Indian Army - FIBIwiki


Indian Army From FIBIwiki This page requires editing to become a quality FIBIwiki Page. You can help out by editing the page ( . Use {{Cleanup}} for pages that have content, but need work to become a quality article. This article has been categorized under Category:Pages Requiring Cleanup The official (British) Indian Army was formed in 1895. Prior to this date there were three separate Presidency armies (which after 1861 were sometimes unofficially referred to as the Indian Army). Indian Army regiments can be viewed here.

Contents 1 See also 2 FIBIS resources 3 British Indian Army Cavalry 4 Reserve of Officers 4.1 The Army in Burma Reserve of Officers (A.B.R.O.) 5 British in the Indian Army 6 Indian Army Followers 7 Records 7.1 British Library 7.2 National Archives of India 7.2.1 Other records in India 7.3 British Army records after January 1921/April 1922 7.4 FamilySearch [LDS] Microfilms 7.5 The National Archives (TNA) (UK) 7.6 Online records 7.7 National Army Museum 7.8 Prince Consort's Library 8 Uniform items 8.1 The turban 8.2 The kurta 9 Indian Military Academy and other Training Schools 9.1 Indian Military Academy 9.2 Other Officer Training Schools 9.3 Staff College 10 Officers trained in countries other than UK or India 11 Language skills 12 External links 12.1 Historical books online 13 Recommended Reading 14 References

See also Armies in India - an overview Auxiliary Regiments (Volunteer Regiments) Chronological list of Wars and Campaigns Indian Army Artillery Indian Army Images Indians in the British Army Medals Medal Rolls Unattached List Category:Organisations has links to a number of military historical societies which publish journals containing articles about India, including the Indian Military Historical Society, which publishes the journal Durbar. Postal Service for some details during Military Campaigns. 5th Light Infantry for 1915 Singapore Mutiny Indian Army Educational and Training Establishments c 1945

FIBIS resources FIBIS research guide No. 3: Researching ancestors in the Indian Army, 1858-1947 ( by Peter A Bailey 2014. The book guides the reader through the various stages of the development of the Indian Army and covers aspects including the structure of the army, campaigns, the various regiments, as well as details of how to find information on officers, NCOs and other ranks; attestation, training, service history, leave, pensions, wills, etc. There is also a soldier’s detailed career path illustrating what can be found in the various records cited in the book. Available from the FIBIS Store. FIBIS database: Soldiers’ and Widows’ Pension details -1896 ( IOR/L/MIL/14/214 & 215. Includes previous members of the Bengal, Madras and Bombay Armies, including men from the Unattached List. May also include a few members of the Indian Army which officially was formed in 1895. These records are available on LDS microfilm 2029979 Items 1-2 with catalogue entry ( pi%3A8080%2Fwww-catalogapi-webservice%2Fitem%2F774116), however the FIBIS database record contains all the information available in the microfilm. Review by Richard Morgan of A Soldier’s Story in FIBIS Journal Number 26 Autumn 2011, page 52. For details of how to access this article, see FIBIS Journals. The review may also be read in this link (, along with other reviews. Details ( of the book A Soldier’s Story-From the Khyber Pass to the Jungles of Burma: The Memoir of a British Officer in the Indian Army 1933-1947 by John Archibald Hislop, edited by Penny Kocher 2010.

British Indian Army Cavalry The British Indian Army maintained about forty regiments of cavalry, officered by British and manned by Indian sowars (cavalrymen). The legendary exploits of this branch lives on in literature and early films. Among the more famous regiments in the lineages of modern Indian and Pakistani Armies are: Governor General's Bodyguard (now President's Bodyguard) Skinner's Horse (now India's 1st Horse (Skinner's) Gardner's Horse (now India's 2nd Lancers (Gardner's) Hodson's Horse (now India's 4th Horse (Hodson's) of the Bengal Lancers fame 6th Bengal Cavalry (later amalgamated with 7th Hariana Lancers to form 18th King Edward's Own Cavalry) now 18th Cavalry of the *Indian Army Probyn's Horse (now Pakistani) Royal Deccan Horse (now India's The Deccan Horse) Poona Horse (now India's The Poona Horse) Queen's Own Guides Cavalry (now partitioned between Pakistan and India). Several of these formations are still active, though they now are armoured formations, for example Guides Cavalry in Pakistan. Details ( of the book Izzat: Historical Records and Iconography of Indian Cavalry Regiments 1750-2007 by Ashok Nath 2009, published by the United Service Institution of India. It consists of over 800 pages and includes information about badges, buttons and shoulder titles. See Military reading list. Further details about the book are available in the Tribune India review ( and the review by SASNET ( - Swedish South Asian Studies Network, Lund University, now an archived webpage. This book is available at the British Library.

Reserve of Officers The official title was Army in India Reserve of Officers or A.I.R.O, but it was also known as the Indian Army Reserve of Officers, or I.A.R.O. Applications to the I.A.R.O are held in the British Library and itemised online in the Catalogue ( Browse by searching under term IARO or by entering name of soldier (surname first!) Some, or perhaps all, appointments were promulgated in the London Gazette (, which may be searched online. There are India Office Records at the British Library called Collection 397 Reserve of Officers IOR/L/MIL/7/16215-16279 ( 0000000028.0x0000f8) 1886-1940 .Another item is the publication Regulations for the Army in India Reserve of Officers 1939. Delhi: Defence Dept, 1939. IOR/L/MIL/17/5/654 ( IamsHViewer/Default.aspx?mdark=ark:/81055/vdc_100000001395.0x00035b) 1939 The British Library has the book, in five volumes, covering the First World War, Alphabetical list giving particulars of officers of the Indian Army Reserve of Officers / [issued by] Army Headquarters, India, Military Secretary’s Branch. The catalogue entry states "Contents: [v.1]. 26th June 1916 _ v.2. 24th January 1917 _ v.3. 31st December 1917 _ v.4. 30th June 1918 _ v.5. 31st December 1918". The shelfmark is OIR 355.37 Open Access. There are also the records, Applications for appointments to the India Army Reserve of Officers (1916-1918) IOR/L/MIL/9/552 to IOR/L/MIL/9/552. Search by name, for link see section Records. FIBIS database: A List of Officers (I.A.R.O.) recruited to or Re-engaged during the Year 1916 and up to the middle of January 1917 ( ode=browse_components&id=1039&s_id=176#)

The Army in Burma Reserve of Officers (A.B.R.O.) The commencement of the ABRO is not on record; a suggested date is the separation of India and Burma in 1937. See External links below.

