BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE AIR - AF.mil

Loading...

BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE

AIR FORCE INSTRUCTION 11-2FT, VOLUME 3 1 MARCH 2017 Flying Operations FLIGHT TEST OPERATIONS PROCEDURES

COMPLIANCE WITH THIS PUBLICATION IS MANDATORY ACCESSIBILITY: Publications and forms are available on the e-Publishing website at www.e-publishing.af.mil for downloading or ordering. RELEASABILITY: There are no releasability restrictions on this publication.

OPR: AFMC/A3V Supersedes:

AFI11-2FTV3, 16 November 2011

Certified by: HQ AF/A3X (Brig Gen B. Chance Saltzman) Pages: 331

This instruction implements Air Force Policy Directive (AFPD) 11-2, Aircraft Rules and Procedures; AFPD 11-4, Aviation Service; and references AFI 11-202V3, General Flight Rules. It applies to all Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) units, Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) units pursuant to DCMA Instruction 8210.1C, Contractor’s Flight and Ground Operations, and Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC) Total Force Associations under AFMC Operational Direction (OPDIR) pursuant to applicable AFI 90-1001, Responsibilities for Total Force Integration, Memoranda of Agreement (MOA). This does not apply to the Air National Guard. Attachments to this instruction prescribe Mission Design (MD) specific operating procedures. Units maintain all applicable attachments for assigned/possessed aircraft. This Air Force Instruction (AFI) may be supplemented at lower levels IAW paragraph 1.4. Keep supplements current by complying with AFI 33-360, Publications and Forms Management. See paragraph 1.2 for guidance on submitting comments and suggesting improvements to this publication. The authorities to waive wing/unit level requirements in this publication are identified with a Tier (“T-0, T-1, T-2, T-3”) number following the compliance statement. See AFI 33-360 for a description of the authorities associated with the Tier numbers. Submit requests for waivers through the chain of command to the appropriate Tier waiver approval authority, or alternately, to the Publication Office of Primary Responsibility (OPR) for non-tiered compliance items. The Privacy Act of 1974 affects this instruction. The Privacy Act System Number F011 AF XO A, Aviation Resource Management Systems (ARMS) covers required information. The authority for maintenance of the system is Title 37 U.S.C. 301a (Incentive Pay), Public Law 92204, Section 715 (Appropriations Act for 1973), Public Laws 93-570 (Appropriations Act for 1974), 93-294 (Aviation Career Incentive Act of 1974) and Executive Order 9397 as amended.

2

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

Ensure that all records created as a result of processes prescribed in this publication are maintained IAW Air Force Manual (AFMAN) 33-363, Management of Records, and disposed of IAW the Air Force Records Disposition Schedule (RDS) in the Air Force records Information System (AFRIMS). The use of the name or mark of any specific manufacturer, commercial product, commodity, or service in this publication does not imply endorsement by the Air Force. See Attachment 1 for a glossary of references and supporting information. SUMMARY OF CHANGES This AFI has been completely revised and requires a complete review by units subject to its guidance. Chapter 1— GENERAL INFORMATION

8

1.1.

Scope.......................................................................................................................

8

1.2.

Recommended Changes. .........................................................................................

8

1.3.

Waivers. ..................................................................................................................

8

1.4.

Unit Supplements. ...................................................................................................

8

1.5.

Developmental Aircraft. .........................................................................................

8

1.6.

Inter-fly. ..................................................................................................................

8

Chapter 2— MISSION PLANNING

10

2.1.

General. ...................................................................................................................

10

2.2.

Mission Planning Requirements. ............................................................................

10

2.3.

Mission Planning/Takeoff and Landing Data (TOLD) Software. ..........................

11

2.4.

Inflight Publications. ...............................................................................................

11

2.5.

VFR Low Altitude Charts. ......................................................................................

12

2.6.

Local Area Maps and In-flight Guides. ..................................................................

12

2.7.

Local Aircrew Aids. ................................................................................................

13

2.8.

Test Cards. ..............................................................................................................

13

2.9.

Briefing/Debriefing Room Requirements. ..............................................................

13

2.10.

Briefing/De-briefing. ..............................................................................................

14

2.11.

Passenger Briefing Guides. .....................................................................................

15

2.12.

Bird Avoidance. ......................................................................................................

15

2.13.

Normal/Minimum/Emergency Landing Fuel. ........................................................

16

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

3

2.14.

Authorized Fuel Loads............................................................................................

16

2.15.

Aircraft Movement on the Ground .........................................................................

16

2.16.

Minimum Runway Lengths. ...................................................................................

16

Command Minimums Reference Chart. .................................................................

17

2.17.

AFMC Close Watch Mission/Unusual AFMC Flight Operations. .........................

18

2.18.

Minimum Equipment List (MEL) ...........................................................................

18

2.19.

Aerial Refueling Coordination................................................................................

18

2.20.

Elevated Risk Flight Test. .......................................................................................

18

Table 2.1.

Chapter 3— MISSION GUIDANCE

19

3.1.

General. ...................................................................................................................

19

3.2.

Common Mission Operations. ................................................................................

19

3.3.

Tactical and Systems Mission Operations. .............................................................

19

Table 3.1.

ACF/FCF Take-off Minimums. ..............................................................................

22

3.4.

Air-to-Air Operations. ............................................................................................

30

3.5.

Air-to-Surface Weapons Delivery, Air Drop and/or Low Altitude. .......................

31

Table 3.2.

Weapons Employment Minimum Recovery Altitudes. ..........................................

32

3.6.

Flight Test Mission Operations. ..............................................................................

38

Table 3.3.

TSM Risk Assessment. ...........................................................................................

43

Chapter 4— INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES

45

4.1.

Weather Requirements. ...........................................................................................

45

4.2.

Approach Category. ................................................................................................

45

4.3.

Weather Avoidance.................................................................................................

46

4.4.

Advisory Calls ........................................................................................................

46

4.5.

Instrument Approach Briefings/Checklists. ............................................................

47

Chapter 5— OPERATING PROCEDURES AND RESTRICTIONS

48

5.1.

General. ...................................................................................................................

48

5.2.

Technical Orders. ....................................................................................................

48

4

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 5.3.

Developmental Software. All software, including mission planning software, must be approved IAW the USAF Airworthiness Process prior to use for flight outside of a test program. .........................................................................................

48

5.4.

New/Modified Aircraft Equipment/Weapons. ........................................................

48

5.5.

Wind and Sea State Restrictions (Ejection Seat Aircraft).......................................

48

5.6.

Aerial Demonstration/Show Formation. .................................................................

48

5.7.

Aerial Photography and Equipment ........................................................................

48

5.8.

Aircrew flying g-suit capable aircraft must wear a g-suit. (T-2). ...........................

49

5.9.

Preflight/Ground Operations. ..................................................................................

49

5.10.

Seat and Safety Belt Requirements. ........................................................................

50

5.11.

High Speed Taxi Checks.........................................................................................

50

5.12.

Aircraft Malfunctions and Damage. .......................................................................

50

5.13.

Duty Station (multi-place aircraft). .........................................................................

50

5.14.

Transfer of Aircraft Control. ...................................................................................

50

5.15.

Takeoff Aborts. .......................................................................................................

51

5.16.

G-Awareness...........................................................................................................

51

5.17.

Unusual Attitude and Training Maneuvers (non-aerobatic). ..................................

51

5.18.

Simulated Emergencies...........................................................................................

52

Simulated Emergency Restrictions – Bomber, Cargo, Tanker (C-130 and H-1 see MD-specific attachment.). .................................................................................

53

5.19.

Fuel Jettisoning/Dumping. ......................................................................................

54

5.20.

Fuel Conservation ...................................................................................................

54

5.21.

Dropped Objects. ....................................................................................................

54

5.22.

Hazardous Conditions. ............................................................................................

54

5.23.

Back Seat Landings. ...............................................................................................

54

5.24.

Touch-and-Go Landings – Fixed Wing Aircraft.....................................................

54

Touch-and-Go Landing Restrictions – Bomber, Cargo, and Tanker (C-130 see MD-specific attachment). ........................................................................................

55

5.25.

Post Arresting Gear Engagement Procedures: ........................................................

55

5.26.

Reduced Runway Separation (RRS). ......................................................................

55

Table 5.1.

Table 5.2.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

5

5.27.

Search and Rescue (SARCAP) Procedures. ...........................................................

55

5.28.

Flight Test Technique Restrictions. ........................................................................

56

6

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

Attachment 1— GLOSSARY OF REFERENCES AND SUPPORTING INFORMATION

57

Attachment 2— A-10 OPERATING PROCEDURES

77

Attachment 3— B-1 OPERATING PROCEDURES

81

Attachment 4— B-2 OPERATING PROCEDURES

85

Attachment 5— B-52 OPERATING PROCEDURES

92

Attachment 6— C-5 OPERATING PROCEDURES

101

Attachment 7— C-12 OPERATING PROCEDURES

133

Attachment 8— C-17 OPERATING PROCEDURES

136

Attachment 9— C-37 OPERATING PROCEDURES

144

Attachment 10— C-130 OPERATING PROCEDURES

155

Attachment 11— C-135 OPERATING PROCEDURES

199

Attachment 12— C-146 OPERATING PROCEDURES

213

Attachment 13— E-3/E-8/B707 OPERATING PROCEDURES

219

Attachment 14— F-15 OPERATING PROCEDURES

222

Attachment 15— F-16 OPERATING PROCEDURES

228

Attachment 16— F-22 OPERATING PROCEDURES

236

Attachment 17— F-35 OPERATING PROCEDURES

240

Attachment 18— H-1 OPERATING PROCEDURES

245

Attachment 19— HH-60 OPERATING PROCEDURES

265

Attachment 20— KC10 OPERATING PROCEDURES

266

Attachment 21— KC-46 OPERATING PROCEDURES

270

Attachment 22— MQ-1 OPERATING PROCEDURES

271

Attachment 23— MQ-9 OPERATING PROCEDURES

282

Attachment 24— PC-12/U-28 (AND VARIANTS) OPERATING PROCEDURES

294

Attachment 25— RQ-4 OPERATING PROCEDURES

299

Attachment 26— T-6 OPERATING PROCEDURES

306

Attachment 27— T-38 OPERATING PROCEDURES

311

Attachment 28— U-2 OPERATING PROCEDURES

314

Attachment 29— V-22 OPERATING PROCEDURES

317

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

7

Attachment 30— YQ-11 OPERATING PROCEDURES

327

Attachment 31— NON-USAF AIRCRAFT OPERATING PROCEDURES

328

Attachment 32— OTHER AIRCRAFT OPERATING PROCEDURES

329

Attachment 33— PASSENGER BRIEFING GUIDE

330

8

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

Chapter 1 GENERAL INFORMATION 1.1. Scope. AFMC produces a three-volume set of Flight Test (FT) instructions containing attachments for each weapon system flown in AFMC. These instructions are numbered AFI 112FT Volume 1, 2, and 3, and contain the training, evaluation criteria, and operations procedures, respectively, for each weapon system. AFMC uses these instructions in lieu of AFI 11-2 MDSspecific Volumes for flying operations. In the absence of published guidance, AFMC units may generate locally developed guidance IAW Paragraph 1.4 (T-2). If possible, these guidelines should be consistent with similar guidance specified in the appropriate AFI 11-2 MDS-specific lead MAJCOM Volumes. In addition, units will fly aircraft on loan to AFMC undergoing shortterm flight test programs according to the lead MAJCOM guidance if no AFMC guidance exists. (T-2). 1.2. Recommended Changes. Send comments and suggested improvements to this volume on AF Form 847, Recommendation for Change of Publication, through channels to AFMC/A3V. All correspondence can be emailed to the AFMC/A3V Workflow. HQ AF/A3 will approve all interim changes to this instruction. 1.3. Waivers. Route all waivers through appropriate channels to flying unit commanders, and Operations Group Commanders (OG/CCs) (defined as the Operations Group Commander or equivalent authority having Flight Operations Authority (FOA)) prior to submitting to the tiered waiver authority IAW AFI 33-360. Use an AFMC Form 73, AFMC Waiver and Approval Request, to process waivers requiring approval above wing level. 1.3.1. AFMC/CC delegates AFMC/A3 as the T-2 waiver authority for AFI 11-2FT Vol 3. 1.3.2. Process T-3 waivers IAW AFI 33-360. AFMC/A3V is the T-3 waiver authority for units without flying wing commanders. 1.3.3. AFMC/A3V determines waiver authority for non-tiered statements. 1.4. Unit Supplements. Email unit supplements to AFMC/A3V Org for review and approval prior to publication. Include AFMC/A3V and AFMC/A3O on the distribution list for approved supplements to AFI 11-2FT Volume 3. 1.5. Developmental Aircraft. Units will conduct developmental aircraft operations in accordance with this instruction and approved test plans. (T-2). New aircraft-specific attachments are created when the aircraft reaches a maturity level that warrants inclusion. 1.6. Inter-fly. Inter-fly is the exchange or substitution of aircrew members between AFMC operations groups, MAJCOMs, DoD services, or U.S. government organizations and agencies. Normally, inter-fly should be limited to specific test programs or other special circumstances. As a minimum, crews will be qualified in the aircraft design and series as well as systems or configurations required to fly the aircraft and mission. (T-2). Crew members must thoroughly brief the procedural guidance of the operating MAJCOM, DoD service, U.S. governmental organization or agency. (T-2). OG/CCs may authorize inter-fly agreements by mutual agreement with other participating units. Formalize agreements through a memorandum of understanding between participating organizations. A formal inter-fly agreement is not required for aircrew

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

9

that occasionally act as “guest help” where the OG/CC has accepted the credentials of the guest aircrew. Formally designated Combined Test Force (CTF) organizations do not need inter-fly agreements for non-AFMC aircrews assigned to the CTF. For aircraft possession and transfer, reference AFI 16-402, Aerospace Vehicle Programming, Assignment, Distribution, Accounting, and Termination.

