CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Literature review contains

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CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW

Literature review contains theoretical framework and previous research of this study. The theories of semantic, figurative meaning, contextual meaning, connotation and denotation, lexical meaning, grammatical meaning, and types of context were used to analyze the data and can be used as a foundation of theoretical framework.

2.1 Semantics Semantics is part of linguistics that deals with the study of meaning. According to Kreidler, Semantics is the systematic study of meanings, and linguistic semantics is the study of how languages organize and express meanings (1998:3). It means that, meaning in linguistic semantic is needed to limit ourselves to the expression of meanings in a single language. Semantics is the study of meaning in language. Although it can be conceived as concerned with meaning in general, it is often confined to those aspects which are relatively stable and context-free, in contrast to pragmatics, which is concerned with meaning variation and context bound. In constructing a meaning, a word may have more than one meaning, not only literal but also based on its context of word in a sentence. A context is determined in a set of meanings that corresponds to each sentence used in this context. Some words can find the meaning when they already inside the

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sentence. It is a word which bound with the context. It would have a meaning if the word accompanied with others word in front or behind of the word. There are some kinds of meaning based on the context in semantics, such as figurative meaning and contextual meaning, connotation and denotation, lexical meaning and grammatical meaning. Those are semantic theories which used to analyze meaning in the lyric of songs.

2.1.1 Figurative Meaning Figurative meaning is non-literal meaning because it has transferred meaning from literal meaning. Figurative meaning in a song could make the hearer confused and try to imagine what the real meaning of it. Figurative expression or non-literal meaning that connotes additional layers of meaning. When the human receive a message, the mind must interpret the data to convert it into meaning. This set of memories will give prominence to the most common or literal meanings, but also suggest reasons for attributing different meanings

2.1.2 Contextual Meaning Contextual meaning is the meaning of a lexeme or word inside a context. Context is a situation that occurs depends on whether phrase or sentence appears. A contextual definition is also a definition in which the

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term is used by embedding it in a larger expression containing its explanation. According to Sekhar Dash, she said: I have used the term context to refer to an immediate linguistic environment (rarely detached or isolated) in which a particular word occurs. Since it is not always explicit, it may be hidden within the neighboring members of a word used in a piece of text. If we cannot extract the information relevant to the meaning of a word from its immediate linguistic environment, we need to take into account the topic of discussion as sphere of necessary information. (2008, vol. 5, no. 2, p.22) From the quotation above, when a word is used in a piece of text, it usually has only one meaning, but sometimes it has meaning variation depending on the topic of discussion. We must know the hidden meaning of word to provide useful information for understanding meaning in a sentence or phrase based on context meaning. Contextual meaning is the meaning according to the context in a sentence. According to Requejo, contextual meaning is that whenever a linguistic expression cannot be straightforwardly interpreted, we turn to context to find some extra cues in order to get the right meaning (2007, vol.7(1), p.171). It means that, context is used here in its broadest sense, since anything around a particular word can potentially affect its meaning. According to Mansoer Pateda, contextual meaning could be regarded as a situational meaning. It appears as a result of the

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relationship between speech and context (2010: 116). Contextual meaning is the meaning according to the context.

2.1.3 Connotation Connotation refers to personal associations produced by words. Connotation is stimulating and evocative senses, feelings, attitudes, judgments, and beliefs as well as certain purposes. It can be individually and collectively. Connotative meaning is additional or associated meaning, which is attached to the denotative or conceptual meaning. It consists of associations made with a concept whenever that concept is referred to. Connotative meaning is the communicative value of an expression over and above its purely conceptual content. It is something that goes beyond mere referent of a word and hints at its attributes in the real world. It is something more than the dictionary meaning. If we compared connotative meaning with denotative meaning is that connotations are relatively unstable, because connotative has different meaning depend on situation we used. Although the language that speakers used is exactly the same with conceptual framework, but each of them has individual perception of words. Connotative meaning indefinite and open in the same way as our knowledge and belief about the universe are opened-ended. Connotations play a major role in the language of literature, of politics, of advertising, and a greeting card.

