, behavior center). This includes both removals in which no Individualized Education Program (IEP) services are provided because the removal is 10 days or less and removals in which IEP services continue to be provided.

United States ......................... Alabama...................................... Alaska ......................................... Arizona........................................ Arkansas..................................... California..................................... Colorado ..................................... Connecticut ................................. Delaware..................................... District of Columbia..................... Florida......................................... Georgia ....................................... Hawaii ......................................... Idaho ........................................... Illinois .......................................... Indiana ........................................ Iowa............................................. Kansas ........................................ Kentucky ..................................... Louisiana..................................... Maine .......................................... Maryland ..................................... Massachusetts ............................ Michigan...................................... Minnesota ................................... Mississippi................................... Missouri....................................... Montana ...................................... Nebraska..................................... Nevada........................................ New Hampshire .......................... New Jersey ................................. New Mexico................................. New York ..................................... North Carolina............................. North Dakota............................... Ohio ............................................ Oklahoma.................................... Oregon ........................................ Pennsylvania............................... Rhode Island............................... South Carolina ............................ South Dakota .............................. Tennessee................................... Texas........................................... Utah ............................................ Vermont....................................... Virginia ........................................ Washington ................................. West Virginia............................... Wisconsin.................................... Wyoming .....................................

Total

State

Sex

12 0.22 0.14 0.07 0.06 0.15 0.25 0.25 0.24 0.14 0.22 0.04 0.26 0.01 0.15 0.18 0.59 0.04 0.14 0.04 0.83 0.06 0.17 0.04 0.21 0.18 0.21 0.16 0.11 0.22 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.22 0.09 0.04 0.07 0.32 1.04 0.36 0.24 0.01 0.40 0.05 0.81 0.28 0.03 0.07 0.11 0.35 0.24 0.23 0.19

Total 13 0.33 0.20 0.11 0.10 0.23 0.38 0.40 0.35 0.20 0.30 0.05 0.38 0.02 0.23 0.25 0.83 0.06 0.22 0.06 1.18 0.10 0.23 0.06 0.30 0.22 0.33 0.24 0.16 0.30 0.03 0.05 0.05 0.33 0.13 0.06 0.10 0.46 1.39 0.53 0.34 0.01 0.62 0.08 1.14 0.41 0.05 0.12 0.18 0.53 0.35 0.32 0.30

Male 14 0.12 0.08 0.03 0.03 0.07 0.10 0.10 0.12 0.07 0.15 0.02 0.13 # 0.07 0.10 0.34 0.01 0.05 0.02 0.46 0.02 0.11 0.01 0.11 0.15 0.09 0.09 0.07 0.13 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.10 0.05 0.02 0.03 0.18 0.68 0.17 0.14 ‡ 0.18 0.01 0.46 0.13 0.02 0.01 0.04 0.16 0.11 0.13 0.08

Female 15 0.16 0.09 0.05 0.05 0.14 0.24 0.18 0.16 0.10 ‡ 0.04 0.17 0.02 0.12 0.13 0.43 0.03 0.12 0.04 0.43 0.06 0.07 0.02 0.17 0.08 0.12 0.17 0.06 0.15 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.10 0.10 0.04 0.05 0.19 0.60 0.33 0.15 0.01 0.25 0.03 0.31 0.21 0.03 0.07 0.08 0.31 0.23 0.20 0.16

White 16 0.51 0.24 0.25 0.09 0.23 0.57 0.67 0.55 0.23 0.28 0.04 0.44 ‡ 0.13 0.44 1.68 0.08 0.34 0.04 1.31 0.11 0.35 0.12 0.39 1.11 0.31 0.17 ‡ 0.87 ‡ 0.11 0.13 0.30 0.14 0.06 ‡ 0.99 4.02 0.64 0.59 ‡ 0.70 ‡ 2.43 0.48 0.07 ‡ 0.19 0.44 0.37 0.54 0.46

Black 17 0.20 0.06 0.11 0.06 0.10 0.24 0.33 0.36 0.06 0.04 0.03 0.11 0.03 0.31 0.13 0.57 0.05 0.11 0.03 0.34 0.14 0.05 0.07 0.21 0.18 0.07 0.12 0.08 0.21 0.01 0.08 0.04 0.19 0.04 0.03 ‡ 0.34 1.00 0.42 0.49 ‡ 0.17 0.08 0.35 0.27 0.03 ‡ 0.12 0.47 0.23 0.20 0.36

Hispanic

Percent expelled2

18 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.01 0.06 0.09 0.09 0.04 ‡ ‡ 0.01 0.02 ‡ 0.10 0.01 0.08 0.06 0.07 ‡ 0.12 ‡ 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.08 0.04 ‡ 0.13 ‡ ‡ ‡ 0.15 0.01 ‡ ‡ 0.05 0.25 0.05 0.03 ‡ ‡ ‡ 0.14 0.05 ‡ ‡ 0.05 0.09 ‡ 0.04 ‡

Asian

19 0.12 0.87 0.20 ‡ 0.17 0.22 0.43 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 0.33 0.02 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 0.08 ‡ ‡ 0.71 0.74 0.42 0.27 ‡ ‡ ‡ 0.35 0.20 0.04 ‡ ‡ 0.45 ‡ 0.53 ‡

20 0.43 0.06 0.07 0.24 0.19 0.47 0.69 0.26 0.93 ‡ 0.06 0.13 ‡ 0.33 0.27 0.49 ‡ 0.36 ‡ 1.05 ‡ 0.32 0.26 0.36 0.34 ‡ 0.54 0.45 0.31 0.14 ‡ ‡ 0.66 0.25 0.09 0.24 0.16 0.83 0.79 0.13 ‡ 0.60 0.13 0.48 0.23 0.17 ‡ 0.09 0.83 ‡ 0.36 0.32

American Indian/ Pacific Alaska Islander Native

21 0.22 0.21 0.06 0.05 0.11 0.22 0.26 0.20 ‡ ‡ 0.06 0.26 ‡ ‡ 0.20 0.65 0.05 0.18 0.04 0.33 ‡ 0.11 0.02 0.15 0.11 1.27 0.18 ‡ 0.32 0.02 ‡ 0.04 0.35 0.20 0.04 ‡ 0.32 1.20 0.35 0.14 ‡ 0.30 ‡ 0.27 0.31 0.04 ‡ 0.08 0.31 0.11 0.21 ‡

Two or more races

2Expulsions are actions taken by a local education agency that result in the removal of a student from his or her regular school for disciplinary purposes, with or without the continuation of educational services, for the remainder of the school year or longer in accordance with local education agency policy. Expulsions also include removals resulting from violations of the Gun Free Schools Act that are modified to less than 365 days. 3Data by race/ethnicity exclude students with disabilities served only under Section 504 (not receiving services under IDEA). NOTE: The percentage of students receiving a disciplinary action is calculated by dividing the cumulative number of students receiving that type of disciplinary action for the entire 2011–12 school year by the student enrollment based on a count of students taken on a single day between September 27 and December 31. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights, Civil Rights Data Collection, “2011–12 Discipline Estimations by State” and “2011–12 Estimations for Enrollment.” (This table was prepared November 2015.)

11 6.37 5.95 4.60 7.52 4.60 4.60 5.00 4.80 6.46 2.13 12.85 7.19 1.10 2.95 5.70 10.10 5.76 4.69 5.89 6.35 4.08 5.04 7.64 7.45 4.22 4.43 6.77 3.62 5.47 5.05 2.71 3.43 7.23 4.17 9.03 ‡ 8.89 3.03 5.86 7.15 8.82 8.38 3.42 4.76 4.47 2.66 3.41 5.75 6.05 7.02 5.93 4.79

Two or more races

Sex

Race/ethnicity3

Percentage of students suspended and expelled from public elementary and secondary schools, by sex, race/ethnicity, and state:

Table 233.40. Percentage of students suspended and expelled from public elementary and secondary schools, by sex, race/ethnicity, and state: 2011–12 2011–12

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 365 Discipline, Safety, and Security Measures

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

179

366 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education

Discipline, and Security Measures incidents resulting in removal of a student from a regular education Table 19.4. Safety, Number of discipline program for at least an entire school day and rate of incidents per 100,000 students, by Table 233.45. Number of discipline incidents resulting in removal of a student from a regular education program for at least an entire school day discipline reason and state: 2013–14

and rate of incidents per 100,000 students, by discipline reason and state: 2013–14 Number of discipline incidents

State

Total

1

Alcohol

Illicit drug

Rate of discipline incidents per 100,000 students Violent incident1

Weapons possession

Total

Illicit drug

Violent incident1

Weapons possession

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

United States ......................... Alabama...................................... Alaska ......................................... Arizona........................................ Arkansas..................................... California.....................................

1,308,568 41,991 2,755 30,463 20,890 285,039

24,015 560 116 816 410 —2

197,171 5,931 580 3,774 1,894 46,425 2

1,020,894 33,808 1,915 25,050 17,743 224,727

66,488 1,692 144 823 843 13,887

2,615 5,627 2,104 2,763 4,263 4,515

48 75 89 74 84 —2

394 795 443 342 387 735 2

2,040 4,531 1,462 2,272 3,621 3,560

133 227 110 75 172 220

Colorado ..................................... Connecticut ................................. Delaware..................................... District of Columbia..................... Florida.........................................

61,546 25,670 597 7,088 16,755

711 418 56 33 992

6,866 1,379 315 198 10,642

53,262 22,643 63 6,655 3,605

707 1,230 163 202 1,516

7,018 4,700 453 9,069 616

81 77 43 42 36

783 252 239 253 391

6,073 4,146 48 8,515 133

81 225 124 258 56

Georgia ....................................... Hawaii ......................................... Idaho ........................................... Illinois .......................................... Indiana ........................................