10

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

Chapter 2 MISSION PLANNING 2.1. General. Aircraft commanders and flight leads are ultimately responsible for ensuring all mission planning materials are current and command guidance is followed. All crewmembers and formation members must be present for mission planning unless released by the aircraft commander or flight lead. 2.2. Mission Planning Requirements. The unit commander must ensure that a flight operations area is available with adequate space for operations management, flight planning/briefing, and required publications. (T-3). The unit commander will ensure that aircrews are provided the following: 2.2.1. Mission requirements and schedule of events. (T-3). 2.2.2. Briefing facilities and aids described in paragraph 2.9. (T-3). 2.2.3. Current Flight Information Publications (FLIP). Access to current FLIP may be via paper or electronic means. For electronic FLIP, a computer/electronic device with access to applicable websites must be readily available to aircrews. (T-2). If using electronic products, units must develop a plan for aircrew FLIP access in case of internet outage. (T-2). 2.2.4. As a minimum, aircrew must have access to the following FLIP products and associated documents: General Planning, Area Planning - North and South America, other applicable Area Planning volumes, Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) Supplement, Visual Flight Rules (VFR) Supplement, applicable instrument departure and arrival procedures, applicable instrument approach volumes, applicable En Route and Navigational Charts, Flight Information Handbook, Airman’s Information Manual. (T-2). 2.2.5. Commanders will ensure the Airfield Suitability and Restrictions Report (ASRR) is available to aircrews, mission planners, and other personnel as required. (T-2). Also, commanders will ensure procedures to ensure personnel can access and use the ASRR to include number of accounts and office of responsibility. (T-3). 2.2.6. Communications equipment for use in obtaining weather, local airfield conditions, notices to airman (NOTAM), and filing flight plans. All aircraft must have MAJCOM approval to operate aircraft using the Jeppesen Navigational Data Base, and, if approved, are directed to consult the Jeppesen Navdata Alerts/NOTAMS website before each flight located at www.jeppesen.com (Aviation Resources). (T-2). 2.2.7. Digital Flight Publications. publications:

There are several methods to obtain digital flight

2.2.7.1. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) National Aeronautical Charting Office (NACO) digital Terminal Procedures Publications (d-TPP) are available at: http://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/flight_info/aeronav/digital_products/dtpp/ from any web enabled computer. DoD National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) dFLIP is available at http://www.geointel.nga.mil/ from a computer that can access .mil domains. The procedures from these sites can be used in-flight as long as the dates listed on the product are valid.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

11

2.2.7.2. The DoD (NGA) has contracted with Jeppesen Sanderson, Inc. to provide access to Jeppesen’s internet-based worldwide library of aeronautical terminal navigation charts and text documents. All members of the DoD may now access this information from any web-enabled computer: http://www.jeppesen.com. Guidance regarding the use of nonFAA (NACO), or non-DoD (NGA) procedures contained in AFI 11-202V3 still applies. 2.3. Mission Planning/Takeoff and Landing Data (TOLD) Software. If not manually computed using the flight manual data, mission planning and TOLD computations should be accomplished using the lead MAJCOM certified software for that MDS aircraft. If certified software does not exist or is unavailable, other mission planning programs (contractordeveloped, Jeppesen, etc.) can be used, but aircrew must verify this through manual calculations using certified data. (T-2). If an AF-approved mission planning system, such as Joint Mission Planning System (JMPS) or Portable Flight Planning Software/Combat Flight Planning Software (PFPS/CFPS) is used to mission plan, any chart produced satisfies chart requirements set forth in this instruction. The flight crew is responsible for ensuring current data bases (i.e. Vector Vertical Obstruction Data (VVOD), Digital Aeronautical Flight Information File (DAFIF)) are loaded and that mission planning data is correctly entered. 2.4. Inflight Publications. 2.4.1. Carry sufficient maps, charts, and FLIP to navigate for both the planned IFR and VFR phases of flight. For local flights, detailed aircrew aids that contain this information are sufficient. See AFI 11-202V3 Chapter 3 for use of electronic in-flight publications. 2.4.2. Inflight Manuals/Directives. The Pilot In Command (PIC) will ensure that applicable flight manuals, checklists, and mission related directives (if required) for all mission required crew positions are carried in flight. (T-2). The OG/CC will determine required mission directives. Aircrew will carry all applicable technical orders aboard the aircraft or in the Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) control station. (T-2). If a conventional paper copy of a flight manual and/or checklist is not available through distribution or local printing, or if the unit uses electronic flight bags (EFBs), then two independent/redundant sources, verified as current and operational, of accessing the manuals/directives must be available to the crew. EFBs used IAW MDS specific operating instructions satisfy this requirement if the unit has been approved paperless transition. (T-2). See AFI 11-202V3 Chapter 3 for use of electronic in-flight publications. 2.4.3. Aircraft with inadequate secure inflight publications storage. When mission requirements involve flight maneuvers that may create a Foreign Object Damage (FOD) or safety hazard by the abruptness or intensity of maneuvers the OG/CC will specify the minimum required inflight publications and FLIP to be carried. As a minimum, each crew position must have an aircraft checklist. (T-3). 2.4.4. On local sorties, OG/CCs may authorize aircrew to carry an abbreviated set of instrument approach procedures (IAPs) in lieu of carrying the entire FLIP approach plate book(s) for the local area. As a minimum, ensure the onboard abbreviated set of IAPs includes all pertinent approaches to the local area divert bases. (T-2). This abbreviated set of approaches will be standardized by the OG/CC and explicitly authorized in unit supplements to AFI 11-2FT Vol 3. (T-2). Procedures to ensure the most current approach procedures are included in the abbreviated set will be established and documented by the OG/CC. (T-2).

12

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

2.5. VFR Low Altitude Charts. Aircrew must use low altitude charts for low-level operations. (T-2). Ensure charts are updated with current VVOD and DAFIF. (T-2). Color reproduced charts are authorized provided it is a quality facsimile of the original chart containing essential terrain data and features. Aircrew members will supplement existing mission planning materials (e.g. VVOD, FLIP AP/1B, etc.) with either Sectional Aeronautical Charts or Air Force approved mission planning software generated charts with the following information for use inflight: Airports/Heliports, Airspace Boundaries, Airways, Military Training Route (MTR), Parachute Jump, and Special Use Airspace (SUA) Boundaries. Use of Sectional Aeronautical Charts in flight is not required. Note: Helicopter aircrews conducting controlled burn, firefighting, and search and rescue operations are exempt from this requirement. If practical, conduct an area survey for obstructions prior to commencing these operations. 2.5.1. Required Annotations. Low level charts must contain the following, when applicable (T-2): 2.5.1.1. Location and dimensions of Class B/C/D airspace, civil/military airfields, and other potential high density traffic areas (e.g. parachute activity areas, ultralight/hang glider/glider sites, etc.) within 5 nautical miles (NM) of any planned VFR route or MTR lateral boundary. 2.5.1.2. Applicable airfield approach control frequencies in the vicinity of Class B, C, or D airspace. 2.5.1.3. The intersection of other Visual Military Training Route/IFR Military Training Route (VR/IR) routes and any other possible areas of conflict. 2.5.1.4. Noise sensitive areas/no-fly areas. 2.5.1.5. Emergency airfields along the route of flight. 2.5.1.6. Safe Altitudes (N/A C-130 and V-22. See MD-specific attachments). 2.5.1.6.1. Annotate all maps with an Emergency Safe Altitude (ESA) for the overall route/area. (T-1). Compute the ESA by adding 1,000 feet (2,000 feet in mountainous terrain as defined in AFI 11-202V3) (500 feet for helicopters) to the highest obstacle/terrain (rounded to the next highest 100 feet). For training areas use the highest obstacle within the training area and 5NM beyond the lateral boundary. For route planning use 5NM either side of planned course but in no case less than the route boundary. Planners may compute several ESAs for route segments transiting significant terrain differentials or a single ESA for the entire route. 2.5.1.6.2. Annotate all maps with a Minimum Safe Altitude (MSA) for each leg. (T1). Compute an MSA by adding 1,000 feet (500 feet for helicopter and tilt-rotor aircraft operating in Conventional (CONV)/Vertical Take Off and Landing (VTOL) mode) to the highest obstacle/terrain (rounded up to the next 100 feet) within 5 NM of the planned course, but in no case less than the route boundary. 2.6. Local Area Maps and In-flight Guides. Pilots and navigators/combat systems officers (CSOs) will carry a local area map that depicts special use airspace, alternate airfields, jettison areas, and controlled bailout areas, as applicable to the aircraft and mission. (T-3). The local area map is not required if the In-flight Guide is current and includes this information.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

13

Additionally, FLIP enroute charts may be used instead of maps on IFR navigation flights within areas adequately covered by these charts. 2.7. Local Aircrew Aids. Aircrew aids should be tailored to aid the unit in performing its mission. Unit aircrew aids may be tailored for each MDS as necessary. The following areas are recommended for inclusion: 2.7.1. Airfield diagrams. 2.7.2. Local radio channelization. 2.7.3. Takeoff and landing data. 2.7.4. Weight and balance data. 2.7.5. Impoundment procedures. 2.7.6. Emergency action checklists. 2.7.7. No Radio (NORDO) procedures. 2.7.8. Bailout and jettison areas. 2.7.9. Recovery procedures with weapons onboard and jettison areas. 2.7.10. Hot brake areas and procedures. 2.7.11. Divert procedures/alternate and emergency airfield information. Units will document completion of an Operational Risk Management (ORM) analysis if using emergency airfields that have runway lengths less than that listed in Table 2.1 or in the flight manual for their respective aircraft. 2.7.12. Cross-country procedures. 2.7.13. Other information as deemed necessary (e.g. stereo flight plans, turnaround procedures, local training areas, instrument preflight, and maintenance brevity codes). 2.8. Test Cards. Flight test cards are constructed according to local procedures and will have the appropriate level of authorization. File a copy of the test cards at the operations desk for supervisor reference. 2.9. Briefing/Debriefing Room Requirements. Briefing rooms must provide privacy and adequate size to seat required crewmembers and test team members. They may be multipurpose rooms, but privacy should be ensured during aircrew mission briefings. Briefing rooms must contain, electronically or otherwise: 2.9.1. Briefing guides for applicable missions and supplemental material as locally determined, such as Emergency Procedure of the Day lists, etc. 2.9.2. A dry-erase board or suitable substitute. 2.9.3. Visual aids (such as slide display boards, charts, briefing books, viewgraphs, computer display, etc.) to adequately present, as applicable to each unit, the following: 2.9.3.1. Airfield diagrams depicting runways, taxiways, parking areas, and other special use areas as appropriate (for example, arm/de-arm areas, hot brake areas, hydrazine areas, etc.).

14

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 2.9.3.2. Training rules (air-to-air, air-to-ground, chase, intercept, low-level, etc.), when appropriate. 2.9.3.3. Visual aids for air refueling procedures (when appropriate). 2.9.3.4. Local area charts depicting the local flying area; VFR patterns, including entry and departure procedures; special use airspace (SUA); alternate airfields; locally established air refueling areas/routes; controlled bailout areas; air-to-air, air-to-ground, Functional Check Flight (FCF), jettison, drop zone or salvo areas; and supersonic areas/ranges normally used by the unit.

2.10. Briefing/De-briefing. 2.10.1. Aircraft commanders (AC) or flight leaders (FL) are responsible for presenting a logical briefing that promotes safe, effective mission accomplishment. Use briefing guides to provide a reference list of items that may apply to particular missions. Items listed may be briefed in any sequence. In addition to requirements specified in AFI 11-202V3 and AFI 11202V3 AFMC Sup, ACs/FLs will brief crew members from a guide that contains, as a minimum: (T-2). 2.10.1.1. Airfield Status and Notice to Airman (NOTAMs). 2.10.1.2. Radar and visual search responsibilities. 2.10.1.3. Mid-air collision avoidance. 2.10.1.4. Interior/exterior aircraft lighting configuration for Night Vision Google (NVG) operations (if applicable). 2.10.1.5. Illumination conditions (moon illumination, depression angle, End(ing Evening Nautical Twilight (EENT), cultural lighting, etc) for NVG operations (if applicable). 2.10.1.6. Chase procedures (if required). 2.10.1.7. When aircraft are flown in formation, brief proper position (to ensure adequate wingtip clearance), responsibilities and aircraft-unique requirements for each phase of flight. 2.10.1.8. Altitude Awareness (Warning Systems and Techniques). During the briefing for all low-level missions, place emphasis on obstacle/ground avoidance, employment of all aircraft altitude warning features, pilot determination of low altitude comfort level, and human factors associated with low altitude flying such as proper task prioritization. 2.10.1.9. Alternate airfields. 2.10.1.10. Test hazard minimizing procedures/test plan flight restrictions. 2.10.1.11. Training rules. 2.10.1.12. Specific mission procedures. 2.10.2. Standards. Those briefing items understood by all participants may be briefed as "standard". Units may use standards as long as they are in a published document. However, during sorties where trainees or unassigned personnel are in the flight, ensure all items are briefed.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

