Culinary Tourism for Young Adult Travellers and its connection to

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Culinary Tourism for Young Adult Travellers and its connection to Destination Management Bachelor Thesis for Obtaining the Degree Bachelor of Business Administration Tourism and Hospitality Management

Submitted to Ms Bozana Zekan

Sabrina Redl 1011564

Vienna, 31 May 2013

Affidavit I hereby affirm that this Bachelor’s Thesis represents my own written work and that I have used no sources and aids other than those indicated. All passages quoted from publications or paraphrased from these sources are properly cited and attributed. The thesis was not submitted in the same or in a substantially similar version, not even partially, to another examination board and was not published elsewhere.

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Acknowledgments First I would like to thank my aunt Eveline and uncle Karl for giving me the opportunity to study at MODUL University. Their love and support enabled me to travel around the world and to discover my passion for travelling and learning about new cultures. Next, I would like to thank my parents and grandma for their endless patience, love and support in every situation of my life. My heartfelt thanks go to Mr Mark Shutter who has not only proof read my thesis but who told me every single day to not stop believing in me. This thesis would not have been completed without the help of all the respondents who filled out my questionnaire, I am very thankful for their help. My thanks are outstanding for Ms Bozana Zekan who has been a supportive supervisor and I am more than grateful for all her advises.

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Abstract The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to identify if young tourists would be a potential market segment for culinary tourism, second if destination management organization should target young tourists as well regarding culinary tourism. Today’s research focuses on establishing an official definition of culinary tourism and culinary tourists, as the current absence of agreement leads to misleading information and not comparable studies. Furthermore, destinations slowly recognize the benefits of culinary tourism and research is conducted regarding consumer behaviour, marketing strategies, branding and creating partnerships between the government, the tourism industry and the culinary tourism products. This paper will highlight the key findings of the study regarding the travel profile of young tourists, the importance of local food and beverages during a holiday, the respondents’ likeliness to participate in culinary tourism activities and if food and beverages are a motive for travelling. To achieve the aim of this study, the author conducted an online survey where a sample of 196 young respondents provided data for an analysis. The findings are compared to previous studies and to the general literature. The main results of the study demonstrate the high interest of the respondents in consuming local food and beverages during their holiday as well as the strong willingness of the respondents in participating in culinary tourism activities.

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Table of Contents 1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..9 2 Literature Review…………………………………………………………………………………………………11 2.1 Food and tourism - what is culinary tourism all about?........................................11 2.2 Culinary tourism as a travel motivation - who is a culinary tourist?.....................16 2.3 Tourism and its connection to destination management and marketing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….23 2.4 Benefits and impacts of culinary tourism………………………………………………………….29 2.5 Slow Food movement and its connection to culinary tourism…………………………..31 2.6 Young adults’ travel behavior………………………………………………………………………..….33 3 Methods………………………………………………………………………………………………………………43 3.1 Surveys……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..43 3.2 Development of Questionnaire…………………………………………………………………………49 3.3 Data Collection Process…………………………………………………………………………………….50 4 Findings……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….51 4.1 Demographic profile…………………………………………………………………………………………51 4.2 Travel profile…………………………………………………………………………………………………….52 4.3 Importance of local food and beverages……………………………………………………………59 4.4 Culinary tourism activities as holiday activities………………………………………………….62 4.5 Food as a motive for travelling………………………………………………………………………….64 5 Conclusion and Recommendations………………………………………………………………………65

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Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………………………………68 Appendices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………72

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List of Tables Table 1: Demographic profile of respondents…………………………………………………………52 Table 2: Number of holidays taken during the last year by all respondents…………….53 Table 3: Number of holidays taken during the last year by all employed respondents……………………………………………………………………………………………………………54 Table 4: Number of holidays taken during the last year by all student respondents.54 Table 5: Type of information source used by all respondents…………………………………55 Table 6: Information source used grouped by respondents age……………………………..55 Table 7: Type of accommodation respondents stayed in on their last holiday………..56 Table 8: Accommodation chosen by employed respondents on their last holiday….57 Table 9: Accommodation chosen by student respondents on their last holiday………57 Table 10: Average of money spent during the last holiday and particular for food and beverages……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….58 Table 11: Percentage of the consumed food and beverages which the respondents would state as typical for the destination……………………………………………………………….62 Table 12: Interest in trying the local food and beverages compared to percentage of the local food and beverages consumed by the respondents………………………………….62 Table 13: Percentages of respondents opinion in participating in culinary tourism activities…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………64

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List of Figures Figure 1: Food tourism as special interest tourism…………………………….……………………15 Figure 2: Possible themes of the culinary tourist…………………………………………………….21 Figure 3: Marketing of cuisines in Canada……………………………………………………………….28 Figure 4: Classification of survey techniques…………………………………………………………44

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1

Introduction

Since the beginning of the 21st century various changes took place in respect to travel motivations. The behavior of tourists has changed and nowadays holidays become shorter but more frequent. More and more new destinations and trends are developing to satisfy this new preference of tourism (Lopez-Guzman et al. 2009). Food and beverages have always played a major role in the tourism product, although they were mainly seen as a supply to the tourists via hotels, restaurants and resorts. In recent years the meaning of food and beverages has changed (Hall 2004). As Hall (2004, p.2) wrote, “Food and wine mean more than just eating and drinking.” More recently food and beverages in connection with tourism have been acknowledged as an important subject of research and study. Even more, they are now seen as a part of the character and culture of a destination. Tourists can experience this in various ways such as visiting local restaurants, gourmet fairs or festivals, markets, cooking classes, gourmet dining, guided tours of food and beverage produces and many others (Hall and Sharples 2003). However, this field of study is still developing and Hall and Sharples (2003) underline the shortage of research into food tourism. This makes it difficult to draw the demographic indicators of food tourists. Furthermore, he believes the information that exists is trivial. Nevertheless, single demographic profiles of independent studies do exist (Dreyer, 2010). Culinary tourism is an essential feature of local tourism advertisement for a destination. It promises an element of regional agricultural and economic growth and a differentiated component to a rival destination market. Food and beverages do not only get more attention from researchers and destinations, but media also focuses more heavily on this topic. Specific magazines such as the Gourmet Traveler, Food & Travel, Cuisine, radio shows, internet platforms and various food and lifestyle channels on TV focus solely on food and beverages. One can say that this reflects the shifting way of living and the importance certain products and services have as a status symbol. The task as a destination is to encourage such lifestyle and to identify the relevance of food and beverages in terms of quality, originality, taste, 9

representation and experience. Now it is about how and why we eat as this shows who we are, our society and culture we live in and how and why we travel (Hall and Sharples 2003). The research gap that has been identified by the author is the relationship between young people and their awareness of culinary tourism. Therefore an online questionnaire will be conducted which will be sent out to the students of Modul University Vienna and be circulated on various social media sites. The key variables identified so far are; travel motivation, personal understanding of culinary tourism; previous experience with culinary tourism, interest and awareness of local cuisines and products during their holiday and willingness to visit a destination for a specific product, cuisine or beverage. The received data will be analyzed and results will be demonstrated by means of charts and graphs. In this context, the aim of this thesis is to provide an understanding of how to make culinary tourism more attractive and popular to young people and how the image and marketing of culinary tourism would need to change in order to attract this particular segment. The author will also focus on what young people understand by culinary tourism and the role food and beverages play during their holidays. Following this introduction an outline of literature composed in the topic of culinary tourism is provided to support the study. The aims for this thesis are to define culinary tourism and discuss the different varieties that exist and what the travel motivations and expectations of culinary tourists are. Secondly, the author will focus on destinations which already use culinary tourism. This will go on to explain the experiences and difficulties they faced in the past as well as how culinary tourism is connected to destination management and marketing. The author will look into the slow food movement and its connection to culinary tourism. Finally the author will research the travel behavior of young adults.

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2 Literature Review 2.1 Food and tourism - what is culinary tourism all about? To travel with the interest and motivation in food has many names in the tourism field. The most common name is food tourism, culinary tourism, cuisine tourism, gourmet tourism, food and wine tourism, food and beverage tourism, rural tourism, cuisine travel, urban tourism, gastronomy tourism, and taste tourism, which all include the idea of travelling to experience and taste food products (Henderson 2004 cited Smith 2007). Regarding the definition of food tourism there are at least as many different versions existing as there are different names. Ignatov and Smith (2006, p.238 cited Mason & O’Mahony 2007) defined culinary tourism as “tourism trips during which the purchase or consumption of regional food (including beverages), or the observation and study of food production (from agriculture to cooking schools) represent a significant motivation or activity…culinary tourism concerns the self-aware and conscious interest in experiencing a destination through its foods." This definition allows one to look at the culinary tourism from a broader perspective. It states that foods express the variety and distinction of a destination and that culinary tourism is the deliberate act of experiencing the region through its food and beverage. Moreover, it mentions the significance of food production and consumption and so the diversity of places where culinary products can be purchased and experienced (Mason & O’Mahony 2007). Furthermore, Murray reported (2011, p.3) that the city of Ontario developed a strategy and action plan in 2005 regarding culinary tourism and defined culinary tourism in the following three terms: •

Travel that includes the appreciation and consumption of local/regional foods;



Travel for the primary purpose of experiencing and enjoying food and beverages or to attend culinary-specific activities such as cooking schools, visiting a food or beverage production/processing site, a farmer’s market or a taste trail; 11



Unique dining and beverage experience.

The history of serving and providing food started a long time ago when only a few people had the privilege to travel and stayed in taverns and inns which just served basic food. Mennell et al. (1992 cited Telfer & Hashimoto 2003) argued that these inns and taverns were the start of the commercial hospitality and the development of the eating out society. Much has changed since then and our society today is characterized by modern agrarian techniques, export, import, supermarkets, ready meals, microwaves, and fast food restaurants. Globalization, immigrations and the media enable the people to access a richness of products from all around the world. To eat out has become a big trend and is often connected with a positive and emotional memory (Finkelstein 1989 cited Telfer & Hashimoto 2003). With the rising number of people travelling the request for a variety of restaurants and other eating facilities at holiday destinations has increased (Beardsworth & Keil, 1997 cited Telfer & Hashimoto 2003). Another indicator which shows that the interest in cuisine experiences is rising is the enormous number of food, wine and travel magazines, and the high number of cooking shows and food channels on TV in several countries (Telfer & Hashimoto 2003). Bell and Valentine (1997 cited Telfer & Hashimoto 2003) stated that the food journalists, food channels and famous chefs influence the population in such a way that even what, where, when, how and why they should eat is told. This phenomena should be critically questioned (Telfer & Hashimoto 2003). Robinson (1999 cited Telfer & This phenomena should be critically questioned Hashimoto 2003) argued that tourism is composed of the desire to experience one’s own culture and to seek for contact with other cultures. Food and beverages play a major role in the culture, uniqueness and identity of a destination and this could be argued to be one of the major reasons why the interest in food and wine tourism is increasing (Telfer & Hashimoto 2003). Culinary tourism includes a large variety of activities such as food festivals, seasonal harvests, brewery tastings, farmers markets, cooking schools, chocolate tasting, cellar-door visits, farm stays, cheese factory visits (Deneault 2002 cited Mason & O’Mahony 2007), wine museum, cheese museum, traditional restaurants (Bessiere 1998), which are mainly developed for tourists and domestic travellers. Wagner 12

(2001 cited du Rand et al. 2003) stated that tourists seek to explore food from local or ethnic regions. Moreover, tourists desire to learn about the local and regional food and the number of tourists who visit a destination for a culinary reason increase (Bessiere 1998). Pine and Gilmore (1999 cited Mason & O’Mahony 2007) stated that a memorable experience is the key element of a successful experience for tourists which includes involvement in activities that assist the tourist to comprehend and acknowledge their knowledge further than simply by listening. With food and beverages all five senses can be used to experience an activity which can make it to a unique experience (Mason & O’Mahony 2007). Until recently the important role of food and beverages and their influence in tourism has not attracted the attention of either researchers, governments, destinations or even the food and beverage industry (Telfer & Hashimoto 2003, Mitchell & Hall 2003, Bessiere 1998). Food nowadays has been acknowledged as: •

Component of the regional culture which travellers consume;



Component of tourist marketing;



Promising part of the regional rural and economic growth;



Local coefficient which is influenced by the consumption habits and affectations of the tourists.