67,772 1,956 946 16,502 42,221

725 155 62 1,106 931

10,145 610 481 6,043 3,229

53,974 946 233 4,795 36,447

2,928 245 170 4,558 1,614

3,931 1,047 319 798 4,031

42 83 21 54 89

588 327 162 292 308

3,131 506 79 232 3,480

170 131 57 221 154

Iowa............................................. Kansas ........................................ Kentucky ..................................... Louisiana..................................... Maine ..........................................

12,410 11,106 44,472 47,602 3,257

301 237 649 340 110

2,000 2,068 9,521 5,339 595

9,336 8,186 33,947 40,574 2,381

773 615 355 1,349 171

2,467 2,237 6,565 6,690 1,770

60 48 96 48 60

398 417 1,406 750 323

1,856 1,649 5,011 5,703 1,294

154 124 52 190 93

Maryland ..................................... Massachusetts3 ........................... Michigan...................................... Minnesota3 .................................. Mississippi...................................

33,586 24,272 11,677 21,097 15,040

584 542 245 478 304

3,077 2,727 1,450 4,045 803

28,215 19,795 9,101 15,511 13,276

1,710 1,208 881 1,063 657

3,878 2,540 754 2,479 3,053

67 57 16 56 62

355 285 94 475 163

3,257 2,071 588 1,823 2,695

197 126 57 125 133

Missouri....................................... Montana ...................................... Nebraska..................................... Nevada........................................ New Hampshire ..........................

19,993 4,768 8,229 10,015 5,022

917 162 169 278 124

6,732 1,030 1,307 1,968 701

10,904 3,334 6,305 7,317 3,855

1,440 242 448 452 342

2,177 3,308 2,675 2,217 2,696

100 112 55 62 67

733 715 425 436 376

1,187 2,313 2,049 1,619 2,069

157 168 146 100 184

New Jersey ................................. New Mexico................................. New York ..................................... North Carolina............................. North Dakota...............................

12,026 13,878 18,625 65,259 1,460

371 303 1,373 858 58

2,320 3,619 5,160 10,413 432

8,541 9,117 7,037 51,417 899

794 839 5,055 2,571 71

878 4,091 682 4,263 1,405

27 89 50 56 56

169 1,067 189 680 416

623 2,687 258 3,359 865

58 247 185 168 68

Ohio ............................................ Oklahoma.................................... Oregon ........................................ Pennsylvania............................... Rhode Island...............................

76,271 14,483 15,104 39,744 14,735

1,047 418 379 698 60

8,175 2,199 2,850 2,793 834

64,108 10,702 11,332 33,741 13,603

2,941 1,164 543 2,512 238

4,424 2,124 2,547 2,264 10,376

61 61 64 40 42

474 323 481 159 587

3,718 1,570 1,911 1,922 9,579

171 171 92 143 168

South Carolina ............................ South Dakota3 ............................. Tennessee................................... Texas........................................... Utah3 ...........................................

21,622 3,297 36,335 2,468 6,162

403 100 2,643 37 112

1,631 827 525 1,422 1,732

19,271 2,154 33,075 517 3,899

317 216 92 492 419

2,900 2,519 3,657 48 985

54 76 266 1 18

219 632 53 28 277

2,584 1,646 3,329 10 623

43 165 9 10 67

Vermont....................................... Virginia ........................................ Washington ................................. West Virginia............................... Wisconsin.................................... Wyoming .....................................

— 21,210 23,172 3,213 24,116 651

— 856 1,187 42 535 4

— 937 6,177 507 2,735 8

— 17,336 13,472 2,604 19,797 369

— 2,081 2,336 60 1,049 270

— 1,665 2,188 1,144 2,758 702

— 67 112 15 61 4

— 74 583 180 313 9

— 1,361 1,272 927 2,264 398

— 163 221 21 120 291

—Not available. 1Includes violent incidents with and without physical injury. 2Alcohol incidents were reported in the illicit drug category. 3This state did not report state-level counts of discipline incidents, but did report schoollevel counts. The sums of the school-level counts are displayed in place of the unreported state-level counts.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, EDFacts file 030, Data Group 523, extracted October 14, 2015, from the EDFacts Data Warehouse (internal U.S. Department of Education source); Common Core of Data (CCD), “State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary and Secondary Education,” 2013–14. (This table was prepared October 2015.)

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

180

Alcohol

Supplemental Tables

364 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education

TableDiscipline, 20.1. Safety, Percentage ofMeasures public schools with various safety and security measures, by school level: and Security Selected years, 1999–2000 through 2013–14 Table 233.50. Percentage of public schools with various safety and security measures: Selected years, 1999–2000 through 2013–14 [Standard parentheses] [Standarderrors errorsappear appear in in parentheses]

School safety and security measures

1999–2000

2003–04

2005–06

2007–08

2009–10

2013–141

2

3

4

5

6

7

1 Controlled access during school hours Buildings (e.g., locked or monitored doors).............................................. Grounds (e.g., locked or monitored gates)............................................... Visitors required to sign or check in ......................................................... Campus closed for most students during lunch ....................................... Student dress, IDs, and school supplies Required students to wear uniforms ........................................................ Enforced a strict dress code .................................................................... Required students to wear badges or picture IDs.................................... Required faculty and staff to wear badges or picture IDs ........................ Required clear book bags or banned book bags on school grounds....... Provided school lockers to students......................................................... Drug testing Athletes.................................................................................................... Students in extracurricular activities (other than athletes) ....................... Any other students................................................................................... Metal detectors, dogs, and sweeps Random metal detector checks on students............................................ Students required to pass through metal detectors daily......................... Random dog sniffs to check for drugs ..................................................... Random sweeps2 for contraband (e.g., drugs or weapons) ..................... Communication systems and technology Provided telephones in most classrooms ................................................ Provided electronic notification system for schoolwide emergency ......... Provided structured anonymous threat reporting system3 ....................... Used security cameras to monitor the school.......................................... Provided two-way radios to any staff ....................................................... Limited access to social networking sites from school computers........... Prohibited use of cell phones and text messaging devices......................

74.6 33.7 96.6 64.6

(1.35) (1.26) (0.54) (1.48)

83.0 36.2 98.3 66.0

(1.04) (1.08) (0.40) (1.08)

84.9 41.1 97.6 66.1

(0.89) (1.25) (0.42) (1.19)

89.5 42.6 98.7 65.0

(0.80) (1.41) (0.37) (1.34)

91.7 46.0 99.3 66.9

(0.80) (1.26) (0.27) (0.88)

93.3 42.7 98.6 92.6

(0.95) (1.53) (0.49) (0.80)

11.8 47.4 3.9 25.4 5.9 46.5

(0.82) (1.50) (0.32) (1.39) (0.50) (1.07)

13.8 55.1 6.4 48.0 6.2 49.5

(0.85) (1.24) (0.64) (1.21) (0.63) (1.24)

13.8 55.3 6.2 47.9 6.4 50.5

(0.78) (1.18) (0.47) (1.12) (0.43) (1.08)

17.5 54.8 7.6 58.3 6.0 48.9

(0.70) (1.20) (0.60) (1.37) (0.48) (1.17)

18.9 56.9 6.9 62.9 5.5 52.1

(1.02) (1.56) (0.57) (1.14) (0.53) (1.10)

20.4 58.5 8.9 68.0 6.3 49.9

(1.27) (1.60) (0.81) (1.65) (0.81) (1.35)

— — —

(†) (†) (†)

4.2 2.6 —

(0.44) (0.37) (†)

5.0 3.4 3.0

(0.46) (0.32) (0.34)

6.4 4.5 3.0

(0.48) (0.51) (0.42)

6.0 4.6 3.0

(0.52) (0.47) (0.26)

6.6 4.3 3.5

(0.59) (0.47) (0.44)

7.2 0.9 20.6 11.8

(0.54) (0.16) (0.75) (0.54)

5.6 1.1 21.3 12.8

(0.55) (0.16) (0.77) (0.58)

4.9 1.1 23.0 13.1

(0.40) (0.18) (0.79) (0.76)

5.3 1.3 21.5 11.4

(0.37) (0.20) (0.59) (0.71)

5.2 1.4 22.9 12.1

(0.42) (0.24) (0.71) (0.68)

4.2 2.0 24.1 11.4

(0.48) (0.40) (0.97) (0.86)

44.6 — — 19.4 — — —

(1.80) (†) (†) (0.88) (†) (†) (†)

60.8 — — 36.0 71.2 — —

(1.48) (†) (†) (1.28) (1.18) (†) (†)

66.9 — — 42.8 70.9 — —

(1.30) (†) (†) (1.29) (1.22) (†) (†)

71.6 43.2 31.2 55.0 73.1 — —

(1.16) (1.26) (1.22) (1.37) (1.15) (†) (†)

74.0 63.1 35.9 61.1 73.3 93.4 90.9

(1.13) (1.40) (1.19) (1.16) (1.33) (0.59) (0.67)

78.7 81.6 46.5 75.1 74.2 91.9 75.9

(1.34) (1.12) (1.63) (1.31) (1.42) (0.80) (1.07)

—Not available. †Not applicable. 1Data for 2013–14 were collected using the Fast Response Survey System, while data for earlier years were collected using the School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS). The 2013–14 survey was designed to allow comparisons with SSOCS data. However, respondents to the 2013–14 survey could choose either to complete the survey on paper (and mail it back) or to complete the survey online, whereas respondents to SSOCS did not have the option of completing the survey online. The 2013–14 survey also relied on a smaller sample. The smaller sample size and change in survey administration may have impacted 2013–14 results.