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2.1.4 Denotation Denotation is the objective relationship between a linguistic form and its referent. According to Harimurti (1982:32) in Mansoer Pateda book (2001:98), based on the denotative meaning is straightly designation on something outside the language or that is based on certain conventions. Denotative meaning is the meaning of what it was. Denotative meaning is also referred to as a word or group of words which based on straightly relationship between the unit and form language beyond language unit was treated appropriately. Meaning is more than denotation. Denotative meaning is objectives. Denotation is the original meaning which is appeared first. It is the logical meaning, which indicates the essential qualities of a concept which distinguish it from other concepts. The aim of denotative meaning is to provide, for any given interpretation of a sentence, a configuration of abstract symbols, in which shows exactly what we need to know if we are to distinguish that meaning from all other possible sentence meaning in the language.

2.1.5 Lexical Meaning Lexical meaning refers to the real meaning, meaning that proper with our sense of observation, or granted meaning. Therefore, many people who say that the lexical meaning is the meaning in the dictionary or that of the lexeme meaning even without any contexts. Lexical

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meaning is the smallest meaning unit in the meaning system of language that could be distinguished from other similar units. A lexeme is an abstract unit. It can occur in many different forms of actual spoken or written sentences. According to Harimurti (1982:103) in Mansoer Pateda book said that lexical meaning is the meaning of the word when is seen in isolation, either in form or shape lexeme affixes whose meaning more or less fixed, as can be read in a particular language dictionary (2001: 119).

2.1.6 Grammatical Meaning Grammatical meaning also could be regarded as a structural or functional meaning, or internal meaning. According to Mansoer Pateda (2010:103) Grammatical meaning is the meaning that arises as a result of

the functioning of word in a sentence. It means that, every language has a grammatical system and different language has somewhat different grammatical system. Grammatical meaning of a language could be interpreted. It is fixed in accordance with the language user community. Grammar describes how the words work together to create meaning. It explains how words interact with one another to form larger structures that are capable by expressing such divergent data. Grammatical meanings are expressed in various ways, such as the arrangement of words or referring expression before the predicate, by grammatical affixes and grammatical words.

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2.2 Type of context The meaning of a sentence has more than one meaning if we do not know the context. If a sentence has limited context, the reader or listener will be confused what a meaning reader/listener takes. But if a sentence is clear in context, the reader or listener will not be confused and they get what we mean. There are many types of context, but the writer took several types from book and journal that can support this research. According to Miller and Leacock in Sekhar Dash journals, they have classified context into two types: (a) local context, and (b) topical context. While the local context refers to one or two words immediately before and after the key word (KW) under investigation, the topical context refers to the topic of the text where the KW has been used. According to these scholars, reference to the two contexts is more or less sufficient in understanding the actual contextual meaning of the KW used in a text. In certain readings, information acquired from the local context and the topical context may be sufficient, but these are not enough for understanding all possible meaning variations of a word. To acquire more information Sekhar Dash argues to classify context into four broad types, they are local context, sentential context, topical context, and global context. First, local context refers to the immediate environment of the KW in a sentence where it has occurred, encompassing its immediately preceding and succeeding words. Second, sentential context refers to a sentence where

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the KW has occurred. It supplies syntactic information to know if the KW has any explicit or implicit syntactic relation with the other words used in the sentence. Third, topical context refers to the topic of discussion and focuses on the content of a piece of text. Quite often, it is found that the actual meaning of the KW depends on the topic which has a strong role to alter etymological meaning of the KW. Fourth, global context refers to the world at large. The meaning of the KW is not only related to the meanings of other words occurring within local context, sentential context, and topical context, but also to extralinguistic reality surrounding the linguistic acts undertaken by language users. This signifies that understanding the meaning of a verb form under investigation we need to consider of all the elements in a cognitive interface to realize its denotative, connotative and figurative meaning. (2008, vol. 5, no. 2) Since the global context builds up a cognitive interface between language and reality, we often refer to it to understand: who says, what is said, to whom it is said, when it is said, where it is said, why it is said, and how it is said. Thus, the global context becomes a valuable source of information for meaning disambiguation of words, and it helps us to understand if the KW has any meaning variation, and if so, what it is. According to Friederike Moltmann, in his journal, he said context plays an important role in the semantics of natural language: many expressions require for their semantic evaluation taking into account circumstances of the utterance situation, the semantic evaluation of other

