Efficient Layout Design of CMOS Full Subtractor - International Journal

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Int. Journal of Electrical & Electronics Engg.

Vol. 2, Spl. Issue 1 (2015)

e-ISSN: 1694-2310 | p-ISSN: 1694-2426

Efficient Layout Design of CMOS Full Subtractor Harmeet Singh ME Scholar, Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering National Institute of Technical Teachers Training & Research, Chandigarh, India [email protected]

Abstract—Arithmetic circuits and for that matter Combinational circuit design is very important part of VLSI design process. The pertinent issues involved are layout area and power consumption. The main aim of this paper is to design a full subtractor using 90 nm technology. The proposed full subtractor has been designed and simulated using DSCH 3.1 auto-generated design and using Microwind 3.1 simulation software for semi-custom design. The results obtained show that the semi-custom design is area efficient than the auto-generated design. On the other hand, power consumption in the later is more as compared to the autogenerated design.

SUBTRACTOR Half-Subtractor A half subtractor is a circuit using combinational design principles that performs a subtraction between two bits as shown in Fig.1. The circuit performs its function using two inputs A, B viz. minuend, subtrahend and two outputs, one bit for result of subtraction viz. Diff , and an output borrow Bout [9].

Keywords—Automatic,Full Subtractor, Semi-Custom, VLSI

INTRODUCTION Advances in CMOS technology have led to a invigorated interest in the development and methods of basic functional units for digital systems. Increased usage of the battery-operated portable devices, like cellular phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and notebooks demand VLSI(Very Large Scale Integration) is the technology, and ULSI i.e. Ultra Large-Scale Integration designs with an improved power-delay characteristics. Full subtractors/adders, being one of the most fundamental building block of all the aforementioned circuit applications, remain a key focus domain of the researchers over the years [1], [2]. Due to this, technology scaling and energy-efficiency of functional units is of increasing importance to system designers. VLSI is the technology for creating an integrated circuit by combining millions of transistors in a single Integrated Circuit. The microprocessors used in DSP operations e.g. in image processing applications. Before the introduction of VLSI technology, most ICs had a limited functionality. ICs have three key advantages over digital circuits viz. size, power consumption and speed. This leads to layout design and its simulation so as to get very near to an implementable circuit design on silicon wafer. So far several technologies have been used to design full subtractor cell to improve area and power consumption [4]-[8]. Design of full subtractor by using conventional CMOS design style has been presented. To study the performance of reduced transistor circuit count design, a transistor level design of CMOS full subtractor containing a total of 17 PMOS and 17 NMOS transistors has been implemented. It is required to adjust the transistor dimensions individually to get optimized time domain performance of the circuit. Here, all NMOS and PMOS transistors used in this circuit have the same W/L ratio. This leads to a semi-custom design.

NITTTR, Chandigarh

EDIT -2015

Fig. 1 Logic Diagram of conventional Half Subtractor Full Subtractor 1- bit full Subtractor is a circuit based upon combining two half-subtractors that performs subtraction between two binary bits. This circuit performs its function using three inputs keeping account of a previous borrow and two outputs. The three inputs are A, B and Bin and Boout and Diff are two outputs[9]. Logic diagram of 1-bit full Subtractor has been shown in Fig.2. The corresponding Truth Table is given in Table 1.

Fig. 2 Logic Diagram of conventional 1 bit Full Subtractor

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Int. Journal of Electrical & Electronics Engg.

Vol. 2, Spl. Issue 1 (2015)

e-ISSN: 1694-2310 | p-ISSN: 1694-2426

Table 1:

From the Truth Table,we find the logical expressions for the full subtractor as follows: Bout = Bin (A’B’ + AB) + A’B Diff= A ⊕ B ⊕ Bin In subtraction process on two bits, a minuend and a subtrahend, and also takes into consideration whether a 1 has been borrowed by the previous adjacent lower minuend bit or not. As a result, there are three bits to be handled at the input of a Full-Subtractor, namely the two bits to be subtracted and a borrow bit designated as Bin. There are two outputs, namely the Difference output Diff and the Borrow output Bout. The Borrow output bit tells whether the minuend bit needs to borrow a 1 from the next possible higher minuend bit.

III. LAYOUT DESIGN SIMULATION In first method the schematic of full subtractor using two half subtractors is designed using DSCH. Using Microwind software auto-generated layout of fullsubtractor is created, and then it is simulated for analog simulation. In the present design, 90 nm foundary is selected. Figure 3 shows the auto-generated layout. The layout is checked for DRC so that the errors if any are removed, and then it is simulated for Timing Waveforms. Generated waveforms are verified for logical /functional correctness. Also Power and Surface Area are measured by the simulation results[10]. Figure 4 shows the timing diagram of auto-generated layout.