2Does

not include random dog sniffs. example, a system for reporting threats through online submission, telephone hotline, or written submission via drop box. NOTE: Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1999–2000, 2003–04, 2005–06, 2007–08, and 2009–10 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2000, 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010; Fast Response Survey System (FRSS), “School Safety and Discipline: 2013–14,” FRSS 106, 2014. (This table was prepared September 2015.) 3For

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

181

182

Supplemental Tables

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

(800) (250) (330)

49,700 16,100 18,400 23.2 30.1 36.5 10.1 25.1 28.0 12.9 34.1

8.7 27.1 27.0 37.2 18.0 27.3 27.6 23.5

19,500 (1,540) 25,400 (1,250) 30,700 (950) 8,500 (300) 21,100 (570) 23,500 (630) 10,800 (750) 28,600 (1,030)

7,300 (920) 22,800 (1,130) 22,700 (1,290) 31,300 (1,120) 15,100 22,900 23,200 19,800

(1,090) (1,290) (1,200) (1,100)

3 (†)

(1.30) (1.48) (1.43) (1.28)

(1.07) (1.32) (1.51) (1.35)

(0.56) (0.86) (0.93) (0.97)

(1.63) (1.62) (1.22) (0.38)

59.1 (0.47) 19.1 (0.33) 21.8 (0.40)

(840) 100.0

Percentage distribution

84,100

2

Number

93.7 91.6 91.7 95.9

91.3 93.8 93.6 93.4

94.0 96.6 95.8 89.3

87.1 96.9 94.7 92.1

(1.97) (2.13) (1.89) (1.34)

(3.88) (1.76) (1.59) (1.43)

(1.30) (1.05) (1.45) (2.18)

(2.98) (0.96) (1.04) (1.38)

94.5 (1.27) 94.9 (1.21) 88.8 (1.60)

93.3 (0.95)

4

School buildings1

38.4 34.4 39.6 59.1

22.2 25.3 41.3 61.0

56.0 44.9 40.0 32.1

24.9 43.5 50.4 53.2

47.3 36.2 35.9

42.7

(3.25) (2.92) (3.19) (3.66)

(5.42) (2.72) (3.19) (2.75)

(3.14) (3.30) (4.37) (2.87)

(3.65) (2.95) (2.46) (2.92)

(2.36) (2.43) (2.47)

(1.53)

5

4.1 ! 5.6 17.7 53.2

‡ 2.5 ! 12.3 43.8

41.2 17.0 13.9 10.3

14.8 20.3 25.1 16.3

22.7 19.7 14.8

20.4

(1.80) (1.19) (2.24) (3.12)

(†) (0.82) (2.30) (2.84)

(3.24) (2.57) (2.92) (1.63)

(2.54) (2.26) (2.23) (2.39)

(1.99) (2.03) (1.66)

(1.27)

6

School School uniforms grounds2 required

Controlled access

†Not applicable. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. ‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater. 1Access to buildings is controlled during school hours (e.g., by locked or monitored doors). 2Access to grounds is controlled during school hours (e.g., by locked or monitored gates). 3All students must pass through a metal detector each day. 4Examples of contraband include drugs and weapons. The “sweeps” category does not include dog sniffs. 5Primary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is

Total........................................................... School level5 Primary .......................................................... Middle ............................................................ High school/combined ................................... Enrollment size Less than 300 ................................................ 300–499......................................................... 500–999......................................................... 1,000 or more ................................................ Locale City................................................................. Suburban ....................................................... Town............................................................... Rural .............................................................. Percent combined enrollment of Black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native students Less than 5 percent ....................................... 5 percent to less than 20 percent .................. 20 percent to less than 50 percent ................ 50 percent or more ........................................ Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch6 0–25............................................................... 26–50............................................................. 51–75............................................................. 76–100...........................................................

1

School characteristic

Total schools

40.8 52.9 63.0 74.4

46.3 48.4 56.9 69.8

66.1 56.2 53.1 56.8

56.3 56.6 59.8 64.3

8

(1.73) (1.52) (1.54) (1.40)

13.0 9.9 4.3 ! 6.8

6.2 ! 6.1 9.2 14.7

(1.89) (1.33) (1.41) (1.89)

‡ (†) 3.7 ! (1.15) 6.2 (1.19) 16.0 (1.80)

(1.95) (1.65) (1.08) (2.46)

(0.98) (1.96) (1.72)

(0.81)

5.6 ! 8.0 7.9 22.6

4.1 16.0 15.6

8.9

9

(5.81) (3.23) (2.96) (2.60)

(3.06) (2.43) (4.02) (3.17)

(4.25) (2.75) (2.06) (2.43)

81.9 2.5 69.2 (3.13) 60.4 (3.09) 65.3 (3.10)

63.8 68.8 73.2 64.6

66.9 79.1 67.4 59.9

46.1 71.0 76.6 78.2

72.8 (2.35) 68.5 (2.61) 54.4 (2.55)

68.0 (1.65)

10

(†) (1.16) (1.30) (1.45)

(1.78) (1.20) (2.18) (1.13)

(2.04) (1.24) (0.97) (1.35)

(1.20) (1.58) (1.53)

(0.81)

2.9 ! 1.2 3.2 (0.84) 7.0 1.5 10.9 (2.09)

‡ 5.6 4.8 8.1

8.8 3.1 ! 9.5 5.9

8.5 5.4 5.6 6.5

4.5 9.9 8.1

6.3

11 (0.48)

(†) (†) (0.86) (1.05)

(1.48) (0.77) (1.47) (0.43)

(0.88) (1.14) (0.71) (1.55)

‡ (†) 2.3 ! (0.71) 4.1 1.0 8.3 1.3

‡ ‡ 2.9 8.2

9.9 2.5 ! 3.9 ! 1.4 !

2.0 ! 4.6 3.7 9.6

1.4 ! (0.52) 7.6 (1.23) 8.7 (1.48)

4.2

12 (0.40)

(†) (†) (†) (0.82)

(1.14) (†) (†) (†)

‡ (†) ‡ (†) 2.0 ! 0.7 4.3 (1.17)

‡ ‡ ‡ 3.8

5.0 ‡ ‡ ‡

‡ (†) 2.1 ! (0.78) 2.1 ! (0.66) 3.8 (1.05)

1.0 ! (0.45) 2.4 ! (0.76) 4.3 (0.96)

2.0

Daily metal detector checks3

22.9 28.2 30.5 14.0

26.2 33.3 24.9 16.4

10.7 18.9 31.9 35.4

28.8 15.1 22.1 47.5

(2.97) (2.11) (2.19) (1.91)

(4.19) (2.85) (1.89) (1.32)

(1.01) (1.72) (2.56) (2.19)

(3.39) (1.50) (1.31) (3.06)

5.5 (1.17) 44.2 (2.46) 57.0 (2.39)

24.1 (0.97)

13

Random dog sniffs for drugs

Metal detectors, dogs, and sweeps

Faculty/staff badges or Bookbags Random picture IDs must be clear metal detector required or are banned checks

4.5 10.9 14.5 14.1

12.1 ! 9.7 10.2 13.5

10.8 8.3 14.0 13.5

14.3 8.3 10.1 19.2

3.3 19.9 26.1

11.4

(1.26) (1.46) (2.15) (1.95)

(4.21) (1.49) (1.58) (1.45)

(1.28) (1.52) (2.36) (1.75)

(2.40) (1.34) (1.02) (2.27)

(0.95) (2.05) (2.36)

(0.86)

14

Random sweeps for contraband4

73.9 76.8 78.2 71.0

77.0 81.1 75.9 69.9

68.4 78.3 75.8 77.3

73.2 74.8 72.8 89.1

67.2 83.7 89.2

75.1

(3.45) (2.57) (2.68) (3.04)

(5.80) (2.58) (2.72) (2.14)

(3.07) (2.37) (3.88) (2.87)

(3.57) (2.50) (2.04) (2.11)

(2.07) (1.96) (1.65)

(1.31)

15

Used security cameras to monitor the school

not higher than grade 9. High schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 12. Combined schools include all other combinations of grades, including K–12 schools. Separate data on high schools and combined schools are not available. 6The classification of schools by the percentage of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch was computed based on data obtained from the Common Core of Data. NOTE: Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System (FRSS), “School Safety and Discipline: 2013–14,” FRSS 106, 2014; and Common Core of Data (CCD), “Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey,” 2013–14. (This table was prepared September 2015.)

(3.59) (3.46) (3.30) (2.63)

(5.44) (3.38) (3.33) (2.18)

(2.99) (2.95) (4.39) (2.80)

(3.96) (2.97) (2.30) (3.03)

52.6 (2.49) 70.5 (2.61) 63.8 (2.55)

58.5 (1.60)

7

Strict dress code enforced

Student badges or picture IDs required

Student dress, IDs, and school supplies

Percent of schools with safety and security measures

[Standarderrors errorsappear appear ininparentheses] [Standard parentheses]

Table 20.2. Percentage of public schools with various safety and security measures, by selected school characteristics: 2013–14 Table 233.60. Percentage of public schools with various safety and security measures, by selected school characteristics: 2013–14

368 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education Discipline, Safety, and Security Measures

(1.28) (1.87) (1.30) (†) (1.66) (5.25) (2.65) (2.29) (1.90) (1.39) (2.57) (1.67) (3.86) (1.87)

(1.96) (2.54) (2.32) (2.46) (2.14) (2.08) (2.21) (2.73)

41.7 26.2 63.7 — 75.2 43.5 22.7 29.8 50.5 86.9 49.1 42.7 44.4 33.8

28.3 38.9 41.6 51.3 37.9 42.1 39.3 49.8

2

2005–06

46.5 40.8 46.1 55.0

35.6 42.9 44.7 55.4

57.3 45.4 51.1 36.0

27.6 36.1 52.7 90.6

33.1 65.5 — 79.6 39.9

46.3

Total

(2.33) (2.52) (2.83) (3.68)

(3.23) (2.19) (2.76) (2.71)

(3.05) (2.08) (3.50) (1.98)

(2.55) (2.66) (1.99) (1.59)

(2.04) (1.59) (†) (1.47) (5.59)

(1.29)

3

2007–08

39.2 40.0 42.3 49.8

30.4 36.5 41.9 52.5

50.9 45.4 39.0 35.2

25.6 33.5 47.3 90.0

27.7 66.4 — 76.4 36.6

42.8

(2.44) (1.68) (2.60) (2.76)