15

2.10.3. All crewmembers and required test support personnel will attend the flight briefing unless previously briefed and excused by the aircraft commander. (T-3). 2.10.4. All aspects of test missions will be thoroughly briefed by the cognizant engineer or aircraft commander. (T-3). If required, brief actions to terminate the flight test profile. Where critical flight parameters have been identified for elevated risk flight test, the aircraft commander will establish appropriate termination criteria and assign a test team member to monitor those parameters in-flight. (T-2). Each flight will brief an alternate mission, if applicable. (T-3). The alternate mission should be less complex than the primary. Briefed mission elements and events may be modified and briefed airborne as long as flight safety is not compromised. Missions or events not briefed prior to mission execution cannot be flown. Flight leads will ensure changes are acknowledged by all flight members. (T-3). 2.10.5. If the flight briefing was conducted prior to the day of the flight, the aircraft commander or flight lead will ensure all members are briefed on current and forecast weather, NOTAMs, and any mission changes prior to stepping to the aircraft. (T-3). 2.10.6. Debrief all missions. Conduct the debrief in a location with suitable tools to accomplish, as a minimum, an evaluation of the mission objectives, test objectives, lessons learned, and execution errors. Aircrews should debrief weather conditions to weather personnel when weather encountered during the mission was not as forecast. 2.11. Passenger Briefing Guides. On passenger carrying aircraft, passengers will be provided a pre-printed passenger briefing guide. (T-3). Use lead MAJCOM briefing guides where appropriate. If none exist, aircrew will use the general briefing guide in the attachment section. (T-3). 2.12. Bird Avoidance. Generally, the hour before and after sunrise and sunset presents an increased threat of a bird strike, with migration seasons posing a significant hazard at different times. Pilots should follow locally developed BASH procedures as well as those outlined in AFPAM 91-212, Bird/Wildlife Aircraft Strike Hazard (BASH) Management Techniques, to minimize aircraft exposure to bird strikes. Additionally: 2.12.1. Aircrews operating within the continental U.S. reference the most current Avian Hazard Avoidance System (AHAS) for all low altitude portions of flight, to include takeoff and landing, instrument approaches, low-level operations, and range operations that occur less than 3,000 feet above ground level (AGL). This information is available at www.usahas.com. Operations at bases with established BASH procedures do not require reference to AHAS during takeoff, landing, or instrument approaches. If AHAS information is not available for the operating location, attempt to use existing bird models to mitigate risk. When Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) is lower than the AHAS Risk, aircrew may use NEXRAD for a period of one hour from the NEXRAD report. If unable to obtain a NEXRAD update, transition to the procedures required by the AHAS Risk when the NEXRAD expires. 2.12.1.1. Flying operations are not restricted when AHAS Risk is LOW. 2.12.1.2. AHAS Risk of MODERATE is a warning to all aircrew to maintain a vigilant lookout for bird activity, particularly in the low altitude environment. Reducing speed and/or minimizing flight below 3,000 feet reduces the risk of bird strike. When AHAS Risk is MODERATE, limit low altitude, high-speed events (low-level navigation, air-to-

16

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 surface weapons delivery, terrain following/terrain avoidance (TF/TA)) below 3,000 feet to only those required for syllabus training, currency, or for approved flight test events. 2.12.1.3. AHAS Risk of SEVERE is a warning to aircrew to avoid this region. Aircrew will remain above 3,000 feet for all events in regions where the current AHAS Risk is reported as SEVERE. (T-3). All test and test support mission events requiring flight below 3,000 feet AGL in areas where the AHAS Risk is SEVERE require OG/CC or TG/CC approval prior to execution.

2.13. Normal/Minimum/Emergency Landing Fuel. See Table 2.1. Plan to arrive on initial or downwind, as appropriate for aircraft type, or at the final approach fix with no less than Normal fuel, and land with no less than Minimum fuel. If it becomes apparent an aircraft may land with less than Minimum fuel, pilots shall declare minimum fuel with Air Traffic Control (ATC). If it becomes apparent an aircraft may land with less than the Emergency fuel listed in Table 2.1, pilots shall declare an emergency with ATC. (T-2). 2.14. Authorized Fuel Loads. Load aircraft with fuel according to requirements of Technical Order (T.O.) 1-1B-50, the handbook of weight and balance data, and the MDS specific T.O. 1XXXX-5-1. Units may develop alternate fuel loads to support modified aircraft or special mission requirements. Document and approve these alternate fuel loads in a Modification Flight Manual (MFM) IAW AFI 11-215, Flight Manuals Program, as supplemented. 2.15. Aircraft Movement on the Ground . For fixed wing aircraft, takeoffs are restricted to wet runway conditions or better. Pilots must account for the fact that taxiways and ramps typically have a lower runway condition reading (RCR) than reported for the runway. Refer to the MDS flight and/or performance manual(s), and MD-specific attachments to this instruction for further RCR restrictions. OG/CC has authorization to authorize takeoff on runway conditions worse than wet but not to exceed flight and/or performance manual limits. 2.16. Minimum Runway Lengths. Pilots must comply with the minimum runway lengths used for all planned airfield operations in Table 2.1. (T-2). Pilots are encouraged to use the entire runway length available for takeoff, mission permitting. Aircraft gross weight, performance and weather conditions may dictate longer runway requirements than the minimum prescribed in Table 2.1. If there are no explicit requirements outlined in the MD-specific attachment, pilots must ensure the runway available for landing exceeds total planned landing distance by at least 1,000 feet. (T-2). If applicable, take into account inoperative systems (anti-skid, etc.). For developmental aircraft, minimum runway length is described in the aircraft-specific safety package. 2.16.1. Runway available (Fighter/Attack/Trainer). Unless further guidance is provided in this instruction’s MD-specific attachment, do not take off if the computed ground roll exceeds 80 percent of the runway available. Do not execute a formation takeoff if the ground roll exceeds 50 percent of the runway available. 2.16.2. Take Off and Landing Data (TOLD) (Fighter/Attack/Trainer). Compute the following TOLD (if applicable): acceleration check speed, refusal/maximum abort speed, rotation speed, takeoff speed and distance, single engine takeoff speed, normal landing speed and distance, heavy weight landing speed, single engine landing speed. All computations should take runway condition and the possibility of drag chute failure into account if applicable.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

17

2.16.3. Intersection Takeoffs (All aircraft). Intersection takeoffs are permitted if the runway remaining meets minimum length criteria specified in paragraph 2.16.1, and Table 2.1. Table 2.1. Command Minimums Reference Chart. See MD-specific attachments for additional restrictions or clarifying comments. FUEL NORM MIN

EMER

AIRCRAFT A-10 AL-1 B-1 B-2 B-52 B 707 C-5

(Lbs.) 1,500 28,000 20,000 18,000 25,000 12,000 24,000

(Lbs.) 1,200 23,000 16,000 14,000 20,000 10,000 20,000

(Lbs.) 1,000 17,000 12,000 10,000 15,000 8,000 16,000

MIN. RUNWAY LENGTH WITH NO CABLE CABLE (Ft.) (Ft.) N/A 5,000 N/A 7,000 N/A 10,000 N/A 10,000 N/A 10,000 N/A 7,000 N/A 6,000 (2)

MIN. WIDTH

C-12 C/D C-12W C-12 F/J C-17 C-20 CV-22 C/RC-26 C-130 C-135 C-146 C-208 Falcon 20 (F-20) Falcon 20 (HU-25) DHC-8Q200/Q300 E-3 E-8 F-15(A-D) F-15E F-16, Blk 10-32 F-16 Blk 40+ F-22 F-35 UH/TH-1 KC-10

500 400 800 20,000 5,000 1,500 600 6,000 12,000 (1) 200 2,400 2,000 600

400 350 600 16,000 4,000 1,500 400 5,000 10,000 450 150 1,800 1,500 400

300 300 400 12,000 3,000 1,200 300 4,000 8,000 250 100 1,200 1,000 300

N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

4,000 4,000 5,000 3,500 5,000 N/A N/A 3,000 7,000 (1) 2,000 5,000 5,000 3,000 (6)

(Ft.) 75 147 148 148 200 148 147 (45m) 60 60 60 90 75 (7) 30 (8) TBD 80 (6) 147 35 (1) TBD 75 75 80/100

12,000 12,000 2,000 2,300 1,000 1,200 2,500 2,000 300 16,000

10,000 10,000 1,500 1,800 800 1,000 1,800 1,800 200 14,000

8,000 8,000 1,200 1,200 600 800 1,200 1,200 100 12,000

N/A N/A 7,000 7,000 (1) (1) 8,000 8,000 N/A N/A

7,000 7,000 8,000 8,000 (1) (1) 8,000 8,000 N/A 7,000

135 135 75 75 75 75 75 75 (1) 147

RWY

TAXI Way (Ft.) 50 75 75 75 175 75 (23m) 30 30 30 50 50 20 TBD 30 65 (3,4) 22 (1) TBD 50 50 75 75 75 50 50 50 50 50 50 (1) 75 (4)

18 MQ-1 MQ-9 MQ-9, E/R tank PC-12/U-28 RQ-4 T-6 T-38 U-2

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 60 400 +100 350 1,200 200 800 200 gal.

50 350 +100 200 1,000 150 600 125 gal.

40 300 +100 150 800 100 400 50 gal.

N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

5,000 5,000 5,000 2,500 8,000 4,000 8,000 5,000

75 75 75 50 148 (5) 75 75 147

50 50 50 25 75 N/A 50 100

Note 1: As defined in the aircraft attachment. Note 2: C-5: The OG/CC may approve operations on runways as short as 5000 ft. or 1,525 meters. If a 180 degree turn is required, then 150 feet or 46 meters is required. Note 3: Crews will not use taxiways less than 74’ when it poses a FOD hazard to the engines (ex., taxing over loose gravel or sand). Note 4: Stressed width Note 5: As listed or in accordance with approved safety plans. Note 6: See MD-specific attachment for additional guidance. Note 7: 75 feet (23 meters) required to accomplish 180 degree turn. Note 8: 35 feet required to complete a 180 degree turn at 70 degree nacelle. 2.17. AFMC Close Watch Mission/Unusual AFMC Flight Operations. For AFMC Close Watch missions or non-routine air operations of AFMC aircraft and/or AFMC aircrew members involving FCF, ferry, or deployment outside of the Continental United States, aircrew members will follow AF acknowledged reporting. Units will contact AFMC/A3O for notification guidance and consult AFMCI 11-207, AFMC Close Watch Mission Monitoring for guidance. (T2). 2.18. Minimum Equipment List (MEL) . The MEL is a pre-launch document that list the minimum equipment/systems to operate the aircraft. It is impractical to prepare a list that anticipates all possible combinations of equipment malfunctions and mission driven circumstances. Reference aircraft attachment, test planning, technical / safety review board, etc. for MEL guidance. 2.19. Aerial Refueling Coordination . Prior to tanker crew step, the tanker and receiver should ensure that in-flight refueling requirements and administration (altitude, altimeter, location, approximate timing, boom frequency, required offload, etc.) is complete and is understood by both crews. Complete the coordination in person, via written communications (such as coordination sheets) or via voice communications as permitted by local guidance. 2.20. Elevated Risk Flight Test. AFMCI 99-103, Test Management, provides guidance for crew requirements during elevated risk flight testing.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

19

Chapter 3 MISSION GUIDANCE 3.1. General. This chapter contains guidance that applies to all AFMC aircraft. Guidance that is airframe specific is contained in this instruction’s attachments. This chapter is divided into five sub-sections: Common, Tactical and Systems, Air-to-Air, Air-to-Surface and Low Altitude, and Flight Test Missions. 3.1.1. The test and safety review process does not have authority to grant exception to this or any other AFI. Nor do they grant exceptions to T.O.s or Preliminary T.O.s. Waiver requests must follow guidelines published in the respective publications and AFI 11-215 for applicable Flight Manual T.O.s. 3.2. Common Mission Operations. 3.2.1. Local Area Orientation (LAO). LAO flights occur during the day as defined by AFI 11-202V3. MD-specific guidance is provided in this instruction’s attachments where required. 3.2.2. Instrument Landing System (ILS) Precision Runway Monitoring (ILS PRM). AFMC aircrew are prohibited from flying ILS approaches requiring PRM unless there is a mission need, and the pilots at the controls have accomplished ILS PRM training. MD-specific guidance is provided in this instruction’s attachments where required. 3.2.3. Theater Indoctrination. AFMC flying units conducting flying operations to and from deployed locations outside of the CONUS will ensure aircrews are thoroughly trained for specific theater operations. (T-2). MD-specific guidance is provided in this instruction’s attachments where required. 3.2.4. Touch-and-Go Landings. Touch-and-go landings are authorized in AFMC. paragraph 5.25 and MD-specific attachments for specific guidance.

See

3.2.4.1. Flying unit CCs may approve touch-and-go operations with maintenance engineering support personnel (MESP) or mission essential personnel (MEP) onboard and will document pre-approval on the flight authorization. 3.2.5. Approach and Landing (N/A for helicopters and V-22 when executing vertical landings). Use reported RCR when computing landing ground roll. When the computed landing ground roll exceeds 80 percent of the available runway, land at an alternate if possible. In the absence of a reported RCR, land at an alternate, if possible, when the base of intended landing has worse than wet runway conditions. For tail-hook equipped aircraft, if an alternate is not available, an approach end or mid-field arrestment should be considered. For fixed wing aircraft, landing on a runway with a reported condition worse than wet runway (not to exceed flight and/or performance manual limits) requires OG/CC authorization. 3.3. Tactical and Systems Mission Operations. 3.3.1. Air-to-Air Refueling (AAR) Tanker. instruction’s attachments where required.