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expressions in the same or in previous sentences, or background assumptions shared by the interlocutors. Two kinds of contexts can be roughly distinguished that play an important role in recent semantic theory: external and internal context (as he call them). External notions of context include utterance contexts and indices (sequences of coordinates that can be shifted in the presence of an intensional operator). Internal contexts consist in what the interlocutors take for granted in the context of conversation or in other ways driven by the information given in the discourse. External contexts consist features of the outside reality (or some possible reality), independent of an agent’s propositional attitudes. (2003, p.01) External and internal contexts differ not only in the way they are characterized, but also in the way they change, and in the role they play for the meaning of sentences. External contexts differ from internal contexts especially in their behavior with respect to complex sentences. Internal contexts systematically change with the increase of information in the discourse, both during the utterance of a sequence of sentences and the utterance of certain complex sentences, namely those with conjunctions, conditionals, or quantifiers. An external context changes, or rather is shifted, only in virtue of the presence of an intensional operator (such as a modal or temporal operator, or an attitude verb). Contextual meaning could be regarded to the situation, where the time, the language usage environment. According to Pateda in his book “Semantik Leksikal (Edisi Kedua)”, said:

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Makna kontekstual atau makna situasional muncul sebagai akibat hubungan antara ujaran dan konteks. Sudah diketahui bahwa konteks itu berwujud dalam banyak hal. Koteks yang dimaksud di sini, yakni: (i) konteks orangan, termasuk di sini hal yang berkaitan dengan jenis kelamin, kedudukan pembicara, usia pembicara/pendengar, latar belakang sosial ekonomi pembicara/pendengar; (ii) konteks situasi, misalnya situasi aman, situasi ribut; (iii) konteks tujuan, misalnya meminta, mengharapkan sesuatu; (iv) konteks formal/tidaknya pembicaraan; (v) konteks suasana hati pembicara/pendengar, misalnya takut, gembira, jengkel; (vi) konteks waktu, misalnya malam, setelah magrib; (vii) konteks tempat, apakah tempatnya di sekolah, di pasar, di depan bioskop; (viii) konteks objek, maksudnya apa yang menjadi fokus pembicaraan; (ix) konteks alat kelengkapan bicara/dengar pada pembicara/pendengar; (x) konteks kebahasaan, maksudnya apakah memenuhi kaidah bahasa yang digunakan oleh kedua belah pihak; dan (xi) konteks bahasa, yakni bahasa yang digunakan. (2010: 116) From quote above, contextual meaning or situational meaning have eleven context points. There are context of organs, context of situation, context of purpose, formal or informal context in conversation, mood context of speaker or listener, context of time, context of place, object context, context of completeness in speak or hear from speaker or listener, linguistic context, and context of language.

a. Context of organs This context include gender, position the speaker, the speaker or the listener age, socio-economic background speaker or the listener. It

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means the speaker only said the words that understood by a particular person. For example, speaker or listener age, a child would not understand if we spoke about politic to them (116). “Golkar to honor Aburizal with new leading position for willingness to step down”

b. Context of situation The situation here include sad situation, safe situation which is the speaker will speak in accordance with the situation happen. For example, the situation grieving, they will use the word that its significance to be sad, sorry, and give support to be patient in this situation. They would not speak to offend someone who is grieving, because it can be wounded feeling their families (116). “He who died had a debt to me”

c. Context of purpose Context of purpose such as asking or expecting something, people will find the words of the meaning of asking (117). “Could you give me a book”

d. Formal or informal context in conversation Formal or informal context in conversation will force a people to find the word which is appropriate with the context of conversation. For