(2.69) (2.91) (1.93) (2.04)

(2.51) (1.90) (3.11) (2.20)

(2.91) (2.26) (1.60) (1.37)

(1.50) (1.45) (†) (1.45) (4.89)

(1.07)

4

2009–10

41.6 39.6 44.4 45.8

35.6 34.9 46.7 48.0

45.5 47.7 48.0 35.5

21.7 35.4 50.6 87.2

28.6 63.3 64.1 — —

43.0

(3.81) (3.10) (2.71) (3.24)

(5.44) (2.93) (3.26) (2.24)

(3.13) (2.70) (4.08) (2.33)

(3.05) (2.90) (2.37) (2.27)

(2.15) (2.15) (2.44) (†) (†)

(1.48)

5

2013–142

24.9 26.4 25.7 33.0

12.4 23.9 28.3 37.3

37.7 27.1 26.3 18.6

10.8 16.7 31.0 77.3

12.5 44.5 — 64.0 26.8

27.0

—Not available. †Not applicable. !Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent. 1“Security guards” and “security personnel” do not include law enforcement. School Resource Officers include all career law enforcement officers with arrest authority who have specialized training and are assigned to work in collaboration with school organizations. 2Data for 2013–14 were collected using the Fast Response Survey System, while data for earlier years were collected using the School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS). The 2013–14 survey was designed to allow comparisons with SSOCS data. However, respondents to the 2013–14 survey could choose either to complete the survey on paper (and mail it back) or to complete the survey online, whereas respondents to SSOCS did not have the option of completing the survey online. The 2013–14 survey also relied on a smaller sample. The smaller sample size and change in survey administration may have impacted 2013–14 results. 3Primary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not

All public schools .................................... School level3 Primary .......................................................... Middle ............................................................ High school/combined ................................... High school ................................................ Combined................................................... Enrollment size Less than 300 ............................................... 300–499 ........................................................ 500–999 ........................................................ 1,000 or more ............................................... Locale City ................................................................ Suburb ........................................................... Town .............................................................. Rural .............................................................. Percent combined enrollment of Black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native students Less than 5 percent ....................................... 5 percent to less than 20 percent .................. 20 percent to less than 50 percent ................ 50 percent or more ........................................ Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch4 0–25............................................................... 26–50............................................................. 51–75............................................................. 76–100...........................................................

1

School characteristic

(1.70) (1.63) (1.85) (2.49)

(1.60) (1.73) (1.94) (1.91)

(2.04) (1.41) (2.88) (1.39)

(1.58) (1.93) (1.27) (1.61)

(1.32) (1.17) (†) (1.53) (4.44)

(0.88)

6

2005–06 7

(2.01) (2.01) (2.34) (3.17)

(2.70) (1.63) (2.21) (2.16)

(2.24) (1.64) (2.32) (1.67)

(2.09) (1.84) (1.52) (1.65)

(1.37) (1.55) (†) (1.48) (4.79)

(0.98)

8

27.9 21.5 29.0 37.6

(2.17) (1.52) (2.04) (2.66)

(2.41) (2.26) (1.69) (2.09)

(2.19) (1.58) (2.15) (1.83)

39.7 31.3 21.2 20.5

13.6 19.9 27.8 41.3

(2.29) (1.96) (1.34) (1.82)

(1.43) (1.39) (†) (1.56) (4.49)

(0.97)

15.1 18.0 31.2 79.3

15.7 45.8 — 62.0 24.0

28.7

2009–10

21.0 17.7 24.3 31.3

8.7 ! 13.7 25.3 33.3

35.0 26.2 18.4 15.3

6.8 15.4 26.4 77.5

10.4 36.9 48.1 — —

23.7

(2.20) (1.87) (2.00) (2.86)

(2.72) (1.66) (2.28) (2.09)

(2.71) (1.97) (2.63) (1.42)

(1.72) (2.12) (1.79) (2.66)

(1.46) (2.21) (2.25) (†) (†)

(1.10)

9

2013–142

13.0 15.7 13.7 16.8

16.0 15.0 13.3 14.0

11.4 15.6 18.1 15.2

11.9 13.0 19.5 9.7

13.7 19.2 — 11.2 16.7

14.6

(1.33) (2.01) (1.90) (2.07)

(1.81) (1.98) (1.75) (1.81)

(1.59) (1.44) (2.90) (1.87)

(2.07) (1.64) (1.62) (1.40)

(1.59) (1.18) (†) (1.14) (4.13)

(1.06)

10

2005–06

16.8 16.6 16.4 12.9

18.7 19.9 15.5 11.6

12.0 15.4 24.2 15.7

12.5 16.8 18.8 11.1

15.3 20.7 — 13.5 13.6 !

15.9

11

(1.52) (1.65) (2.34) (2.17)

(2.56) (1.93) (1.93) (1.68)

(1.97) (1.59) (2.75) (1.70)

(2.07) (2.05) (1.53) (1.83)

(1.31) (1.17) (†) (1.42) (4.15)

(0.89)

11.3 18.5 13.3 12.2

16.8 16.6 14.1 11.2

11.2 14.1 17.8 14.7

10.5 15.5 16.1 10.7

12.1 20.6 — 14.5 12.7

14.1

Part-time only 2007–08

(1.21) (1.37) (1.45) (1.84)

(2.51) (1.71) (1.50) (1.33)

(1.69) (1.50) (2.39) (1.51)

(2.20) (1.76) (1.08) (1.50)

(0.89) (1.32) (†) (1.50) (3.56)

(0.66)

12

2009–10

20.6 21.8 20.2 14.6

26.9 21.2 21.5 14.6

10.4 21.5 29.6 20.2

14.9 20.0 24.2 9.8

18.2 26.4 16.1 — —

19.3

(3.01) (2.64) (2.38) (2.37)

(5.40) (2.41) (2.48) (1.73)

(2.13) (2.23) (3.88) (2.26)

(2.81) (2.28) (1.91) (2.06)

(1.73) (2.17) (1.98) (†) (†)

(1.18)

13

2013–142

higher than grade 9. High schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 12. Combined schools include all other combinations of grades, including K–12 schools. Separate data on high schools and combined schools are not available for 2013–14. 4For 2013–14, the questionnaire did not include a question about the percentage of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch, so the classification of schools by the percentage of eligible students was computed based on data obtained from the Common Core of Data. NOTE: Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2005–06, 2007–08, and 2009–10 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2006, 2008, and 2010; Fast Response Survey System (FRSS), “School Safety and Discipline: 2013–14,” FRSS 106, 2014; and Common Core of Data (CCD), “Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey,” 2013–14. (This table was prepared September 2015.)

29.7 24.2 29.7 42.1

16.9 23.1 29.1 43.8

45.3 30.0 26.9 20.2

15.1 19.4 34.0 79.5

17.8 44.9 — 66.1 26.2

30.4

2007–08

Full-time

Percent with one or more security guards, security personnel, School Resource Officers (SROs), or sworn law enforcement officers who are not SROs1

[Standard errorsappear appear ininparentheses] [Standard errors parentheses]

Percentage of public schools with one or more full-time or part-time security staff present at least once a week, by selected school characteristics: 2005–06 through 2013–14 Table 233.70. Percentage of public schools with one or more full-time or part-time security staff present at least once a week, by selected school characteristics: 2005–06 through 2013–14

Table 20.3.

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 373 Discipline, Safety, and Security Measures

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

183

184

Supplemental Tables

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

See notes at end of table.

2005–065 All public schools .............................. School level6 Primary .................................................... Middle ...................................................... High school .............................................. Combined ................................................ Enrollment size Less than 300 .......................................... 300–499................................................... 500–999................................................... 1,000 or more .......................................... Locale City........................................................... Suburb ..................................................... Town......................................................... Rural ........................................................

2003–045 All public schools .............................. School level6 Primary .................................................... Middle ...................................................... High school .............................................. Combined ................................................ Enrollment size Less than 300 .......................................... 300–499................................................... 500–999................................................... 1,000 or more .......................................... Locale City........................................................... Suburb ..................................................... Town......................................................... Rural ........................................................ Percent combined enrollment of Black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native students Less than 5 percent ................................. 5 percent to less than 20 percent ............ 20 percent to less than 50 percent .......... 50 percent or more .................................. Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch 0–25......................................................... 26–50....................................................... 51–75....................................................... 76–100.....................................................

1

Year and school characteristic

96.7 96.9 95.9 93.8

80.9 81.5 77.4 71.7 (1.31) (2.16) (1.27) (1.39) (3.53) (3.44) (2.05) (1.42) (1.67) (2.34) (1.63) (3.39) (2.31)

79.3 74.5 84.2 86.9 88.4 74.0 77.8 82.0 86.3 76.3 81.2 81.4 79.1

93.9 96.5 95.0 94.2

89.5 96.9 97.1 95.6

94.6 96.6 95.5 93.4

95.0

97.1 95.1 98.1 94.3

84.6 (2.40) 79.9 (3.09) 74.6 (2.92) 75.7 (2.44) (1.77) (1.98) (2.45) (3.38)

95.8 97.1 96.6 94.8

(2.71) (1.65) (2.85) (2.15)

74.0 80.9 80.5 78.8

91.8 97.3 97.5 96.8

96.9 96.9 95.4 88.5

(3.06) (2.25) (1.46) (1.67)

(1.87) (1.20) (1.29) (4.69)

75.5 86.1 85.7 72.0

96.0

(1.24) (0.82) (2.05) (1.22)

(2.16) (0.81) (0.52) (0.95)

(1.09) (0.61) (0.76) (2.32)

(0.65)

(0.85) (0.76) (1.23) (1.61)

(0.86) (1.26) (0.73) (1.05)

(0.96) (0.95) (1.39) (1.10)

(1.84) (0.78) (0.59) (0.77)

(0.73) (0.53) (0.82) (3.62)

(0.52)

3

Natural disasters2

69.4 79.7 81.5 85.3

(1.17)