MD-specific guidance is provided in this

20

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 3.3.2. Air-to-Air Refueling Receiver. Conduct air refueling operations in accordance with North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Allied Tactical Publication (ATP) 3.3.4.2., Airto-Air Refuelling, and the guidance provided below. Conduct helicopter and tilt-rotor air refueling operations in accordance with this instruction’s MD-specific attachments. 3.3.2.1. Do not conduct air refueling after known losses of tanker disconnect capability (including tanker manual operation without tanker disconnect capability, or manual boom latching) unless necessary to recover the aircraft. 3.3.2.2. Reverse air refueling and manual boom latching procedures training must be under direct instructor supervision. (T-2). Brief procedures used for these events during mission planning. In-flight coordination between receiver pilot and boom operator must include briefing items as required by applicable air refueling T.O.s. (T-2). Ensure both tanker and receiver air refueling systems are fully operable. 3.3.2.3. Do not accomplish practice emergency separation training from the contact position or boom limit demonstration unless the receiver signal system is in normal and the receiver and tanker have assured normal disconnect capability prior to initiating the maneuver. Each aircraft conducting a practice emergency separation must first verify tanker disconnect capability prior to the practice emergency separation contact. (T-2). 3.3.2.4. For practice emergency separation training, coordination between the tanker pilot, boom operator and the receiver pilot is mandatory and will occur prior to the event. (T-2). The pilots and boom operator must ensure in-flight coordination includes when the maneuver occurs and who gives the command of execution. (T-2). Tanker pilot coordination with the boom operator may be accomplished over interphone. 3.3.2.5. For boom envelope demonstrations, the receiver pilot and the boom operator will discuss the maneuver prior to accomplishment. (T-2). In-flight coordination must include the receiver pilot informing the boom operator when commencing the demonstration, the limit to be demonstrated, and when terminating the demonstration. (T-2). Tanker disconnect capability must be verified by a boom operator initiated disconnect prior to receivers conducting limits demonstrations. (T-2). 3.3.2.6. NVGs may be worn for night tanker rejoins to include flying in the observation position. Aircrew must raise them to the up and stowed position or remove them prior to the pre-contact position. (T-2). NVGs may be returned to the “on” position post-AAR, if not in the pre-contact or contact position. In all cases, assess tanker external lighting conditions to determine if using NVGs is appropriate. 3.3.3. Functional and Acceptance Check Flight (FCF/ACF). 3.3.3.1. Units will perform FCFs and ACFs according to T.O. 1-1-300, Functional Check Flight Procedures, T.O. 1X-XX-6CF-1, Functional Check Flight Manual, T.O. 1X-XX-1 Flight Manual and associated Partial/Modification Flight Manuals (MFM) and applicable AFMC instructions. (T-2). FCFs following programmed depot maintenance (PDM) must also follow the current work specification. (T-2). In the absence of an applicable T.O. 1X-XX-6CF-1, the applicable Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) in conjunction with the program office will develop FCF and maintenance action guidance for that aircraft. FCFs for other reasons, such as major aircraft repair, modification, cybersecurity testing, or extended aircraft downtime (as defined by T.O. 1X-XX -6CF-1) can

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

21

be tailored. The FCF aircrew, aircraft maintenance and sustaining engineering activity will determine the FCF procedures to accomplish. (T-2). An FCF or ACF using the O-8E mission symbol is intended to ensure the aircraft is airworthy in accordance with T.O. 11-300 and are subject to all applicable restrictions. Per T.O. 1-1-300, primary aircraft systems affecting airworthy status are engines, flight controls, landing gear and instruments affecting instrument flight rules (IFR) capability. All other FCF and ACF flights may use the O-8F mission symbol and follow the restrictions associated with that mission. 3.3.3.2. Modified aircraft. When an aircraft has original equipment modified or new equipment added that is not covered by USAF T.O.s, the contractor or lead developmental test organization (LDTO) will provide ACF/FCF or airworthiness procedures. (T-2). The need for FCF after a T-2 modification is determined by the aircraft maintenance activity. These procedures augment those already defined in the T.O. 1X-XX-6CF-1. Incorporate conduct of the first flight after a major T-2 modification requiring verification of system airworthiness into an approved test plan. The aircraft manufacturer or contractor will define FCF procedures for developmental aircraft. 3.3.3.2.1. Cyber test and evaluation has been mandated for all aircraft weapon systems. The testing is normally conducted in both cooperative and adversarial scenarios. The cooperative vulnerability testing identifies possible vulnerabilities in the aircraft or aircraft systems and may do so through the use of code inserted into the aircraft system software in cooperation with system operators to determine effects. Adversarial testing consists of actual attempts to infiltrate the sub-system and/or aircraft level systems without the cooperation of the system operators. Both phases of testing have the possibility of compromising software and/or components. The aircraft will not be flown during cyber testing. 3.3.3.2.1.1. Aircraft and aircraft system return to service following cyber test and evaluation. Due to the dynamic nature of cyber testing, not all scenarios can be accounted for in this publication; therefore, the System Program Office (SPO) is responsible for coordinating recommendations on returning assets to flight and airworthiness status following cyber testing. 3.3.3.3. Tail hook equipped aircraft. Units will conduct initial FCF (O-8E) flights from a runway with compatible approach and departure end cables or barriers. (T-2). Local guidance determines runway specific cable and barrier configurations. If no such runway is available, then an initial FCF may still be accomplished if there is a suitable alternate airfield with compatible cables within 50 nautical miles and recovery fuel allows for the possible divert. Units will ensure the weather at the alternate airfield meets FCF requirements. (T-2). 3.3.3.4. Use of Check Flight Cards. Unit developed check flight cards may be used in lieu of the T.O. 1X-XX-6CF-1checklist provided they are derived from the applicable T.O. 1X-XX-6CF-1 checklist and are approved by the OG/CC. 3.3.3.5. Flight Conditions. Aircrew will comply with restrictions published in T.O. 1-1300 and the take-off weather minimums specified in Table 3.1. (T-3). Aircrew must accomplish preflight inspections for ACF/FCF flights during daylight hours. (T-3). Additionally, aircrew will not conduct the initial preflight inspection during periods of

22

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 precipitation to prevent masking fluid leaks. (T-3). Aircrews will terminate all daylightrequired flight operations prior to official sunset. (T-3).

Table 3.1. ACF/FCF Take-off Minimums. Type Aircraft

Initial ACF/FCF Subsequent (O-8E) ACF/FCF (O-8F) Fighter*, Attack, Trainer, and U-2 3000/3 1500/3 Bomber, Cargo, and Tanker 1500/3 1000/3 Helicopters** 1000/3 1000/3 Tilt-rotor** 1500/3 1000/3 *See MD- Attachments for additional restrictions that may apply. **Hover only FCF requirements (below 50 ft. AGL) may be accomplished with a minimum of 1 mile visibility (no ceiling requirement). 3.3.3.6. Combined FCF and ACF Flights. IAW T.O. 1-1-300, flying wing commanders (or equivalent) may authorize the combination of FCFs with other mission/training flights if the FCF is being conducted to evaluate auxiliary aircraft systems. For units without flying wing commanders, AFMC/A3V is the waiver authority. The decision to approve a combined FCF and ferry flight is the responsibility of AFMC/A3V. 3.3.3.7. Aircraft Release. If a malfunction occurs during an FCF, which is not related to the condition generating the FCF, and the original condition operationally checks good, the aircraft may be released for flight pending resolution of the new malfunction. This does not apply to post PDM FCFs. 3.3.4. Advanced Handling Characteristics/Advanced Handling Maneuvers (AHC/AHM). AHC and AHM maneuver definitions are provided in Air Force Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (AFTTP) 3-3.MDS. Further MD-specific guidance is provided in this instruction’s attachments where required. 3.3.5. Fighter/Trainer Formation and Flight Lead. These procedures apply to all fighter, attack and trainer aircraft. For all other aircraft, refer to MD-specific attachments to this instruction. Formations and sub-elements will be led by a qualified flight lead. (T-2). In all cases, wingmen are responsible for deconfliction unless otherwise briefed. 3.3.5.1. Formation Definitions. Formation definitions are in accordance with AFTTP 33.MDS or as briefed. Formation positions for dissimilar formations must be briefed by the flight lead. (T-3). 3.3.5.2. Taxi. 3.3.5.2.1. Day. Minimum taxi interval is 150 feet if taxiing staggered, 300 feet if taxiing in trail (on the taxiway centerline). Spacing may be reduced when holding short of or entering the runway. 3.3.5.2.2. Night. Minimum taxi interval is 300 feet, and the aircraft will taxi on the taxiway centerline. (T-3). 3.3.5.2.3. Runway/Taxiways with ice/snow/slush. Minimum taxi interval is 300 feet, and the aircraft will taxi on the taxiway centerline. (T-3).

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

23

3.3.5.2.4. Pilots will not taxi in front of aircraft being armed/de-armed with forward firing ordnance. (T-3). 3.3.5.3. Takeoff. 3.3.5.3.1. Pilots must ensure takeoff interval between aircraft or elements is a minimum of 10 seconds. (T-2). Fifteen seconds is the minimum separation when the previous aircraft uses afterburner. When executing a trail departure, in anticipation of a rejoin above the weather, the minimum takeoff interval is 20 seconds. When the previous aircraft is carrying live or inert air-to-surface weapons, the minimum takeoff interval is 20 seconds. 3.3.5.3.2. Flight lead will brief runway lineup and abort procedures. (T-3). Flight lead will call for brake release over the radio during night formation takeoffs if approved, see paragraph 3.3.5.3.4.4 (T-3). 3.3.5.3.3. Wingmen will be positioned on the upwind side of the runway when crosswinds are greater than 5 knots. (T-3). Minimum wingtip clearance is 10 feet. Pilots must ensure spacing between separated elements or flights on the runway is at least 500 feet. (T-3). 3.3.5.3.4. Formation takeoffs are restricted to elements of two like (same model and design) aircraft. Aircraft must be symmetrically configured if carrying air-to-surface ordnance and/or fuel tanks, and loaded such that a trim or control application to counter a heavy wing or yaw during takeoff is not required. (T-3). 3.3.5.3.4.1. Aircrew must ensure the runway is at least 125 feet wide (140 feet A10). (T-3). 3.3.5.3.4.2. Aircrew must ensure ceiling and visibility are at least 500 feet and 1 1/2 miles. (T-3). 3.3.5.3.4.3. Formation takeoffs are prohibited if: slush, snow, ice, or standing water is on the runway; effective crosswind component or crosswind gust exceeds 15 knots or flight manual limits, whichever is lower; the computed takeoff roll exceeds 50% of the available runway; aircraft are loaded with live or inert full scale munitions (excluding air-to-air missiles and internal gun ammunition, or practice bombs). (T-3). 3.3.5.3.4.4. Night formation takeoffs are prohibited unless waived for mission requirements by the OG/CC. 3.3.5.4. Rejoins. 3.3.5.4.1. Daytime. Weather minimums for rejoin underneath a ceiling are 1,000 feet and 3 miles visibility. 3.3.5.4.2. Night. Weather minimums for rejoin underneath a ceiling are 3,000 feet and 3 miles. During the rejoin, wingmen remain at least 1,000 feet AGL. The last aircraft will keep the anti-collision beacon and/or strobe on and position lights on unless otherwise directed by the flight lead. (T-3). 3.3.5.5. Trail Departures. Trail departures can be unaided or aided. Unaided trail departures rely primarily on timing for separation. Aided trail departures rely on timing

24

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 and air-to-air radar, or data link information to maintain separation. The term “tied” refers to aircrew that have achieved situational awareness on the preceding aircraft via air-to-air radar or data link information. The desired aircraft separation for all trail departures is 2-3 NM. 3.3.5.5.1. Takeoff spacing is a minimum of 20 seconds. The flight lead must brief the initial power setting for takeoff and acceleration, climb power setting and airspeed, and level off airspeed. (T-3). 3.3.5.5.2. Each aircraft (or element) will maintain 20 seconds, or 2-3 NM spacing using all applicable aircraft systems and navigational aids. (T-3). Make all heading changes IAW standard instrument procedures not to exceed 30 degree of bank. 3.3.5.5.3. On departure, each aircraft (or element) will follow the No Radar Contact procedures until all aircraft/elements have called “tied.” (T-3). 3.3.5.5.4. Radar equipped aircraft (or elements) will call "tied" when radar contact is established with the preceding aircraft. (T-3). Alternatively, aircraft equipped with a data link system that displays the relative position of the preceding aircraft will call “tied” when airborne with a valid data link. (T-3). No further radio calls are needed once all aircraft are "tied" unless contact is lost. 3.3.5.5.5. Each aircraft (or element) will maintain at least 1,000 feet vertical separation from the preceding aircraft during climbs, descents, and at level-off until “tied” with the preceding aircraft, except in instances where departure instructions specifically preclude compliance. (T-3). 3.3.5.5.6. In the event a visual join-up cannot be accomplished on top or at level-off, the flight lead will request 1,000 feet of altitude separation for each succeeding aircraft (or element) that is not “tied” providing all aircraft can comply with MSA restrictions. (T-3). If the MSA cannot be complied with, vertical separation may be reduced to 500 feet. The flight lead should request Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) squawks for wingmen that must remain in trail. (T-3). 3.3.5.5.7. Do not sacrifice basic instrument flying when performing secondary trail tasks during trail departures. Strictly adhere to the briefed climb speeds, power settings, altitudes, headings, and turn points. First priority is given to flying the aircraft, not operating the radar or data link. If task saturation occurs, cease attempts to maintain trail, immediately concentrate on flying the instrument departure, and notify the flight lead. 3.3.5.5.8. No Radar Contact Procedures. When an aircrew losses, or cannot gain situational awareness on the preceding aircraft (or element) via air-to-air radar or data link information the following procedures apply. 3.3.5.5.8.1. The flight lead will call initiating all turns and descents and passing each 5,000 feet altitude increment with altitude and heading until join-up, leveloff or the non-“tied” aircraft calls “tied.” (T-3). 3.3.5.5.8.2. During climbs and descents, the aircraft (element) immediately preceding the aircraft that is not “tied” will call passing each 5,000 foot altitude increment with altitude and heading until join-up, level-off or the following