British in the Indian Army British in this context refers to those of British/European background. Officers were British, although there were additionally lower ranked native Indian Officers who were Viceroy Commissioned Officers. There were British support staff, mainly Warrant Officers and Sergeants. Most of them were not attached to a regiment, however at times a British soldier could be in a role such as Quartermaster Sergeant in a Native Infantry Regiment. See Unattached List for further details. Generally, all members of the volunteer or auxiliary regiments were British, including Anglo-Indians (formerly known as Eurasians). See Auxiliary Regiments.

Indian Army Followers Indian Army followers were regarded as non combatants, and received lesser benefits than those in the Indian Army. There were two main categories of followers: Higher ranks of followers were listed in Rule 8 under the Indian Army Act (Act VIII of 1911) as the mule, bullock and camel drivers (singular drabi, or draby, a corruption of the English word driver) of the Supply and Transport Corps, the Transport veterinary dafadars, lascars in Arsenals and Depots of the Ordnance Department, and men of the Army Bearer Corps. They usually worked in their own distinct units. The second category, the menial followers, were the attached followers, including regimental followers, the latter being those attached to infantry or cavalry regiments. These were either public or private followers. The public followers were those deemed essential to the mobilization of a unit as a fighting formation and therefore paid from the central exchequer, such as a langri (cook for Indian troops), bhisti (sweeper) and mocha (saddler). Private followers were paid from mess funds, deductions in wages etc- barbers, dhobis (washer men), mess bearers (waiters), tailors and blacksmiths. Officers paid for their own servants, a personal bearer (valet) and a syce (groom) 20 March 1917: the conversion of mule drivers from follower to combatant service. 23 April 1918: a set of concessions were announced for the Army Bearer Corps.[1] Also see Historical books online, below.

Records British Library Explore the British Library ( for book titles relating to Indian Army in British Library catalogue. The British Library’s "Search our Catalogue Archives and Manuscripts" ( Search by name, or search by catalogue reference. British Library’s Help for Researchers: European Officers (; Indian Officers and Other Ranks ( The links for the following catalogue references are National Archives Discovery links. For British Library equivalent links, search directly in the British Library’s "Search our Catalogue Archives and Manuscripts" link above.

There are India Office records in the British Library, reference IOR L/MIL/14 ( The records include Indian Army Records of Service IOR/L/MIL/14/239-72481 ( c 1901-1947. It appears unlikely that these records contain men in the Volunteer or Auxiliary Regiments. Previously the catalogue entry advised that the closure period for these files has been set at 75 years from the date of entry of the serviceman/woman into the service. The files are opened on an annual basis. On 1 January 2010, files relating to persons joining the service in 1934 were opened. However, this wording does not now appear. A complete alphabetical index to the opened files is now available on open access in the Asian & African Studies Reading Room at the British Library or it can be searched by name on British Library archive search ( Note *The majority of files date from the 1930s. * "It was the policy for a very long time that on retirement of a regular IA officer to give them their service record when they did retire, and in the case of officers died in service the papers were sent on to the family as a rememberence. That is why if you are researching a regular IA officer of the period say 1900 - 1930 the papers will not be there. After 1930 you get a selection of papers but not the full lot - these seem to be a mixed bag.[2] This policy is illustrated by a researcher who found a relative’s British Army, and Indian Army service records through to 1947, in an old family suitcase.[3] *It is not known whether the search facility only locates names where there is an open file. Additionally, there are publications from the Military Department Library in respect of the Indian Army, catalogue entry IOR/L/MIL/17/5 ( 1854-1947 including Indian Army List IOR/L/MIL/17/5/1-219 ( 1889-1947 These are readily available on the open shelves. War Services are a particularly valuable feature of the List and the volumes in which they appear or with which they were issued separately are marked within the link with an asterisk. After 1892 the war services of Indian Officers are included in January issues only. A few editions have been reprinted. See below. Stations of the Army in India Distribution Lists/Lists of Units IOR/L/MIL/17/5/771-1132 ( 19081947 Earlier Indian Army Lists may be found in India Office Serials IOR/V/6 ( 1768-1948 including Indian Army and Civil Service List, from January, 1861 IOR/V/6/125-156 1861-1876 India List Civil and Military, from January, 1877 IOR/V/6/157-191 1877-1895 For online editions see Indian Army List online. The book Index of Indian Army Regimental Titles by Anthony Farrington, published 1982 is on the open shelves at the British Library India’s Army by Major D. Jackson 1940 contains a "potted history" of every Regiment & Corps (including the auxiliary & princely state forces). With 70 chapters, over 100 B & W photos & illustrations, 14 full Colour plates. Available online, refer below. A good source of military information is the annual publication of Indian Army Orders IOR/L/MIL/17/5/245-299 1903-1947, issued by the Adjutant General's Department and Army Headquarters India. Volumes 245-85 (to 1942, and partially 1943) contain annual indexes. This publication includes at least some information from the official Gazettes (see the following item). Some editions of Indian Army Orders are available online, see Military periodicals online -Indian Army Orders, or see Historical books online below. The India Office Records at the British Library include Government Gazettes IOR/V/11 ( 1831-1947 which contain much military information. The Government Gazettes were the official newspapers of the Government of India and its provincial governments. The series held are: Gazettes of India 1865-1947, Calcutta 1832-1947, Assam 18741947, Bihar and Orissa 1912-1947, United Provinces, 1850-1947, Fort St George 1832-1947, Bombay 1831-1947, Punjab 1872-1947, North-West Frontier Province 1932-1947, Central Provinces 1875-1947, Coorg 1885-1947, Sind 1869-1947, Burma 1875-1947. Summaries of the contents of each series are to be found in the handlists in the Reading Room of the British Library Some editions of the Gazette of India are available as pdf downloads, Digital Library of India, see Gazette of India online. Editions of the Calcutta Gazette are also available as pdf downloads from the Digital Library of India. Some editions of the Gazette of India and the Calcutta Gazette are available as pdf downloads from DSpace at West Bengal State Central Library (