(Misiura 2006 cited Tikkanen 2007, p.725) The potential of food tourism for a destination slowly became more observed. Aside from the basic need of tourists to eat and drink the comprehension that culinary art has way more potential is growing. Food and tourism are very well integrated in destinations such as Canada, Australia, South Africa or Hong Kong because it was observed that culinary sights attract a high number of tourists and the destination reacted on that trend (Hashimoto & Telfer 2006, Du Rand & Heath 2006, cited Mason & O’Mahony 2007). Quan and Wang (2004 cited smith 2007) created a typology of food consumption. The aspect of food during a holiday can be seen as the main attraction, subsidiary or supporting experience or an expansion of the daily life. The researcher stated that it 13

is from high importance to acknowledge food as the primary tourist activity and to develop attractions including cuisines at the holiday destination. Recent research has indicated that travellers spend around 40% of their holiday budget on food (Boyne, Hall, Williams, 2002 cited Karim 2006). Graziani (2003 cited Karim 2006) agreed that restaurants generate 50% of their revenue through tourists. These facts indicated once more the connection and influence between food and the tourism sector (Karim 2006). Furthermore, food has been identified as an efficient marketing and positioning instrument for a region (Hjalager & Richards 2002 cited Karim 2006). Through the growing demand of regional food a growing number of destinations use cuisines as their major tourism attractions such as Italy, France or Thailand (Karim 2006). Another approach was made by Fischler (1993), Poulain (1985) and Herpin (1988 cited Bessiere 1998, p.23) to create food symbolism: •

Food as a symbol: few food products are connected to fantasy and have a strong symbolic (bread or wine);



Food as a sign of communion: to eat and share food with others is a basic social activity ( family meal or business meals);



Food as class marker: caviar, champagne or wine for daily consumption are sign to underline a certain lifestyle;



Food as an emblem: residents of a certain region recognize themselves and their culinary heritage.

Fischler (1993 cited Bessiere 1998) argued that eating manifests a person’s beliefs so the eater transforms what he or she consumes and on the other hand the eater is part of the culture. Therefore, eating habits are the basic of a common identity but as well the basic of uniqueness (Bessiere 1998). Figure 1 illustrates the different forms of food tourism and the relevant interest in food as a travel motivation. In the primary section the interest in food is high and the main motivation is to travel. If all holiday activities are connect to food and the interest and motivation is very high, then this is classified as gourmet tourism. The same applies to cuisine tourism and gastronomic tourism with the difference that not all holiday activities are connected to food but the interest is still high. 14

Food tourism can be developed to give the tourists the option for relaxation (having a coffee in a quiet café), enthusiasm (exploring new food and food habits), escapism (shift away from daily life/food), status (experiencing expensive food products), knowledge (gaining knowledge about various kinds of food and how to cook and serve them), lifestyle (to sit outside enjoying the scenery while eating a nice dish). It can be said that most motivations of most travellers can be covered through the experience of food and beverages (Hjalager & Corigliano 2000 cited Frochot 2003).

Figure 1: Food tourism as special interest tourism Source: Hall & Sharples (2003, p.11) If food is the secondary influence factor on the travel behaviour of tourists, it is defined as culinary tourism. The tourists shows moderate interest in food and food related activities are part of a wider range of the holiday experiences. When the 15

interest in food is rather low, but the tourists still visits the local market or restaurant it is interpreted as rural or urban tourism. The last group on the chart are tourists where food does not influence the travel behaviour or motivation. In conclusion, this graphs shows that when the number of tourists increases, the lower the interest for food and the less influence food has on the travel behaviour and motivation (Hall & Sharples 2003).

2.2 Culinary tourism as a travel motivation - who is a culinary tourist? Food and to eat are one of the major needs of the human race, but many people see it as more than just the simple feeding. Especially while travelling eating can be part of an exciting, stimulating, significant, ceremonial experiences and gratifying the senses. For example, a simple lunch or dinner will always stay in memory when it was experienced at a breath taking place or sight or after an exciting day of visiting a new destination (Mitchell & Hall 2003) However, many researchers discuss (Hall & Sharples 2003, Bessiere 1998) that the research is lacking in detail which makes it hard to draw a detailed and suitable characteristic of the culinary tourist and their motivation or behaviour. In existing literature culinary travellers are defined as travellers who spend double the amount for food and beverages during their holidays as all other tourists (Murray 2011) or are defined as “above-average-income professionals in their 30s to 50s, which is primarily the same market as for cultural holidays” (Grihault & Koya 2004, p.1 cited Mason & O’Mahony 2007). Lately more research has been made to identify the difference between wine and food tourist and to use this newly gained knowledge for focused and precised marketing (Hjalager2003, Ignatov 2003 cited Mason & O’Mahony 2007). Mitchell, Hall and McIntosh (2000, p. 188 cited Mitchell & Hall 2003, p.61) indicated that “consumer behaviour research is important for stakeholders in wine tourism because it can help provide important insights into who the wine tourist is, what motivates them to visit a winery, take a guided tour, attend a wine festival or purchase wine and why, thus allowing marketers and managers to effectively target and develop markets. “ 16

This statement also applies to food tourism. Through the awareness of how and why tourists make their purchasing decision to buy and/or use culinary products one would be in the possession of knowing at what stage during the decision making process one has to mediate. The right use of this gained knowledge can then be used to convince them to buy the culinary products one wish them to buy (Mitchell & Hall 2003). Overall, more information is gathered about wine tourists than food tourists. The tourism council in countries which rely on a dynamic wine industry such as France, Australia, Spain, New Zealand, and South Africa are leading in collecting information and researching about the wine tourist to improve the marketing of their products (Carmichael 2005, Charters & Ali-Knight 2002, Tassiopoulos 2004 cited Mason & O’Mahony 2007). Although various researches on the psychographic, motivational and demographic categorization of the wine tourist took place, the gained knowledge is still not adequate and advanced enough about the target market of wine tourism (Carlsen, 2004 cited Mason & O’Mahony 2007). The Strategy Action Plan 2005-2015 from the culinary tourism in Ontario makes a distinction between travellers which are enthusiasts and who are intentional. Furthermore, the action plan distinguishes the culinary tourism market into three clusters: •

“Primary: Travellers who main focus and intent is for a culinary tourism experience;



Secondary: Travellers’ focus on culinary tourism is shared with another tourism motivator such as golf, shopping, visiting family and friends. Culinary tourism is part of their itinerary;



Tertiary: Travellers’ itinerary or motivators do not include culinary tourism. Culinary tourism experience is impromptu or ad hoc to their original intent”.

(Murray 2011, p.5). TAMS stand for the Travel Activities and Motivation Survey delegated by the Canadian Tourism Commission (Lang Research Ind. 2011 Getz & Brown 2006). It questioned 46284 Americans and Canadians relating to food and wine. One of the results shows that 12.9% of mature Canadians and 17.9% of mature Americans are 17

strongly interested in holidays with connection to food and wine. In addition, 17.2% mature Canadians and 17.2% mature Americans answered that they had a moderate interest. The implemented segmentation identified that young and adult couples, young and adult singles have the highest interest in culinary tourism. This interest gets stronger the higher the household income and education. The outcome was that “affluent mature and senior couples” were selected as the greatest target segment (Getz & Brown 2006). Another test within the TAMS study exhibits that tourists who have the highest motivation in food and wine themed holidays also took part in outdoor and cultural activities. The same respondents also favoured the following accommodation types: resorts, lodges, spas, B&Bs, and gourmet restaurants which offered accommodation (Getz & Brown 2006). With the help of the TAMS 2001 data, Smith and Ignatov (2003 cited Murray 2011) labelled three categories: food tourists, wine tourists, and food and wine tourists. For each category a different profile was created. If the questionee took part in at least one of the following action he counted as food or wine tourist. A wine tourist is defined by visiting a local vineyard and having one or more overnight stays, attend a wine tasting during a one day trip at a vineyard or sleeping at a wine-tasting academy. In contrast, food tourists attend a farmer exhibit or marketplace, purchase high class food products in shops or farms, drive to collectyour-own farms, visit restaurants which offer dishes from the region, visit globally renowned restaurants, visit a cooking academy, are staying at a gourmet restaurant which offers sleeping facilities (Murray 2011). Smith and Ignatov (2003 cited Murray 2011) then created portraits of each of the three

categories

working

with

demographics,

psychographics,

holiday

features/activities, and media tendency facts collected through the TAMS study. The dilemma with this characteristic is that it easily describes travellers where their major motivation was not taking part in any of the above mentioned food and wine actions. The majority of their sample showed attributes such as: well educated, higher income, elderly, and female. In addition, they split the outcome into a food/rural group which is interested in rural regions and in provincial and traditional food. The 18

second sub-group was a wine/food/true cuisine group who showed contrary travel motivations and activities; however, were keen on restaurant dining. Another finding was that an increasing amount of subjects showed more interest in food tourism than in food and wine tourism or pure wine tourism (Mason & O’Mahony 2007). Stewart et al. (2008 cited Murray 2011) worked with the TAMS 2006 data to analyse the culinary tourists. They named them “foodies” if their main attention was towards food and “winos” if their interest was more towards wine. They stated that 74% of the entire Canadian visitors in the years 2004 and 2005 undertook at least one of the below wine and food activities. This raised the question if a tourist should already be counted as a culinary tourist after involving in just one of these activities? •

Food/Beverage festival



Cooking/wine tasting courses



Dining at restaurants which use local ingredients and recipes



Dining at a farm



Shop or browse through gourmet foods in retail store



Visit vineyards for one day and do wine tasting



Went to breweries for a day visits and tasting



Went fruit picking at farms or open fields



Visited food processing plants such as a cheese factory



(Stayed at ) Cooking school



(Stayed at) Wine tasting school



(Stayed at) Country inn or resort because it had a gourmet restaurant on the premises

(Murray 2011, p.7) One of their significant results is that a culinary tourist is well educated, 50 plus, maybe already retired and has a better income compared to other tourists. Their

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study also showed that culinary travellers are searching for “learning “and “selfesteem” on their holidays (Murray 2011). Using the strategy action plan of 2005-2015 with the three segments of primary, secondary and tertiary travellers, if we take an example of a person whose main motivation to travel is golf, but also looks for a high class food and therefore may spend more than a primary traveller it raises the question of who a primary culinary tourist is and when a high spending amount should always mark a culinary tourist in comparison to all other tourists (Murray 2011). This leads to the idea that the amount spent during a holiday alone cannot identify a culinary tourist. Moreover is it possible and relevant to see culinary tourism as an additional and beneficial constituent for a destination? Furthermore, food and beverage may play a major role in the decision making process between two diverse golf resorts (Murray 2011). Hjalager (2003 Mason & O’Mahony 2007) categorized food tourists in four classifications in relation to their connection towards cuisine: diversionary, experimental, recreational, and existential. All four types have an individual request of cuisines and wine connected activities. The existential food tourist could be described as an individual who looks for participation in food, beverage and eating activities which advance his or her knowledge. For a food tourist, food and beverages do not only appeases hunger and thirst, it gives the tourist the opportunity to taste and learn from the local cuisines and beverages and to get involved in the culture of the region (Kivela & Crotts 2006 cited Mason & O’Mahony 2007). In comparison, the experimental food tourist sees cuisines and beverages as a way to express their lifestyle and identity. This category of tourist will eat at the new and modern boutique restaurants and visit the “trendy” vineyards. Mason and O’Mahony (2007) presented in their paper the following figure which shows possible themes of the culinary tourist. It is based on the previous study of Hjalager (2003) and Ignatov (2003). It should reflect the premier ideas and fixations why culinary tourists may come to a culinary festival/activity/….

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Cuisine Lifestyle Health The Culinary Tourist

Regionalism Rurality

Environment Figure 2: Possible themes of the culinary tourist Source: Mason & O’Mahony 2007, p. 512. For describing the travel motivations for culinary tourism Fields (2002 cited Karim 2006) used the motivation typology from McIntosh (1995 cited Karim 2006) in which four types are defined; the physical motivators, cultural motivators, interpersonal motivators, and status and prestige motivators. Physical motivators are connected to the authentic undertakings which a traveller experiences during a holiday.