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

25

aircraft (element) calls “tied.” (T-3). In addition, the aircraft immediately preceding the aircraft that is not tied will call initiating any altitude or heading change. (T-3). Acknowledgments are not required. 3.3.5.6. Enroute Procedures and Working Area Operations. 3.3.5.6.1. Do not use exaggerated or rolling maneuvers to maintain or regain formation position below 5,000 ft. AGL or in airspace where aerobatics are prohibited. 3.3.5.6.2. In Instrument Meterological Conditions (IMC), maximum flight size in close formation is four aircraft except when flying in formation with a tanker. Follow the guidance in NATO ATP-3.3.4.2 when flying in formation with a tanker. 3.3.5.6.3. For rejoins from tactical formations, the wingman will join to the side of the formation occupied at the time the rejoin is directed. (T-3). If in trail, join to the left side. In all cases, the trailing element will join to the side opposite the number two, unless otherwise directed. (T-3). 3.3.5.6.4. Loss of Visual. If a flight member loses sight of his flight leader or other flight member at a time when he or she thinks they should be in sight, a "blind" call will be made. (T-3). Losing and regaining sight during certain types of tactical maneuvers is expected, thus making “blind” calls not required in these instances.When any flight member calls "blind," the other flight member will immediately respond with "visual" and a position report. (T-3). When the other flight member is also "blind", the flight leader will take action to ensure altitude separation between flight members. (T-3). 3.3.5.6.5. Three and Four-Ship Formations (or more). When flights of more than two aircraft are in tactical formation: 3.3.5.6.5.1. Formation visual signals performed by a flight/element leader pertain only to the associated element unless specified otherwise by the flight leader. 3.3.5.6.5.2. During low altitude operations trailing aircraft/element will maintain a sufficient distance back so that primary emphasis during formation maneuvering is on low altitude awareness and deconfliction within elements, not on deconfliction between elements. (T-3). 3.3.5.6.6. Dissimilar Formation. Aircrew members in dissimilar formations must be knowledgeable of the procedures, visual references and limitations of the other aircraft types in the formation as required by the mission. (T-3). 3.3.5.6.7. Ops Checks. Increase the frequency of ops checks during tactical maneuvering at high power settings. Ops checks should include but aren’t limited to fuel status, instruments, engines, and life support systems. 3.3.5.7. Position Changes. 3.3.5.7.1. Day Visual Meterological Conditions (VMC). The minimum altitude for position changes within a formation is 500 feet AGL over land or 1,000 feet AGL over water, except for emergencies.

26

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 3.3.5.7.2. Night or IMC. The minimum altitude for position changes within a formation is 1,500 feet AGL, unless established on radar downwind. A radio call is mandatory when directing position changes at night or in IMC. 3.3.5.7.3. Pilots will not initiate lead changes with the wingman further aft of normal fingertip, route, or greater than 30 degrees back from line abreast. (T-3). 3.3.5.8. Formation Breakup. Aircrews must thoroughly brief formation breakup. (T-3). Flight leads will maintain positive control and when necessary, issue instructions to ensure safe separation of participating aircraft. (T-3). 3.3.5.8.1. Flight leaders will not break up formations until each pilot has a positive fix from which to navigate (visual, ATC, inertial navigation system (INS), TACAN, VOR, or other suitable system waypoint). (T-3). Formation break-up should not be accomplished in IMC. If unavoidable, IMC break-up is accomplished in straight and level flight. Prior to an IMC break-up, the flight lead will confirm position and transmit attitude, altitude, airspeed, and altimeter setting. (T-3). Wingmen will acknowledge and confirm good navigational aids. (T-3). During formation breakups (under VMC or IMC), the flight lead will clear off aircraft and elements individually. (T-3). Departing aircraft will initially turn away from the formation and, in VMC conditions, establish visual contact with previously departing aircraft. (T-3). 3.3.5.8.2. VMC drags on final below the weather are authorized if coordinated with ATC, the weather is at least 1500 ft. and 3 NM, and the drag is accomplished in sufficient time that the trail formation is set, and all aircraft are configured for landing, prior to the final approach fix (FAF) (in the case of an instrument approach), or 3 NM from the landing point (in the case of a visual approach). Minimum airspeed for any aircraft during the maneuver is final approach speed. 3.3.5.9. Overhead Traffic Patterns. 3.3.5.9.1. Overhead patterns can be made with unexpended practice ordnance (e.g., BDU-33s) and live forward firing ordnance. Overhead traffic patterns are prohibited with live or inert unexpended air-to-surface ordnance, unless that ordnance is secure and within an internal weapons bay. (T-3). Normal spacing between overhead breaks is 5 seconds. Aircraft should be wings level on final at approximately 300 feet AGL and 1 mile from the planned touchdown point. 3.3.5.9.2. After landing clear aircraft to the exit side (cold side) of the runway when speed and conditions permit. 3.3.5.10. Formation Penetration and Approaches. Formation penetrations are restricted to two aircraft when the weather at the base of the intended approach or landing is less than overhead traffic pattern minimums. Aircrew must ensure ceiling and visibility are at least 500 feet and 1 1/2 miles. (T-3). If flying a formation landing, the wingman should be positioned on the appropriate wing prior to weather penetration. Formation low approaches may be flown with dissimilar aircraft. Approach airspeed is based on the higher approach speed of the two aircraft. Minimum altitude for formation low approaches is 100 feet during the day and 300 feet at night. 3.3.5.11. Formation Landings.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

27

3.3.5.11.1. Normally accomplish formation landings from a precision approach, when available. If not available, the rate of descent should be similar to a normal precision approach. 3.3.5.11.2. Landing. When briefing formation landings, flight leads will brief missed approach and go-around procedures. (T-3). Wingmen will be positioned on the upwind side of the formation when crosswinds are greater than 5 knots. (T-3). Minimum wingtip clearance is 10 feet. 3.3.5.11.3. Formation landings are restricted to elements of two like (same model and design) aircraft. Aircraft must be symmetrically configured with air-to-surface ordnance and/or fuel tanks, and loaded such that a trim or control application to counter a heavy wing or yaw during landing is not required. (T-3). Aircrew must ensure the runway is at least 125 feet wide (140 feet A-10). (T-3). Aircrews must ensure ceiling and visibility are at least 500 feet and 1 1/2 miles. (T-3). 3.3.5.11.4. Aircrews will not conduct formation landings if any of the following exist: (T-3). 3.3.5.11.4.1. The runway is reported as “wet” and/or measured RCR is at or below 18 (or ice, slush, or snow is on the runway). 3.3.5.11.4.2. Effective crosswind component or crosswind gust exceeds 15 knots or flight manual limits, whichever is lower. 3.3.5.11.4.3. Night conditions exist. 3.3.5.11.4.4. Either aircraft has hung ordnance. 3.3.5.11.4.5. Aircraft are loaded with live or inert munitions (excluding air-to-air missiles, or internal gun ammunition, or practice bombs). 3.3.5.11.4.6. Arresting gear tape connectors extend onto the runway surface at the approach end of 125-feet-wide runways. 3.3.5.11.5. Touch-and-go formation landings are prohibited. 3.3.5.11.6. Pilots will maintain their respective landing side of the runway until both aircraft have decelerated to a safe taxi speed. (T-3). 3.3.5.12. Trail Recovery. Trail recoveries are authorized for air-to-air radar and data link equipped aircraft that are capable of using these systems for formation position keeping. For all other aircraft, trail recoveries are authorized only if procedures are established in the applicable MD-specific attachments. 3.3.5.12.1. ATC approval is mandatory to fly a trail recovery. Flight leads must advise ATC of intentions to conduct non-standard formation. (T-2). Flight leads must ensure that ATC understands that instructions to the lead aircraft are for the entire flight, and ATC will provide radar flight following for the entire formation. (T-2). 3.3.5.12.2. Trail recoveries are limited to a maximum of four aircraft. Prior to taking spacing the flight lead will ensure the requirements for formation breakup are accomplished. (T-3). Complete any formation changes to effect trail recovery positions prior to the instrument approach FAF.

28

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 3.3.5.12.3. Use pre-briefed airspeeds, geometry, radar, radio calls, etc. to effect the formation change and maintain flight members’ situational awareness. Pilots will fly no slower than computed final approach speed to accomplish the spacing maneuver. (T-3). Minimum spacing between flight members is 1 NM. 3.3.5.12.4. If radar contact, or data link situational awareness is lost with the preceding aircraft, the pilot will transmit "(Callsign) lost contact." (T-3). The preceding aircraft will respond with altitude, airspeed and heading. (T-3). Establish altitude deconfliction, if necessary, and coordinate a separate clearance with ATC. If contact is lost while established on a segment of a published approach, flight members may continue the approach, but must confirm separation via navigation aids. (T-3). If separation cannot be confirmed, execute missed approach or climb-out as instructed by ATC. 3.3.5.12.5. Once established on a segment of a published approach, each aircraft must comply with all published altitudes and restrictions while maintaining in-trail separation. (T-2). All aircraft must report the FAF. (T-2). 3.3.5.12.6. Aircrews will not terminate trail recoveries in simultaneous Precision Approach Radar (PAR) or Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR) approaches. (T-2). Recoveries to separate PAR/ASRs are authorized. Flight leads will coordinate with ATC and split prior to PAR/ASR final. (T-2). 3.3.5.13. Lost Wingman Procedures. In any lost wingman situation, immediate separation of aircraft is essential. Smooth application of control inputs is imperative to minimize the effects of spatial disorientation. Upon losing sight of the leader, the wingman will simultaneously transition to instruments, execute the applicable lost wingman procedures, and inform flight lead. (T-2). The flight leader will acknowledge the lost wingman's radio call and transmit attitude, heading, altitude, airspeed, and other parameters as appropriate (T-2). Permission to rejoin the flight must be obtained from the flight leader after lost wingman procedures have been executed. (T-2). 3.3.5.13.1. Two or Three Ship Flights will follow the procedures outlined below (T2) (Note: If in 3-ship echelon, refer to 4-ship lost wingman procedures): 3.3.5.13.1.1. Wings-Level Flight (Climb, Descent, or Straight and Level). Turn away using 15 degrees of bank for 15 seconds; then resume heading and obtain a separate clearance. 3.3.5.13.1.2. Turns (Climb, Descent, or Level): 3.3.5.13.1.2.1. Outside the Turn. Reverse the direction of turn using 15 degrees of bank for 15 seconds. Continue straight ahead to ensure separation before resuming turn. Obtain a separate clearance. 3.3.5.13.1.2.2. Inside the Turn. Momentarily reduce power to ensure nose-totail clearance and inform the leader to roll out of the turn. Maintain angle of bank to ensure lateral separation and obtain a separate clearance. The leader may resume turn only when separation is ensured. 3.3.5.13.1.3. Precision and Non-precision Final Approach. The wingman momentarily turns away to ensure separation and informs lead. Commence the

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

29

published missed approach procedure and obtain a separate clearance from approach control. 3.3.5.13.1.4. Missed Approach. The wingman momentarily turns away to ensure clearance and informs lead. Continue the published missed approach procedure and climb to 500 feet above missed approach altitude. Obtain a separate clearance from approach control. 3.3.5.13.2. Four Ship Flights. The number two and three aircraft will follow the procedures outlined above. (T-2). Number four aircraft will follow the appropriate procedures listed below: (T-2). 3.3.5.13.2.1. Wings-Level Flight. Turn away using 30 degrees of bank for 30 seconds. Resume heading and obtain a separate clearance. 3.3.5.13.2.2. Turns: 3.3.5.13.2.2.1. Outside The Turn. Reverse the direction of the turn using 30 degrees of bank for 30 seconds to ensure separation from lead and number three aircraft. Obtain a separate clearance. 3.3.5.13.2.2.2. Inside The Turn. Momentarily reduce power to ensure noseto-tail separation and increase bank angle by 15 degrees. Inform the leader to roll out of the turn. Obtain a separate clearance. 3.3.5.14. Severe Weather Penetration. Avoid flight through severe weather. If unavoidable, flights should break-up and obtain separate clearances prior to severe weather penetration. 3.3.6. Targeting Pod (TGP) Pilot. MD-specific guidance is provided in this instruction’s attachments where required. 3.3.7. Navigation Pod (Fighter Only). MD-specific guidance is provided in this instruction’s attachments where required. 3.3.8. Night Vision Goggle (NVG). Pilots should not become overly confident in the capabilities of NVGs. Many things can cause a pilot to lose outside visual references. Some examples are entering the weather (intentionally or inadvertently), NVG battery failure, flight into smoke or dust, flight into a shadowed area, sudden illumination of an incompatible light source inside or outside of the cockpit, etc. Pilots must ensure primary and secondary flight instruments are sufficiently illuminated to allow transition to instruments if outside visual references are lost. (T-3). 3.3.8.1. Aircrew must test and focus their NVGs preflight using (in order of preference) the Hoffman ANV-20/20 Tester, a unit eye lane, or equivalent tester prior to NVG operations. (T-3). See AFI 11-301 Volume 1, Aircrew Flight Equipment (AFE) Program, for specific procedures. 3.3.8.2. Use of NVGs during all takeoffs and landings are prohibited unless authorized in MD-specific attachments or required for an approved test plan event. 3.3.8.3. NVGs will only be worn in-flight by NVG qualified aircrew or by upgrading aircrew under the supervision of a qualified NVG Instructor. (T-2). Familiarization