National Archives of India Indian armed forces personnel records are held at the National Archives of India [4] with the contact email address given as: [email protected] "I enquired at the National Archives in Delhi and received 150 pages of my grandfather's service record. An enquiry doesn't cost any money until they copy documents for you. The process is slow but well worth the wait". D. Fielder 14 April 2011.[5] Subsequently he advised "My grandfather was in the IMS… I received it [the record] within 3-4 months".[6] Some earlier advice is contained in “How to Retrieve Indian War Records” a WW2Talk Forum post dated 2 July 2009.[7] The writer of this section sent an email request in October 2013, using the email address previously quoted. A reply was received seven weeks later, but unfortunately no record is available, (nor is there a record at the British Library). A researcher visiting India was advised to contact the Adjutant General's Office in Delhi. Eventually she found the actual address to be Adjutant General's Office, Indian Headquarters of the Ministry of Defense (Army), Room No. 280, South Block, New Delhi 110011. Email address [email protected] The files in Delhi are filed by the service record numbers, so it is necessary to have this information.[8] It seems probable that the files accessible through the National Archives of India and the Adjutant General's Office, both located in Delhi, are the same files, but this is not yet known. Note: Refer comment under British Library records above that generally there will not be files for officers who retired, as officer papers were presented to them on retirement. Regarding other records about the Indian Army at the National Archives of India, a researcher commented: "There is a lot on the Indian Army at the NA of India. Most of it is of course part of the Army/Military Department collection but one can find some interesting files every now and then in the Home Department or the Foreign and Political Department. Unfortunately they do not allow researchers to make copies of the indexes and to the best of my knowledge there is no online reference. The only way to get to it is to go there yourself or engage a local researcher...Sadly they do not allow photography".[9] Other records in India Centre For Armed Forces Historical Research (CAFHR) (, The United Service Institution of India. This Centre may be able to offer advice about military records in India. Article "Treasure trove: Awesome collection in awful condition" ( by Sonia Malik 8 July 2011, The Tribune, Pakistan, gives details of records held at the Lahore Museum in respect of over 100,000 Indian soldiers who served in the British Army during the First World War. State Archives in India, such as West Bengal State Archive, may have records. See Indian Libraries and Archives. Note however, access may be restricted to persons connected with a university or recognised institution.

British Army records after January 1921/April 1922 If you are looking records for British personnel who served in the Indian Army , either officers whose service ended after April 1922 or soldiers whose service ended after January 1921, and there is no record in the series "Indian Army Records of Service IOR/L/MIL/14/239/1-72481", or at the National Archives of India, (refer above for both these sources), you could try contacting the Army Personnel Centre Historical Disclosures Section, whose details are set out in the article British Army-Army personnel serving after January 1921. This is not a confirmed source, but some other British Army records include British officers from the Indian Army. Note: Refer comment under British Library records above that generally there will not be files for officers who retired, as officer papers were presented to them on retirement.

FamilySearch [LDS] Microfilms Note: Microfilm ordering services ceased 7 September 2017, however selected microfilms have been digitised and are currently available for viewing on a FamilySearch computer at a FamilySearch Centre. Locate these records through the FamilySearch catalogue. It is expected that in time all microfilms will be similarly available in this format. Please take this into account when reading the information below. Indian Army Lists are available as Familysearch, previously known as LDS, microfilms, possibly for the period only to 1888 and appear in the FamilySearch catalogue ( rch/catalog/778871) as An East-India register and directory. It is possible that the publications from 1889 only contain the Civil Service List, and not the Army List, but this is not known. (The FamilySearch catalogue also has an military records entry ( for "The India Office list, 1886-1940 : containing an account of the services of the officers in the Indian service and other information" available on microfiche. It seems likely that that these are in fact catalogued incorrectly and are not military records, as the India Office Lists for 1924 and 1929, (see Directories online) do not appear to contain an Indian Army List) A limited number of additional FamilySearch microfilms are available in respect of the Indian Army: Search the FamilySearch Library catalogue ( using keywords “Indian Army” and “India Office”. For viewing details, see FamilySearch Centres.

The National Archives (TNA) (UK) The National Archives at Kew house a good run of Indian Army Lists available on open shelves. There is a full run from 1902-1939 but also some earlier volumes dating from 1860s.

Online records See Indian Army List online Refer Directories online and Military periodicals online for Army Lists available online. On the latter page, there is information about British, Indian Army Officers in the New Annual Army List, also known as Hart's Annual Army List which is searchable through the National Library of Scotland website. There may be references to Indian Army Officers in British Army Quarterly Lists available online to 1946. The [London] Gazette ( contains details of (some/all?) appointments and promotions for officers Some issues of the Gazette of India and the Calcutta Gazette (refer British Library above) are available online, refer Newspapers and journals online and Gazette of India online. Some Officers were of high social status/the Landed Gentry class and genealogical resources relating to this social class may provide Army details. See British Army - Landed Gentry genealogical sources for sources of records, including online. For Prisoner of War records from the First World War which include members of the Indian Army, see Prisoners of War on the British Army page. "British" Indian Army Officers 1939-1945 ( from World War II Unit Histories & Officers

National Army Museum The National Army Museum in London has the following guide on its website: Information Sheet No 1: Researching soldiers of the East India Company’s Armies and the Indian Army ( The collection at the NAM includes the card index by Hodson and Percy Smith which includes details of officers who joined the Indian Army from Sandhurst, warrant officers and some Emergency Commissioned Officers of the Second World War. The NAM collection also includes 3,400 questionnaires completed in the 1960’s, 70s and 80s by former India Army Officers about their careers and families. The NAM also holds some Indian Army regimental histories.

Prince Consort's Library The Prince Consort's Library, Aldershot, Hampshire contains a large number of pre Independence Indian Army regimental histories.

Uniform items Also refer Externals links, Uniforms below.

