II. LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter discusses about vocabulary, teaching vocabulary, derivational exercise, and teaching vocabulary through derivational exercise, advantages and disadvantages of derivational exercise, theoretical assumption and hypothesis. These theoretical concepts are presented in the following points.
2.1. Review of Previous Research Derivation is one way to teach vocabulary. The researcher believes that there are some advantages of using derivation as a technique in teaching vocabulary. They assume learning derivation can help students to build students‟ vocabulary. It stimulates students to develop new words from basic word. Nopita (2012) has investigated that derivational approach can increase students‟ vocabulary achievement. In her research, she conducted a comparison study of students‟ vocabulary achievement between derivational approach and common technique. The research showed that the students‟ average score in experimental class was 14.72. While, the average increases of students in control was only 6.77. From the data she got the students‟ average score through derivation approach significantly higher than students‟ average score through common technique.
The previous research has similarity and difference with this research. The similarity is the research was conducted to investigate the using of derivational to increase the students‟ vocabulary. Besides, the difference of the previous research with this research is the previous research she used derivational approach. Then, this research used derivational exercise in teaching vocabulary. Considering the similarity and difference above, there is still one issue which has not been investigated, that is, the implementation of derivational exercise in teaching vocabulary. In this research, the researcher not only found out the improvement of students‟ vocabulary but also the problem that students face in learning vocabulary through derivational exercise. The researcher conducted this research to support and give information about derivational.
2.2. Vocabulary Vocabulary is one of the elements in a language. It should be learnt in order to master that language. Without learning vocabulary it is difficult for people to communicate each other. Hatch and Brown (1995:1) state that vocabulary is the foundation to build language plays a fundamental role in communication. It means that vocabulary is the first principle in learning language. Fromkin (1983: 135) says that knowledge means knowing the words of the language. Knowing a word involves being able to recognize the form and meaning of the word. Students must learn the vocabulary of the language if they want to be able to use language in communication. Furthermore, according to Collins (1989) the vocabulary of a language is the total number of words in it. It is very useful for the students to
master vocabulary and develop their skill. It suggests that vocabulary has important role in learning a language. River (1978: 462) says that it would be impossible to learn language without vocabulary. Because vocabulary is the foundation to learn a language, it comes first when we start learning a language. Harmer (1993:153) states that if the language structures make up the skeleton of language, than it is vocabulary that provides the vital organ. Vocabulary is a set of lexeme include a single words that may or may not have a prefix or suffix. Hornby (1989:959) claims that vocabulary is the total number of words which make up the language and a word means a sound (the written or printed symbols) forming a unit of grammar or the vocabulary of the language. Vocabulary is important subject to learn. We will not be able to communicate or express our idea without vocabulary. Wilkins in Thornbury (2002:13) says that vocabulary learning is very important. „Without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. So if the students know a lot of vocabularies, they can share their ideas easily. Learning vocabulary has a correlation with knowing a word. Thornbury (2002:3) mentions that there are two crude division of word that is content words (lexical words) and function words (grammatical words). Content words are those that carry high information load such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. The membership is unrestricted and still allow for the addition of new members. Meanwhile function words are words that mainly contribute to the grammatical sentence such as prepositions, conjunctions, determiners, and pronouns. The membership is restricted and definite.
Nation (1990:29) has divided vocabulary in the specific reference, such a word. 1. Receptive Vocabulary: Knowing a word involves being able to recognize it when it is heard (what is the sound like) or when it seen (what does it look like?) and having an expectation of what grammatical pattern the word will occurrence. This includes being able to distinguish it from word with similar form and being able to judge if the word sounds right or look right. 2. Productive Vocabulary: Knowing a word involves being able to pronounce the word, how to write and to spell it, how to use it in grammatical pattern along with the word in usually collocates with it. It also involves not using the word too often if it is typically a low frequency word and using it in a suitable situation using the word to stand for the meaning it represents and being able to think of suitable substitutes for the word if there any. Jo Ann Aeborsold and Mary Lee Field (1997:139) classified vocabulary into two terms there are: 1. Active Vocabulary refers to items the learner can use appropriately in speaking or writing and it is also called as productive vocabulary, although, in fact, it is more difficult to put into practice. It means that to use the productive vocabulary. This type is often used in speaking and writing skill. 2. Passive vocabulary refers to a language items that can be recognized and understood in the context of reading or listening and also called as receptive.