30

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 flights are authorized under the supervision of an NVG IP if appropriate ground training has been accomplished. 3.3.8.4. (N/A helicopter or tilt-rotor.) NVGs are donned above the MSA and in level to climbing flight when possible. Remove NVGs a minimum of 5 minutes prior to landing, while above the MSA when possible, to allow enough time to regain adequate visual acuity to perform the approach and landing. 3.3.8.5. While conducting NVG formation procedures, the flight lead will brief when each flight member dons/doffs their NVGs. (T-3). In single seat aircraft, only one flight member at a time will don NVGs; other flight members monitor the member if able. (T3). In multi-seat aircraft, only one crew member at a time will don NVGs; another crew member monitors aircraft parameters if able. (T-3). A “goggles on” or “goggles off” call will be made indicating the status of the aircrew in each aircraft. (T-3). Wingman will fly no closer than route position while wearing NVGs. (T-3). 3.3.8.6. Aircrews will only use NVGs in VMC with a discernable horizon. (T-2). Flight leads or aircraft commanders (as appropriate) must brief a non-NVG plan to execute if flight conditions degrade. (T-2). 3.3.8.7. (N/A C-130, C-17, helicopters and tilt-rotor. See MD-specific attachments.) The minimum altitude, when flying below the MSA and using only NVGs to clear terrain and obstacles, is 1,000 feet AGL. Flight below the MSA, while using NVGs only, requires high illumination conditions as defined by AFI 11-214, Air Operations Rules and Procedures. If another system, such as TF/TA, is used to clear terrain and obstacles the minimum altitude is defined by that system’s capability. 3.3.8.8. (N/A H-1. See MD-specific attachment.) Fly with NVGs only in production NVG compatible cockpits, or with a system described in the aircraft MFM, or as stipulated in an approved test plan. Aircrew must ensure that all control and performance instruments are sufficiently illuminated by an NVG compatible light source. (T-3). Aircrew must ensure lighting provides for immediate reference in the event they need to transition to instruments with loss of visual references. (T-2). 3.3.8.9. Aircrews will suppress all NVG incompatible interior light sources so that they do not degrade the aircrew’s ability to see outside of the cockpit with NVGs. (T-3). If an incompatible light source cannot be suppressed, pilots will terminate NVG operations. (T-3). 3.3.8.10. During in-flight emergencies, NVGs may be retained unless they become a detriment to safely recovering the aircraft. In ejection seat equipped aircraft, aircrews will remove and stow NVGs as soon as an emergency begins to deteriorate into an ejection situation. (T-2). 3.3.9. Helmet-Mounted Cueing System Guidance (HMCS). provided in this instruction’s attachments where required.

MD-specific guidance is

3.3.10. High-Speed Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM) Targeting System (HTS). MD-specific guidance is provided in this instruction’s attachments where required. 3.4. Air-to-Air Operations. This section applies to Intercept, Basic Fighter Maneuvers (BFM), Low Altitude Training (LOWAT), and Air Combat Training (ACBT). ACBT includes both Air

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

31

Combat Maneuvering (ACM) and Air Combat Tactics (ACT). AFMC invokes AFI 11-214 Airto-Air training rules for air-to-air training missions with the additional restrictions detailed below. Developmental air-to-air testing is conducted in accordance with test and safety review board guidance and may include AFI 11-214 training rules as appropriate. 3.4.1. Air-to-Air (A/A) Maneuvering restrictions. Intercept qualified aircrew may conduct intercepts in accordance with limited maneuvering training rules. If both aircrews are intercept and BFM qualified, 1v1 intercepts to unlimited maneuvering are permissible. Unlimited maneuvering, on sorties greater than 1 V 1 (e.g., 2 V 1, 2 V 2), requires an ACBT qualification. Flights may consist of ACBT and Intercept qualified crews; however, Intercept qualified crews will adhere to limited maneuvering restrictions IAW AFI 11-214. 3.4.1.1. Maximum sortie size and engagement size. Maximum sortie size is 4 V 4 for unlimted or limited maneuvering. Maximum visual engagement size is 4 aircraft. The OG/CC may approve participation in larger exercises on a case by case basis. Non-radar equipped aircraft are restricted to limited maneuvering in visual engagements larger than 2 V 1. 3.4.1.2. Aircrews will not conduct negative G gun jinks. (T-2). 3.4.2. Air-to-Air System Checks. Wingmen may complete their A/A system check during formation rejoins. Flight leads should strive to conduct A/A system checks within special use airspace. or above 10,000 feet Mean Sea Level (MSL). 3.4.3. Separation of Aircraft. Aircrews will not maneuver within 1,000 feet of an opposing aircraft during air-to-air engagements. (T-2). 3.4.4. Simulated Gun Employment. To prevent inadvertent firings when simulating gun employment, ensure there is no ammunition loaded or safe the gun according to –34 series T.O.s, and comply with AFTTP 3-3.MDS specific attachment guidance or AFI 11-2MDS Volume 3 guidance. (T-2). Perform a trigger check (trigger squeeze) before simulated gun employment. 3.4.5. Battle Damage/Bomb Checks. Unless circumstances prevent, flight leads will direct a battle damage/bomb check prior to or during return to base (RTB). (T-3). Battle damage checks for test missions will be determined by the SRB Chair. (T-3). Formation spacing is no closer than normal fingertip. Battle damage checks are not required during night or IMC, however they may be accomplished at night if wearing NVGs. 3.5. Air-to-Surface Weapons Delivery, Air Drop and/or Low Altitude. 3.5.1. Air-to-Surface Weapons Delivery. This section describes procedures for aircrew airto-surface operations and is applicable to all AFMC aircraft. Weapons delivery operations are IAW AFI 13-212, Volume 1, Range Planning and Operations, T.O. 1M-34, Aircraft Weapons Delivery Manual, and aircraft specific -34 T.O.s. Helicopter weapons employment techniques and procedures are discussed in 3-1 and 3-3 MDS volumes; there are no -34 T.O.s for these aircraft. AFMC invokes AFI 11-214 Air-to-Surface training rules for air-to-surface training missions with the additional restrictions detailed below. Developmental air-tosurface testing is conducted in accordance with test and safety review board guidance and may include AFI 11-214 training rules as appropriate. Unless otherwise specified, all limits

32

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 for tilt-rotor aircraft in airplane (APLN) mode equal those cited for fixed wing aircraft. Tiltrotor aircraft operating in CONV or VTOL mode are equal to those cited for helicopters. 3.5.1.1. Weapons Delivery Target Identification. Aircrew must positively identify the target and ensure correlation with the targeting system prior to weapons release. (T-2). For example, a pilot may visually identify a target, but must ensure the sensor controlling the point of impact (targeting pod, radar, etc) will direct the weapon to the identified target. When delivering weapons via an INS and/or Global Positioning System (GPS) solution (through an undercast, in IMC, at night, etc) target identification, and correlation is defined as verifying the target coordinates and navigation solution validity respectively, while airborne. 3.5.1.2. Weather Minimums. In accordance with the applicable range rules. 3.5.1.3. Single Ship Operations. AFMC aircrew, qualified in air-to-ground employment, may fly single ship weapon employment missions IAW AFI 11-214. 3.5.1.4. Minimum Altitudes. Minimum release altitudes are specified in AFI 11-214. Recovery altitudes and planned dive angles are specified in Table 3.2 and AFI 11-214. Contact AFMC/A3V for guidance if a conflict exists.

Table 3.2. Weapons Employment Minimum Recovery Altitudes. Event Low Angle High Drag (Class A and T Ranges) Low Angle High Drag (Over-water Range, Class B and C Ranges) Low Angle Low Drag Dive Bomb High Altitude Dive Bomb Low Angle, Long Range, Two Target Strafe High Angle Strafe

Planned Dive Angle (Degrees) < 30

Recovery Altitude (AGL)

< 30

300 ft.

< 30 ≥ 30 ≥ 30 ≤ 15

1000 ft. (800 for A-10) 1500 ft. (1000 for A-10) 4500 ft. 75 ft. fixed wing 50 ft. helicopter (N/A for hover fire) A-10 & F-16: 1000 ft. for planned dive angles > 15° and ≤ 30°. 1500 ft. for planned dive angles > 30°

>15

100 ft.

F-15E & F-35: 500 ft. Level or Pull up Deliveries

N/A

Nuclear and Radar Events

Level ±2.5 degrees

200 ft. fixed wing 50 ft. helicopters (N/A for hover fire) 200 ft.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

33

3.5.1.5. Flight Composition. Dissimilar aircraft may execute deliveries on the same range provided the delivery events are compatible with each type of aircraft and AFI 11214 delivery spacing restrictions are followed. 3.5.1.6. Live Ordnance Procedures. Aircrews will comply with the following live ordnance procedures. (T-2). 3.5.1.6.1. Conduct a thorough and complete verification of all target data. 3.5.1.6.2. No release system, indicator, or weapon bay door malfunction may exist. 3.5.1.6.3. Do not Weapon Unlock/Release Enable/Master Arm to Arm until the aircraft is within the designated bombing range. 3.5.1.6.4. If all weapons are expended and release is verified visually (pilot observation of impact, by the Range Control Officer (RCO), or other flight members) and internal indications are consistent with outside observations, aircrews may conduct additional training without restriction. 3.5.1.6.5. Do not make simulated weapon delivery passes on targets occupied by personnel. 3.5.1.7. Class B/C Ranges. When Ground Controllers are operating on Class B/C ranges aircrew will comply with the following procedures: (T-2). 3.5.1.7.1. All pilots are familiar with applicable range weapons delivery procedures, appropriate targets and weapons footprints. 3.5.1.7.2. Ground personnel locations are briefed and acknowledged by all pilots. 3.5.1.7.3. Do not expend ordnance if any doubt exists as to the ground personnel or intended target locations. 3.5.1.8. Battle Damage/Bomb Checks (Fighter/Attack/Trainer). Unless circumstances prevent, flight leads will direct a battle damage/bomb check prior to or during recovery to base. (T-3). Battle Damage checks for test missions will be determined by the SRB Chair. (T-3). Formation spacing is no closer than normal fingertip. Battle damage checks are not required during night or IMC, however they may be accomplished at night if wearing NVGs. 3.5.1.9. Armament System Malfunctions. Aircrew will not attempt to expend ordnance using a delivery system with a known weapons release malfunction unless following hung ordnance procedures. (T-2). 3.5.1.10. Inadvertent Release. Record switch positions and impact point (if known) at the time of inadvertent release and provide to armament and safety personnel. Check armament switches safe and do not attempt further release in any mode. Treat remaining stores as hung ordnance and obtain a chase aircraft during RTB, if practical. If remaining stores present a recovery hazard, jettison in a suitable area on a single pass, if practical. 3.5.1.11. Hung Ordnance. Note weapons switch settings and then safe the armament system. Crews experiencing a hung store may contact the RCO for permission to release or jettison the hung stores in a suitable area. If a hung store cannot be jettisoned or released, or if the crew elects not to jettison, the crew will accomplish any required

34

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 checklists and recover to the most appropriate airfield while avoiding over-flight of populated areas. (T-2). If practical, obtain a chase and have the aircraft visually inspected. Refer to local guidance for recovery procedures with hung weapons. Air refueling may be accomplished for safe recovery of the aircraft. Land from a straight in approach. If the situation requires a landing at an airfield other than the base of operations with hung or unexpended weapons, advise the local authorities of the situation so that proper coordination can be accomplished with their safety office. 3.5.1.12. Hang Fire/Misfire - General. 3.5.1.12.1. A missile that fires but fails to depart the aircraft is a hangfire. If this occurs, the chase pilot (if available) should closely observe and safety check the missile. Follow the hung ordnance recovery procedures in accordance with local guidance. 3.5.1.12.2. A missile that fails to fire when all appropriate switches were selected is a misfire. If this occurs, safe the Master Arm switch and follow the hung ordnance recovery procedures. 3.5.1.13. On-Range NORDO Procedures. 3.5.1.13.1. Attempt contact with the RCO on the appropriate back-up frequency. If unable to establish contact, make a pass by the range control tower (over the target if flying on an unmanned range) on the attack heading while rocking wings, and turn in the direction of traffic. The flight leader will either rejoin the flight and RTB, or direct another flight member to escort the NORDO to a recovery base. (T-3). 3.5.1.13.2. If the NORDO aircraft has an emergency, and conditions permit, make a pass by the range control tower, on the attack heading while rocking wings, turn opposite the direction of traffic, and proceed to a suitable recovery base. The flight leader will direct a flight member to join-up and escort the emergency aircraft. (T-3). 3.5.1.13.3. Unexpended Ordnance. If radio failure occurs and circumstances preclude landing with unexpended ordnance, accomplish a safe jettison of the ordnance. The NORDO aircraft should join on another flight member that has radio contact with the RCO and the remainder of the flight if possible. Relay visual signals specified in AFI 11-205, Aircraft Cockpit and Formation Flight Signals to the NORDO aircraft to initiate stores jettison. 3.5.2. Air Drop Operations. Units conducting aerial delivery operations will develop specialized training programs and operational procedures. (T-2). Units will employ AFI 11301V2, Maintenance and Configuration Requirements for Aircrew Flight Equipment (AFE), AFI 13-210, Joint Airdrop Inspection Records, Malfunction/Incidents, Investigations, and Activity Reporting, AFI 11-402, Aviation and Parachutist Service, Aeronautical Ratings and Aviation Badges, FM 31-19, Military Free-Fall Parachuting Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (US Army), and applicable T.O.s for all operations. (T-2). Refer to MD-specific attachment and or other MAJCOM instructions for guidance. 3.5.2.1. Units will conduct airdrops in VMC. (T-2). IMC airdrops are permitted if aircraft is equipped with approved software/hardware and aircrew properly trained in its operation. Comply with airspace and drop zone (DZ) restrictions for blind DZ