Fig 4. Analog Simulation of auto-generated FS Here, the Power consumption is 1.295 µW. Area required for this particular layout is 1810.3 µm2. In the second approach i.e. semi-custom approach, we prepare layout using manual approach; an xor design using lesser number of transistors is used but the designer uses lambda rules as a whole. Figure 5 shows the layout thus generated.

Fig. 5. Manually designed Layout of FS The semi-custom layout is checked for DRC so that errors are removed. The circuit is simulated and timing waveforms are generated. The timing waveforms are verified using Truth Table for logical correctness. Fig. 6 shows the results of this simulation.

Fig. 6 Analog Simulation of Semi-custom FS Fig. 3. Manually designed Layout of XOR/FS

Here, the Power consumption is 1517.7 mW. Area required for this particular layout is 393.6 µm2. In the second approach i.e. Semicustom approach, we prepare layout using manual approach; an xor design using lesser number of transistors is used but the designer uses lambda rules as a whole. Figure 6 shows the layout thus generated. IV. PERFORMANCE The performance of proposed full subtractor layout is compared with semicustom approach when the auto

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NITTTR, Chandigarh

EDIT-2015

Int. Journal of Electrical & Electronics Engg.

Vol. 2, Spl. Issue 1 (2015)

generated design is the reference. The performance parameters are area and power. From the results obtained, a comparative study can be done between three design approaches Table II shows the comparative analysis. Performance parameters S.No.

1

Design method

Area(µm2)

Power(µW)

Autogenerated

2054.3

393.2

Semi-custom

16.683

1517.7

2

From the above table, we observe that there is a reduction of 99% in area with autogenerated layout. Simultaneously there is 74% increase in area with the semicustom design approach. IV. CONCLUSIONS From the above analysis it is clear that the semicustom design is significantly more efficient in terms of area. So this design can be implemented where area reduction is the main consideration . A large number of application abound where this is required as in portable devices like smart phones, remote controls , tablets and so on. There is some degradation in logic levels during simulation which shall be worked upon and improved upon in the continuing research effort, by the authors,in this particular area.

NITTTR, Chandigarh

EDIT -2015

e-ISSN: 1694-2310 | p-ISSN: 1694-2426

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to thank Director, National Institute of Technical Teachers Training & Research, Chandigarh, India and Director, Sunrise Group of Engineering and Technology for their constant inspiration and support throughout Research Work. REFERENCES [1] R. Verma, R. Mehra,”CMOS Based Design Simulation of Adder/Subtractor using Different Foundaries”, National Conference on Electronics and Communication Engineering (RACE).pp. 1-7, 2014 [2] A. Sharma, R. Singh, R. Mehra,” Low Power TG Full Adder Design using CMOS Nano Technology”,2nd International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Grid Computing, 2013 [3] A. Sharma, R. Mehta, ”Area and Power Efficient CMOS Adder Design by Hybridizing PTL and GDI Technique”. International Journal of Computer Applications.Vol 66(4). pp. 15-22, 2013 [4] P. C. Gupta, R. Mehta, ”Design of 8 bit ALU using Microwind 3.1”.International Journal of Advanced Engineering & Research(IJAERT),2014 [5] P. Sharma, A. Sharma, ”Design of and Analysis of Power Efficient PTL Half Subtractor using 120nm Technology”, International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology”(IJCTT), Vol. 7, No. 4, pp 207-213, January 2014. [6] C. H. Chang, J. Gu, and M. Zhang “A Review of 0.18_m Full Adder Performances for Tree Structured Arithmetic Circuits,” IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, Volume: 13, no: 6, pp. 686 – 695, 2005. [7] S. Goel, A. Kumar, M. A. Bayouni, “Design of Robust, EnergyEfficient Full Adders for Deep-Submicrometer Design Using HybridCMOS Logic Style,” IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, Vol. 14, No. 12, pp. 1309-1321,2006. [8] M Agarwal, A Agarwal, R Mehra 4-Input Decimal Adder Using 90nm CMOS Technology IOSR Journal of Engineering 3 (5), pp. 48-51, 2013 [9] M. M. Mano, M. D. Clietti, “Digital Design, 4 th ed. Delhi, India: Pearson Education , , pp.140-144, 2008. [10] N. H. E. Weste, D. Harris, and A. Banerjee, CMOS VLSI Design : A Circuits and Systems Perspective, 3rd ed. Delhi, India: Pearson Education, pp. 14-17,2006.

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Efficient Layout Design of CMOS Full Subtractor - International Journal

Int. Journal of Electrical & Electronics Engg. Vol. 2, Spl. Issue 1 (2015) e-ISSN: 1694-2310 | p-ISSN: 1694-2426 Efficient Layout Design of CMOS Fu...

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