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example, in a meeting, we must use formal language. If we will refuse an opinion from someone, we shall not say “your opinion is rejected”. It is informal and impolite language, because it can hurt who give opinion (117).

e. Mood context of speaker or listener Mood of speaker or listener can influence the word and the meaning of that word too. For example, mood irritated would allow the words appear meaningful irritated or impolite word (117).

f. Context of time Context of time, such as time go to sleep, time will eat. When a people came to our house in the night, certainly we feel disturbed. The feeling upset that will be seen from the meaning word we use (117).

g. Context of place For example place in the market, in cinema and etc. It can influence the words and the meaning which is used of people. Based on the example above, the people usually use the word which has meaning related to information (117-118).

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h. Object context Object context will influence the word used that focus to something. For example, we will talk about economic. Certainly, we use the words that have meaning or related to economic (118).

i. Context of completeness in speak or hear from speaker or listener It will influence the meaning of word use. For example, if we want ask to someone but he or she cannot hear clearly, because the ears less good. We will miss communication with them (118).

j. Linguistic context Linguistics context, it does meet the rules of the language used by both sides. The things are associated with the rules of language which is concerned will affecting the meaning too (118).

k. Context of language In this context, both of the speaker or listener must understand the language used, because it will influence the whole meaning (118).

Figurative meaning and connotation are same with contextual meaning. They have non-literal meaning, but different in use. The people use figurative meaning to analyze literary work, like a poem, but figurative meaning or figurative language sometimes found in proverb which is for

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counseled someone. While connotations plays a major role in the language of literature, of politics, of advertising, and a greeting card. In this study, the researcher only used contextual meaning to analyzing songs as the object of data. Contextual meaning is the meaning of words, phrases, sentences based on the context. According to Mansoer Pateda, contextual meaning could be regarded as a situational meaning. It appears as a result of the relationship between speech and context. A contextual definition is also a definition in which the term is used by embedding it in a larger expression containing its explanation. In understanding of song, we must understand the meaning of lyric. If we did not understand the meaning of lyrics, we would not love and enjoy that song. The researcher chose Mansoer Pateda’s theories about contextual meaning and his eleven types of context. They are context of organs, context of situation, context of purpose, formal or informal context in conversation, mood context of speaker or listener, context of time, context of place, object context, context of completeness in speak or hear from speaker or listener, linguistic context, and context of language (2001-116).

2.3 Previous Research There are many previous studies investigating semantics namely. But, the researcher takes only two previous studies. First, the title is “Semantic Analysis on Iwan Fals’s songs” by Nila Kurniasari (2005), thesis English Department, Language Letters Faculty, State Islamic University of Malang.

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This study further conducted with the following problems: 1. What are the kinds of meaning used in Iwan Fals’ songs? 2. What are messages found in Iwan Fals’ songs? In this thesis, she used descriptive qualitative methods to answer the point of utterances used by the singer by describing what the kinds of meaning used in Iwan Fals’s songs and the messages that exist in Iwan Fals’s songs. The second is Hidayatul Kholifah (2015), her title is “Lexical and Grammatical Devices to Reveal Theme in Demi Lovato’s Songs.”, thesis English Department, Faculty of Letters and Humanities, State Islamic University Sunan Ampel Surabaya. This study further conducted with the following problems: 1. What are lexical devices used to reveal the theme of songs?; 2. What are grammatical devices used to reveal the theme of songs?; 3. What are the themes of Demi Lovato’s songs? In this thesis, she used descriptive qualitative approach to describe and interpret the data and reveal a theme in a song and explain the context of the song by Demi Lovato through its lexical and grammatical devices.  

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CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Literature review contains

10    CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Literature review contains theoretical framework and previous research of this study. The theories of semantic, f...

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