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

35

operations. For detailed information on DZ sizes, markings, types, and weather and wind limits, refer to AFI 13-217, Drop Zone and Landing Zone Operations. For information on aerial delivery airspeeds and altitudes, refer to AFI 11-231, Computed Air Release Point Procedures. 3.5.2.2. Jumpmaster directed personnel airdrops require OG/CC approval (not required for helicopter or C-12). The OG/CC can approve these airdrops on a case-by-case basis, or may approve multiple airdrops from a test plan or support mission program. Document with a memorandum for record. If approved, the user accepts all responsibility for airdrop accuracy and damage to equipment or injury to personnel. 3.5.2.3. Approved computer-aided computed air release point (CARP) and high-altitude release point (HARP) programs may be used, but units must ensure results are verified. (T-2). Units must check/verify the following information: DZ impact coordinates; load information to include number and parachute type, load weights, sequence of extraction, and load position. (T-2). 3.5.2.4. Crews will not conduct airdrops using parachutes unless they are Service Approved, MAJCOM approved (including AFMC, AMC and AFSOC) or AFI 11-231 approved. (T-2). This does not apply to formal test missions where the purpose of the test is to derive ballistic data for a specific load. 3.5.2.5. The primary aircrew will review the DZ survey during mission planning. (T-3). 3.5.2.6. Units must ensure ADD Form 1748, Joint Airdrop Inspection Report, is accomplished prior to all equipment airdrops. (T-2). Completion, retention, and disposition of the form is in accordance with AFI 13-210 and the AF Records Disposition Schedule. Exception: A-71 and A-21 containers rigged for door bundles. 3.5.2.7. Radio transmissions with the DZ are limited to those required for safety of flight considerations. This includes ATC directions, range clearance, unsafe surface conditions, or mission changes. Aircrew will coordinate radio silence/no communications procedures prior to mission execution. (T-2). 3.5.2.8. Drop clearance is normally inherent with mission clearance to unmanned DZs. The aircrew observing the proper briefed authentication confirms drop clearance in VMC. Drop clearance is confirmed via radio call or beacon acquisition in IMC. Absence of the pre-briefed marking, jumbled block letter, the letter X, or red light/smoke/flare is considered a no-drop call. 3.5.2.9. No-Drop Decisions (automated airdrops). 3.5.2.9.1. Prior to the 1-or 2-minute warning, notify the AC when any condition exists that could jeopardize a safe drop. 3.5.2.9.2. After the 1- or 2-minute warning, any crewmember observing a condition that would jeopardize a safe drop will transmit “NO DROP” on the interphone. (T-3). 3.5.2.9.3. A “NO DROP” is called if checklists items required prior to the 10/5 second call have not been completed. 3.5.2.9.4. The non-flying pilot, the navigator/CSO (if applicable) and the loadmaster will acknowledge the “NO DROP” call. (T-2). All applicable aircrew will

36

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 immediately configure any automatic airdrop switches to prevent automatic release of the load. (T-2). The AC will immediately instruct the crew to follow the appropriate procedures. (T-2). 3.5.3. Low-Level Navigation Operations. AFMC invokes AFI 11-214 Low Altitude training rules for low altitude missions with the additional restrictions detailed below. 3.5.3.1. Low-Level Environment (N/A V-22. See MD-specific attachment). Between sunrise and sunset, the low-level environment defined by this instruction is at or below 2000 feet AGL for fixed wing aircraft and at or below 300 feet AGL for helicopters. For IMC or night operations the low-level environment is defined as below the MSA. 3.5.3.2. Minimum Altitudes. (N/A C-130 and C-17. See MD-specific attachments). 3.5.3.2.1. Day VMC (N/A V-22. See MD-specific attachment). Fixed wing pilots will not conduct low-level flight below 500 ft AGL unless current and qualified (or in an approved training program) in Low Altitude Step Down Training (LASDT). (T-2). Helicopter pilots may conduct low-level flight down to 100 ft AGL, and with Ops Officer approval, minimums altitudes may be reduced to 50 feet above the highest obstacle (AHO) when training or testing necessities exist. (T-2). Limit time below 100 ft AGL to the minimum required for mission objectives. These altitude restrictions do not apply to flight test techniques, such as tower flybys, performed in approved airspace, or FCF missions. 3.5.3.2.2. Night and IMC. Aircraft will not fly lower than the MSA (or ESA when operating in SUA vice a MTR) unless using an approved TF, TA, or other system. (T2). The pilots must be qualified in the system used, and the system must be fully operative. (T-2). 3.5.3.2.3. Night VMC (N/A helicopter and tilt-rotor. See MD-specific attachments). Pilots using NVGs can fly lower than the MSA (or ESA when operating in a SUA vice a MTR) in VMC conditions under high illumination conditions as defined in AFI 11-214 . The aircrew must be current and qualified in below MSA NVG operations, or in the upgrade program and under the supervision of an IP per the training program. (T-2). Also, the aircraft must have an operable radar altimeter unless executing a test plan. (T-2). During NVG low-level operations, set the altitude warning to the minimum altitude planned during the low-level route. 3.5.3.3. Visual Procedures. Weather minimums for visual low-level operations are 1,500 feet (1000 for helicopters and tilt-rotor aircraft in CONV/VTOL mode) ceiling and 3 miles visibility for any route or area, or as specified in FLIP for MTRs, unit regulations or national rules, whichever is higher. 3.5.3.3.1. At altitudes below 1,000 feet AGL, wingmen will not fly at a lower AGL altitude than lead. (T-2). 3.5.3.3.2. When crossing ridges, high or hilly terrain, maintain positive G on the aircraft and do not exceed 120 (60 for helicopters) degrees of bank. Maneuvering at less than 1 G is limited to upright (less than 90 degrees of bank) bunting maneuvers. 3.5.3.3.3. If unable to visually acquire or ensure lateral separation from known vertical obstructions which are a factor to the route of flight, flight leads will direct a

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

37

climb no later than 3 NM (1 NM for helicopters and tilt-rotor aircraft in CONV/VTOL mode) prior to the obstacle to an altitude that ensures vertical separation. (T-2). 3.5.3.3.4. Military Training Route (MTR) Transition. Use radar services and onboard radar systems to the maximum extent practical to assist with visual look-out. Unless a faster minimum safe maneuvering speed is mandated by the aircraft T.O., delay acceleration to airspeeds authorized in FLIP until established inside the confines of the MTR and decelerate back to low altitude cruise speed prior to route exit. If an unplanned route exit occurs (e.g. route abort, Terrain Flowing Radar (TFR) fly-up, etc.), slow to low altitude cruise speed after terrain or obstacle clearance is assured. Avoid Class A/B/C/D airspace. Limit time in Federal Airways to that required to cross them. 3.5.4. Low Altitude Step Down Training (LASDT) Operations (N/A C-130, C-17, V-22, and helicopters. See MD-specific attachments). LASDT applies to fixed wing operations below 500 feet AGL, except for takeoff, landing, and weapons delivery minimum recovery altitudes. LASDT fixed wing aircrew will not fly lower than 200 feet AGL during training nor fly lower than 100 feet AGL during test unless approved by the safety and test review boards. (T-2). MD-specific guidance is provided in this instruction’s attachments if necessary. 3.5.5. Terrain Following/Terrain Avoidance (TF/TA). TF/TA operations are prohibited unless the crew is current and qualified, or enrolled in an applicable training plan. Exception: Aircrew may operate TF/TA in Day VMC conditions if not current. Alternatively, qualified FCF/ACF/Operational Check Flight (OCF) aircrew may conduct day VMC TF/TA operations in accordance with T.O. -6 procedures. Conduct TF operations specified in an approved test plan within the guidelines of the test plan and any restrictions imposed by the safety review board. Annotate low-level charts with TF Start/Termination areas. Minimum altitude for TF/TA operations is no lower than aircrew qualification for Low-level Navigation or LASDT or as approved in a safety/test plan. 3.5.5.1. Negative Altitude Variations on IR routes. Excessive negative altitude variations do not ensure safe terrain clearance at your MSA. Aircrew will use altitude variations from Pilot to Metro Service (PMSV) (or compute using PMSV altimeter settings and D values) to determine which route segments are affected by excessive altitude variations. (T-2). This information should be obtained as close as possible to the planned entry time. Crews unable to contact a PMSV station may enter using information from the preflight weather briefing. 3.5.5.1.1. NVGs may be used to clear terrain visually during night VMC. TF equipped aircraft may continue to TF in an area of excessive negative altitude variation. However, in the event of a fly-up, TF malfunction, or any required climb to MSA, you must abort the route. (T-3). If any of the following situations occur during IMC or at night and the crew is unable to clear terrain visually, abort the route: 3.5.5.1.1.1. The difference between aircraft system altitude and the Mean Sea level (MSL) altitude as indicated with the most current altimeter setting exceeds 400 feet. This can be measured directly by taking an altitude calibration (for example, a 2420 MSL pressure altimeter reading and a 2000ft system (true)

38

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 altitude would yield a -420 ft. altitude variation). 3.5.5.1.1.2. The aircraft radar altimeter indicates less than a 600 ft. terrain clearance while at the MSA. 3.5.5.1.1.3. Flying and maintaining TF clearance plane settings and the aircraft pressure altimeters indicate at or above the route MSA. 3.5.5.2. Crews may enter the route in IMC conditions and fly MSA up to the area of excessive altitude variation. Prior to entering the area of excessive altitude variation, crews must be able to visually clear terrain or fly TF, in order to continue low-level operations. (T-2). Once the forecast/observed area(s) of excessive altitude variation is over-flown, subsequent portions of the low-level route may be flown.

3.6. Flight Test Mission Operations. 3.6.1. Flight Test Orientation. For specific guidance see the MD-specific attachments. 3.6.2. Aircrew engaged in flight test or test support in single pilot aircraft (except for the U-2 and RPA) will observe the following sortie duration limits: a maximum of 3.0 hours of test time (beginning at start of first test point and running continuously until 3.0 hours have expired), and a maximum scheduled sortie duration of 4.5 hours (including transit time). (T3). The primary test unit is responsible for coordinating with the supporting unit commanders when other test/test support assets are used. Unit commanders must consider aircrew experience, time of day, complexity, and the impact of delays in their decision. 3.6.3. Target. In the absence of test or safety review board restrictions follow the guidance in this instruction’s paragraph 3.4 Air-to-Air Operations. 3.6.4. Chase. This section describes general procedures for planning, briefing and flying chase formations. This guidance is not intended for test support aircraft being employed in a “target” role. 3.6.4.1. General. In addition to specific flight test requirements, the test aircrew are often concentrating on items not generally associated with normal formation operations. The chase aircrew must be aware of the test point requirements, monitor parameters, ensure safe separation and clear for the formation. To optimize the contribution chase assets provide, test aircrew will brief specific chase procedures for each test point to include description of the test maneuver, expected chase position, expected parameters, expected radio calls, and rejoin procedures. (T-3). 3.6.4.2. Types of Chase. The test team will clearly brief the chase crew’s objectives in accordance with test and safety review board stipulations. (T-3). Flight leads will cover chase aircrew positions and responsibilities during the flight briefing. (T-3). The flight lead will direct chase positions in flight as required by test objectives. (T-3). 3.6.4.2.1. Safety Chase. Visual formation that maximizes the briefed chase duties. Chase duties include but are not limited to deconfliction, clearing, observing test point execution, monitoring altitudes, airspeeds, limits and other flight parameters and periodic checks of aircraft and store condition. 3.6.4.2.2. Area Chase. The chase aircraft need only remain in the designated test area and maintain radio contact with the test aircraft. The chase pilot should maintain

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

39

situation awareness of the test aircraft’s location via use of data link information, radar, air-to-air TACAN, and/or ground controllers, as required and should deconflict his flight path from all other airborne elements of the mission. Area chase should remain in a position where an expeditious intercept to rejoin with the test aircraft can be accomplished, if required. 3.6.4.2.3. Photo Chase. Position is dictated by the photo requirements of the test and photographic equipment. Flight planning and briefing includes formation positions during various phases of flight or test points as well as radio terminology. Pilot and photographer must discuss camera communications, maneuvers to be performed, disposition and stowage of photographic equipment in the event of emergency egress and ejection. (T-3). Regardless, maintaining the briefed minimum safe distance from the test aircraft, test items, or the terrain remains a primary responsibility of the chase pilot. 3.6.4.2.4. Instructor Pilot/Standardization Evaluation Flight Examiner (IP/SEFE) Chase. IP/SEFE chase is close formation to route formation so as to evaluate maneuvering parameters. Pilots will maintain in-flight nose-tail separation. (T-3). 3.6.4.3. Requirements and Restrictions. Any pilot may chase an aircraft under emergency or impending emergency conditions. Pilots who have completed an Instrument/Qualification evaluation may chase as safety observer for aircraft performing simulated instrument flight or hung ordnance patterns. Pilots that have completed the chase upgrade training may chase test events. Only, an instructor or evaluator may fly IP/SEFE chase. 3.6.4.3.1. Missions Requiring Chase Support. The following types of test missions require a chase aircraft, unless a test safety review board specifically assesses otherwise: first flights on new aircraft; performance testing of new/modified test aircraft, stability & control and/or flying qualities evaluations of modified or new aircraft configurations; structural integrity tests; dispensing, separation, functional and/or jettison tests of modified or new munitions (live or inert) and suspension equipment; captive compatibility flights (except baseline flights); and missions which prevent the test aircrew from clearing their flight path in “see and avoid” airspace. Chase pilots must continue to fulfill briefed responsibilities until the test aircraft either lands or reverts to a non-chase required configuration or mission (for example, following release of a test weapon). (T-2). 3.6.4.3.2. Briefing. To the maximum extent possible, briefings between chase and test aircrew are conducted face-to-face. Mission briefings at a minimum include telephonic coordination with test aircrew. Chase briefings specifically cover relevant test hazards and risk minimizing procedures, separation of aircraft, minimum and abort altitudes, chase positions, minimum safe distances from test aircraft and test items, control-room and flight communication, mission, photo, and safety-related radio calls and terminology. 3.6.4.3.3. Test/Chase Aircraft Configuration. Chase aircrew should assist with preflight of the test aircraft and munitions to observe and become familiar with configurations, lanyards, panels, airframe scratches, etc.. This is not required where