Basically trying the local cuisines, noticing the

displayed food at a market or shopping and discerning the smell of the groceries. All these impressions are unforgettable experiences for the tourists on their holiday which makes a difference to the daily routine which they could not experience at home. Likewise, travellers seek to visit a country due its healthy way of living. Many countries are known for their healthy diets and cuisine such as Greece or Italy which is a motivator for those who want to slim (Karim 2006). Tourism and culinary can also be a cultural motivator. Travellers want to explore and learn about a new culture and their traditions. Food and beverages are fundamental components in nearly every culture and therefore a good way of experiencing the 21

lifestyle and traditions of a destination as a tourist. Similarly, travellers may visit a destination or even return to it because of a specific and unique dish, food component or beverage (Karim 2006). In terms of interpersonal motivators, dining together with family members can play an important role during the holiday as there is often not enough time for families during the year to spend time together. Another example is family gatherings or when one or more family members live in different countries and the holiday is an opportunity for the family to come together and spend time together. The same is true for the relationship between friends. On a holiday there is often more time and a relaxed atmosphere which helps to build and strength relationships (Karim 2006). Many hostels and bed and breakfasts use also the dining together option to give their guests the possibility to meet with other guests and to create a social and interpersonal atmosphere (Fields, 2002 cited Karim 2006). Lastly, prestige and status often play a major role for certain tourists when choosing their travel goal. Destinations like the Cote d’Azur or Tuscany are famous and well known for their unique cuisine and may often be the main motivation for people to travel. Another activity which is often driven by the status symbol is dining in exclusive and chic restaurants (Fields 2002 cited Karim 2006). Haeney and Robertson (2004 citied Smith 2007) conducted a study in Australia for four years (1999-2002) to determine the trends and attributes of culinary tourists. Their first step was to split culinary tourists into international and domestic where domestic tourists were split again into day-visitors and overnight. The result showed that domestic overnight culinary travellers spent more per night than non-culinary travellers (AUD$154 in comparison to AUD$130) and chose hotels as their preferred accommodation. The household income was higher on average than to non-culinary tourist and domestic overnight culinary tourist travelled mostly as two adults. The reason given most often for the holiday was “short break to escape the grind”. Finally, domestic overnight culinary tourists took part in more cultural activities like markets and visit to vineyards and nightlife attractions than the total domestic overnight tourist (Heaney & Robertson 2004 cited Smith 2007).

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The other segment, domestic culinary day tourist counted 36% of the total number of domestic day tourists. For 62% of the domestic culinary tourist was going away from home the main motivator of the holiday and 80% travelled with 3 to 5 people. The average expenses were higher than compared to international culinary tourists (AUD$110 to AUD$84). The domestic culinary tourists spend more in restaurants than the international culinary tourist (AUD$27 to AUD$16) (Heaney & Robertson 2004 cited Smith 2007). The researchers Heaney and Robertson (2004 citied Smith 2007) stated that culinary tourists can be clustered as mature and have on average a higher household income. A second significance which distinguishes international and domestic culinary travellers was the type of information media. The study showed that more than 50% of domestic culinary travellers depended on the internet to search for their travel information, while just 25% of international travellers used the internet for the same reason (Haeney & Robertson 2004 cited Smith 2007). A deeper research into the consumer behaviour and a clear definition of a culinary tourist would give knowledge that the stakeholders and all other included parties in the travel context and process which would help to understand the culinary tourist and its needs and wants and to satisfy these (Smith 2007).

2.3 Culinary tourism and its connection to destination management and marketing What role food and beverages play in promoting a destination has until recently not been well researched (Du Rand et al. 2003). Handszuh (2000 cited Du Rand et al. 2003) argued that one of the main problems concerning culinary tourism marketing is that regional cuisines are not presented enough in promotional materials and communications tools which are used for tourism marketing. What is confirmed is that regional food increases the capability of sustainable tourism, reinforces the regional economy, supports the environmentally friendly infrastructure and is part of the originality of a destination (Du Rand et al. 2003). This is why it is an important responsibility for destinations to examine the role of the regional food and beverages and use their potential to market the region 23

effectively. This aspect leads to next important task, displaying and promoting culinary tourism in the right way to attract as much potential tourists as possible. If the destination decides on how to display and promote culinary tourism it can then be increasingly used as a branding instrument for the destination (Du Rand et al. 2003). For countries who do not have well developed food tourism strategy it is important to learn from success stories from other countries and use benchmarking to compete on the global market (Wolf 2002 cited Du Rand et al. 2003). Hall and Mitchell (2000 cited Frochot 2003) discussed the subject of destinations using food and beverages to place them in a unique marketing position to attract tourists. Through food tourism destination can determine their cultural uniqueness and assure their positioning strategy. Therefore, destinations save themselves of being replaced and overtaken by competitors. Uniqueness can be depicted through symbols or ambience, which is unique for the destination. In addition, Deneault (2002 cited Hashimoto & Telfer 2006) stated that it is an advantage to promote a variety of available products in a region than focusing on one cuisine. Hashimoto and Telfer (2003) reported that more research and effort needs to be made to attract more domestic tourists to culinary attractions. Furthermore, it is essential to elaborate strategies to promote brand loyalty to the local visitors and by doing so gaining repeating customers. As Dodd (2000 cited Hashimoto & Telfer 2003) confirmed, collecting marketing information as well as information about the consumer behaviour and establishing loyal customers is a crucial task of wine and food outlets. Through branding destinations are able to develop awareness of the destination, create a positive image of the destination and increase the marketing of the destination in the consumer market. To brand a product successfully it is essential to improve the brand awareness and to develop strong brand recognition in the mind of the consumers which includes the name of the brand, logo, symbols, slogan, and packaging (Scott 2002 cited Hashimoto & Telfer 2006). In summary, it can be said that food branding can be used to illustrate pictures of cultural experiences, cultural identity, status, and communication (Frochot 2003).

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As Hall et al. (2003 cited Hashimoto & Telfer 2006, p.35) stated “regionality is clearly important, particularly in terms of promoting the attributes of the food, wine and tourism products of a given place”. This is very common in the wine industry where the designation indicates from which specific region the wine comes from, such as Burgundy wine. Furthermore, having the name of the destination included in the product name, the destination itself turns into a brand and contains value for the brand and destination (Hall 2004). The food and wine tourism industry depends on the branding and promoting on the regional, national and international level to have an advantage at the food and beverage tourism market (Hall 2004). In a recent study (Hashimoto & Telfer 2003) it was stated that the number of wineries that are displayed online increases. Therefore, wineries need even more to distinguish themselves from their competitors. Although the production and the quality of the wine will remain the main reason why tourists will visit the winery, additional services and products will help to differentiate them from competitors. Cooking schools, restaurants, events, and sleeping facilities at the winery could be used as a marketing tool to attract more tourists to visit the winery. In a recent study (Du Rand et al. 2003) it was stated that destination management organizations in South Africa see specialty restaurants and eating places at the main key components of food tourism (62%), followed by regionally/locally produced food products (59%), special cuisine/food routes (45%), and food festivals (31%). The respondents were also questioned about the communication tool which they used for food marketing. With 80% brochures and pamphlets are the most used marketing

tool

in

regards

to

food

tourism,

followed

by

advertising

initiatives/radio/TV/media/printed material/advertising/ publicity with 63%. 60% see food marketing as a key element of the image and branding identity of a destination, whereas 57% include food marketing at trade and consumer exhibitions and 53% use the web promotion as a communication tool for food marketing. These results indicate that the destination management organizations in South Africa still rely on the old traditional marketing tools to provide the tourists with information about food tourism. The brochures, pamphlets or media advertisements sadly primarily consist of restaurant information and not of the cultural heritage or

25

traditional culinary experiences which are offered in the region (Du Rand et al. 2003). In a study by Du Rand et al. (2003) destination management organization indicated that the limited amount of funding is the major problem regarding the marketing of culinary tourism. Since the funding is low, no money will be invested into promoting food tourism as it is seen as a product which the tourists will purchase anyway in form of food and beverages. This situation can just be changed when the managers of the destinations change their perception of culinary tourism (Du Rand et al. 2003). Du Rand et al. (2003, p. 10) stated that to implement food tourism as a successful tourist attraction for a destination, the regional products and their providers of food services need to be branded as the delicacy and local products of the area. Additional tasks which require cooperation of all stakeholders from the destination are: 

Empowerment of small and medium enterprises to set up food services which use products from the region;



To create a feeling under the locals of being proud of their local food;



The development of an official seal which labels regional produced food.

The national tourism and cuisine forum (CTC) was held in Halifax, Canada in 2001 to develop Canada as a culinary destination for the domestic and international market. The plan included several recommendations for the destination such as 

Organizing an yearly event which presents the destination as an international quality wine region and gain the attention of high yield tourists;



To improve the signature, information guides and maps of the existing wine routes;



Establish sub-brands of the wine route brands.

(Hashimoto & Telfer 2006, p.50). The representatives from the travel and food industry introduced a national tourism and cuisine database which is available on the internet and enfolds organizations 26

and people who encourage and develop Canadian cuisines in an active way (MacDonald 2001 citied Hashimoto & Telfer 2006). The CTC also introduced a product club program which offers support for small and medium sized enterprises to create and to contribute unique products (Telfer 2002 citied Hashimoto & Telfer 2006). As Figure 3 shows, the progress of “Cuisine in Canada” consists of various variables. The high number of immigrants arriving to Canada influences the culinary situation. The chefs are using the new products and the new variety which was brought in from the immigrants and transform them into new dishes. These will be served to customers at the restaurants as well as at the special festivals and through local food associations. Increasing the strength of the diversity would enhance and solidify the image. The centre of the bottom part of Figure 3 is the marketing. One part is the development strategy of CTC with their suggestions for promoting Canada as a culinary destination which are: creating a national and regional brand image, focus on the USA and domestic markets and to develop knowledge of culinary tourism in the tourism marketplace (Denault 2002 cited Hashimoto & Telfer 2006). Figure 3 emphasized the importance of cooperation between the tourism/ food industry and the government as well that the culinary tourism joins with other tourism products (Denault 2002 cited Hashimoto & Telfer 2006).

27

Figure 3: Marketing of cuisines in Canada Source: Hashimoto & Telfer 2006, p.50 Boyne et al. (2003) reported that the programs and partnerships which were developed through the CTC improved the communication between the different members of the alliance and customers through marketing materials. In addition, it had contributed to minimize economic leakages by developing more trust in local products among food and beverages consumers. Furthermore, small farms and nonfarm businesses which were part of the alliance used direct marketing to attract more customers. In regards to the tourist needs, Williams and Dossa (2003) conducted a study which has shown that culinary tourists, who have not been to the destination before, require more support and information at the destination than other tourists’ types. At tourist offices the service should also include support with the organization of the holiday and develop an on-going customer service relation which lasts until the departure of the tourists. This special service requires particular customer service training which will enhance the experience of culinary tourists at a certain destination. One part of that training should be that the staff learns about all the possibilities of culinary tourism from the region which can be offered to the tourists. This can include vineyard tours, wineries which offer cellar door tasting and sell their 28

products, bike routes through the countryside, scenic viewpoints, cultural landmarks, farms, markets, and local restaurants (Williams & Dossa 2003).

2.4 Benefits and impacts of culinary tourism A study by Handszuh (2000 cited Du Rand et al. 2003) argued that culinary tourism implicate various possible benefits to a destination. These are: a sustainable infrastructure where the supply of local and imported food is handled, local economy is supported, sustainable ways of tourism are encouraged and it strengthens the authenticity of a region. Entrepreneur and tourism organization need to work close together to meet the demands of the tourists. When using and developing culinary tourism at a destination it is of high importance to ensure that the traditional cuisines are not changed to suit the taste of the tourists which would put the tradition of the food in danger of being lost and so part of the culture of the destination (Chappet 2001 cited Du Rand et al. 2003). Carlsen and Dowling (2001 cited Williams & Dossa 2003) stated that the cultural and natural landscapes need to be acknowledged as the crucial and maybe even as the main feature of food and wine tourism. For most food and wine travellers it is one of the strongest desires to experience well maintained natural and heritage landscapes during their culinary activities. Therefore, the natural and cultural landscapes need to be protected which demands the cooperation of the product suppliers, destination management organizations and tourism associations (Williams & Dossa 2003). When designing the food tourism strategies of a destination it need to be considered to which extent the tourists will have a negative influence on the destination and culture. Therefore, suitable planning, coordination and management are necessary to hamper the changing of social values and decreasing standards of the food production (Handszuh 2000 cited Du Rand et al. 2003). Furthermore, precised inspections and balances must be in use to prevent the local community and environment from getting exploited. In this way the sustainability of culinary tourism is ensured which should not only been seen as an economy activity, but more as a cultural enrichment which contribute to the sustainability of a region (Du Rand et al. 2003). 29

Bessiere (1998) stated that it is of supreme importance to ensure that old traditions in relation to food and wine products as well as prepared dishes do not get lost because of tourism. However, advertising a regional and traditional food product leads to protecting old techniques and skills, but also supports the development and approves changes. Bessiere (1998) has proposed that local authorities need to be aware of the potential of their local products and arouse interest and promote it so tourists travel to the destination purchasing the products, eating at the restaurants and visiting farms or markets. All these activities represent income sources and benefits for the local community. Hall et al. (2000 cited Hashimoto & Telfer 2003) named the advantages of culinary tourism for wineries as followed: brand recognition and loyalty, educational chances, enhance customer exposure to products, higher profits, additional sales outlet and marketing opportunity on products and customers. The disadvantages are that a capital is needed and the management time and costs increase. Boyne et al. (2003) stated that high quality food and beverage products can improve the tourism product and the experience of the tourists. In addition, the money the tourists spend on the locally produced goods goes straight to the local economy and helps to renew and maintain the local production. Boyne et al. (2003) have proposed that both the food production sector and tourism benefit from strong relationships. Furthermore, restaurants and other catering services that offer regional food and beverages promote these at the same time which results in arousing the interest of the tourists in purchasing these local products from the producers. The Scottish government (Scottish Executive 2001 p.23 cited Boyne et al. 2003) noted that: “It is vital that we develop better links between these two important sectors so that farmers can earn income from this tourism and, in turn, can help to ensure that we provide quality infrastructure and services required by visitors to Scotland”. In Scotland at the island Arran the “Isle of Arran Taste Trail” was introduced by the local enterprise company to develop the potential of the regional food products and to gain more visitors (Boyne et al. 2003). Boyne et al. (2001 cited Boyne et al. 2003) undertook a survey in cooperation with the local enterprise company of the island Arran. All the respondents were visitors of the island who have read the guidebook 30

“Trail” before their trip to the island. The results showed that the respondents were willing to pay more for dishes which were prepared from local ingredients. The guidebook had motivated them to eat out more frequently. The respondents would also tend to buy in the future more regional products and they agreed that the quality of the food of Arran would motivate them to visit the destination again. Boyne et al. (2001 cited Boyne et al. 2003) as well conducted a survey with the local producers and restaurants of the island Arran and indicated that with the help of the trail the profit, turnover and sold food increased. Further, the catering connected spending per head increased and helped against seasonality.

2.5 Slow Food movement and its connection to culinary tourism The Slow Food action came about in 1989 in Piedmont, Italy as a reaction to the global trend of fast food. The movement should remind people of their culinary traditions, being aware of where the products come from, taking their time to actually taste and enjoy their food and be more responsible of eating in a healthy way (Muntean et al. 2010). The organization counts today 100,000 members in over 150 countries and is an active non-profit organization. The Slow Food movement holds the bi-annual event “Salone del Gusto” in Lingotto, Turin. It was also behind the establishment of the University of Gastronomic Science (UNISEG) which opened in 2004 in Italy (Slow Food 2013). Every Slow Food member pays €5 per year for the institution of biodiversity which fights globally against extinction of the variety of crop plants and livestock. The organisation’s goal is to bring a new understanding for food quality into the society. Growing, production, taste, smell, and the look are as important as the regionality of the product. The quality of the food is the central concern, whereas the eco-label is not enough proof for the slow food movement (Baumbach 2007). The Slow Food organisation is no gastronomic provider, it wants to show and make aware of the togetherness of indulgence and responsibility. One of the main acts is to find allies and to fight for the better food quality.

Slow Food stands for

agriculture which produces quality and how important it is to use the sources in a

31

responsible way so they survive for the next generations. Members of the slow food activity produce traditional products and create at the same time new traditions. Slow Food restaurant offers fresh products with authentic taste and slow food cooks oppose to use of ready meals or cans. Basically, slow food stands for guests and customers, who appreciate, enjoy and share this philosophy (Baumbach 2007). The organization is most popular in Italy, Germany, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Switzerland, Japan, and United States of America. The Slow Food movement has the most influence in the health systems in the United States of America. In USA a person dies every five minutes due to a poor diet. 150 billion dollars per year is spend for obesity in the American health system. This accounts for ten per cent of all the cost of the American health system.

Researchers warn that this figure will

double in the next ten years. This is the reason why the Slow Food movement in the United States educates the population about the importance of healthy and regional food and what and how they can change their lifestyle to live healthier (Muntean et al. 2010). In Europe the slow food movement is more connected to the lifestyle of many Europeans. Most representatives of the slow food movement in Italy and France work against EU regulation which would endanger the local and regional products. Furthermore, the Slow Food movement also participates in attractions like international markets and fairs to promote regional products at a global market but also to promote the traditional food in the own country. This, in return, increases tourist arrivals to the region because of specific products they became aware of (Muntean et al. 2010). Everyone can join the slow food organization, as a member one takes part in regional events and actions and helps to enhance the food system in the local society. Supporter of their projects help and are involved in the sustainable food creation or just as being a responsible consumer who pays attention towards quality and enjoys the food of the region (Slow Food 2013).

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2.6 Young adults’ travel behavior UNWTO estimates that around “20% of the 940 million international tourists travelling the world in 2010 were young people” (UNWTO 2013). The WTO declares young traveller as a person between 16 and 25 years old who spends at least one night at the destination (Boukas 2007). The Youth Tourism Consortium of Canada rise the age to 30 years old. (Youth Tourism Consortium of Canada 2004 citied Boukas 2007). Tour operator like Contiki and agencies offer products for youth until the age of 35 years (Boukas 2007). In addition to the age also the behaviour is seen as a characteristic of defining the young tourists. Car (1998 cited Boukas 2007) suggested that people may be older than the defined youth tourist but their behaviour may classify them as young tourists. Seeking (1995 cited Boukas 2007) even meant that no correct definition of who can be identified to be young exists. The Youth Tourism Consortium of Canada (2004 cited Boukas 2007) classify two classification youth tourists; the young adult tourists which travel with their school and youth group tourists (the holiday is arranged by the school, districts and groups) or non-school youth group tourists where the holiday is arranged by organised clubs like church group, sport team etc. or independent young adult tourists who travel on their own or in a small group and organise everything by their own. This specific group is likely to have a higher education, is between 15 and 30 years old, has experience in travelling, is skilled in using the internet, and chases the adventure and desire to meet other cultures. This market is a rapidly growing one and Richard and Wilson (2003) discussed that young adults are likely to travel more often and for a longer duration and only one fifth of all holidays worldwide are done be young travellers. Youth tourism should not only be of interest because of the fact that it is a growing market, there are few other aspects, such as youth tourism gives young travellers the opportunity to meet with people from different cultural background ( Richards & Wilson 2003). The younger people have a greater tendency to travel because of their flexibility which is a foundation of youth tourism (Horak & Weber 2000 cited 33

Richards & Wilson 2003). According to their flexibility, youth tourists travel for longer periods than other segments. Therefore they distribute their economic contribution in respect to space and time as well as youth tourists spend more money within local communities as elderly tourists (Richards & Wilson 2003). Furthermore, young tourists often work as trend setters while they develop new attractions and support to form new holiday destinations (Horak & Weber 2000 cited Richards & Wilson 2003). The opinion about the youth tourism market has changed in the last few years maybe due to the reasons given above. Instead of being unwelcomed and barred from destinations, youth tourism nowadays is a very attractive market (Richards & Wilson 2003). The reasons for the development and growth of the youth tourism market were explained in 1995 in the ATI report (Richards & Wilson 2003, p.10): •

A changed conception of social class borders. Suddenly travel experiences were accessible which were before only possible for high class tourists;



The importance of the earnings of the parents;



The number of full time students increased;



The jobless rate among youth dropped.

In a more recent report (Richards & Wilson 2003, p.11) additional growth factors were added to the four of the ATI report: •

The grow of budget and low cost airlines;



More student and independent travel suppliers were established;



A rise in long distance coach travels which are in particular addressed towards young tourists;



The employment agreements are made for shorter periods producing breaks in the employment;



The worldwide increase of the internet culture which introduces and makes new destinations visible;



More young people study and work during their trip to finance their travel;

34



The growing demand on independent travel guidebooks like Lonely Planet which illustrates many regions apart from the famous touristic once;



Young tourists tend to choose destinations which other travellers mainly avoid because of political issues, leaking infrastructure or accessibility. Therefore the youth tourism market is not that sensitive towards war or terror attacks.

Clarke (1992 cited Richards & Wilson 2003) discussed the growth of young tourists travelling to beach destinations, as back then one out of three holidays were at a beach resort. But this trend is declining, for example Sellars (1998 cited Richards & Wilson 2003) studied the growth of young tourists travelling to places connected to alternative and dance music subcultures. This shows the increasing interest in holidays connected to nightlife and the music experience. Studies such as Sellars (1998 cited Richards & Wilson 2003) indicate that sub-niche products of youth tourism are growing and gaining more attention of young people. In a recent article (Moisa 2010) it was stated that the complex youth travel product consists of four qualitative aspects which are: quality, safety and security, accessibility, and flexibility. To go into more detail, accessibility stands in regard to availability and price. Further, young people made their first travel experiences with their parents and family and have therefore often high expectations in regards to quality and service (Moisa 2010). The flexibility aspect should be presented in a large choice of the tourism and information offer, which must be easily accessible and complex which will reduce the attribute of uncertainty in regards to the tourism product (Moisa 2010). Uncertainty is the reason why few tourism products, mainly the exotic and not well organised one, are seen as risky and less desired by the youth tourist. This is basically the reason why young tourists need to feel safe at the destination itself and on their whole trip (Moisa 2010). Furthermore, the price sensivity of young travellers is a key component. Resulting from the limited budget which the average young traveller has available but still the high expectations, the young traveller can be seen as a demanding customer who searches for the best value for its money (Moisa 2010).

35

Moisa (2010, p. 639) argued that the youth travel product displays numerous paradoxes such as: 

Young tourists have already high expectations and standards on their first trip (without family or parents);



They desire flexibility of tourism services which goes hand in hand with freedom but still don’t want to experience uncertainty;



Concerning their destinations young tourists are relatively traditional but have creative ideas for their future holiday;



Young tourists are opened minded but at the same time worried about their safety during their trip;



A lot of attention goes toward the price of the tourism products, however to travel is still one of the most worthwhile consumer products to young people.

Richards and Wilson (2003) studied what motivates young people to travel. To explore other cultures was the most given answer (83%), followed by experience excitement (74%) and to increase my knowledge (69%). To increase the knowledge as a motivation was higher among the young tourists who travelled to an English speaking country such as Canada, USA and United Kingdom or destinations with a known cultural heritage like Germany, Italy, Mexico (Richards & Wilson 2003). Confirmed by the UNWTO most young people see their trips as a chance to enhance positive values. The main reason for holidays by young tourists is to gain more knowledge of the world and to experience and learn about other cultures. This is possibly why 70% of all trips are driven by the aim to work and study abroad. In the end, 80% of young tourists agreed that their trip has made a change in their lifestyle, as well as changing their way of thinking concerning social justice, poverty and sustainable travelling (WTO 2008). The UNWTO has proposed that young travellers go on more holidays now. The number of holidays young people went on in their life increased from 6.2 in 2002 to 7.3 in 2007 which displays an increasing frequency of trips. One reason might be that people in their early 30s see the youth travel style as a way to stay young. From this it follows that the youth travel market will increase steadily. Back in 2006, 50% of 36

the suppliers of youth accommodation increased their capacity according to the rising demand (WTO 2008). Richards and Wilson (2003) stated in their report that the average of their questionees had gone on six holidays in their life. Most under 26 year old went on 5.9 trips where those over 26 years old did 8.0 trips in their past. Interviewees from Sweden and United Kingdom had most travel experience with 7.4 and 6.5 former holidays, whilst the respondents from South Africa with 4.0 former holidays and Hong Kong with 4.4 former holidays were the least experienced ones (Richards & Wilson 2003). The average holidays of the respondents included two different countries and more experienced travellers visited more than two during one trip. Surprisingly the number of countries visited during one trip was higher among respondents under 26 years old which can possibly be argued by the stronger mobility of the younger tourists. Richards and Wilson (2003) confirmed that the number of visited countries increases with the length of the trip. Richards and Wilson (2003) stated that young travellers are well informed before they start they trip. The most commonly used information source is the internet (71%), followed by friends and family (70%). The used information sources ahead of the trip do not change when the travel experiences increases except guidebooks. Only 30% of travellers who had three or less previous trips used guidebooks, whereas 50% of young tourists who had ten or more trips used them for the information search. During the trip even 60% of the most experienced young tourists used guidebooks (Richards & Wilson 2003). Richards and Wilson (2003) studied the most visited destinations among young travellers. Their results indicate that the most visited regions were in Northern Europe (30%), Southern Europe (16%), North America (16%), and Eastern Europe (8%). There were differences in the results between male and female respondents. More female questionees visited destinations such as Middle East, India, Central and South Africa, and North and South Europe, whereas the male interviewees travelled to regions in North/Central/South America, East and North Europe, China, Japan and Southeast Asia and Australasia (Richards & Wilson 2003). 37

In correlation with the age of the respondents, the destination visited by most older ones than 26 years old was Central/South Africa (44%), followed by Central and South America (both 25%), the Middle East (21%) and Southeast Asia (20%). It can be seen that these destinations are not as easy accessible and require more travel experience than Europe, which might explain why tourists under the age of 26 years travel mainly to regions in Europe and North America (Richards & Wilson 2003). Richards and Wilson (2003) discussed the length of the trips of young travellers. It is shown that young tourists who visit Australasia stay on average 128 days, in North America 90 days, India 84 days, while in destination such as South Europe the average length was 39 days, North Africa 36 days and in East Europe 29 days. The last trip of the majority with 28% took 0-14 days, followed by 26% with 15-30 days and 15% of a trip length of 31-60 days (Richards & Wilson 2003). The booking procedure has changed drastically with the establishment of the new technology and the consequential booking options. The young tourists are the market segments who are using this option most. 50% of all air travel bookings and 60% of accommodation of young travellers which were made in advance were booked online. But not only air travel and accommodation get booked on the internet. Young people prefer the internet to book foreign language courses, working and studying abroad programmes, volunteer programmes, and insurances for their trip (Moisa 2010). As a study conducted by the World Youth Student & Educational Travel Confederation in 2007 (citied Moisa 2010) stated, young people who did not gained much travel experiences yet and therefore need more information will rely on a travel agency. The same applies to young people who look for an adventurous and exotic holiday. When the income, age and experience of young people rise, the frequency of direct bookings of tickets for the air travel through the online platform of travel agencies is also rising. Youth tourists with a high experience of travelling and a higher average income will rather develop their own individual travel package and just use intermediaries for making a reservation at an accommodation (Moisa 2010).

38

The major influence for young tourists when booking their travel arrangements is the price. The other major influencing factors are the quality of the information and services offered by the intermediaries, the reliability and quality of the tourism product, its flexibility, the option of making the booking online, the easy access to individual youth tourists’ products, and the choice of accessible products (Moisa 2010). The UNWTO stated in 2009 (cited Moisa 2010) most tourists (52%) use airplanes to reach their holiday destination, followed by terrestrial transport like roads (38%), sea travel (6%), and railways (3%). As opposed to this, young tourists prefer the bus, car and train as their transportation mode. A study conducted by Richards and Wilson (2003) showed that the bus was chosen by 62.6% as the preferred travel mode, followed by the car with 45%, the train with 42.5%, and airplane with 32.5%. Richards and Wilson discovered that for youth tourists under the age of 26 years the bus, train, their own car or hitchhiking are their favoured travel modes, whereas tourists over the age of 26 years preferred to travel by airplane (Richards & Wilson 2003). The airplane is mostly used by young tourists to visit remote destinations. That is why most European cities do not feature a high number of arrivals by plane from young tourists. Young tourists who choose the airplane as their travel mode have in most cases a higher income to their disposal and more travel practise in contrast to the young tourists who choose the bus or train (Moisa 2010). At the reached destination the most commonly used travel modes of young tourists under 26 years are their own car, bicycles or walking, while young tourists over the age of 26 tend to rent a car or use domestic air travel (Moisa 2010). In the recent years much has changed on the hotel market especially to attract more young tourists. Nowadays the hotel market has created particular premises called youth hotels or hostels which provide affordable convenient hotel rooms and an uncommon atmosphere. These days hostels are more than just accommodation that offers dorms with bunk beds. They have transformed into houses where people can meet and socialise with people from all around the world. A hostel also keeps up with the demands of the young tourists. Most properties offer services such as a

39

laundry room, free Wi-Fi, safes, information desk, and a minimum on food service (Moisa 2010). The analysis of two studies conducted by the International Student Travel Confederation and the World Tourism Organisation displays that the choice of accommodation of young tourists has changed in the last years. Hence, in 2002 staying at friends or relatives was the most common accommodation, followed by hostels and independent hotels. Though in 2007 most young tourists stayed at hostels (60.5%), followed by hotels (47.6%), and friends and relatives (36.1%) (Moisa 2010). The way of travelling also plays a major role in the choice of accommodation. Whereas backpackers prefer independent hostels, young travellers who see themselves as tourists prefer a hotel as their accommodation. Another major factor in choosing the accommodation is the motivation of the trip. Backpackers prefer hostels as they are driven by the adventure and the wish of meeting and interacting with new people. Hotels in contrast are chosen by young travellers who search for recreation, peaceful atmosphere. The last segment of young tourists who choose to stay at their friends and relatives are driven by their personal and social motivation (Moisa 2010). In a recent article (Morrissey 2012) it was stated that the hotel industry recognizes the strong market of travellers between 20 and 30 years old. As reported by the American Express Business Insights, (cited Morrissey 2012) the amount young tourists spend on their holiday rose 20 percent in 2010, which appoints them to the age segment with the fast growth, but are still behind the baby boom generation regards overall spending. In contrast to the rest of the market, this certain segment has specific requests and expectations on social media, technology and design when it comes to their choice of hotel. In consequence of these expectations of the young travellers, a number of hotels and hotel chains invest in modernising their technology equipment and redesign their furniture. Examples are; free Wi-Fi through the hotel, high speed internet, generous lobbies with a large social and working area, a trendy bar and easily reached power consoles in the rooms and public areas for laptops, iPads and 40

other tools. The Plaza Hotel in New York for example now offers iPads in every room with which the hotel guests can regulate the air-condition, lighting, read the news and request room service (Morrissey 2012). Other hotels launch several lounges and bars which are opened at different times during the day and offer various themes where social activities take place such as happy hours, wine or tea tasting and yoga sessions to offer entertainment and to keep the young tourists in the hotel (Raj Chandnani cited Morrissey 2012). Ms Klauda, vice president at D.K. Shifflet & Associates, travel and hospitality market research company, stated that young tourists passes more time with working and socializing at the lobby than they are in their rooms. That is why more attention needs to go towards the design and outlay of the hotel lobby (Morrissey 2012). Another change which takes place because of young travellers is the correspondence and marketing on social media. Nowadays young adults would not complain directly to the hotel, but post it on trip advisor, twitter or other websites. Since 2010 Starwood Hotels and Resorts employs a department of 20 people who monitor the web and react to complaints of customers (Morrissey 2012). Mark Woodworth the president of Colliers PKF Hospitality Research argued that “Hotels that ignore these young travellers will be at a very severe competitive disadvantage” (Morrissey 2012, p.B6). Young tourists’ most exercised activity abroad is sightseeing of the most famous tourist attractions and cultural sites of the destination, which includes cultural events, museums, religious monuments, palaces and historic places. The second most frequent activity is to engage with the locals, visit restaurants, cafes and bars (Moisa 2010). As one of the major motivations of young travellers is the search of experiences, it is not surprising that the majority of young travellers participate in activities during their holiday. Some additional activities of the stereotypical young tourists which to a certain amount distinguishes young tourists from the rest are: studying new languages, meeting with friends and relatives, volunteering, visiting festivals,

41

observing the nature, exploring non-tourist areas, relaxing on the beach, shopping, and performing sports (Moisa 2010). Backpackers take part in more activities than any other segment of the young travel market. Their main aim of their travel is to experience a very unique travel which happens once in a lifetime. Considering the long period they travel and stay at a destination, this group connects recreation and involvement in social and cultural events. Daily activities like food shopping or visiting a café or restaurant are the major activities of backpackers. This can be explained by the motivation of most backpackers to undergo the everyday life of a destination and to meet with locals (Moisa 2010). There is a strong connection between the motivation and experience in contrast to the quantity of practised activities during a trip and it is important to understand the different travel behaviour of young people. Generally speaking, tourists who’s major motivation is to learn about other cultures or to learn a certain skill are more active on their holidays than tourists which major motivation is recreation (Moisa 2010). Confirming to Richards and Wilson study (2003), young people who went on more than 10 holidays participate in more activities and therefore are a more active tourist than those young people who went on less than 3 holidays. Another component which shows differences in the holiday activities is the gender. Young female tourists favour walking around the destination, visiting cafes and restaurants, doing shopping, and attending events, whereas young men prefer to watch and take part in sport competition or extreme sports (Moisa 2010). The recreational activities which young tourist practise also depends on the destination they are visiting. Visiting the beach is a typical leisure activity when travelling to Spain, Australia, Greece or Thailand, walking is specific to destination like Australia, Japan, Mexico, South Africa or Egypt, going partying appeals to young tourists in destinations such as Ireland, Australia and Thailand and visiting museums, historic sights and cultural events are the most popular activities in China, United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, and Egypt. Most young tourists travel to India, Japan or South Africa for participating in volunteer programs. The most common countries for work and travel programmes are England and Sweden and most young people travel to the United States or Australia for studying (Moisa 2010). 42

Reported by the UNWTO the youth travel market is worth US $136 billion a year or in other words 18% of the money spend in international tourism globally. Considering the normally longer holiday duration, a usual youth tourist lays out more money than the usual tourist on his/her holiday. The typical youth tourist spends US $2600 for each holiday and US $1500 of these is lay out at the destination. As compared with the total income, young travellers lay out more money for their holiday than any other tourist segment (WTO 2008). In the report of Richards and Wilson (2003) it was argued that the average daily spending of young tourist is in comparison with other tourist segments very low with less than US $20 per day. Although the daily spending’s of young tourists are lower than of other tourist segments, their average total spending at the destination is US $1200 which is higher than of the average high class tourist (Richards & Wilson 2003). The choice of travel destinations also influenced the amount which young tourists spend. Most money was spent for a trip including the travel cost to Australia (US $4600), whilst the average young tourist in Thailand spend US $2200 and in Turkey just US $700 (Richards & Wilson 2003).

3 Methods 3.1 Surveys Stated by Pfleeger and Kitchenham (2001, p. 16) a survey is defined as “a comprehensive system for collecting information to describe, compare or explain knowledge, attitudes and behaviour “. Flick (2011) confirmed that the aim of a survey is to collect the participant’s opinion or cause for certain behaviour. In quantitative research four types of survey methods with several subgroups exist which are: the telephone interview divided into the traditional telephone interview and CATI (computer assisted telephone interview), personal interview categorised as in-home/in-office, street interview and CAPI (computer assisted personal interview), mail interview divided into traditional mail survey and mail panel, and finally electronic interview using the internet and email (Birks 2007). 43

Survey methods Telephone

Personal interviewing

Traditional telephone

In-home

CATI (Computer

Street interviewing

assisted telephone interview)

Mail interviewing

In-office

Electronic interviewing

Traditional mail survey

Email

Mail panel

Internet

CAPI (computer assisted personal interview

Figure 4: Classification of survey techniques Source Birks (2007, p. 267) Telephone interviews can be conducted in the traditional way or computer assisted. In a traditional phone interview a sample of questionees are asked a number of questions. A paper questionnaire is used by the interviewer and answers are written down. A typical phone interview is rather short and consists of a few questions with given choices as answers. These days the traditional phone interview is barely used, the more common method is computer assisted telephone interviews (Birks 2007). Computer-assisted telephone interviews are held by an interviewer who uses an electronic questionnaire to deal with the participants over the telephone. The interviewer asks the questions which are shown on the screen and types in the answers from the questionee. The computer then immediately analyses the responses to personalise the following questions. The answers of the respondent will go automatically into the database to be evaluated (Birks 2007). The advantages of phone interviews are that a broad geographical area can be reached as well as a good quality control as the questions can be personalized toward the participant. With using computer assisted telephone interviews data can be gathered, analysed and stored in a very fast way (Birks 2007). 44

The disadvantage of telephone interviews are that not every person is listed in the public telephone number register. Furthermore, the participation is very low as not many people like telephone interviews and immediately hang up. In case the interviewee is willing to take part in the survey it should not take long otherwise the participant can quickly feel forced to participate (Trochim & Donnelly 2007). Personal interviews can also be used as a data collection method. Personal interviews can be classified as in-home, in-office, street or computer assisted. During the interview the participant can ask understanding and follow-up questions (Trochim & Donnelly 2007). For personal in-home interviews the interviewer visits the questionee at home where the face to face interview is held. The interviewer has to approach the questionee, hold the interview and record the answers. Nowadays, personal inhome interviews are not very common due to the high costs. However, in certain cases personal in-home interviews are still conducted due to the high quality of the interview procedure and the type of questions which are being asked (Birks 2007). In-office interviews are mainly used for business to business research.

Most

managers prefer to be interviewed in their office as they can monitor the time and pace of the interview as well as having the security and convenience of their own office. The main advantages for this type of survey are the opportunity to create sympathy and to have the full attention of the manager (Birks 2007). Street interviews are mainly conducted in shopping streets or shopping centres. The respondent is either questioned at the street or at a test facility close by. Street interviews are ideal for testing new products as the interviewee has the opportunity to test the product. The advantage of street interviews is that it is more efficient for the participant to go to the questioner than for the questioner to come to the participant (Birks 2007). CAPI which stand for computer-assisted personal interview is very similar to computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) with the difference that the interview takes place in person and a computer is used to type in the answers. This

45

technique is classified as personal as a person will be present during the interview in case the respondent needs any support (Birks 2007). The advantages of personal interviews are the high response rate. Most people prefer interviews as they take place in a face to face setting and often give them the opportunity to see or even touch the product. Further, interviewees are more likely to answer in greater detail to open ended question in oral form rather than written form.

Lastly, the interviewer can observe the behaviour and reaction of the

participant during the interview (Birks 2007). The disadvantage of personal interviews is that they can be very time consuming and have high costs. In addition, the interviewer has to be well trained as the person acts as the measurement instrument. It is important that the interviewer has good communication and interpersonal skills as well as to be prepared for any kind of situation (Trochim & Donnelly 2007). Mail interviews can be accomplished by the traditional mail survey or the mail panel. Traditional mail surveys are questionnaires which are sent via post to preselected questionee. A typical mail survey includes a cover letter, questionnaire and an envelope for return. The task of the questionee is to fill out the questionnaire and send it back. No correspondence takes place between the interviewer and interviewee during the survey process (Birks 2007). The advantage of mail survey is the low cost (Trochim & Donnelly 2007). Mail panels are a high number of a representative sample of households which signup to take part in mail questionnaires and product tests. The participants receive several inducements in return. Mail panels are used to gain data from the same participants regularly (Birks 2007). The advantage of using mail panels is the higher response rate in comparison to the traditional mail survey (Trochim & Donnelly 2007). The disadvantage for mail survey and mail panels is the difficulty to ask complex question where the participant would need to write a detailed answer (Trochim & Donnelly 2007). Electronic surveys can be accomplished through emails or via the internet. For the first approach the survey is typed in the body of the email message and sent out to a

46

certain list of email addresses. Participants fill out either open ended or closed ended questions and submit their answer to the questioner (Birks 2007). Internet surveys are available to many via an online link in comparison to email surveys which are sent to specific email address. The questionee is asked to click on a link or to visit a website to participate in the survey. One of the advantages of internet surveys compared to email surveys is that the interviewer can create buttons and data entry fields to avoid that questionees choose more than one answers options (Birks 2007). The advantages for electronic surveys are the low costs and the speed of gathering and evaluating data (Birks 2007). In addition, pictures, graphs, video or music links can be easily inserted in the electronic survey, which may help the participant to understand a question (Boyer et al. 2001). The disadvantages are that technical problems may occur and not every household may have a computer or internet access (Trochim & Donnelly 2007). Furthermore, email surveys can often seem unappealing and dry and the respondence rate is low due to spam protection software or no interest of the respondent (Birks 2007). However, with the growth and importance of the internet electronic surveys are becoming the most common survey method (Birks 2007). Stated by Flick (2011) most surveys are carried out through questionnaires which are filled out by the respondent in written form or the interviewer is questioning the respondent. An attribute of a questionnaire is its standardization. The sequencing, positioning and wording of the questions and answer choices are decided by the researcher. Frequently, open ended questions are included in questionnaires to allow the questionees to respond in their own words. The main objective of a questionnaire is to obtain answers from respondents which can then be compared. For this reason the questions and questionnaires are arranged in the same way for all respondents (Flick 2011). According to Birks (2007) the advantages of questionnaires are their simplicity to administer and that the collected data is coherent as the questionees have a limited choice of answer options. In addition, the evaluation and coding of data is

47

straightforward. The disadvantages of using questionnaires are the high number of questionees who do not reply especially if the questions are personal or sensitive. Furthermore, questions with set of predetermined answers can hardly gain information on beliefs or feelings. Furthermore, it is highly important that the questions are reasonable and valid through the chosen wording and logic. How revealing the collected answers will be relies on the type of the question as well as its position (Birks 2007). Numerous types of survey question exist which can be segmented into structured and unstructured question. (Trochim & Donnelly 2007). In the following paragraphs the author will discuss several different types of structured questions. First, dichotomous questions which give the respondent two possible answer options such as yes/no, true/false, agree/disagree. This type of question is very common due to its simplicity and easiness for researchers to analyse the responses (Trochim & Donnelly 2007). Other questions are based on level of measurement, such as using a nominal response format, ordinal response format, interval level response format, likert response format, semantic differential and cumulative response format. When using nominal response format the number next to each answer has the purpose of a placeholder. The main reason for using this technique is the rapidity of data entry. When evaluating the data the researcher just has to type in a number instead of a word (Trochim & Donnelly 2007). Regarding ordinal response format the researcher asks the questionee to rank their answers in order of preference. Often the questionee has to put 1 to 5 next to an answer where 1 represents the questionee’s first choice and 5 the last. This type of question must be explained clearly as it can be confusing for the questionee which number stands for which rank (Trochim & Donnelly 2007). Similar to the ordinal response format is the likert response format. For example, the researcher asks the questionees to give an answer between 1 and 5 where 1 stands for strongly disagree and 5 for strongly agree (Trochim & Donnelly 2007).

48

A semantic differential response format for a survey question is a scaling approach where an item is rated by the questionee on a choice of bipolar adjective pairs for example good-evil or adequate-inadequate(Trochim & Donnelly 2007). Lastly, the cumulative response format exist where the respondent choose each answer they agree with. The answers are in such a way that the respondent will most likely agree with several other answer options (Trochim & Donnelly 2007). Another different type of question is the filter or contingency question. It is used when the researcher has to identify if the questionee has the experience to answer the following questions. Filter questions can be complicated and in certain cases it takes several filter questions to lead the questionee to the correct question (Trochim & Donnelly 2007). The opposite of structured questions are unstructured such as open ended questions. The questionees are asked to answer the question by writing their answers in their own words. The main difference to structured question is that the questionee defines the answer not the researcher. This type of question is very useful when the researcher wants to give the respondents an opportunity to express themselves in their own words which may lead to new aspects of the topic. Using open ended questions can be difficult as some respondents do not have the time to fill them out or feel under compulsion. Moreover, it can be complicated to compare the answers of the respondents. (Trochim & Donnelly 2007).

3.2 Development of Questionnaire As previously mentioned, the aim of this thesis is to focus on young travellers' awareness and willingness to actively take part in culinary tourism as well as what role food and beverages play during their holidays. Based on the literature review of young people’s travel behaviour and definition of a culinary tourist the author wanted to draw a line between literature and survey. In order to achieve the aim of this study an online survey was designed. The survey method used was an online questionnaire consisting of 16 questions using closed and open ended questions. Each question included in the questionnaire was selected based on the literature review. 49

The questionnaire was designed for self-completion and divided into 5 sections. The first section consisted of open ended and closed questions regarding the travel behaviour and characteristics of the respondents. The aim was to indicate the number of holidays the respondent went on in the last years, the type of information source which was used to learn about the destination, the type of accommodation the respondents stayed on their last holiday, as well as the amount of money that was spend on their last holiday for the whole trip. The second part included open ended and closed questions concerning the role and importance of local food and beverages during a holiday. The open ended questions asked the respondents to explain why or why not he/she is interested in trying the local cuisine and beverages on holidays. Furthermore, the respondents had to indicate the percentage of the food and beverages they consume during a holiday they would call typical for the destination. The last question in the second part asked the respondents about the amount of money that was spend on their last holiday singulat on food and beverages. The third part consisted of a 5 point likert scale to find out about the willingness of young travellers to take part in certain culinary tourism activities during their holiday. These activities were selected based on the literature review. The fourth section included closed ended questions regarding the role of food and beverages as motive for travelling. It also included the awareness of the term culinary tourism as well as the act of buying food and beverage as souvenirs. Finally, the fifth part included open ended and closed questions regarding the demographic characteristics of the respondents.

3.3 Data Collection Process The study was conducted from 26th April to 2nd May 2013. The author sent out the questionnaire on the 26th of April 2013. The author primarily focused on students from MODUL University Vienna, but also on friends and relatives because the literature defines young travellers between the age of 16 and 35. The sample email and questionnaire can be found in the Appendix A and C.

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The link to the online survey was send via email to all bachelor students of MODUL University Vienna. The author also circulated it on the social media site Facebook to reach a wider target audience. In order to ensure that only people of the desired age group (between 16 and 35) would fill out the questionnaire clear instructions were written in the surveys introduction. Text used in the Facebook announcement can be found in B. A reminder was sent out on the 29th April to all MODUL students as well as on Facebook. This gave a total of 196 respondents within 6 days.

4 Findings 4.1 Demographic profile Table 1 profiles the respondents, outlining basic demographic characteristics. Most of the respondents were between 21 and 25 years old (54.6%), followed by the age groups of 31 to 35 years (18.5%), 16 to 20 years (15.9%), and finally the smallest age group of 26 to 30 years of 10.8%. The average age was 25 years. More than two thirds (68.2%) of all respondents were female. The main countries of the origin were Austria (23.2%), Germany (9.8%), Croatia (5.2%), Spain (4.6%), and United Kingdom (4.1%), followed by 56 other countries mainly from Europe. Finally, in regard to occupation the sample contains a large proportion of students (65.8%) compared to employed (34.2%). This reflects what the WTO, tour operators and agencies profile as young adult’s travellers.

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Characteristic Number (N) of respondents Age 16-20 31 21-25 106 26-30 21 31-35 36 Gender Male 62 Female 133 Country of origin Austria 45 Germany 19 Croatia 10 Spain 9 United Kingdom 8 Romania 6 USA 6 Switzerland 5 Netherlands 5 Belgium 4 Greece 4 France 4 Denmark 4 Hungary 4 Ireland 3 Italy 3 Chile 3 Singapore 3 Australia 3 Egypt 3 Czech Republic 3 Other 40 Occupation Student 125 Employed 65 Table 1: Demographic profile of respondents

% 15.9 54.6 10.8 18.5 31.8 68.2 23.2 9.8 5.2 4.6 4.1 3.1 3.1 2.6 2.6 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 20.6 65.8 34.2

4.2 Travel profile Various questions focused on the travel behaviour of the respondents including the number of holidays taken during the last year, the amount spent for the last holiday as well as solely for food and beverages, which type of information source was used prior to the trip, and at what type of accommodation the respondents stayed on

52

their last holiday. The majority of the respondents (34.9%) went on two holidays during the last year (Table 2). Table 2 also indicates that 14.9% went on five or more holidays within the last year. Furthermore, if one compares the number of holidays taken during the last year with the occupation, one can see in Table 3 that most of the respondents who are employed went on three holidays (35.6%) within the last year and excepting that one outlier with ten holidays the maximum on holidays were six during one year. Table 4 shows that most respondents who are students went on two or three holidays (each 25.1%) within the last year. However, the number of holidays taken by students was higher than that of the employed respondents which can be associated with the amount of free time students get. 80 Number of respondents

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Number of holidays

Table 2: Number of holidays taken during the last year by all respondents

53

20

Number of respondents

25 20 15 10

Employed

5 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

10

Number of holidays

Table 3: Number of holidays taken during the last year by all employed respondents 60

Number of respondents

50 40 30 Student 20 10 0 1

2

3

4

5

7

8

9

10

20

Number of holidays

Table 4: Number of holidays taken during the last year by all student respondents

Table 5 provides the respondents’ choice on information source for gaining more information about the travel destination for their last holiday. It was found that 54.4% used the internet, 13.9% asked friends or relatives and another 13.9% went to a travel agency. These results confirm a study by Richards and Wilson (2003) which

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indicated that most young tourists used the internet, followed by friends and relatives, prior their trip to learn more about the destination. In Table 6 the different age groups are compared to the various information sources used. The internet is used most by all age groups. One should turn the attention to the age group of 31 to 35 years where 6.2% of the total used the internet, however; 5.2% used the service of a travel agency and 4.2% used a travel guide to learn more about their holiday destination.

Number of respondents

120 100 80 60 40 20 0

Table 5: Type of information source used by all respondents

Number of respondents

70 60 50 40 30

16-20

20

21-25

10

26-30

0

31-35

Table 6: Information source used grouped by respondents age 55

The respondents were also asked about the type of accommodation they stayed in during their last holiday. The given answers included: apartment, B&B, campsite, friends or relatives, hostel, hotel, and other. Most of the respondents with 35.9% indicated that they stayed at a hotel, followed by friends or relatives with 17.4%, and hostel with 16.9% (see Table 7). These results differ slightly from those reported by WTO in 2007 in which most young tourists stayed at hostels, followed by hotels, and friends and relatives (Moisa 2010). Table 8 displays the chosen accommodation type used by employed respondents. More than half of the respondents (51.6%) indicated that they stayed at a hotel on their last holiday, followed by friends or relatives with only 10.9%. In comparison, 27.2% of the students stayed at a hotel, 22.4% at a hostel, and 20.8% with friends or relatives on their last holiday (see Table 9).

Apartment Bed and breakfast Campsite Friends or relatives Hostel Hotel Other

Table 7: Type of accommodation respondents stayed in on their last holiday

56

Number of respondents

35 30 25 20 15 10

Employed

5

0

Table 8: Accommodation chosen by employed respondents on their last holiday

Number of respondents

35 30

25 20 15 10

Student

5 0

Table 9: Accommodation chosen by student respondents on their last holiday The last question regarding the travel profile asked the respondents to state the amount they spend during their last holiday including travel expenses. The replies included amounts from €150 up to €18000. Most respondents with 12.6% stated that €600 was the amount they spent during their last holiday. However, Table 10 presents the mean which is €1038 as a result of a couple outliers. If one excludes

57

these anomalies of €8000, €12000 and €18000 the average amount of money spent is €853. Table 10 also indicates the average amount the respondents spent on food and beverage on their last holiday. The amounts from the respondents ranged from €25 to €5000. 11.7% of the respondents stated that they have spent €200 for food and beverages on their last holiday. The average of all respondents is €218; if we exclude the outlier then the average is €192. Finally, it can be concluded that 21% of the average amount spent was for food and beverages. These results differ significantly from those reported by the UNWTO where in average a youth tourist spends US$ 2600 (€2020) for each holiday (WTO 2008). However, in the study of the UNWTO backpackers as well as young people who worked and travelled or studied abroad were part of the respondents which should be kept in mind when interpreting the results. Question

How much money did you spend on average per trip during the last year (including travel expenses)? How much money do you spend on average for food and beverages on your holiday?

Number (n) of respondents

Mean

Number (n) of respondents

Mean excluding outliers

191

€1038

188

€853

Spend on food and beverages % 21%

188

€218

187

€192

23%

Table 10: Average of money spent during the last holiday and particular for food and beverages

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4.3 Importance of local food and beverages With the question of indicating the amount the respondents spend on food and beverage during their last holiday one is already analysing the importance which food and beverages play during the holiday. The respondents were asked to indicate whether they are interested in trying local food and beverages on their holiday. 33.3% stated that they are not interested. The only given explanation of all respondents was: “I am a picky eater”. However, 66.7% of the respondents indicated that they are interested and few statements given which represents most opinions are: •

“Curiosity”



“Trying out something new is a great experience and a reason to travel”



“Local culture = local food”



“What's the fun of a holiday without trying the local food?! “



”I wouldn't want to miss a new culinary experience”



“I want to try food that I normally can't get when I am at home”



“Why would I go somewhere to not eat what is local?”



“Tasting and trying local foods is one of my favourite parts about traveling. Through the cuisine, you can tell a lot about their history by the culinary influences”



“I travel to get to know other cultures so I want to try and see their traditional food and beverages”



“Food is one of the key factors to remember nice holidays”



“I love to immerse myself in the culture of a different country and this includes food”

One can see that many respondents connect local food and beverages with the culture, lifestyle and history of the destination they are visiting. These explanations confirm the importance for the respondents to experience, learn and get inspired about the local culture and see food and beverages as one of the main tools for achieving this. In addition, the curiosity of trying and experiencing something new is very high as well as using the opportunity to try local food and beverages during a 59

holiday which might not be available at the home country. For various respondents trying local food and beverages are a fix part of the holiday and would not like to miss it, especially because food and beverages are often related to memorable moments of the holiday. As Mitchell and Hall (2003) have pointed out, a simple lunch or dinner will always stay in memory when it was experienced at a breathtaking sight or after an exciting day of sightseeing. Furthermore, the findings of this study indicated that 72% of the respondents purchased food or beverages as a souvenir to take home while they were on holiday. The explanations given by the respondents explaining why they are interested in trying local food and beverages on their holiday confirm the travel motivations for culinary tourists using the motivation typology of McIntosh (1995 cited Karim 2006) where four types are defined: the physical, cultural, interpersonal, and status and prestige motivators. Physical motivators which could as well been found in the answers of the respondents are undertaking an authentic holiday experience by trying the local cuisines which makes a difference to the daily routine and gives experiences which would not be possible at home. The cultural motivator represented the strongest by the respondents. A cultural motivator for a culinary tourist is to explore and learn about a new culture and their traditions and lifestyle and see food and beverages as the best tool for doing so (Karim 2006). Furthermore, according to a study by Richards and Wilson (2003) exploring other cultures is the most often travel motive of young people. The interpersonal motivator as well as the prestige and status were not represented in the replies of the respondents. This might be explained by the fact that young tourists do not connect trying local food and beverages on their holidays with sitting together with their travel company or when visiting family members or friends who live abroad. Concerning the prestige and status, it could be connected with the travel budget young travellers have available as well as their travel behaviour and they therefore don not see food and beverages which they consume as a status symbol but more as an opportunity to engage with the culture of the destination which is in line with the literature of Karim (2006).

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Table 11 provides respondent’s opinion of how much of the food and beverages they consume during a holiday they would say is typical for the destination. More than a third (42.6%) of all respondents indicated that 21-40% of the food and beverages they consume on a holiday is typical for the destination, followed by 29.7% stating that the food and beverages they consumed was 41-60% typical for the destination. Coherences were found by comparing the answers of the respondents on if they have an interest in trying the local food and beverage on their holidays with the percentage of the food and beverages they consume and which they see as typical for the destination. Table 12 shows that most respondents (22.1%) who stated that they have no interest in trying local food and beverages indicated that 21-40% of the food and beverages they consume on a holiday are typical for the destination. Mainly respondents who have no interest in trying local food and beverages stated that only 0-20% or 21-40% of the food and beverages they consume are typical for the destination. Table 12 also indicates that the higher the percentage of local food and beverages consumed during a holiday the lower the respondence rate of respondents with no interest in trying local food. Most respondents (21.1%) which indicated an interest in local food stated that 41-60% of the food they consume during a holiday is typical for the destination. The given answer of 61-80% was nearly only chosen by respondents with an interest in trying local food and beverages whereas only respondents with an interest in local food and beverages stated that 81-100% of the food they consume during a holiday is typical for the destination.

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90 Number of respondents

80 70 60

50 40 30 20 10 0

0-20%

21-40%

41-60%

61-80%

81-100%

Percentage of the destination typical food and beverages consumed

Table 11: Percentage of the consumed food and beverages which the respondents

Number of respondents

would state as typical for the destination 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

No Yes

0-20%

21-40%

41-60%

61-80%

81-100%

Percentage of the destination typical food and beverages consumed

Table 12: Interest in trying the local food and beverages compared to percentage of the local food and beverages consumed by the respondents

4.4 Culinary tourism activities as holiday activities Table 13 indicates the 14 activities which were provided to the respondents and they were asked to state the likeliness they would participate in each. The 14 activities are from an earlier study of Stewart et al. (2008) and are used to indicate who is a culinary tourist by engaging in at least one of the 14 activities during a 62

holiday. Concerning culinary tourism, 71% of the respondents indicated that they are familiar with the term culinary tourism or travelling for purpose of enjoying food and beverages. Table 13 indicates that the activity which most of the respondents (61.9%) would participate in was dining at a local restaurant, followed by staying at country inn/resort with a gourmet restaurant (42.8%), shop for gourmet food in retail stores (31.6%), and wine tasting with 31.4%. Table 13 also shows the percentage of the respondents when adding the results of most likely with likely and unlikely with most unlikely. By comparing the results, one can see that with 46.9% the respondents would be likely to attend a food and beverage festival, 47.5% would visit a vineyard, 39.1% would visit a brewery, 40.2% would visit a cheese factory, 54.7% would visit a chocolate factory, and 44.4% would stay at a vineyard. Previous studies of Getz and Brown (2006) have indicated that a culinary tourist favours to stay at a gourmet restaurant which offers accommodation. Furthermore, a wine tourist is defined by visiting and/or staying at a vineyard as well as attending a wine tasting whereas, a food tourist is characterised by purchasing gourmet food at farms or shops, visiting a cooking school, and is dining at local restaurants which offers products from the region (Murray 2011). In contrast to the above activities where the respondents were positive of taking part in them, for the following activities most respondents stated they would most unlikely or unlikely take part in them during their holidays. The activities with the highest response rate indicating of most unlikely were taking part in a cooking course (20.1%) and staying at a cooking course (20.1%). Although the food and beverage festival activity achieved a high response rate indicated low interest, the number of respondents who would take part in that certain activity is higher. The activities, dining at a farm (33.2%), and fruit picking at a farm (39.4%) achieved the highest response rate of the respondents in the category unlikely.

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Activities

Food/Beverage Festival Cooking course Visit a vineyard Wine tasting Dining at a local restaurant Dining at a farm Fruit picking at a farm Shop for gourmet food in retail stores Visit a brewery Visit a cheese factory Visit a chocolate factory Stay at a cooking school Stay at a vineyard Stay at a country inn/resort with a gourmet restaurant

Most likely % 17.0

Likely %

Not sure %

Unlikely % 16.0

Most unlikely % 21.1

Most likely & Likely % 46.9

Most unlikely & Unlikely % 37.1

29.9

16.0

4.6 21.7 31.4 61.9

18.6 25.8 41.2 24.2

15.5 16.5 11.9 5.2

41.2 21.1 6.2 5.2

20.1 15.0 9.3 3.6

23.2 47.5 72.6 86.1

61.3 36.1 15.5 8.8

11.9

25.9

23.8

33.2

5.2

37.8

38.4

5.7

15.5

21.2

39.4

18.1

21.2

57.5

31.6

28.5

17.6

17.6

4.7

60.1

22.3

12.0 13.4

27.1 26.8

22.9 25.3

30.2 22.2

7.8 12.4

39.1 40.2

38 34.6

25.8

28.9

15.5

20.1

9.8

54.7

29.9

5.7

13.4

22.2

38.7

20.1

19.1

58.8

15.5

28.9

16.5

29.9

9.3

44.4

39.2

42.8

34.5

10.3

7.2

5.2

77.3

12.4

Table 13: Percentages of respondents opinion in participating in culinary tourism activities

4.5 Food as a motive for travelling Regarding food being a motive to travel to a certain destination the survey shows that 66% of the respondents have the opinion that food and beverages at a destination do not influence their decision to travel there. However, 58% of the respondents indicated that they could imagine travelling to a destination only to experience a certain food or beverage. It could be concluded that the respondents are not aware to what extent the food and beverages at a destination can play a role when making a travel decision. 64

5 Conclusion and Recommendations This paper has focused on a specific market of the tourism product, culinary tourism and its impacts on destination management and marketing, and more specifically on the youth travel market. The purpose of the conducted survey was to examine the travel behaviour of young tourists and analyse which role the local food and beverages play on a holiday. Furthermore, to test the likeliness young tourists would participate in holiday activities which are defined as culinary tourism activities and to examine if food and beverages are a motive for young tourists to travel to a destination. Results of this survey shed light on the travel profile of young travellers regarding the number of holidays per year, the used information source to collect information about the holiday destination, the accommodation and the average amount a young tourist spent on the last holiday. The findings indicate that most respondents went on two to three holiday during the last year and the internet was the most used information source by all age groups. However, a high percentage of respondents between 31 until 35 years use travel agencies and travel guides. Concerning the accommodation, more than half of the employed respondents indicated that they stayed at a hotel on their last holiday whereas, the chosen accommodation type of the students was varied but hotels were marginally the most popular. The average amount spent for the last holiday was €853 excluding outliers. Concerning the importance which local food and beverages have for young tourists on their holidays, the findings indicate that for a significant number of respondents the local food and beverages is an important part of the travel experience. Many respondents see food and beverages as a main part of a countries culture and explained in their answers that experiencing the culture of the destination they are visiting is one of their main purposes of their holiday. These findings raise the question, if young tourists are also a market for culinary tourism. This assumption would change the current definition of a culinary tourist as they are defined as “above-average-income professionals in their 30s to 50s” (Grihault & Koya 2004, p.1 cited Mason & Mahony 2007). Furthermore, the results of the study confirm this thought by indicating a medium to high interest of the respondents in most activities

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which according to Stewart et al. (2008 citied Murray 2011) indicate a culinary tourist. The highest interest was achieved for the following activities; dining at a local restaurant, staying at a country inn/resort with a gourmet restaurant, wine tasting, shopping for gourmet food and visiting a chocolate factory. These findings are in line with the authors research question which had the aim to find out if destinations should consider young tourists as a potential market segment for culinary tourism and accordingly trying to attract them. Regarding limitations, the result of this study cannot be generalized to all young traveller as the sample size was limited and students, women, and the age group of 21 to 25 years was overrepresented. If the sample size would have been bigger, more differences between the various sociodemographic characteristic may have been identified. Finally, further research should be conducted about detailed characteristics and travel behaviour of a culinary tourist. In addition, clarification about the definition of culinary tourism and to acknowledge and treat it as an individual market should be realised. This gained knowledge would assist destination management organisations as well as food and beverage producers who are part of the culinary tourism product to establish targeted marketing campaigns and influence and intervene in the decision making process. Furthermore, the nature and marketing related potential of culinary tourism components should be further analysed as well as in relation to the best practise of creating awareness and attracting non culinary tourists. In addition, further research should be conducted to create models and strategies for partnerships between the tourism/food industry and the government as well the culinary tourism and other tourism products. Regarding young travellers, future research should further examine the relation between culinary tourism and young travellers. As the study showed, young tourists have a high interest in trying the local food and beverages during their holidays and dine at a local restaurant. Future research should focus on how to make use of the interest of young tourist towards trying local food in restaurants and encouraging participation in more diverse culinary tourism activities. Young people will be the tourists of tomorrow and it is a fast growing market with a high interest in 66

experiencing and involving in the culture of their holiday destination which is a great opportunity to draw their attention towards culinary tourism.

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Bibliography BAUMBACH, I., 2007. Trends im Tourismus und Freizeitgestaltung und wie man sie rechtzeitig erkennt. Heidelberg: Redline Wirtschaft. BESSIERE J., 1998. Local development and heritage: traditional food and cuisine as tourist attractions in rural areas. Sociologia Ruralis, 38 (1), 21-34. BIRKS, D.F. AND MALHOTRA, N.K., 2007. Marketing Research and applied approach. 3rd ed. Harlow: Prentice Hall. BOUKAS, N., 2007. Young visitors’ perceptions towards cultural destinations: the case of Delphi. Annals of leisure research, 10 (3-4), 431-453. BOYNE, S.; HALL, D.; WILLIAMS F., 2003. Policy, support and promotion for food related tourism initiatives: a marketing approach to regional development. In C.M HALL, ed. Wine, food and tourism marketing. New York: Haworth Hospitality Press, 131-154. DREYER, A., 2010. Wein und Tourismus: Erfolg durch Synergien und Kooperationen. Berlin: Erich Schmidt Verlag. DU RAND, G.E.; HEATH, E.; ALBERTS, N., 2003. The role of local and regional food in destination marketing: a south African situation analysis. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 14 (3), 97-112. FLICK, U., 2011. Introducing research methodology. A beginner’s guide to doing a research project. London: SAGE. FROCHOT, I., 2003. An analysis of regional positioning and its associated food images in French tourism regional brochures. In C.M. HALL, ed. Wine, food and tourism marketing. New York: Haworth Hospitality Press, 77-96. GETZ, D. AND BROWN, G., 2004. Critical success factors for wine tourism regions: a demand analysis. Tourism Management, 27, 146-158. HALL, C.H. AND SHARPLES, L., 2003. The consumption of experiences or the experience of consumption? An introduction to the tourism of taste. In C.M. HALL, 68

eds. Food Tourism around the World. Development, management and markets. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann,1-24. HALL, C.H., 2004. Preface. In C.M HALL, ed. Wine, food and tourism marketing. New York: Haworth Hospitality Press, xiii. HASHIMOTO, A. AND TELFER, D.J., 2006. Selling Canadian Culinary Tourism: Branding the Global and the Regional Product. Tourism Geographies: An International Journal of Tourism Space, Place and Environment, 8 (1), 31-55. KARIM, S. A., 2006. Culinary tourism as a destination attraction: an empirical examination of the destination’s food image and information sources, Thesis (PhD), Oklahoma State University. MASON, R. AND O’Mahony, B., 2007. On the Trail of Food and Wine : The tourist search for meaningful experience. Annals of Leisure Research, 10 (3-4), 498-517. MITCHELL, R., HALL C.M.,2003. Consuming tourists: food tourism consumer behaviour. In C.M. HALL, eds. Food Tourism around the World. Development, management and markets. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann,60-80. MOISA, C.O., 2010. The distinctiveness of the youth travel product. Annales universitatis apulensis series oeconomica, 2, 638-648. MUNTEAN, M.C.; NISTOR, C.; NISTOR, R.; SARPE, D., 2010. OENO-Gourmet Tourism – A new way of Romanian tourism boost. Latest Trends on Cultural Heritage and Tourism, 59-61, 241-246. MORRISSEY J., 2010. The millennials check in (online). New York Times. Available from:

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/13/business/young-travelers-drive-

changes-in-hotel-industry.html?pagewanted=1&_r=3&ref=technology-

(Accessed

22 February 2013). MURRAY, I., 2011. Culinary Tourism: Segment or Figment. Thesis (PhD). University of Guelph.

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LOPEZ-GUZMAN, T.; CANIZAREA, S.; GARCIA, R., 2009. Wine Routes in Spain: A case study. TOURISM - An International Interdisciplinary Journal, 57 (4), 421-434. RICHARDS, G. AND WILSON, J., 2003. Today’s youth travellers: tomorrow’s global nomads. New horizons in independent youth and student travel. A report for the international student travel confederation (ISTC) and the association of tourism and leisure education (ATLAS). Amsterdam: International student travel confederation (ISTC). PFLEEGER, S.,L.; KITCHENHAM, B.,A., 2001. Principles of Survey Research. Software Engineering Notes, 26 (6), 16-18. SLOW FOOD, “Slow food worldwide”; “what you can do”. Available from: http://www.slowfood.com/ (Accessed 23 February 2013). SMITH, S., 2007. Analysis of tourists attending a culinary event: Motivations, satisfaction, and behavioural outcomes. Thesis (PhD). The University of Tennessee, Knoxville. TELFER, D. J., HASHIMOTO, A., 2003. Food tourism in the Niagara region: the development of a nouvelle cuisine. In C.M. HALL, eds. Food Tourism around the World.

Development,

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and

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Oxford:

Butterworth-

Heinemann,158-177. TIKKANEN, I., 2007. Maslow’s hierarchy and food tourism in Finland: five cases. British Food Journal, 109 (9), 721-734. TROCHIM, W.M.K. AND DONNELLY, J.P., 2007. The research methods knowledge base. Toronto: Thomson. UNWTO, “Number of young people travelling in 2010”. Available from: http://www2.unwto.org/ar/node/36201 (Accessed 18 February 2013). WILLIAMS, P.W.; DOSSA, K. B., 2003. Non-resident wine tourist markets: implications for British Columbia’s emerging wine tourism industry. In C.M. HALL, ed. Wine, food and tourism marketing. New York: Haworth Hospitality Press, 1-34.

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WTO, 2008. Youth Travel matters. Understanding the global phenomenon of youth travel. Madrid: WTO

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Appendices Appendix A Sample email which was sent to all students from MODUL University Vienna: Dear fellow students, I am writing my BBA thesis right now about culinary tourism and its connection to young adult travellers and destination management. This is why I created an online questionnaire and I would very much appreciate it if you could please fill it out. It will not take any longer than 10 minutes and all the data will be handled confidentially and anonymously. You can start the survey by clicking on the link below: http://docs.google.com/forms/d/1kduKDuog44PSKEf1mwsJh7qxSysytdmjxoJQfNqP jI/viewform Please do not hesitate to contact me in case you have any questions or comments regarding this survey! Thank you very much for your participation! Sabrina Redl

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Appendix B Text used in the Facebook announcement: Hi everyone, I am writing my BBA thesis right now. It's about culinary tourism and its connection to young adult travellers and destination management. I created an online questionnaire and I would very much appreciate it if you could PLEASE fill it out. It will not take any longer than 10 minutes and all the data will be handled confidentially and anonymously. You can start the survey by clicking on the link below: http://docs.google.com/forms/d/1kduKDuog44PSKEf1mwsJh7qxSysytdmjxoJQfNqP jI/viewform

Thank you very much for your participation!

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Appendix C Culinary Tourism for Young Adult Travellers Dear Participant, I am a BBA student and I am currently writing my thesis about culinary tourism and its connection to young adult travellers and destination management.

I have

created an online questionnaire in order to collect relevant data. I am especially looking for respondents between the age of 16 and 35. If this applies to you, I kindly ask you for your support by completing this survey. It will not take longer than 10 minutes. Participation in the survey is voluntary and all the data will be handled confidentially and anonymously. You can start the survey by clicking on the following link: Please do not hesitate to contact me in case you have any questions or comments regarding this survey! Sabrina Redl [email protected] Q1. How many holidays did you take during the last year? ____________________

Q2. How much money did you spend on average per trip during the last year (including travel expenses)? _____________________

74

Q3. What type of information source did you use for your last holiday to learn more about the destination? □ Internet □ Travel agency □ Travel guide □ Travel magazine □ Newspaper □ Asked friends or family □ Other _____________________

Q4. What type of accommodation did you choose for the stay on your last holiday? □ Hotel □ Hostel □ Apartment □ Bed and breakfast □ Campsite □ Friends or relatives □ Other _________________________

Q5. Are you interested in trying local food and beverages on your holidays? □ Yes, because ______________________________ □ No, because ______________________________

75

Q6. How much of the food and beverages you consume during a holiday would you say is typical for the destination? □ 0-20% □ 21-40% □ 41-60% □ 61-80% □ 81-100%

Q7. How much money do you spend on average for food and beverages on your holiday? __________________ Q8. How likely would you be to take part in the following holiday activities? Please use the following scale where 1 means most unlikely and 5 means most likely. Activity

Most Unlikely 1

Unlikely 2

Food/Beverage Festival Cooking course Visit a vineyard Wine tasting Dining at a local restaurant Dining at a farm Fruit picking at a farm Shop for gourmet food in retail stores Visit a brewery Visit a cheese factory Visit a chocolate factory Stay at a cooking school Stay at a vineyard Stay at a country inn/resort with a gourmet restaurant

76

Not sure 3

Likely 4

Most likely 5

Q9. Did you ever buy food or beverages as a souvenir while you were on holiday? □ Yes □ No

Q10. Do the food and beverages at a destination influence your decision to travel there? □ Yes □ No

Q11. Could you imagine traveling to a destination only to experience a certain food or beverage? □ Yes □ No

Q12. Are you familiar with the term “culinary tourism” or travelling for the purpose of enjoying food and beverages? □ Yes □ No

Q13. Gender: □ Male □ Female

Q14. Age: ______________

Q15. Nationality: ________________ 77

Q16. Occupation: _______________________

Thank you very much for your participation! Sabrina Redl

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