2.3. Classification of Words There are some types of vocabulary in English. According to Fries (1973: 45) classifies English words into four groups namely: 1. Function words Function words are those words, which are used as a means of expressing of grammar structure, such as article (a, an, the) auxiliary (is are, etc) and pronoun (I, you, etc).
2. Substitute words Substitute words are those words which represent not to individual things or specific action, but function as substitute for a whole from classes of words. In this group there are personal pronoun (me, you, etc), infinitive (somebody, everybody, etc) and quantity of number (each, both).
3. Grammatical distributed words Grammatical words are those are distributed in use according to grammatical matter as the presence or absence of a negative (some, any, etc) which also show usually grammatical restriction on distributions.
4. Content words Content words are they constitute the bulk of vocabulary of the language. In English, the content words are representing as noun (book, teacher, student), verb (study, read, teach), adjective (smart, happy, sad) and adverb (office, swimming pool, field).
2.4. Teaching Vocabulary Teaching vocabulary is very important because it is a foundation in learning a language. Lewis (1993) argues that vocabulary should be at the centre of language teaching. It means that vocabulary have a big influence in teaching learning process. The teacher helps the students to understand the words include the form of word, meaning or the uses of the words. In the other hand, according to Nunan (1991:142) teaching vocabulary regains an important place in the language classroom, the issues, principles and practices reviewed will become increasingly useful and significant. If students know more vocabulary, it will be easy for them to learn another aspect of English language. Teaching vocabulary is presenting a new word. Richards says (1994: 97) teachers have primary responsibility for how they teach, they may assume very different roles within their own classroom. So, the teachers should make the classroom comfortable and interesting when they give the material. Learning vocabulary is not easy. It needs a process. To make an effective process especially in the classroom, the learner should be in the effective condition of acquiring vocabulary mastery. Further, Thornbury (2002: 2) states that the condition should help learners to acquire a critical mass of words to use in both understanding and producing language. According to Nation (1990:18) when a teacher teaches a word, the teacher has to teach three things, there are: 1. The form of the words
In teaching vocabulary, the learners must know about the form of the words means how to write the words, for example: high, the word high consists of letters h-i-g-h. 2. The meaning of the words Beside the form of the words in teaching vocabulary the students must know the meaning of the words. Without knowing the meaning of the words they cannot use a language in communication. 3. The use of the words The teacher may provide the students with the real example in sentence form and provide some exercises in using the words. The statements mean that when teachers teach a word, they must teach the student how to use word, form and meaning of the word together. Besides that, the teacher should choose the appropriate technique for students in learning process become more interesting The process of teaching vocabulary needs some possible techniques. In addition Kustaryo (1988:24) defines five possible ways of vocabulary teaching: 1. Vocabulary teaching through creativity By using this technique, the teacher allows the students to decide what they want to learn. The teacher can make such technique, which enables the students to be creative in producing the vocabulary, such as showing picture, puzzle, providing key words, game etc. 2. Vocabulary teaching through contextual clues
In this technique, the teacher can use a context clue in word recognition by figuring out the meaning of a word based on the clues in the surrounding context, for example by giving the antonym, synonym etc. 3. Vocabulary teaching through translation Translation is seen as the ancient one. Here, the teacher teaches the meaning of the words through translating the words. 4. Vocabulary teaching through guessing In this case, the teacher can encourage the students to guess the word first and then consult it. To guess the right word, the students should have a good rational. 5. Vocabulary teaching through derivation This technique requires the teacher to involve the four classes of words on the basis of their position of occurrences in English sentence pattern. The teacher asks the students to derive the words, for example: develop (verb), development (noun), developmental (adjective) etc. In this case, the researcher uses derivation as the way to teach vocabulary. By using derivation the students can practice and produce new words they have learned and also they can develop one word become more than one.
2.5. Derivational Exercise Derivational is the part of morpheme. Morpheme is a minimal distinctive unit of grammar according to Crystal (1997). It can be classified into free morpheme and bound morpheme. Free morpheme can function independently as word and it can
be added with other lexemes. In the other hand bound morpheme in English are affixes including prefix and suffix and then bound morpheme can be classified as inflectional and derivational. This researcher only focused on derivational, because derivational morphology is the basic unit of word formation.
In linguist ics, derivat ion is the process of forming a new word on the basis of an existing word. Derivation stands in contrast to the process of inflection, which uses another kind of affix. Boey (1975:39) states derivational affixes are bound morphemes which generally combine with the base to change its part of speech.
Derivation, as the most common word formation process stated by Yule (2006: 57), builds new words by adding morphemes to stems. These morphemes are added to the target stem by affixation, through prefixes and suffixes. The researcher assumes that derivation is a word which adds of an affix (prefix and suffix). The word which gets an affix is often a different word class from the basic.
Derivation is the process the addition of affixes, which is prefixes and suffixes in English. It creates new words from the basic word. The basic funct ion of derivat ional processes is to make the learners to create ne w l e x e m e s . Arnoff (1976:21) claims that only nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs can be the product of word formation, and that only these form classes can be used bases in the formation of derivations. Bauer (1973:225) argues that the first part of this claim may be true, but there is plenty of evidence that minor form classes can be used as bases in established forms like downer, inness , whyness , etc.
2.5.1 Affixation Affix is an additional element placed at the beginning or end of a root, stem, or word, or in the body of a word, to modify its meaning. There are two kinds of affixes in English; those go before the roots and those after the roots. The kind of affix that occurs in front of the root is called prefix and the kind that occurs at the end of the root is called suffix. Ingo Plag (2002:20) states that derivational affixes change the part of speech of the base word derivational affixes generally combine with the base to change its part of speech.
Understanding prefixes and suffixes is very important because it is part of learning English. Learning prefix and suffix help students to know the principle of forming words and use the affixes in the context. Besides that it is a skill for learners in developing their vocabulary how prefix and suffixes change meaning and class of the word is.
2.5.2 Prefixes Prefix is added to the beginning of a word to make a new word. Quirk (1973:430) stated that prefix adds before the base form, with or without change of word class. New words are made by placing a prefix in front of a word. It is helpful to know the meanings of prefixes. A prefix is a group of letters attached to the beginning of a root or word (or even group of words) serving to modify and/or extend meaning. Prefixes generally have an easily understood meaning in and of themselves, which they apply to the root word to which they are affixed.
Following Marchand (1969), these types of words are referred to as words formed by native word-formation processes. a. Prefix unOne of the most common negative prefix is un-, which has meaning not. This prefix is added to adjective. For example: 1) Un- (Prefix) + Fair (Adjective) = Unfair (adjective) 2) Un- (Prefix) + Aware (Adjective) = Unaware (adjective)
b. Prefix inThe prefix in has meaning "not". This prefix is added to adjectives. This prefix, however, has different spellings. Sometimes it is spelled im-, il-, or ir-. For example: 1) In- (Prefix) + Secure (Adjective) = Insecure (adjective) 2) Im- (Prefix) + Moral (Adjective) = Immoral (adjective) 3) Il- (Prefix) + Legal (Adjective) = illegal (adjective) 4) Ir- (Prefix) + Resolute (Adjective) = Irresolute (adjective)
c. Prefix nonAnother common negative prefix is non-. It gives meaning “not”. Example of prefix non-: 1) Non- (Prefix) + Profit (Adjective) = Nonprofit (adjective) 2) Non- (Prefix) + Productive (Adjective) = Nonproductive (adjective)