40

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 there is no external test item and there is no additional risk of structural failures due to the flight test such as avionics or software tests. 3.6.4.3.4. Communications. Primary test and chase aircraft maintain radio contact during the mission. To maximum extent possible, the chase aircraft monitors Guard radio frequency. The chase pilot will issue immediate advisories to lead if lead deviates significantly from intended maneuvers or pre-briefed flight profile. (T-2). Chase will relay all “terminate,” “abort,” or “knock-it-off” calls. (T-3). 3.6.4.3.5. Fuel. Fuel planning should account for test mission accomplishment and contingencies. When safety chase is required for recovery, fuel planning must permit chase aircrew to chase the test aircraft to a full stop landing, followed by another approach to a full stop by the chase aircraft. (T-3). 3.6.4.3.6. Weather. Weather for safety chase formation is a discernable horizon, 3 NM of visibility, and clear of clouds. 3.6.4.3.7. Minimum altitudes/airspeeds. Excluding airborne pickups, pattern and landing chase, or unless specifically permitted by the technical/safety review boards, the chase minimum altitude is 500 ft. AGL. The chase will not stack lower than lead when operating below 1,000 feet AGL. (T-3). Exaggerated rolling or vertical maneuvers below 5,000 ft. AGL are prohibited. 3.6.4.3.7.1. Airborne Pickup. When performing an airborne pickup chase will fly no slower than final turn / final approach speed and no lower than 200 feet AGL. (T-3). This procedure may be modified by specific test mission requirements if approved by test and safety review boards. 3.6.4.3.7.2. (N/A for helicopters and tilt-rotor.) In the traffic pattern, IP/SEFE chase aircraft may maneuver as necessary to observed performance, but go no lower than 50 feet AGL. All other chase aircrew must initiate go around by 200 feet AGL, unless an emergency requires a lower altitude or specifically approved by a test safety review board to support test requirements. (T-3). However, 50 feet AGL is an absolute minimum. 3.6.4.3.7.3. Planned recovery and abort altitudes and g-loadings following dives are based on available aircraft performance, and should account for the chase aircraft worst cast condition. Normally, aircrew should plan on a wings-level 4g pull-out. Higher load factors may be flown, if within aircraft limits, to provide increased margins of safety. 3.6.4.3.7.4. The chase pilot must be able to fulfill chase responsibilities while remaining at or above approach speed for the power approach configuration as a minimum. (T-2). If the chase event requires a slower airspeed, a different type of chase aircraft should be selected for the planned test maneuvers or a solution based on geometry while maintaining chase approach speed or higher. 3.6.4.4. Separation from Test Aircraft/ Air Vehicles/Munitions: 3.6.4.4.1. Manned Aircraft: fly no closer than route formation during test maneuvering unless performing briefed photo chase duties or “battle-damage”/“clean and dry” checks.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

41

3.6.4.4.2. RPA/SUAS: fly no closer than the test and safety board approved minimum distance. 3.6.4.4.3. Munitions: The chase aircrew will maneuver and position themselves so that if the munition or store being tested separates unexpectedly no undue hazard is created. (T-2). When chasing an item with an armed flight termination system, adjust maneuvers and position to avoid the associated blast and fragmentation zone to the maximum extent possible. When chasing live ordnance missions, the chase pilot must ensure safe separation in case of early fuse function, as well as safe escape. (T2). 3.6.4.5. Terminate test and chase events for any of the following: exceeding limits, loss of situation awareness, other air vehicles become a safety risk to the flight, a dangerous situation is developing, radio failure is recognized, airspace boundaries are violated, or visual contact with the test aircraft is lost (area chase excepted). Termination of a test event does not relieve the chase aircraft of the responsibility to deconflict from the test aircraft and to provide see and avoid clearing. If chase is unable to perform these duties due to loss of situational awareness or malfunction, chase must immediately notify the flight lead, test director, and other participating aircraft. (T-3). 3.6.4.6. Cargo and Bomber Model Aircraft Restrictions. 3.6.4.6.1. Cargo and bomber model aircraft may chase like aircraft (same MD) if the aircrew are visual formation trained. In this case, a chase qualification is not required. At no time can the chase aircraft come within 200 feet of the test aircraft. 3.6.4.6.2. Cargo and bomber series aircraft may chase dissimilar aircraft (different MD) if the aircrew are chase qualified. At no time can the chase aircraft come within 200 feet of the test aircraft. Exception: See MD-specific attachment for C-12 chase minimum spacing. 3.6.5. Ordnance Release Test. All weapons delivery guidance applies. Reference MDspecific attachments for further guidance. 3.6.6. Hi Angle of Attack (Hi AoA). guidance.

Reference MD-specific attachments for further

3.6.7. Compatibility Flight Profile (CFP). Fly training CFP events to no greater than 90 percent of actual aircraft or store limits. Reference MD-specific attachments for further guidance. 3.6.8. Loads. Fly training loads profiles to no greater than 90 percent of actual aircraft or stores limits. Reference MD-specific attachments for further guidance. 3.6.9. Flutter. Fly training flutter profiles to no greater than 90 percent of actual aircraft or stores limits. Reference MD-specific attachments for further guidance. 3.6.10. Airstart (Single-Engine Aircraft). Reference MD-specific attachments for further guidance. 3.6.11. Test Pilot School (TPS) Curriculum. This section applies to qualifications for nonTPS assigned aircrew to instruct various TPS curriculum events in non-TPS assigned aircraft. Examples include, but are not limited to, F-15 Asymmetry, C-130 performance evaluations,

42

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 and systems evaluations. Guidance is provided either in this instruction’s MD-specific attachments, or in the unit’s supplement to this instruction. 3.6.12. Air-to-Air Refueling Tanker Test. Reference MD-specific attachments for further guidance. 3.6.13. Airdrop Test. Reference MD-specific attachments for further guidance. 3.6.14. Qualitative Evaluations. 3.6.14.1. Pilots (operating manned and RPAremotely piloted aircraft) and RPA pilots (operating remotely piloted aircraft). TPS students and graduates performing qualitative flying evaluations in conjunction with a TPS syllabus, TPS curriculum development, curriculum exposure or short term qualitative evaluations may, under the direct supervision of a qualified instructor in said aircraft, operate the aircraft during critical phases of flight. This paragraph also applies to experimental test RPA students/pilots operating a manned surrogate RPA from a ground control station. 3.6.14.2. Combat Systems Officer (CSO)/RPA/Flight Test Engineer (FTE)/non-TPS graduate TPS staff instructors. TPS graduates or TPS students performing syllabus events (including qualitative evaluations) or non-TPS graduate TPS staff instructors performing curriculum mission familiarization or development flights may, under the direct supervision of a qualified instructor in said aircraft, operate the aircraft during all non-critical phases of flight during day VMC. They may also operate the aircraft from a non-mandatory pilot position for routine operational maneuvers in the following critical phases of flight: Low-level at or above 500 feet AGL in flat and rolling terrain, 1000 feet in mountainous terrain (300 feet above highest obstacle helicopters), simulated weapons delivery resulting in a Time Safety Margin (TSM) of no less than 8 seconds and remaining above 1000 feet AGL, and simulated instrument or VFR approaches above 150 feet AGL (100 feet AGL if final approach airspeed is less than 130 KCAS) provided deviations will not jeopardize a normal transition to landing. Additionally, to transition below 500 feet AGL on a simulated instrument or VFR approach, meet stabilized approach criteria of minus 5 to plus 10 knots from approach speed and a vertical velocity of less than 1000 fpm. Consider terrain mountainous that undergoes 3,000 feet elevation change in 10 NM. 3.6.14.2.1. RPA pilots. TPS students and graduate TPS staff members may conduct relevant Flight Test Techniques (FTT) during these limited critical phases of flight provided they are under the direct supervision of a USAF TPS staff IP. 3.6.15. Time Safety Margin (TSM). 3.6.15.1. For test points involving descents/dives that are not conducted IAW AFI 112FTV3, AFTTP 3- series publications, or the sections of AFI 11-214 invoked by this AFI, base recovery planning and risk management upon the calculated TSM. TSM is the time in seconds to directly travel from the worst case vector (i.e. worst case combination of parameters: dive angle, attitude, airspeed, and available G that includes both planned and maximum allowed deviation/tolerance) to an unrecoverable condition. Use the following general planning factors and limits when calculating TSM.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

43

3.6.15.1.1. The worst-case vector may occur at any point during the entire maneuver, from the FTT setup to the completion of the recovery. For instance, the worst-case vector may be during FTT setup if a steep dive is used to gain airspeed for a FTT conducted in a shallow dive. 3.6.15.1.2. When the dive is becoming steeper at the dive recovery initiation point, the TSM is decreasing faster than 1 second for every second of delay. Test teams must account for this additional risk element. 3.6.15.1.3. Calculate abort/recovery procedures using no more than 90% of available aircraft limits and performance characteristics (i.e. roll rate) at the flight conditions or 90% of the flight clearance authorized G loading, whichever is less. Additionally, minimize any combination of high-G, G dwell time, high-G onset, roll rate, and rapid transition from negative to positive G. 3.6.15.1.4. Normal-G onset rate will be in accordance with aircraft capabilities at the test conditions. 3.6.15.1.5. Brief all normal-G levels, roll rates and other assumptions used to calculate maneuver TSM to the technical and safety review boards. 3.6.15.1.6. Use the procedures outlined in Table 3.3 to minimize the risk of controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) cognizant that the charted risk assessment is prior to mitigation. 3.6.15.1.7. Regardless of the TSM, test teams must be alert for situations that may require additional risk mitigation. High G, poor visibility, pilot distraction on mission systems, G-induced loss of consciousness (GLOC), and unanticipated engine and aerodynamic characteristics may make it impossible to perform the planned recovery. Table 3.3. TSM Risk Assessment. Routine

Focused

Aided

Redundantly Aided (2.5 sec > TSM ≥ 1.5 sec) Best Available M&S2

Cued Anticipation1 (1.5 sec > TSM ≥ 0 sec)

Risk Mitigation Standards

(TSM ≥ 8 sec)

(8 sec > TSM ≥ 4 sec)

Minimum Planning Fidelity2

IAW Normal Operations

(4 sec > TSM ≥ 2.5 sec) Best Available M&S2

Recovery Procedure2,3

Routine4

Defined & Defined & Defined & Documented5 Documented5 Documented5

Defined & Documented5

Minimum Training & Buildup6

Not Required

Sim Rehearsal7,8 & In-Flight Buildup6

Sim Rehearsal7,8 & In-Flight Buildup6

M&S

2

In-Flight Buildup6

Sim Rehearsal7,8 & In-Flight Buildup6

Best Available M&S2

44

Recovery Initiation Call

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

Pilot

Pilot

Backup for Pilot9,10

Two Backups for Pilot9,10,11 & Anticipatory Cueing Desired1,9,12

Backup for Pilot 9,10 & Anticipatory Cueing Required1,9,12

Presumed No-Mitigation Low Medium High Very High Excessive14 Risk Assessment13 Notes: 1. Anticipatory cueing provides a timeline to recovery, e.g. Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (AGCAS) Heads-Up Display (HUD) “chevron” symbology or altitude countdown. 2. Brief the SRB on all available modeling and simulation (M&S) tools and which was used for TSM planning. The SRB will validate both the dive planning M&S and the planned recovery procedure. 3. Calculate abort/recovery procedures using no more than 90% of available aircraft limits and performance characteristics (i.e. roll rate) at the flight conditions or 90% of the flight clearance authorized G loading, whichever is less. Additionally, minimize any combination of high-G, G dwell time, high-G onset, roll rate, and rapid transition from negative to positive G. 4. Initiate recovery immediately after the test point is complete. 5. Document the planned and worst case allowable parameters, abort parameters and recovery procedure on flight test cards. 6. Accomplish initial in-flight buildup maneuvers with a minimum TSM of 8 seconds to validate predictions before proceeding to the test condition. 7. Simulator rehearsals will include practicing the complete recovery procedure. 8. Establish crew and critical test team member maneuver currency as part of the test and safety review process. 9. All available onboard altitude awareness devices will be briefed and used. To eliminate confusion as to what constitutes an “available” device, the test and safety planning process will define the minimum required onboard devices. 10. The recovery initiation back-up may be provided by an on-board safety crewmember, a chase aircrew, or control room personnel. 11. At least one of the two recovery initiation back-ups must be external to the test aircraft. Anticipatory cueing may be used as one of the two pilot backups in the Redundantly Aided column. 12. The recovery cueing system must be fully qualified prior to flight then checked immediately prior to the maneuver. Human intervention to back-up the cueing system may not be considered risk mitigation for less than 1.5 seconds of TSM. An automatic recovery system may be used, but anticipatory cueing should still be provided. 13. Risk assessment should be based upon the anticipated effectiveness of the risk mitigation plan. With no risk mitigation aside from routine operations the risk assessment should not be less than that given in this row. The mitigated TSM risk level is at the discretion of the SRB. 14. Without anticipatory cueing, CFIT is probable.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

45

Chapter 4 INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES 4.1. