Design and Analysis of Low-Power Subtractor Circuits - IJARCET

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology (IJARCET) Volume 3, Issue 12, December 2014

Design and Analysis of Low-Power Subtractor Circuits using P-XOR Logic Gates with Sleep Approach Ms. Varsha Rani Tamrakar, Mr. Alok Kumar 

Abstract— In this paper we have presented the design of a low-power full subtractor circuit using P-XOR/ G-XNOR pass transistors logic gates. The main aim of designing the low power full subtractor circuit is the increasing circuit’s complexity and demand of portable devices. Full subtractor circuit is one of the main components of most of the arithmetic and logic circuits. Full subtractor circuit is implemented using one or more XOR/ XNOR gates which consume the large part of the energy. The main objective of the work is to reduce the power of the circuit either by reducing the number of XOR/ XNOR gate or by using P-XOR/ G-XNOR logic gates which consumes less power in comparison with the conventional XOR/ XNOR gates.

The interests in low power chips and systems are driven by both business and technical needs. The industry for low power consumer electronic products is booming with a rapidly expanding market. At the same time, current generations of semiconductor processing technologies present more rigorous requirements to the power distribution of digital chips due to increased device density, speed and complexity. The conventional full subtractor circuit requires 38 transistors and conventional half subtractor circuit requires 16 transistors for its designing as shown in the figure. The main aim of this paper is to reduce the area and the power dissipation of these circuits using different methods. Vdd

Key-words: Arithmetic and Logic circuits, Conventional XOR/ XNOR gates, Full subtractor, Low power, Powerless (P)-XOR/ Groundless (G)-XNOR gates. I. INTRODUCTION

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A‘

B

A

B‘ BORROW

In the past, the main concern for the designers of the VLSI circuits was the area, performance and reliability of the design. But during the recent years, as the demand for the portable devices have gained importance, the main concern for the designers is the power, comparable to the area and speed considerations. The low power VLSI designs are of much interest in the recent years, concerning the demand for long battery life in portable devices and high heat removal in non-portable devices. The problem for low power VLSI design can be broadly classified into two major categories: Analysis and Optimization. Analysis is concerned to be the accurate estimation of the power or energy dissipation during the different designing phase of the circuit. Analysis techniques differ in their accuracy and efficiency. The accuracy of analysis depends on information available to design a particular design. Optimization is the process of generating the best design, given an optimization goal, without violating design specifications.

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DIFFERENCE

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B

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Figure 1: Conventional Half Subtractor

Ms. Varsha Rani Tamrakar, Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, SSCET, Bhilai., Durg, India, Mr. Alok Kumar, Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, SSCET, Bhilai., Durg, India,

ISSN: 2278 – 1323

All Rights Reserved © 2014 IJARCET

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology (IJARCET) Volume 3, Issue 12, December 2014 Vdd

A’

B A’

A’

A’

A

A

B

B’ B



C. Dynamic Power Dynamic power is the powers required to charge and discharge the load capacitances when transistors switch. The formula for dynamic power is given by

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B

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C

where f is the clock frequency and activity factor. Dout

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B

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C’

is the node transition

D. Short-Circuit Power Dissipation When transistors switch, both nMOS and pMOS networks may be momentarily on at once. This leads to a blip of short circuit current. The short circuit power is given by: Pshort-circuit = Imean.VDD

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Figure 2: Conventional Full Subtractor

Where Imean is average short-circuit current. For a symmetric inverter.

I. EASE OF USE The development of digital integrated circuits is challenged by higher power consumption. The combination of higher clock speeds, greater functional integration, and smaller process geometries has contributed to considerable growth in power density. Scaling helps to increase speed and frequency of operation and hence higher performance. Leakage power has become a serious concern in nanometer CMOS technologies. Nowadays, leakage power has become a progressively more important issue in processor hardware and software design. A. Power Dissipation Power is defined as the rate at which the energy is transferred or exchanged in the circuit. Power dissipation in the circuit is defined as the rate at which the energy is taken from source and is converted to heat. Advances in CMOS fabrication technology double the number of transistor per chip every two years and double the operating frequency every three years. Consequently, the power dissipation per unit area grows, increasing the chip temperature. This excessive temperature reduces the reliability and lifetime of the circuit. Hence, large cooling device and expensive packaging are required to dissipate the extra heat. B. Sources of Power Dissipation For the most recent CMOS feature sizes, leakage power dissipation has become an overriding concern for VLSI circuit designers. International technology roadmap for semiconductors (ITRS) reports that leakage power dissipation may come to dominate total power consumption. There are three sources of power dissipation in CMOS digital circuits: dynamic power, short circuit power and leakage power. Formerly, the dynamic power was dominant and the other two parts were negligible. But leakage power is becoming more and more significant as the CMOS technology goes into the deep submicron scale. Now, all three are important and leakage power is beginning to dominate.

E. Leakage Power Leakage power, also called static power, is due to the off-state current of a transistor when it is off. Suppose that there are N transistors in a circuit, and Ioffi is the off-state current of the ith transistor. Then, the total leakage power of the circuit can be expressed in the following formula: Pleakage = VDD∑i=1N Ioffi

II. NEED OF LOW-POWER FULL SUBTRACTOR Basic building blocks of most of the arithmetic and logic circuits are formed by XOR-XNOR gates. Full subtractors are the basic block of many circuits. Therefore reducing power consumption in full subtractor is very important in low power circuits. One of the most power consuming modules in full subtractor is XOR/XNOR circuit. The proposed logic approaches use one XOR or XNOR gate to implement a full subtractor. A full subtractor is one of the essential components in digital circuit design; many improvements have been made to reduce the architecture of a full subtractor. The main aim of this is to reduce the power dissipation and area by reducing the number of transistors. In this, a novel design for the realization of full subtractor circuit is being proposed with significant area and power savings. One approach based on XOR-XNOR design full subtractor circuit in a single unit. Objective of this work is to investigate the power, delay and operational speed of the low voltage full subtractor cells in different CMOS logic styles. III. TECHNIQUES FOR DESING LOW-POWER FULL SUBTRACTOR The conventional full subtractor circuit has large area, large delay and higher power dissipation due to large number of transistors, as the conventional XOR gates consists of large number of transistors. The algebraic expressions for XOR are as follows: 4363

ISSN: 2278 – 1323

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology (IJARCET) Volume 3, Issue 12, December 2014

The CMOS implementation for the conventional XOR gate is a follows:

Figure 5: P-XOR Gate

Figure 3: Conventional XOR Gate The XNOR gate with inputs A and B implements the logical expression

The CMOS implementation for XNOR gate is:

Figure 6: G-XNOR Gate The P-XOR and G-XNOR consumes less power than other design because it has no power supply (VDD) or ground (VSS) connection. These circuits are unable to function properly at low supply voltage due to threshold loss at the output node and displayed poor delay characteristics. IV. PREVIOUS WORKS DONE The previous works done up to date is the designing of low-power full adder circuits with different techniques and are compared with different structures.

Figure 4: Conventional XNOR Gate The P-XOR and G-XNOR consumes less power than other design because it has no power supply (VDD) or ground (VSS) connection. The Pass-Transistor Logic (PTL) is a better way to implement circuits designed for low power applications. The advantage of PTL is that only one PTL network (either NMOS or PMOS) is sufficient to perform the logic operation, which results in smaller number of transistors and smaller input loads, especially when NMOS network is used. Moreover, VDD-to-GND paths, which may lead to short-circuit energy dissipation, are eliminated.

ISSN: 2278 – 1323

[2] proposed a technique to build a total of 41 new 10-transistors full adders using novel XOR and XNOR gates in combination with the existing ones. They have done over 10,000 HSPICE simulation runs of all the different adders in different input patterns, frequencies and load capacitances. Almost all those new adders consume less power in high frequencies, while three new adders consistently consume on average 10% less power and have higher speed compared with the previous 10-transistor full adder and the conventional 28-transistor CMOS adder. One drawback of the new adders is the threshold voltage loss of the pass transistors. Based on the extensive simulations, it was concluded that the three new adders consumes on average 10% less power and have 90% higher speed compared to the previous 10-transistor adder. [3] presented a performance analysis and evaluation of six different 1-bit full adder topologies in deep subthreshold operation. The cells are characterized with respect to delay, power consumption, driving capability, Power Delay product (PDP), Energy Delay Product (EDP) and maximum operating frequency. Both traditional CMOS, a specialized Low Power cell and minority-3 based Full Adders are simulated and characterized. PDPs of less than 200aJ are reported, for FA cells operating at frequencies around 2 MHz, for VDD = 200 mV, dissipating less than 100 nW of average power.

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology (IJARCET) Volume 3, Issue 12, December 2014 [4] proposed a novel approach based on XOR/XNOR design full adder circuits in a single unit was proposed. The objective of their work was to investigate the power, delay and power delay product of the low voltage full adder cells in different CMOS logic styles. Simulation results illustrate the superiority of the proposed adder circuit against the conventional CMOS, Hybrid, Bridge, XOR/XNOR adder circuits in terms of power, delay, PDP. The bridge style enjoys a high degree of regularity, higher density than conventional CMOS design style as well as lower power consumption by using some transistors named bridge transistors. Simulation result reveal that the proposed circuit exhibits lower PDP and is faster compared with the available 1-bit full adder circuits.

logic gates, sleep approach and also designed using the half subtractor circuit to analyze it for the better outcome and better performance of the conventional Full Subtractor circuit which is one of the main component of the Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) of all the electronic devices. Vdd

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V.

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METHODOLOGY

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The Methodology used in designing the project will be accomplished in two parts: A’

1. Designing and analysing of Half Subtractor Circuit.

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B

A

B

A’

2. Designing and analysing of Full Subtractor Circuit. A. DESINGING OF THE HALF SUBTRACTOR CIRCUIT The conventional Half Subtractor Circuit will be designed using the sleep approach and will be compared with the conventional Half Subtractor for the result.

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Figure 8: Conventional Full Subtractor

Later, the circuit will be re-designed using the P-XOR Logic Gate and with the Sleep approach to get the better result than before.

VI. RESULT AND DISSCUSSION

The Conventional Half Subtractor which has to be analyzed is shown below:

A. HALF SUBTRACTOR The conventional Half Subtractor circuit is designed using the Sleep Approach, P-XOR Logic Gate and with the Sleep techniques, the following result is obtained.

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A

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DIFFERENCE

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A A

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B

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Figure 7: Conventional Half Subtractor B. DESIGNING AND ANALYSING FULL SUBTRACTORCIRCUIT The process for designing the Full Subtractor circuit is exactly the same as that of the Half Subtractor circuit. The only difference in the analysis of the Full Subtractor circuit is that, the Full subtractor will be designed using P-XOR/G-XNOR

Figure 9: Result for Half Subtractor B. FULL SUBTRACTOR The Full Subtractor circuit is also one of the main components of most of the electronic devices whose performance has also to be improved. Using the same methods used in analyzing the Half Subtractor is also implemented in the Full Subtractor and the following result is obtained.

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology (IJARCET) Volume 3, Issue 12, December 2014

S. N o.

Methods Implement ed

1

Conventio nal using Sleep Approach

2

Figure 10: Result for Full Subtractor VII. CONCLUSION From the above results the following results have been drawn, which show that the Conventional Half Subtractor and the Conventional Full Subtractor Circuits can be implemented using the above techniques for the better performance of the circuits.

S. N o.

1

2

3

Methods Impleme nted

Conclusions with respect to Conventional Half Subtractor Num ber of Percentage Elem Nod Trans Reduction ents es istors in Power (19) (12) used Dissipation (16)

Conventi onal using Sleep Approac h Low-Pow er using P-XOR Logic Gates Low-Pow er using P-XOR Gates and Sleep Approac h

21

14

18

18.92%

13

9

10

45.71%

3

4

5

Conclusion with respect to Conventional Full Subtractor Percentag Number e Elemen Nod of Reduction ts es Transisto in Power (42) (27) rs used Dissipatio (38) n

Low-Powe r Full Subtractor using P-XOR Logic Gate Low-Powe r Full Subtractor using Half Subtractor s using P-XOR Logic Gate Low-Powe r Full Subtractor using P-XOR Logic Gates and Sleep Approach Low-Powe r Full Subtractor using P-XOR Logic Gate Half Subtractor and Sleep Approach

44

29

40

27.09%

26

16

22

25.86%

30

18

26

25.08%

32

20

28

50.85%

28

18

24

51.26%

Table 2: Conclusion for Full Subtractor REFERENCES [1] Hung Tieu Bui, Yuke Wang and Yingtao Jiang, Members, IEEE,

15

11

12

62.15%

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Sumeer Goel, Mohamed A. Elgamel and Magdy A. Bayoumi. Center for Advanced Computer Studies, University of Louisiana at Lafayette. IEEE transaction, 2003.

ISSN: 2278 – 1323

―NOVEL DESIGN

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology (IJARCET) Volume 3, Issue 12, December 2014 METHODOLOGY FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE XOR-XNOR

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[9]

M.Hosseinghadiry, H. Mohammadi, M.Nadisenejani, 2009 ,

Ms. Varsha Rani Tamrakar M.E Scholar, Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, SSCET, Bhilai, Durg, C.G., India. Mr. Alok Kumar Tamrakar Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, SSCET, Bhilai, Durg, C.G., India. Post Graduate from MNNIT, Allahabad, India.

―TWO NEW LOW POWER HIGH PERFORMANCE FULL

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Design and Analysis of Low-Power Subtractor Circuits - IJARCET

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