78.5

2

Shootings

(1.12)

(2.92) (1.74) (3.36) (2.36)

(3.06) (2.23) (1.58) (1.85)

(1.12)

(1.69) (1.75) (2.84) (3.38)

66.3 77.3 69.1 75.4

67.8 76.0 72.9 78.3 (2.12) (1.58) (3.58) (2.14)

(3.05) (2.13) (1.85) (1.77)

71.1 (1.98) 75.4 (1.53) 77.2 (1.44) 75.0 (3.28)

73.1

76.5 78.4 69.7 65.9

75.7 (2.32) 77.9 (2.45) 72.5 (2.77) 68.2 (2.57)

67.4 78.5 75.4 72.2

63.5 74.7 76.6 81.4

73.0 (1.62) 77.6 (1.25) 78.9 (1.60) 58.3 (4.58)

73.5

4

Hostages

(0.71)

(0.65)

(1.13) (0.98) (1.48) (2.45)

(1.27) (0.93) (1.48) (1.67)

(1.43) (0.73) (1.28) (1.57)

(2.37) (1.20) (0.67) (0.98)

94.4 97.1 95.8 91.5

89.1 96.0 96.4 97.0

(1.13) (0.73) (1.83) (1.70)

(2.36) (0.99) (0.69) (0.95)

93.5 (1.02) 96.7 (0.55) 96.6 (0.88) 92.9 (2.31)

94.5

95.2 95.4 93.8 90.2

94.9 96.2 92.5 92.7

92.9 96.7 95.3 91.3

88.2 94.1 96.8 96.7

94.5 (0.95) 95.6 (0.66) 96.1 (0.84) 82.6 (4.39)

94.0

5

Bomb threats or incidents

(1.15)

(1.04)

(1.95) (2.05) (3.17) (3.23)

(2.57) (3.05) (2.54) (2.35)

(2.62) (1.86) (3.10) (2.63)

68.7 75.7 64.6 68.4

(2.24) (1.70) (4.11) (2.09)

67.9 (2.44) 69.5 (2.48) 72.5 (1.77) 72.6 (2.09)

68.9 (1.73) 73.9 (1.68) 71.8 (1.40) 71.9 (3.58)

70.5

72.9 71.4 66.2 63.8

70.4 69.2 68.6 69.4

70.7 74.3 65.1 64.2

58.4 (3.18) 72.4 (2.23) 72.3 (1.68) 73.8 (2.03)

70.6 (1.73) 70.3 (1.49) 72.5 (1.60) 51.2 (4.88)

69.2

6

Chemical, biological, or radiological threats or incidents3

— — — —

— — — —

— — — —



— — — —

— — — —

— — — —

— — — —

— — — —



(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†)

7

— — — —

— — — —

— — — —



— — — —

— — — —

— — — —

— — — —

— — — —



(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†)

8

Suicide threat Severe risk of or incident terrorist attack4

Percent with a written plan that describes procedures to be performed in selected crises

[Standarderrors errorsappear appear ininparentheses] [Standard parentheses]

— — — —

— — — —

— — — —



— — — —

— — — —

— — — —

— — — —

— — — —



(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†)

9

Pandemic flu

(1.19)

(1.47)

(2.52) (2.45) (3.27) (3.57)

87.1 88.2 88.3 86.3 89.5 84.8 88.3 89.3

54.9 (2.46) 54.9 (2.27) 49.1 (4.40) 41.2 (2.45)

89.6 87.8 81.5 85.4

87.8

85.2 83.3 86.3 80.7

(3.28) (2.99) (2.18) (2.18)

39.6 48.2 55.5 57.8

51.8 (2.08) 51.9 (1.93) 44.6 (1.78) 44.5 (4.68)

50.0

49.6 44.1 43.1 49.3

79.0 87.6 85.8 82.2

86.1 84.4 81.7 82.7

50.7 (2.79) 54.2 (2.67) 39.9 (3.68) 37.3 (2.51)

35.1 (2.82) 52.0 (3.34) 46.4 (2.77) 49.4 (2.66)

76.4 86.8 86.1 85.0

85.0 81.9 81.6 85.2

84.0

(1.53) (1.42) (2.35) (1.33)

(1.88) (1.51) (1.11) (1.39)

(1.11) (1.28) (1.48) (3.53)

(0.78)

(1.70) (1.87) (2.05) (2.69)

(2.48) (1.62) (1.81) (1.71)

(1.90) (1.46) (3.34) (2.39)

(3.39) (1.72) (1.36) (1.56)

(1.51) (1.29) (1.35) (3.89)

(1.02)

11

Natural disasters2

(4.06) (2.32) (1.93) (2.14)

38.7 45.2 49.5 54.2

47.9 (2.14) 47.9 (2.08) 44.4 (1.89) 36.4 (7.07)

46.5

10

Shootings

50.4 48.6 43.3 40.2

37.9 45.9 49.1 50.8

47.4 45.5 40.1 45.3

45.8

45.4 39.9 40.5 47.2

33.8 46.4 44.1 44.2

48.1 49.1 38.9 33.5

34.1 42.2 45.8 51.2

44.8 43.4 39.8 32.5

43.0

(2.74) (2.55) (4.56) (2.50)

(3.59) (3.04) (2.24) (2.60)

(2.24) (2.05) (2.25) (5.94)

(1.52)

(2.49) (2.35) (2.74) (4.16)

(3.02) (3.02) (2.58) (2.91)

(3.21) (2.36) (4.18) (2.15)

(4.55) (2.54) (1.94) (2.42)

(2.36) (1.83) (1.84) (7.42)

(1.40)

12

Hostages

66.2 60.1 54.1 50.4

51.1 54.4 61.9 69.4

58.9 60.3 56.0 51.4

58.1

56.2 52.3 52.2 62.4

40.8 56.0 57.9 61.5

64.7 63.2 40.7 44.5

44.1 52.8 59.7 69.7

55.6 58.1 59.3 38.9

55.4

(2.30) (2.18) (4.10) (2.35)

(3.34) (2.72) (1.94) (2.12)

(1.85) (1.73) (1.65) (5.54)

(1.36)

(2.11) (2.51) (2.72) (3.30)

(3.12) (3.11) (2.69) (2.47)

(2.44) (1.90) (3.82) (2.98)

(4.05) (2.43) (2.20) (1.95)

(2.20) (1.77) (1.67) (6.66)

(1.40)

13

Bomb threats or incidents

Percent that have drilled students during the current school year on the use of a plan in selected crises1

48.0 46.2 28.9 28.6

37.9 36.2 42.3 43.5

41.7 40.2 32.6 36.8

39.7

40.4 34.6 38.9 44.9

30.6 38.0 42.6 43.0

44.0 45.8 25.6 31.7

32.8 38.0 40.7 48.0

40.4 38.7 34.4 39.3

39.2

(2.58) (2.74) (4.19) (2.40)

(3.31) (2.75) (2.27) (2.39)

(2.18) (1.64) (2.20) (5.90)

(1.33)

(2.79) (2.98) (3.55) (3.70)

(3.37) (2.99) (3.25) (2.53)

(3.17) (2.61) (4.65) (3.36)

(4.45) (2.73) (2.19) (2.37)

(2.32) (2.05) (2.19) (8.30)

(1.66)

14

Chemical, biological, or radiological threats or incidents3

Table 20.4. Percentage of public schools with a written plan for procedures to be performed in selected crises and percentage that have drilled students on the of use of aschools plan, by school characteristics: Selected years, 2003–04 throughthat 2013–14 Table 233.65. Percentage public withselected a written plan for procedures to be performed in selected crises and percentage have drilled students on the use of a plan, by selected school characteristics: Selected years, 2003–04 through 2013–14

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 369 Discipline, Safety, and Security Measures

See notes at end of table.

2007–08 All public schools .............................. School level6 Primary .................................................... Middle ...................................................... High school .............................................. Combined ................................................ Enrollment size Less than 300 .......................................... 300–499................................................... 500–999................................................... 1,000 or more .......................................... Locale City........................................................... Suburb ..................................................... Town......................................................... Rural ........................................................ Percent combined enrollment of Black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native students Less than 5 percent ................................. 5 percent to less than 20 percent ............ 20 percent to less than 50 percent .......... 50 percent or more .................................. Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch 0–25......................................................... 26–50....................................................... 51–75....................................................... 76–100.....................................................

Percent combined enrollment of Black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native students Less than 5 percent ................................. 5 percent to less than 20 percent ............ 20 percent to less than 50 percent .......... 50 percent or more .................................. Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch 0–25......................................................... 26–50....................................................... 51–75....................................................... 76–100.....................................................

1

Year and school characteristic

93.6 96.3 96.9 95.6 95.1 96.3 96.8 95.7

95.0 96.9 96.1 95.3 95.8 97.0 96.2 93.6

(3.40) (2.27) (1.36) (1.44)

75.7 81.1 87.0 90.3 83.0 (2.03) 84.9 (1.88) 85.3 (2.56) 80.3 (2.70)

80.6 (3.20) 87.8 (2.07) 84.5 (1.98) 79.4 (2.01) 86.9 85.3 79.3 78.6

(1.91) (2.02) (2.55) (2.90)

96.3 96.1 94.3 94.6

79.9 (2.07) 88.3 (1.21) 90.6 (1.07) 80.1 (4.55)

96.2 95.7 95.1 91.8 95.8

(1.87) (2.06) (2.23) (2.68)

92.2 95.6 97.0 94.4

(0.95) (0.93) (1.10) (1.53)

(1.51) (0.91) (1.13) (0.91)

(1.16) (0.93) (1.27) (1.11)

(1.74) (0.95) (0.65) (0.87)

(0.75) (0.79) (0.79) (2.18)

(0.48)

(0.89) (1.02) (1.43) (2.07)

(1.98) (0.99) (0.96) (1.16)

3

Natural disasters2

(1.31)

83.0

82.1 80.6 81.8 69.8

77.0 (2.99) 82.4 (2.05) 82.3 (1.95) 75.5 (1.96)

2

Shootings

(2.64) (1.91) (3.00) (2.44)

(3.81) (2.54) (1.80) (2.10)

(2.06) (1.41) (1.56) (5.31)

(1.26)

(1.50) (2.20) (2.25) (2.67)

75.2 71.7 71.2 65.9

(2.25) (2.40) (2.79) (3.72)

75.5 (2.94) 71.9 (2.16) 73.1 (2.79) 67.6 (2.29)

69.4 74.7 73.9 68.7

61.5 70.6 76.5 76.7

69.8 76.3 76.0 62.7

71.3

76.3 75.8 73.7 63.5

74.5 (3.00) 78.6 (2.12) 75.9 (1.82) 65.0 (1.82)

4

Hostages

96.8 94.2 92.8 90.3

94.4 93.9 95.9 91.9

94.9 96.9 94.4 89.8

88.3 93.7 96.9 95.6

93.4 96.7 96.0 86.3

93.8

95.3 96.7 94.3 90.2

93.5 95.4 95.9 93.1

(0.89) (1.37) (1.51) (2.00)

(1.77) (1.45) (1.10) (1.30)

(1.17) (0.82) (1.89) (1.78)

(2.47) (1.62) (0.72) (1.03)

(0.97) (0.67) (0.90) (4.22)

(0.65)

(1.20) (1.03) (1.29) (1.95)

(1.92) (1.22) (1.09) (1.10)

5

Bomb threats or incidents

76.8 72.7 67.5 67.5

(1.78) (2.29) (2.56) (2.92)

(3.03) (2.16) (2.43) (2.19)

(2.30) (1.82) (2.97) (2.23)

73.9 76.0 70.3 66.1

68.2 74.6 74.3 68.8

(3.15) (2.59) (1.70) (2.20)

(1.83) (1.83) (1.82) (5.30)

(1.16)

(1.66) (2.21) (2.55) (3.25)

(2.40) (2.72) (2.12) (2.08)

61.2 72.6 76.1 75.4

71.5 73.2 73.0 65.8

71.5

75.5 72.7 71.3 58.7

75.9 72.8 71.3 65.9

6

Chemical, biological, or radiological threats or incidents3

78.4 73.9 71.7 71.5

75.7 80.0 70.4 71.5

75.5 76.3 73.3 71.3

68.2 73.0 76.1 82.8

69.7 80.8 84.2 72.8

74.1

— — — —

— — — —

(2.02) (2.39) (3.05) (2.71)

(3.67) (2.08) (2.46) (2.04)

(2.23) (2.38) (3.26) (2.22)

(4.18) (2.08) (1.75) (1.93)

(1.91) (1.47) (1.40) (5.05)

(1.33)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

7

40.8 37.8 38.8 43.9

36.4 36.2 40.1 44.7

49.3 43.4 30.6 33.6

35.8 36.8 44.2 43.6

41.2 39.4 40.5 31.8

40.0

— — — —

— — — —

(2.22) (2.27) (2.65) (3.69)

(3.41) (2.36) (2.36) (2.52)

(2.42) (2.24) (2.94) (2.32)

(3.25) (2.53) (1.88) (2.19)

(1.93) (1.63) (1.80) (4.65)

(1.26)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

8

Suicide threat Severe risk of or incident terrorist attack4

Percent with a written plan that describes procedures to be performed in selected crises

[Standarderrors errors appear [Standard appearininparentheses] parentheses]

39.6 39.1 32.9 30.3

42.8 41.4 34.3 30.0

32.1 36.8 38.7 37.5

34.0 36.0 37.2 37.0

34.7 39.7 38.3 34.3

36.1

— — — —

— — — —

(2.71) (2.33) (2.76) (2.98)

(3.13) (2.97) (2.31) (2.19)

(2.71) (2.19) (3.06) (2.54)

(3.61) (2.68) (1.79) (2.17)

(1.57) (1.57) (1.81) (4.64)

(1.10)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

(†) (†) (†) (†)

9

Pandemic flu

(1.98) (1.76) (1.64) (5.32)

(1.20)

(2.25) (2.45) (2.99) (3.36)

62.3 64.0 61.3 65.5

56.7 66.0 61.7 65.3

61.3 67.7 61.9 61.0

(2.48) (2.36) (2.87) (3.29)

(3.95) (2.66) (2.56) (2.49)

(3.06) (2.78) (3.22) (2.27)

62.5 (3.51) 62.8 (3.41) 61.5 (2.34) 70.8 (2.28)

61.6 71.0 62.8 56.1

63.2

48.5 49.0 51.4 52.3

37.7 (3.44) 50.4 (2.40) 54.3 (3.23) 55.4 (2.77)

10

Shootings

84.5 89.3 87.1 84.9

87.7 88.7 87.3 84.2

81.6 88.4 86.9 89.1

88.9 85.0 86.6 86.8

87.8 85.8 84.5 83.8

86.7

83.5 91.3 90.4 85.6

89.3 85.4 88.9 87.1

(1.73) (1.24) (1.76) (2.11)

(2.19) (1.31) (1.72) (1.77)

(2.00) (1.41) (2.56) (1.31)

(1.99) (2.17) (1.21) (1.40)

(1.28) (1.31) (1.38) (3.92)

(0.86)

(1.51) (1.20) (1.47) (2.20)

(1.74) (1.55) (1.85) (1.47)

11

Natural disasters2

57.6 52.2 54.2 51.5

48.2 56.4 56.5 53.3

51.4 62.4 51.3 49.1

47.9 54.3 55.0 60.2

56.7 54.1 51.5 37.1

54.0

44.2 48.3 47.7 41.3

37.5 47.8 49.3 47.0

(2.75) (2.71) (3.05) (3.40)

(4.46) (2.45) (2.79) (2.55)

(3.60) (2.46) (4.15) (3.15)

(3.70) (3.37) (2.60) (2.58)

(2.38) (2.12) (2.09) (6.03)

(1.54)

(2.34) (2.46) (2.86) (3.96)

(3.53) (2.63) (2.93) (2.73)

12

Hostages

64.7 60.4 63.0 60.9

58.7 62.7 62.9 63.2

61.5 69.6 57.0 58.2

58.8 60.6 62.7 71.7

62.4 63.1 64.8 54.2

62.3

51.7 58.3 63.0 61.2

47.6 56.1 61.9 64.0

(2.30) (2.69) (2.91) (2.85)

(3.81) (2.74) (2.95) (2.28)

(2.49) (2.26) (3.24) (2.95)

(3.32) (2.76) (2.03) (2.07)

(1.84) (1.59) (1.89) (4.81)

(1.25)

(2.16) (2.55) (2.05) (3.21)

(3.43) (2.54) (3.18) (2.24)

13

Bomb threats or incidents

Percent that have drilled students during the current school year on the use of a plan in selected crises1

42.7 39.8 35.6 39.8

34.3 35.9 41.5 44.1

39.8 46.4 31.6 36.4

37.7 37.6 39.5 48.8

39.1 42.2 39.3 38.9

39.7

34.9 41.0 41.1 44.2

31.4 36.3 42.5 47.6

(2.69) (2.68) (3.04) (3.46)

(3.81) (2.96) (2.99) (2.59)

(3.05) (2.66) (3.66) (3.32)

(5.20) (3.39) (2.29) (2.59)

(2.48) (1.97) (1.88) (5.43)

(1.67)

(2.53) (2.47) (2.59) (3.91)

(3.17) (2.97) (2.93) (2.28)

14

Chemical, biological, or radiological threats or incidents3

Percentage of public schools with a written plan for procedures to be performed in selected crises and percentage that have drilled students on theofuse of schools a plan,with by selected school characteristics: Selected years, 2003–04 through 2013–14—Continued Table 233.65. Percentage public a written plan for procedures to be performed in selected crises and percentage that have drilled students on the use of a plan, by selected school characteristics: Selected years, 2003–04 through 2013–14—Continued

Table 20.4.

370 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education Discipline, Safety, and Security Measures

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

185

186

Supplemental Tables

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

See notes at end of table.

2013–147 All public schools .............................. School level6 Primary .................................................... Middle ...................................................... High school/combined ............................. Enrollment size Less than 300 .......................................... 300–499................................................... 500–999................................................... 1,000 or more .......................................... Locale City........................................................... Suburb ..................................................... Town......................................................... Rural ........................................................

2009–10 All public schools .............................. School level6 Primary .................................................... Middle ...................................................... High school .............................................. Combined ................................................ Enrollment size Less than 300 .......................................... 300–499................................................... 500–999................................................... 1,000 or more .......................................... Locale City........................................................... Suburb ..................................................... Town......................................................... Rural ........................................................ Percent combined enrollment of Black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native students Less than 5 percent ................................. 5 percent to less than 20 percent ............ 20 percent to less than 50 percent .......... 50 percent or more .................................. Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch 0–25......................................................... 26–50....................................................... 51–75....................................................... 76–100.....................................................

1

Year and school characteristic

95.1 95.7 94.6 94.8

80.6 (1.68) 88.1 (1.06) 91.4 (1.16) 89.2 (4.16)

97.7 95.8 93.2 94.8 95.5 95.1 95.5 94.3

86.8 (2.99) 85.3 (2.52) 87.2 (1.55) 80.6 (2.00) 83.7 85.8 85.4 81.5 93.8 94.2 94.5 92.1 91.0 93.2 95.9 94.4 91.9 95.2 93.8 94.0

(1.02)

87.2 (1.52) 91.2 (1.53) 88.7 (1.71) (2.59) (2.03) (1.59) (1.93)

87.2 86.2 90.2 90.2 85.0 (2.24) 90.8 (1.67) 90.7 (2.30) 87.9 (1.89)

88.3

93.5 94.0 98.2 96.1

81.0 (2.48) 83.4 (1.94) 86.5 (2.77) 86.8 (2.03)

(2.44) (1.98) (1.81) (2.12)

93.3 96.6 94.6 96.2

(2.71) (2.25) (1.33) (1.53)

83.3 81.1 86.0 89.4

95.1

(1.72) (1.49) (2.14) (1.35)

(2.20) (1.41) (1.00) (1.85)

(1.04) (1.29) (1.55)

(0.79)

(1.07) (1.06) (1.08) (1.16)

(0.94) (1.11) (1.42) (0.94)

(1.09) (1.12) (0.67) (1.11)

(1.71) (0.80) (0.87) (0.86)

(0.82) (0.94) (0.92) (2.53)

(0.54)

3

Natural disasters2

(1.10)

84.3

2

Shootings

(2.55) (2.11) (3.06) (2.68)

(2.83) (2.41) (1.49) (2.09)

(1.78) (1.37) (1.69) (4.41)

(1.20)

46.0 49.0 49.7 54.5

48.1 45.9 54.1 53.7

46.7 55.3 55.2

50.2

74.2 77.7 74.6 69.9

(3.55) (3.23) (4.47) (2.60)

(4.00) (2.78) (2.54) (2.84)

(2.35) (2.71) (2.40)

(1.64)

(2.42) (2.16) (2.00) (2.72)

74.9 (3.03) 75.2 (2.40) 78.4 (1.96) 70.6 (2.04)

71.7 73.7 77.9 75.3

74.2 72.5 75.2 76.3

72.4 77.0 77.4 76.4

74.3

4

Hostages

82.1 88.3 92.1 89.2

85.3 85.1 89.5 93.5

85.8 92.3 88.2

87.6

94.6 94.9 93.2 91.3

94.2 93.9 95.7 91.6

92.8 93.7 96.0 92.9

90.4 94.7 94.0 95.4

92.4 95.5 96.5 91.8

93.5

(2.47) (1.89) (2.31) (1.79)

(2.60) (2.08) (1.47) (1.47)

(1.53) (1.43) (1.68)

(0.99)

(1.26) (1.35) (1.22) (1.50)

(1.88) (1.49) (0.99) (1.05)

(1.37) (1.38) (1.73) (1.41)

(1.82) (1.09) (0.89) (1.13)

(1.04) (0.78) (1.06) (2.95)

(0.66)

5

Bomb threats or incidents

(3.74) (3.17) (2.30) (2.91) (3.56) (2.78) (3.97) (2.67)

57.9 60.6 68.2 56.6

(2.20) (2.37) (2.35)

(1.47)

(2.47) (2.08) (2.79) (2.78)

53.9 55.1 64.3 68.6

57.6 61.0 63.6

59.5

74.6 76.8 67.7 65.5

(2.94) (3.06) (2.20) (2.34)

(2.45) (2.25) (3.44) (2.61)

68.8 73.0 73.5 70.2

74.5 70.0 75.1 68.0

(3.45) (2.12) (1.59) (1.94)

(1.78) (1.98) (1.66) (5.04)

(1.28)

64.9 70.0 74.2 77.2

69.3 74.7 76.8 65.1

71.1

6

Chemical, biological, or radiological threats or incidents3

67.0 74.8 71.7 72.6

66.0 67.8 76.0 81.0

66.9 80.0 77.5

71.7

81.3 77.7 71.8 69.9

83.5 76.5 74.3 70.9

74.9 72.6 76.4 76.6

70.1 74.3 76.0 83.6

69.9 83.7 83.1 77.0

74.9

(2.96) (2.79) (3.81) (2.62)

(3.44) (2.79) (2.09) (2.60)

(2.20) (2.15) (2.10)

(1.43)

(2.22) (1.98) (2.53) (2.95)

(2.61) (2.39) (2.43) (2.16)

(2.64) (2.52) (3.34) (2.30)

(3.43) (2.39) (1.58) (1.68)

(1.88) (1.21) (1.30) (4.38)

(1.30)

7

49.2 47.1 48.5 44.2

41.8 43.9 50.1 55.5

43.0 55.6 49.4

46.8

43.9 41.6 38.8 41.6

40.0 36.7 42.1 44.4

44.4 45.6 36.3 36.9

37.8 42.9 41.5 43.2

42.5 41.0 43.7 28.0

41.3

(3.49) (2.96) (4.20) (2.76)

(3.53) (2.92) (2.42) (3.10)

(2.79) (2.47) (2.18)

(1.69)

(2.85) (2.35) (2.26) (3.03)

(3.15) (2.63) (2.30) (2.32)

(2.95) (2.05) (3.15) (2.38)

(3.40) (2.45) (1.56) (2.06)

(1.95) (1.88) (1.97) (5.10)

(1.23)

8

Suicide threat Severe risk of or incident terrorist attack4

Percent with a written plan that describes procedures to be performed in selected crises

[Standard errors parentheses] [Standard errorsappear appear ininparentheses]

35.4 38.1 39.1 34.8

34.2 34.8 38.4 39.3

34.2 40.8 38.7

36.4

72.8 74.3 68.2 62.0

70.6 69.8 75.4 64.6

68.7 70.9 69.2 68.6

64.9 72.4 69.2 70.9

67.1 71.8 75.6 69.5

69.4

(3.42) (3.05) (4.34) (2.43)

(4.15) (2.86) (2.29) (2.78)

(2.22) (2.63) (2.52)

(1.61)

(2.70) (2.04) (2.98) (2.92)

(3.46) (2.80) (1.88) (2.33)

(2.33) (1.90) (3.34) (2.59)

(3.17) (2.31) (1.58) (1.70)

(1.96) (1.45) (1.49) (5.15)

(1.34)

9

Pandemic flu

(2.32) (1.90) (1.76) (5.67)

(1.28)

(2.31) (2.36) (2.23)

(1.59)

(2.70) (2.08) (2.62) (3.08)

(3.60) (2.64) (2.69) (1.93)

(2.70) (2.53) (3.55) (2.69)

70.9 75.1 72.7 65.0

(3.02) (2.60) (3.46) (3.16)

64.3 (4.03) 71.8 (2.79) 72.1 (2.15) 73.1 (2.41)

70.5 72.7 67.6

70.3

64.1 58.9 60.7 64.1

58.7 61.2 61.3 63.5

60.1 69.7 61.1 55.8

51.8 (3.84) 63.8 (2.91) 64.2 (2.18) 67.3 (1.80)

62.2 63.9 62.4 50.7

61.6

10

Shootings

83.4 81.6 83.2 82.6

78.9 85.7 82.7 81.4

84.2 82.5 78.3

82.6

83.1 88.4 88.4 85.0

83.0 84.5 89.7 87.4

86.0 88.2 86.9 85.4

82.0 86.6 89.4 86.1

87.4 88.3 80.6 87.1

86.5

(2.28) (2.26) (3.09) (2.33)

(3.25) (2.10) (1.83) (2.58)

(1.76) (1.94) (2.02)

(1.16)

(2.05) (1.67) (1.75) (2.21)

(2.94) (2.21) (1.64) (1.31)

(1.64) (1.45) (2.40) (1.80)

(2.80) (1.57) (1.23) (1.35)

(1.46) (0.91) (1.38) (3.87)

(0.93)

11

Natural disasters2

29.2 20.8 18.1 18.3

19.1 21.4 23.8 21.0

21.3 25.1 19.9

21.7

58.2 53.1 53.6 59.5

48.1 56.0 56.8 57.8

58.8 57.9 55.0 51.4

50.3 57.2 57.6 56.4

59.6 53.3 50.7 42.4

55.7

(3.10) (2.34) (2.88) (2.15)

(2.81) (2.56) (2.10) (2.52)

(1.98) (2.33) (1.84)

(1.27)

(3.12) (2.44) (3.06) (3.01)

(4.06) (3.35) (2.88) (2.51)

(2.75) (2.31) (3.51) (2.98)

(4.48) (2.79) (2.35) (2.28)

(2.24) (1.65) (1.89) (5.44)

(1.37)

12

Hostages

57.1 52.1 48.7 41.1

40.7 51.5 50.7 55.8

48.6 50.6 49.6

49.2

62.9 60.1 62.0 66.4

60.1 60.2 63.8 64.7

63.4 64.2 59.5 62.1

58.6 63.0 64.1 65.2

63.1 61.8 62.4 61.8

62.6

(3.17) (2.85) (4.59) (2.65)

(3.55) (3.16) (2.47) (3.08)

(2.28) (2.77) (2.48)

(1.47)

(3.02) (2.48) (2.62) (2.39)

(3.88) (2.83) (3.02) (1.94)

(2.71) (2.71) (3.12) (2.41)

(3.89) (2.27) (2.00) (2.16)

(2.06) (1.67) (1.54) (5.62)

(1.43)

13

Bomb threats or incidents

Percent that have drilled students during the current school year on the use of a plan in selected crises1

26.7 24.1 24.0 15.9

15.1 25.6 22.3 25.3

22.1 22.7 20.6

21.9

41.7 41.7 42.5 47.8

45.3 34.7 43.6 48.1

47.9 50.1 33.4 37.4

39.0 45.2 42.8 47.1

46.5 37.7 40.1 39.1

43.2

(3.11) (2.34) (3.85) (2.20)

(2.91) (2.59) (1.91) (2.54)

(1.94) (2.16) (1.83)

(1.25)

(2.83) (2.38) (3.46) (3.61)

(4.25) (2.43) (3.33) (2.54)

(3.00) (2.98) (4.15) (3.35)

(4.15) (2.74) (2.46) (2.08)

(2.51) (1.86) (1.54) (6.98)

(1.67)

14

Chemical, biological, or radiological threats or incidents3

Table 20.4. Percentage of public schools with a written plan for procedures to be performed in selected crises and percentage that have drilled students Table 233.65. Percentage public a written plan for procedures to be performed in selected crises and percentage have drilled students on the use of a plan, by selected school on the of use of aschools plan, with by selected school characteristics: Selected years, 2003–04 throughthat 2013–14—Continued characteristics: Selected years, 2003–04 through 2013–14—Continued