The turban The turban provided protection from sun, wind, cold and minor blows to the head.[10] When it was windy, with sand being blown around, an end of the turban could be used to cover face, nose, ears and beard.[11] Dress Regulations 1913 refer to the lungi and the pagri. British Officers serving with Indian units are permitted to wear a lungi in place of a helmet with khaki dress…All officers of a unit must be dressed alike. (Page 7) The Pashtu language word is lungi, (lungee,[12]) while the Hindi/Punjabi word is pagri, (pugri, puggaree, pagree, pagg, pagh, pagari). The lungi was often wrapped around a kullah, (kulla, khulla), a dome shaped scull cup, which however is not worn by Sikhs. Sikhs in the Army, as part of their uniform, were issued a 5 metre turban, and a half size, smaller, under turban called a "fifty" which was usually in a contrasting colour. [13] The smaller cloth was also known as a pag, (pakta), (which could also be a bandana type cloth) and shows as a small triangle of contrasting colour in the centre of the forehead under the lungi. In Army terminology, the term lungi was usually used for the cloth the turban was constructed from, and a pagri usually referred to the cloth which was wound around a sun helmet, the latter worn both by British in the Indian Army, and in the British Army. However, in some contexts, a lungi and kullah together formed a pagri, and in other contexts the words lungi and pagri have the same meaning. The lungis were of “regimental pattern” which often differed between officers and O.R.s, and also could differ from one decade to the next. [14]. This means it may be difficult to identify the regiment from the pattern.

The kurta The kurta was a kaftan like garment which could be knee length or longer.

Indian Military Academy and other Training Schools Indian Military Academy The Indian Military Academy was established at Dehra Dun in 1932. The course was designed to be parallel to the course at Sandhurst, UK. During WW2 it provided an eight month training course for soldiers from the rank, or for civilians who had graduated from a prior eight week program at Datta Officers Training School, Lahore. The successful participants were graduated as Second Lieutenants.

Other Officer Training Schools To meet the urgent needs for officers, the Daly College at Indore was converted to an Officer Training School in 1918. [15] There was one batch of graduates. C 1943, there were Officer Training Schools at Bangalore, Belgaum , Mhow and Datta, (Dutta) Lahore. Dutta O.T.S was situated in one wing of the Foreman Christian College campus on the bank of the canal which ran through the suburbs of Lahore.[16][17]

Staff College The Army Staff College moved to Quetta in 1907. Established in 1905, it was a training college for existing officers to become eligible for Staff appointments.

Officers trained in countries other than UK or India Top officer cadets in both Australia and Canada could opt for service in the Indian Army. The Australians liked the cavalry and the Canadians liked the infantry.[18]

Language skills It appears language qualifications for officers were required before being sent on active service. For an example, see 128th Pioneers.

External links Wikipedia: British Indian Army (1895-1947) ( List of Indian Army Regiments 1903 ( List of Indian Army Regiments 1922 ( Indian Army during World War II ( Other "Making A Virture Out Of Necessity: The Indian Army 1746-1947" ( by Dr Rob Johnson BCMH Summer Conference 2012 – Indian Armies (The British Commission for Military History now an archived webpage.) Foreword, Introduction and Chapter 1 of The British Indian Army: Virtue and Necessity ( Edited by Rob Johnson Historical Orders of Battle and TOEs 1900-1938 ( Includes Indian Army., now archived. Historical Orders of Battle and TOEs 1939-1945 ( Includes Indian Army., now archived. The Army In India – July 1914 ( by Prof Charles Tustin Kamps Orders of Battle, now archived. East and Central Africa Medal 1897-99 with clasp: Uganda 1897-98 ( emeID%3D%26resultsDisplay%3Dlist%26page%3D9&pos=5&total=299&page=9&acc=1963-08-176-1), awarded to Sepoy Ahmad Khan, 27th (1st Baluch Battalion), Regiment of Bombay Light Infantry. The 27th (1st Baluch Battalion), Regiment of Bombay Light Infantry were one of three Indian Army regiments that took part in the suppression of a mutiny by the Sudanese troops used by the Colonial Government in Uganda. National Army Museum. This article ([19] briefly states that "in South Africa [2nd Anglo-Boer War, 1899–1902] there were a large number of officers and natives lent by India" and favourably mentions the Indian Military Accounts Department. Indian Army units in the Boer War ( from "Ladysmith History & The Boer War". ( ( link). Also see Boer War Center for Indian Military History ( from Orders of Battle ( now archived, is an index page which has links to articles such as “British-Indian Army: Imperial Service Troops 1888-1918”, “Indian Infantry Regiments of World War I: 1st Brahmans through 30th Punjabis “, “Indian Army, 1939” and the “British Indian Army”. The page History ( also has some links about the Indian Army pre 1947 which do not appear to be included in the previous index page. As this site is now archived, some articles may not be available. For the King-Emperor ( The Indian Army during 1901-1939. Photos, histories, profiles etc. "British colonial experience in Waziristan and its applicability to current operations" ( &REC=1) by Matthew W Williams, 2005 from Combined Arms Research Library Digital Library "The Indian Army in Africa and Asia 1940-1942 Implications for the planning and execution of two nearly- simultaneous campaigns" ( T=/p4013coll3&CISOPTR=1209&CISOBOX=1&REC=1#metajump) by Major James Scudieri, 1995 from Combined Arms Research Library Digital Library Indian Cavalry ( British Empire website Bengal Cavalry Regiments 1857-1914 ( N) Google Books A register of titles of the units of the H.E.I.C. & Indian armies, 1666-1947 by Chris Kempton published by the British Empire and Commonwealth Museum, c1997. Copy can be found via the British Library catalogue ( The United Service Institution of India ( was founded in 1870 . It was founded for 'furtherance of interest and knowledge ...of the Defence Services.' It has published a Journal since that time, with the following (pdf) indexes which may be searched. Index Part 1: 1871-1921 (, Index Part 2: 1922-1970 ( The Journals are available at the British Library from 1883 (Volume 12) Empire, Faith & War: The Sikhs and World War One ( Includes categories Tell their Story/Research Your Soldier. A project of the United Kingdom Punjab Heritage Association. "Finding Indian soldiers who served in World War One": Casualty Appendices to the War Diaries ( rld-war-one.html) by Dorota Walker 09 September 2014. British Library Untold lives blog. Retrieved 11 September 2014 Photographs: World War I: Indian Army by H D Girdwood ( British Library on Mainly taken in France on the Western Front. Also available through the BL Digitised Manuscripts Search ( using keyword Girdwood. "How The British Raj’s Army Opened Its Doors For ‘Indian’ Officers" ( by Srinath Raghavan June 26, 2016 Includes mention of the establishment of the Royal Indian Military Academy in Dehradun in October 1932. The Army in Burma Reserve of Officers (A.B.R.O.) ( by Vivian Rodrigues. Indian Tales ( by Patrick O‘Meara (born 1930) describes his childhood in India, spent in Army cantonments. His father was in the Royal Indian Army Service Corps (RIASC). Obituary of Charles Chenevix Trench (, c 1914 -2003 (, link) He served as an Indian Army officer in the 1930s, commissioned into Hodson's Horse, and winning an MC during the Second World War . In 1946 he retired from the Army to follow his father into the Indian Political Service for the 18 months until Partition. His 19 books included three classic accounts of British India: The Indian Army and the King's Enemies, 1900-1947; The Frontier Scouts; and The Viceroy's Agent, all published in the 1980s and available at the British Library "Ethnicity, Religion, Military Performance and Political Reliability - British Recruitment Policy and The Indian Army - 1757-1947" ( by Maj (Retd) Agha Humayun Amin Defence Journal [Pakistan] February 2001. Major Agha Humayun Amin is the author of Pakistan Army till 1965.[20] "'Punjabisation' in the British Indian Army 1857-1947 and the Advent of Military Rule in Pakistan" ( by Syed Hussain Shaheed Soherwordi, School of History & Classics, University of Edinburgh. Edinburgh Papers In South Asian Studies Number 24 (2010). "Recruitment History of Indian Army: Historical Perspective" ( by Col Deepak Joshi (Retd) June 7, 2010 Video and transcript: "The Martial Races of India: Recruitment by Ethnicity in the British Indian Army" ( by Jasdeep Singh, recorded on 22 February 2016., including YouTube video. Page 60 (, "Front Lines and Status Lines: Sepoy and Menial in the Great War 1916-1920" by Radhika Singha, a chapter in The World in World Wars: Experiences, Perceptions and Perspectives from Africa and Asia 2010 Google Books. This article includes information about Indian Army Followers. First page of an article The Rare Infliction: The Abolition of Flogging in the Indian Army, circa 1835-1920 ( by Radhika Singha says it was abolished in 1920. Law and History Review, August 2016, Vol 34, No 3. Pay to view British Pathe Film, Good News From China 1927 (, an indication that Indian troops were leaving China in 1927 "owing to marked improvement of situation in Shanghai." India: Regimental histories ( (retrieved 23 April 2014) Swords trembling in their scabbards': A study of Indian officers in the Indian Cavalry, 1858 – 1918 ( by Michael John Creese 2007 PhD thesis University of Leicester (retrieved 27 April 2014) "Introduction" from The Indian Army 1939-1947: Experience & Development ( edited by Alan Jeffreys and Patrick Rose. Uniforms Illustrations: Indian Native Cavalry ( and Indian Native Artillery and Infantry (http://www.soldierssoldiers. com/sales_military_prints_section.php?section=OurArmies3), originally from Our Armies by Richard Simkin 1891 Watercolours of members of the Indian Army ( by Charles James Lyall c 1903. Brown Digital Repository, Brown University Library. Also includes some pre 1857 illustrations, perhaps based on historical sources. The artist was a member of the Bengal Civil Service, and an Arabic scholar. Wikipedia entry ( Includes 1896. 18th Bengal Lancers. The Commandant, Lieu. Col. Richardson ( 35th Scinde Horse: British officer, c. 1903 ( Gouache drawing by Jack Challenor. Brown Digital Repository, Brown University Library. Illustrations: Armies of India ( originally from The Armies of India painted by Major A. C. Lovett 1911 This book is available to read online, refer below Photograph: Officer's full dress uniform worn by Major J A C May-Somerville, 11th King Edward's Own Lancers (Probyn's Horse), 1913 (c) ( cc=1956-02-882-2) includes a separate image of a kurta. National Army Museum. Photograph: Full dress kurta, 1st Duke of York's Own Lancers (Skinner's Horse), 1902-1914 ( National Army Museum. "Turbans of the Indian Army" ( by Peter Suciu Provides details of the various styles. Photograph: Pugri, 11th King Edward's Own Lancers (Probyn's Horse), 1913 (c) ( Also known as a lungi. Additional photograph shows a kullah. National Army Museum Photograph: Pagri (Turban): O/Rs, 36th Sikhs, Indian Army ( First World War. Imperial War Museums. Photograph: Kullah, other ranks' (Sepoys'), Field Service Order, Universal pattern, Indian Army, 13th Frontier Force Rifles, 1937 (c) ( -11-17-1). National Army Museum Photograph: Officers of the 4th Cavalry [Neuf Berguin, France, WW1] ( Photographer: H. D. Girdwood . To enlarge photograph, click on "View item at: The British Library" Photograph: Lt.Col.H.W.Grace M.C., Probyn’s Horse ( The Indian Army on campaign 1900-1939. Photograph is located in Photos/Officers & Other Ranks/Indian Army British Officers. Photograph: Francis Ingall when commanding the bodyguard to H E the Governor of the Punjab, Governor’s Cup Day, 1934 [Lahore Racecourse] ( wAAQBAJ&pg=PA92-IA6) and Photograph: Francis Ingall at Miri Khel Camp, October 1930 ( (6th Lancers) page 92 The Last of the Bengal Lancers by Francis Ingall Google Books. "British Puggarees 2, 3, 4 and 6 Folds" ( by Stuart Bates.

Historical books online Copy of any Correspondence with the Government of India, relating to the Number and Expenses of the European Troops now doing Duty in India. Returns to an address of The Honourable The House of Commons, dated 22 May 1862. East India (European Troops) ( Pdf download, Digital Repository of GIPE (Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics [Pune]) Articles of War for the Government of the Native Officers and Soldiers in Her Majesty's Indian Army ( Revised third edition 1863 Google Books East India Military and Budget Estimates. Session 5 February-21 August 1867 ( House of Commons Accounts and Papers, Volume 15 Google Books Abolition of the bonus system in the Indian Army ( compiled by Lt.-Col. J.C. Phillips, retired list, late Bengal Army. 1869 Google Books Her Majesty's Army. Indian and Colonial Forces : a descriptive account of the various regiments now comprising the Queen's forces in India and the colonies by Walter Richards c 1891. In Two Divisions. The book file consists of a digitized microfilm, and the illustrations, which appear at the front of each volume are of poor quality. Div. I ( Text continues to page 192. Div. II ( Text commences page 193 ( Index ( hm_32281#page/n218/mode/1up) and Contents ( Volume 1 is the relevant volume for the Indian Army. "Part III The Army in India and Colonial Forces" ( page 442 The Army Book for the British Empire: A Record of the Development and Present Composition of the Military Forces and their Duties in Peace and War by William Howley Goodenough R A and James Cecil Dalton R A. 1893. HMSO. Includes Indian Army. Frontier and Overseas Expeditions from India. Compiled in the Intelligence Branch, Army Headquarters, India. c 1907-11. Volumes 1-3, see North West Frontier Campaigns. Volumes 4 and 7, see Assam. Volume 5: Burma ( 1907 Volume 6: Expeditions Overseas ( 1911 Africa and the Mediterranean. Persia and Arabia. Ceylon and the Islands of the Indian Ocean. The Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. China. Proceedings Of The Committee On The Obligations Devolving On The Army In India. (Short Title) The Army in India Committee, 1912. British Library catalogue reference IOR/L/MIL/17/5/1751, in seven volumes, of which four are available online. Volume I-A Minority Report (; Volume II Minutes of Evidence (; Volume V Digest of Evidence (; Volume VI Appendices I to VIII (, Public Library of India Collection. Not available online Vol 1 Majority report; Vol 3, Minutes of evidence; Vol 4, Minutes of evidence (including written evidence and index). There are also further related volumes in IOR/L/MIL/17/5/1752- 1756, at the British Library. Famous Fights of Indian Native Regiments ( by Reginald Hodder 1914 Indias Fighters ( Full title: India's Fighters: their Mettle, History and Services to Britain by Saint Nihal Singh 1914, Digital Library of India Collection. Five Years in India: Comprising a Narrative of Travels in the Presidency of Bengal, a Visit to the Court of Runjeet Sing, Residence in the Himalayah Mountains, an Account of the Late Expedition to Cabul and Affghanistan, Voyage Down the Indus, and Journey Overland to England by Henry Edward Fane, late Aide-de-Camp to his Excellency the Commander-In-Chief in India. Volume I (, Volume II ( 1842 The author travelled with his regiment to Ceylon in 1835, where he was soon appointed to the staff of his uncle, General Sir Henry Fane, who was Commander-In-Chief in India. The Life And Opinions Of Major-General Sir Charles Metcalfe MacGregor Edited by Lady MacGregor 1888 Volume I (, Volume II (, An overview of his career ( rles-Metcalf-Macgregor-Vol-ii#page/n411/mode/2up) page 395. Charles MacGregor arrived in India in December 1856, aged 16, served in the Bengal Army in many wars and campaigns, and explored in Eastern Persia. He was Quartermaster General 1880-1885, retired on medical grounds in 1886 and died 1887, aged 46. Wikipedia ( My Service Days: India, Afghanistan, Suakim '85, and China ( by Maj.-Gen. Sir Norman Stewart 1908 The author initially came to India in 1872 with the 68th Regiment of Foot and subsequently joined the Indian Army where he held many positions, retiring in 1904 Reminiscences of an Indian Cavalry Officer ( by Colonel John Sutton Edward Western 1922 Born in India in 1857, he returned after schooling in England in 1876 , the greater part of his service being with the Punjab Frontier Force. From Kabul to Kumassi: Twenty-Four Years of Soldering and Sport ( by Brigadier-General Sir James Willcocks 1904 He arrived in India in 1878 with the 100th Regiment of Foot. He later joined the Indian Army, and served until 1897, when he transferred to West Africa. The Romance of Soldiering and Sport ( by General Sir James Willcocks 1925 Hathi Trust Digital Library. Covers the content of the previous book more briefly, together with his time in India from 1902-1914, and subsequently. Also see Western Front for his WW1 book With the Indians in France. The Indian Army A B C : being a record of some of those depressing events that occur in the daily life of every Officer of the Indian Army ( YAGER197595) by Myauk [John William Jerome Alves] 1915. With download link, State Library of Victoria. Direct link ( The quoit mentioned in Q for Quoit is known as a Chakram or Chakkar. 'What The Heck Is A Chakram, Anyway?" ( by Bret Ryan Rudnick. Under Ten Viceroys: the Reminiscences of a Gurkha ( by Major-General Nigel Woodyatt 1922 . The author, who was in a British Army regiment, arrived in India c 1883, and was subsequently appointed to the Indian Army where he held many positions. The Travels of Risaldar Shahzad Mir Khan of the 11th K E O Lancers (Probyn’s Horse), who enlisted 14th February 1882, died 1924. Translated extracts from his autobiography Shah Safar Sairi-Dunya, in Urdu, official text-book for the elementary Urdu examination. Part I ( includes the Herat Boundary Commission under General Lumsden in 1885, page 326-340 and Part II (, Journey to Tibet and China, with Capt. M S Wellby 18th Hussars 1895-1896, pages 543-553 Journal of the United Service Institution of India, Volume 62, 1932; Part III (http://arch Africa with Captain Wellby in 1898-99, pages 114-122; Part IV ( 15.280027/2015.280027.Usi-Journal#page/n211/mode/2up) England, pages 204-214. Journal of the United Service Institution of India, Volume 63, 1933 (Captain Wellby wrote two books about these expeditions, see 11th Prince of Wales's Own Lancers). Published later as The life & adventures of K.B. Risaldar Shahzad Mir : O.B.I. (1863-1924) : 11th (K.E.O.), Bengal Lancers (Probyn's Horse) with the contents given in this catalogue entry ( ( Training to be an officer at the Indian Military Academy at Dehra Dunn c 1943 ( page 133 One Hell of a Life: An AngloIndian Wallah's Memoir from the Last Decades of the Raj by Stan Blackford. Google Books Page 34 ( History of the Indian Military Academy by Brig M P Singh 2007 Google Books. Changes introduced at IMA on the outbreak of WW2. The Armies of India ( painted by Major A. C. Lovett, described by Major G. F. MacMunn With 72 coloured illustrations 1911 The Romance Of The Indian Frontiers ( by Lt-Gen Sir George MacMunn, Colonel-Commandant Royal Artillery 1931, Digital Library of India Collection. The Martial Races Of India ( by Lieut-General Sir George MacMunn, Colonel Commandant, the Royal Artillery. c1932 Vignettes From Indian Wars ( by Lieut-General Sir George MacMunn, Colonel Commandant Royal Artillery 1932, Digital Library of India Collection. Turmoil and Tragedy in India, 1914 and After by Lieut.-General Sir George MacMunn 1935 is available to read online on the Digital Library of India website, in TIFF format. It is catalogued as Turmoil The Tragedy In India 1914. It is also available as a pdf to download from DLI ( version ( li.2015.177667). The Sepoy ( by Edmund Candler 1919 "The Drabi" ( [Mule Driver] page 208 "The Indian Follower" ( page 227 Report Of The Army In India Committee 1919-20 ( (1920) "Conditions of Service of Followers" ( page 87 . Recommendations. Report Of The Army In India Committee 1919-20 Part II ( The Army in India and Its Evolution: Including an account of the establishment of the Royal Air Force in India ( 1924. Compiled Officially. Digital Repository of GIPE (Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics [Pune, India]). A pdf download to your computer. India's Army ( by Major Donovan Jackson 1940. Pdf download, Digital Library of India. Short History of the Indian Army ( by Lieutenant Colonel B.N. Majumdar 1971. Reprinted from The Bulletin, Military Historical Society. Wellcome Library Digital Collection. A catalogue of books relating to the military history of India ( drawn up by Maurice J.D. Cockle 1901 Handbook For Indian Cavalry ( By F.W.P. [Frederick William Pakenham] Angelo 1898. Published at Allahabad. Pdf download, Digital Library of India. version ( Indian Army Orders. Include Appointments, Promotions, Long Service Medals etc. Pdf downloads, Digital Library of India. Based on catalogue details unless otherwise specified. 1908 ( (catalogued Jan,vi Th, 1945), 1908 (; 1910 ( ndle/2015/72282) (catalogued Jan,thired 1855), 1910 (; 1912 (, 1912 (ht tps://; 1922 (, 1922 (; 1923 (http://ww, 1923 (; November 1924 (, 1924 (; 1927 (, 1927 (; 1929 (h ttp://, 1929 (; 1931 (, 1931 (; 1932 (, 1932 (; 1933 (http://w, 1933 ( Compendium of the More Important Army Order ( 1919. Pdf download, Digital Library of India. version ( .ernet.dli.2015.72295). Full title: Compendium of the More Important Orders of the Government of India, Army Department and India Army Orders issued from the 1st August 1914, to the 31st December 1917. Government Of India: Army Department Army Instruction (Instructions). Pdf downloads, Digital Library of India. Based on catalogue details. Note some years have multiple files which may, or may not, have different content.

1918 (, version (; 1919 (, version (; 1920 (, version ( 08867); No.2 Of 1920 (, version (; 1921 ( /515142), version (; 1922 (, version ( uery=2015.515144); Index To Army Instructions India January To December 1922 (, version ( 015.548422); 1923 (, version (; 2nd Jan.1923 ( 2015/552730), version (; Index To Army Instructions India ( 1924, version (; 1926 (, version (; Armaments Year-Book : General and Statistical Information. Published by the League of Nations at Geneva from 1924. These books have been digitised separately in Chapters (http://digital.librar Links to pdf downloads, Northwestern Univerity Library Evanston, IL, USA. Chapters relating to British Empire/ India or India, which contain details about the structure of the Army, training schools etc: Vol. 1 (1924) (, Vol. 2 (1925/1926) (, Vol. 3 (1927) (, Vol. 4 (1928) (, Vol. 5 (1928/1929) (, Vol. 6 (1929/1930) (, Vol. 7 (1930/1931) (, Vol. 8 (1931/1932 (, Vol. 9 (1933) (, Vol. 10 (1934) (, Vol. 11 (1935) (

Handbook on Sikhs for the use of Regimental Officers by Captain R W Falcon 4th Sikh Infantry, Punjab Frontier Force (lately Officiating District Recruiting Officer, Sikh District) 1896. British Library Digital (, British Library itemViewer ( 0005) Handbooks for the Indian Army "Recruiting" ( , Chapter V, page 106 Handbooks for the Indian Army: Sikhs by Captain A H Bingley, 7th (Duke of Connaught’s Own) Bengal Infantry. Compiled under the orders of the Government of India. 1899 The Sikhs ( by A E Barstow 2/11th Sikh Regiment (late 15th Ludhiana Sikhs) 1928. Pdf download, Digital Library of India. Full title: Handbook for the Indian Army: Sikhs. 1928 edition, reprint 1940, is also available to read on line on the Panjab Digital Library ( sp?ID=2673&page=1&CategoryID=1&Searched=). Handbooks For The Indian Army: Hindustan Musalmans and Musalmans of the Eastern Punjab by W. Fitz G. Bourne 1914 is available as a pdf download ( ndle/2015/499098) Digital Library of India. version ( Handbooks for the Indian Army: Gurkhas Compiled under the orders of the Government by Lieut- Colonel Eden Vansittart 2nd Bn 10th Gurkha Rifles. revised by Major B U Nicolay 1st Bn, 4th Gurkha Rifles 1915 (Reprint 1918), is available to read as a pdf download ( on the Digital Library of India, catalogued as Gurkhas (1915). version ( Handbooks for the Indian Army: Gurkhas Compiled under the orders of the Government by Major C J Morris, late 2nd Bn, 3rd QAO Gurkha Rifles Second edition 1936, revised by the author, first published 1933, is available to read as a pdf download ( on the Digital Library of India website, catalogued as Gurkhas (1936). version (

Handbooks for the Indian Army: Garhwalis ( revised by Lt.-Col. K. Henderson 1924, original text by John Thorold Evatt. Pdf download PAHAR- Mountains of Central Asia Digital Dataset. Handbooks For The Indian Army: Kumaonis 1933 by A Latham is available to read online on the Digital Library of India website. Link to a pdf download ( dle/2015/278759). version ( Page viii ( and page 44 ( A Short history of the lives of Bombay opium smokers by Rustom Pestanji Jehangir 1893 Details and a comment about the use of opium by Sikh soldiers. "The Regimental Durbar" ( by Major General Sir George Younghusband, page 617 Blackwood’s Magazine, no 209 January-June 1921. Indian Army Uniforms ( by W Y Carman 1969. Full title: Indian Army Uniforms under the British from the 18th century to 1947 : Artillery, Engineers and Infantry. Pdf download, Digital Library of India. version ( Note: Original colour plates are in black and white and most illustrations are of poor quality. There is also a volume by this author with a similar title on Cavalry published in 1961, not available online, but available at the British Library. "Badges and Devices worn by the Sillidar Trooper" ( by Yusuf page 72 Journal of the United Service Institution of India, Volume 68, 1938 Army Regulations (India) 1913. Volume VII. Dress. [Dress Regulations are in respect of Officers]. This book is available to read online on the Digital Library of India website. There are two copies available, however both copies appear to be incomplete. The better copy is catalogued as army regulations, india, 1913 barcode 99999990265902, but is missing the rear index, pages 9196. Pdf download (, version (; Second pdf download ( handle/2015/72252), version ( Also available to read online on Scribd ( dia-Vol-VII#scribd) Dress Regulations India ( 1926. Pdf download, Digital Library of India. version ( Print quality is poor for most pages. The text commences digital file page 8. Index, digital file page 106. It seems likely that pages are missing from the digital file. Dress Regulations For The Army(1934) ( is available as a pdf download, Digital Library of India. version ( n.ernet.dli.2015.206295)

Army Regulations India Clothing Vol XI ( 1916 is available as a pdf download, Digital Library of India. version ( ails/in.ernet.dli.2015.72253).[Clothing Regulations are in respect of soldiers who are not officers] Army Regulations India Barrack Synopsis India ( 1930 is available as a pdf download, Digital Library of India. version (http://archive .org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.72244). Prevention of Disease and Inefficiency, with special reference to Indian Frontier Warfare ( by Lieut.-Col. Patrick Hehir IMS, Officiating Principal Medical Officer, Burma Division. 2nd Edition - Illustrated and Revised. 1911 Notes on Sanitation for Indian troops ( by T. F. Paterson, Captain, Indian Medical Service. 2nd edition, edited by Major D.R. Thapar, 1933, originally published 1911. In English and Roman Urdu. Wellcome Library Digital Collection, catalogue reference RAMC/184 The Defence of India: a Strategical Study ( by Major-General Sir C M Macgregor Quartermaster General of India 1884 "The Defence of India" ( by Lieut.-General Sir Edwin Collen Proceedings of the Central Asian Society March 1906. Indian Defence Problem: A Study ( by Capt G V Modak 1933 The author “spent many years in active military service in an important Indian State”. Contents (, Statistical Contents ( pro031317mbp#page/n29/mode/2up) "Some Observations on the Principals of Military and Air Force Law – and on Courts-Martial" ( ) by Brigadier L M Peet, page 316 Journal of the United Service Institution of India, Volume 68, 1938 "The Quashing or Non-Confirmation of a Court Martial" ( by Brigadier L M Peet, page 75 Journal of the United Service Institution of India, Volume 69, 1939. The Indian Engineers 1939-1947 by Lieut Colonel E. W. C Sandes, published 1956, is available as a pdf download ( Digital Library of India. version ( It is catalogued as The Indian Engineers (1956). History of the Indian Army ( by Brigadier Rajendra Singh, Colonel, The Grenadiers 1963 Hathi Trust Digital Library Resume - Horse And Mule Breeding Operations In India, 1880 ( Government Central Branch Press Simla. Pdf download, Digital Library of India. version ( Information about the Department of Horse-Breeding Operations under the Government of India, established March 1876. "Horse-Breeding in India" (, page 52 Horse-Breeding in England and India: and Army Horses Abroad by Sir Walter Gilbey 1906

Recommended Reading A Matter of honour : an account of the Indian Army, its officers and men. By Philip Mason (London: Cape, 1974) ( Review in FIBIS Military reading list

India’s Army by Donovan Jackson (pub 1940) ( Review in FIBIS Military reading list. Available online. A Soldier’s Story-From the Khyber Pass to the Jungles of Burma: The Memoir of a British Officer in the Indian Army 1933-1947 by John Archibald Hislop, edited by Penny Kocher 2010. See FIBIS resources above.


1. The information in the section ndian Army Followers is taken from an article by Radhika Singha, "Front Lines and Status Lines: Sepoy and Menial in the Great War 1916-1920" refer External links above, including pages 60, 86 and 88. 2. Matthew B. 3rd Skinner's Horse ( Great War Forum 30 June 2008. Retrieved 13 March 2017. 3. ShirlD Indian Army Trivia ( Great War Forum 14 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017. 4. Tracing your Asian roots on the Indian subcontinent ( by Abi Husainy (Last updated 2011-02-17) BBC 5. WW2Talk Forum thread British Indian Army records - where are they? ( by D. Fielder dated 14 April 2011. 6. Fielder, David. IAMC Records ( Rootsweb India Mailing List 21 June 2016. Retrieved 22 June 2016. 7. How to Retrieve Indian War Records (, a WW2Talk Forum post dated 2 July 2009 by 'Elven6' 8. India List Post Address for Adjutant General's Office in Delhi ( by Shirley Barbur dated 1 March 2014 9. Risaldar. Murder of the CO of the Hyderabad Lancers ( ent=2434834) Great War Forum 17 August 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2016 10. Page 328 ( East of Indus: My Memories of Old Punjab by Gurnam Singh Sidhu Brard 2007 Google Books 11. Page 145 ( East of Indus: My Memories of Old Punjab by Gurnam Singh Sidhu Brard 2007 Google Books 12. Afghan Turbans ( by najib 06. Sep, 2011 Pashto Language Blog 13. What Is The Fifty? ( by Jagdeep Singh Sahota June 25, 2015 (scroll down page). 14. PhilinYuma. ID question, Indian Army ( Victorian Wars Forum 17 June 2010. Retrieved 11 February 2016. 15. Page 123 ( Short Stories from the British Indian Army by J Francis Google Books 16. Page 129 ( One Hell of a Life: An Anglo-Indian Wallah's Memoir from the Last Decades of the Raj by Stan Blackford. Google Books 17. From Air Force to the Army- Dutta OTS ( From the handwritten diary of Abu Taher Khairul Haque (Ansari) born in Perozpur, Barisal January 1923 , see January 2000 archives, sidebar ( The Auhomias Bangladesh Online Photo Album. 18. bushfighter Indian Army Officers ( Great War Forum 25 August 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2016. 19. "Lieutenant-Colonel Seton Churchill and the financial lessons of the African campaigns, 1879-1902" ( by J Black Military History Journal Volume 14 No 1 - June 2007 South African Military History Society. ( ( link) 20. Pakistan Army till 1965 by Agha Humayun Amin ( Pakistan Army History from its initial creation by English East India Company in 1757 to 1965.

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