d. Prefix antiThe prefix anti- means against, opposite, or opposing. This prefixes is added to nouns, adjectives, and adverbs. The examples are: 1) Anti- (Prefix) + Climax (Noun) = Anticlimax (noun) 2) Anti- (Prefix) + Virus (Noun) = Antivirus (noun)
e. Prefix disThe prefix dis- has meaning “not, opposite of or separate. This prefix is added to adjectives, verbs, and abstract nouns. The example of this prefix is: 1) Dis- (Prefix) + Connect (Verb) = Disconnect (verb) 2) Dis- (Prefix) + Loyal (Adjective) = Disloyal (adjective)
f. Prefix malThe prefix mal-has meaning "bad or badly or poor". This prefix is added to verbs, abstract nouns, participles, and adjectives. For example: 1) Mal- (Prefix) + Function (Noun) = Malfunction (noun) 2) Mal- (Prefix) + Practice (Noun) = Malpractice (noun)
g. Prefix misThe prefix mis- has meaning "wrong or fail". This prefix is added to verbs, abstract nouns. For example: 1) Mis- (Prefix) + Fortune (Noun) = Misfortune (noun) 2) Mis- (Prefix) + Inform (Verb) = Misinform (verb)
h. Prefix reThe prefix re- has meaning “again or back”. For example:
1) Re- (Prefix) + Organize (Verb) = Reorganize (verb) 2) Re- (Prefix) + Paint (Verb) = Repaint (verb)
i. Prefix overThe prefix over- has meaning “excessive or too much”. For example: 1) Over- (Prefix) + Act (Verb) = Overact (verb) 2) Over-(Prefix) + Confident (Adjective) = Overconfident (adjective)
j. Prefix multiThe prefix multi- has meaning “many”. Some examples are: 1) Multi- (Prefix) + Level (Adjective) = Multilevel (adjective) 2) Multi- (Prefix) + Lateral (Adjective) = Multilateral (adjective)
k. Prefix preThe prefix pre- has meaning “before”. For example: 1) Pre- (Prefix) + Election (Noun) = Pre-election
l. Prefix interThe prefix inter- has meaning “between”. For example: 2) Inter- (Prefix) + Continental (Adjective) = Intercontinental (adjective) 3) Inter- (Prefix) + Cultural (Adjective) = Intercultural (adjective)
2.5.3 Suffixes Hornby (1995) states that suffix is a letter or groups of letter added at the end of word to make another word. In other word, suffix is a group of letters attached to the end of a root or word (or even group of words) serving a grammatical
function. Most of suffixes change the class of word (part of speech) and the meaning of the word. According to Bauer (1983), suffixes can be classified into four classes of derivatives they are producing. They are suffixes forming nouns, suffixes forming verb, suffixes forming adjective, suffixes forming adverb. Some common noun-making morphemes include the following suffixes: a. Suffix anceThe suffix ance- has meaning “state or quality of”. For example: 1) Perform (Verb) + ance- (Suffix) = Performance (noun) 2) Appear (Verb) + ance- (Suffix) = Appearance (noun)
b. Suffix er- , orThe suffix er- has meaning “one who”. For example: 1) Drive (Verb) + er- (Suffix) = Driver (noun) 2) Read (Verb) + er- (Suffix) = Reader (noun) 3) Protect (Verb) + or- (Suffix) = Protector (noun)
c. Suffix mentThe suffix ment- has meaning “condition of”. For example: 1) Govern (Verb) + ment- (Suffix) = Government (noun) 2) Equip (Verb) + ment- (Suffix) = Equipment (noun)
d. Suffix tionThe suffix tion- has meaning “state of being”. For example: 1) Communicate (Verb) + tion- (Suffix) = Communication (noun) 2) Reform (Verb) + tion- (Suffix) = Reformation (noun)
e. Suffix orThe suffix or- has meaning “one who”. For example: 1) Protect (Verb) + or- (Suffix) = Protector (noun) 2) Visit ( Verb) + or- (Suffix) = Visitor (noun)
f. Suffix nessThe suffix ness- changes adjective into noun. For example: 1) Sad (Adjective) + ness- (Suffix) = Sadness (noun) 2) Dark ( Adjective) + ness- (Suffix) = Darkness (noun)
g. Suffix ceThe suffix ce- changes adjective into noun. For example: 1) Patient (Adjective) + ce- (Suffix) = Patience (noun) 2) Important (Adjective) + ce- (Suffix) = Importance (noun)
h. Suffix fulThe suffix ate- has meaning “full of”. For example: 1) Power (Noun) + ful- (Suffix) = Powerful (adjective) 2) Care (Noun) + ful- (Suffix) = Careful (adjective)
i. Suffix alThe suffix al- changes noun into adjective. For example: 1) Spirit (Noun) + al- (Suffix) = Spiritual (adjective) 2) Origin (Noun) + al- (Suffix) = Original (adjective)
j. Suffix ousThe suffix ous- has meaning “full of”. For example:
1) Mystery (Noun) + ous- (Suffix) = Mysterious (adjective) 2) Victory (Noun) +ous- (Suffix) =Victorious (adjective)
k. Suffix iveThe suffix ive- has meaning “tending to”. For example: 1) Select (Verb) + ive- (Suffix) = Selective (adjective) 2) Create (Verb) + ive- (Suffix) = Creative (adjective)
l. Suffix ableThe suffix able- has meaning “being able”. For example: 1) Move (Verb) + able- (Suffix) = Moveable (adjective) 2) Manage (Verb) + able- (Suffix) = Manageable (adjective)
m. Suffix lyThe suffix ly- is which changes adjective to adverb. For example: 1) Quick (Adjective) + ly- (Suffix) = Quickly (adverb) 2) Useful (Adjective) + ly- (Suffix) = Usefully (adverb)
2.6. Procedures of Teaching Vocabulary through Derivational Exercise In this case, the researcher conducted the teaching vocabulary through derivational exercise. The researcher expected the students could be creative in building a word. Therefore, the procedures of teaching vocabulary through derivational exercise are as follow: a. Pre-activities: 1.
The teacher greets the students.
The teacher checks the attendance list.
The teacher tells the material will be learned.
b. While activities: 1.
The teacher gives a text to the students.
The teacher asks the students to read the text first.
The teacher prepares the derivation list and explains to the students.
The teacher gives some example of using derivation in developing words.
By considering the meaning, the teacher asks the students to try possible derivate forms and put the words in the context.
From the text above the students list some words in the text.
The students try to develop the words that they have listed.
The students do the exercise.
c. Post activities: 12. At the end of meeting, the teacher together with students evaluates the material that has been learned. 13. The teacher closes the meeting
2.7. Advantages and Disadvantages Derivational exercises can give any advantages and disadvantages in teaching vocabulary. Cited from Nopita (2012) in her paper those of them as a following: a. The Strengths of Derivational Exercise
By using derivational exercise students are able to know the differences between verb, noun, adjective and adverb.
By using derivational exercise students are able to know the kind of affixes (prefix and suffix).
By using derivational exercise students are able to know the kind of prefixes and suffixes in using content word in term of verb, noun, adjective and adverb.
Bu using derivational exercise student can develop one word become more than words.
b. The Weakness of Derivational Exercise
There are so many kinds of prefix and suffix which is needed to be learnt, so it makes students difficult to remember it.
There are different prefix and suffix for each word, so it makes students become confuse to identify word which included in verb and adverb.
2.8. Theoretical Assumption Considering the concept mention above, the teacher choose an appropriate way of teaching. The teacher should be able to encourage the students to learn more by deciding which way was good for the student especially in teaching vocabulary. One of the ways for the students to know the vocabulary is learning derivation. The use of derivational exercise is one of most common ways in which new words are created. Derivation is effectively to improve students‟ vocabulary, because the
material is not too difficult for the students since they have known the base word. It will be easier for the students to develop new words. Indeed, the researcher assumes that derivational exercises can help students to improve students‟ vocabulary.
2.9. Hypothesis Based on the frame of theory and theoretical assumption mention above, the hypothesis can be formulated as follow: 1. There is significant difference of students‟ vocabulary achievement after being taught through derivational exercise at SMA YP UNILA. 2. Derivational exercises can improve students‟ vocabulary achievement of students‟ vocabulary achievement after being taught through derivational exercise at SMA YP UNILA. Those are the describing in this chapter, from describing of concept of vocabulary, teaching vocabulary, and derivational exercise, teaching vocabulary through derivational exercise, theoretical assumption and hypothesis.