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 371 Discipline, Safety, and Security Measures

90.8 88.9 89.4 85.5

(2.38) (1.80) (2.00) (2.38)

86.9 (3.93) 90.4 (1.98) 90.9 (1.68) 85.2 (1.94)

2

Shootings

94.5 92.5 95.3 93.8

91.8 96.2 93.1 93.0 (1.75) (1.59) (1.34) (1.62)

(3.74) (1.21) (1.53) (1.31)

3

Natural disasters2

50.2 47.0 52.3 50.6

(3.98) (3.05) (3.03) (3.52)

61.7 (5.80) 48.4 (2.92) 50.0 (3.07) 49.0 (2.51)

4

Hostages

84.6 88.6 89.3 86.7

91.2 90.3 89.6 83.2 (3.03) (2.05) (1.78) (2.14)

(4.21) (1.81) (1.88) (1.91)

5

Bomb threats or incidents

61.7 60.2 60.4 54.7

67.7 58.0 60.6 58.0 (3.78) (2.92) (3.10) (3.29)

(6.32) (2.81) (2.91) (2.50)

6

—Not available. †Not applicable. 1Schools were not asked whether they had drilled students on the use of a plan for suicide threat or incident, severe risk of terrorist attack, and pandemic flu. 2For example, earthquakes or tornadoes. 3For example, release of mustard gas, anthrax, smallpox, or radioactive materials. 4In 2007–08 and 2009–10, schools were asked whether they had a plan for procedures to be performed if the U.S. national threat level were changed to Red (Severe Risk of Terrorist Attack) by the Department of Homeland Security. In 2013–14, schools were asked whether they had a plan for procedures to be performed if an “imminent threat alert” were issued by the Department of Homeland Security's National Terrorism Advisory System. 5Data on suicide threat or incident, severe risk of terrorist attack, and pandemic flu were not collected in 2003–04 and 2005–06. 6Primary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9. High schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade

Percent combined enrollment of Black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native students Less than 5 percent ................................. 5 percent to less than 20 percent ............ 20 percent to less than 50 percent .......... 50 percent or more .................................. Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch8 0–25......................................................... 26–50....................................................... 51–75....................................................... 76–100.....................................................

1

Year and school characteristic

Chemical, biological, or radiological threats or incidents3

76.4 71.9 71.1 68.0

75.6 72.4 71.6 70.5 47.7 46.6 47.0 45.9

47.4 46.0 46.8 47.4 (3.92) (3.27) (3.23) (3.43)

(5.71) (2.93) (3.08) (2.40)

8

38.5 35.1 38.3 31.1

37.9 34.0 40.9 34.5 (3.68) (2.57) (3.12) (3.39)

(6.10) (2.77) (3.10) (2.44)

9

Pandemic flu

71.3 67.7 71.7 71.3

69.6 67.6 72.6 70.7 (3.17) (3.28) (2.54) (3.27)

(5.34) (2.93) (2.65) (2.48)

10

Shootings

78.4 82.1 86.7 84.0

80.9 81.8 82.8 83.3

(3.07) (1.99) (2.11) (2.65)

(5.42) (2.21) (2.16) (1.82)

11

Natural disasters2

18.9 16.1 22.6 29.4

15.1 16.0 22.6 26.7

(2.95) (2.00) (2.30) (3.23)

(4.00) (2.20) (2.79) (2.26)

12

Hostages

45.9 47.5 47.3 56.6

39.2 44.2 48.6 55.5

(3.81) (3.03) (2.85) (3.25)

(6.14) (3.21) (2.69) (2.47)

13

Bomb threats or incidents

Percent that have drilled students during the current school year on the use of a plan in selected crises1

24.2 19.4 23.1 22.1

16.0 19.0 21.0 26.1

(3.15) (2.54) (2.81) (2.78)

(3.68) (2.36) (2.37) (2.06)

14

Chemical, biological, or radiological threats or incidents3

is not higher than grade 12. Combined schools include all other combinations of grades, including K–12 schools. Separate data on high schools and combined schools are not available for 2013–14. 7Data for 2013–14 were collected using the Fast Response Survey System, while data for earlier years were collected using the School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS). The 2013–14 survey was designed to allow comparisons with SSOCS data. However, respondents to the 2013–14 survey could choose either to complete the survey on paper (and mail it back) or to complete the survey online, whereas respondents to SSOCS did not have the option of completing the survey online. The 2013–14 survey also relied on a smaller sample. The smaller sample size and change in survey administration may have impacted 2013–14 results. 8Because the 2013–14 survey did not collect data on the percentage of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch, the classification of schools by the percentage of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch was computed based on data obtained from the Common Core of Data. NOTE: Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2003–04, 2005–06, 2007–08, and 2009–10 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010; Fast Response Survey System (FRSS), “School Safety and Discipline: 2013–14,” FRSS 106, 2014; and Common Core of Data (CCD), “Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey,” 2013–14. (This table was prepared September 2015.)

(3.54) (2.68) (2.61) (3.34)

(4.89) (2.72) (2.64) (2.15)

7

Suicide threat Severe risk of or incident terrorist attack4

Percent with a written plan that describes procedures to be performed in selected crises

[Standard errors in in parentheses] [Standard errorsappear appear parentheses]

Percentage of public schools with a written plan for procedures to be performed in selected crises and percentage that have drilled students on the of use of aschools plan, with by selected school characteristics: Selected years, 2003–04 throughthat 2013–14—Continued Table 233.65. Percentage public a written plan for procedures to be performed in selected crises and percentage have drilled students on the use of a plan, by selected school characteristics: Selected years, 2003–04 through 2013–14—Continued

Table 20.4.

372 CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education Discipline, Safety, and Security Measures

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015

187

Table 21.1.

CHAPTER 2: Elementary and Secondary Education 371

Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported various security at school: Discipline,measures Safety, and Security Measures Selected years, 1999 through 2013

Table 233.80. Percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported various security measures at school: Selected years, 1999 through 2013 [Standard [Standarderrors errorsappear appearinin parentheses] parentheses]

Security measure 1

1999

2001

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

99.4 (0.09)

99.3 (0.12)

99.6 (0.10)

99.8 (0.06)

99.3 (0.10)

99.6 (0.08)

99.6

8.7 53.5 38.5 63.6 88.3 21.2 95.1 48.8 90.2

10.1 53.0 47.9 69.6 90.6 22.5 95.3 52.8 91.7

10.7 53.2 57.9 68.3 90.1 24.9 95.5 54.3 93.0

10.1 53.6 66.0 68.8 90.0 24.3 95.9 60.9 94.3

10.6 53.8 70.0 68.1 90.6 23.4 95.6 64.3 94.3

11.2 53.0 76.7 69.8 88.9 24.8 95.7 64.5 94.9

11.0 (0.72) 52.0 (1.13) 76.7 (1.06) 70.4 (1.04) 90.5 (0.51) 26.2 (1.02) 95.9 (0.30) 75.8 (1.10) 95.8 (0.37)

Total, at least one of the listed security measures ..........................



(†)

Metal detectors ......................................................................................... Locker checks........................................................................................... One or more security cameras to monitor the school............................... Security guards and/or assigned police officers ....................................... Other school staff or other adults supervising the hallway ....................... A requirement that students wear badges or picture identification........... A written code of student conduct ............................................................ Locked entrance or exit doors during the day........................................... A requirement that visitors sign in ............................................................

9.0 53.3 — 54.1 85.4 — — 38.1 87.1

(0.51) (0.83) (†) (1.36) (0.54) (†) (†) (0.97) (0.62)

—Not available. †Not applicable. NOTE: “At school” includes the school building, on school property, on a school bus, and, from 2001 onward, going to and from school.

188

Supplemental Tables

(0.61) (0.92) (1.13) (1.25) (0.45) (0.99) (0.34) (1.12) (0.58)

(0.84) (0.91) (1.16) (0.91) (0.39) (1.11) (0.37) (1.16) (0.48)

(0.74) (0.90) (1.35) (1.13) (0.42) (1.20) (0.36) (1.06) (0.49)

(0.51) (0.95) (0.99) (0.98) (0.50) (1.00) (0.29) (1.07) (0.38)

(0.76) (1.17) (1.05) (1.05) (0.46) (1.14) (0.39) (1.27) (0.52)

(0.64) (0.99) (0.83) (1.01) (0.46) (1.02) (0.30) (1.02) (0.37)

2013 9 (0.07)

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, selected years, 1999 through 2013. (This table was prepared September 2014.)

DIGEST OF EDUCATION STATISTICS 2015

656 CHAPTER 3: Postsecondary Education On-campus crimes, arrests, and referrals for disciplinary action at degree-granting Security and Crime

Table 22.1.

postsecondary institutions, by location of incident, control and level of institution, and type Table 329.10. On-campus crimes, arrests, and referrals for disciplinary action at degree-granting postsecondary institutions, by location of of incident: 2001 through 2013 incident, control and level of institution, and type of incident: 2001 through 2013

em i r C d n a y t i r u c e S

Number of incidents Total, in residence halls and at other locations

Control and level of institution and type of incident 1

2013

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

In residence At other Total halls locations 14

15

All institutions Selected crimes against persons and property ........... 41,596 42,521 43,064 43,555 42,710 44,492 41,829 40,296 34,054 32,097 30,407 29,832 27,567 13,215 17 20 9 15 11 8 44 12 16 15 16 12 23 3 Murder1 .................................................................... Negligent manslaughter2.......................................... 2 0 1 0 2 0 3 3 0 1 1 1 0 0 2,201 2,327 2,595 2,667 2,674 2,670 2,694 2,639 2,544 2,927 3,375 4,017 4,964 3,627 Sex offenses—forcible3 ............................................ Sex offenses—nonforcible4 ...................................... 461 261 60 27 42 43 40 35 65 33 46 46 45 20 Robbery5 .....................................................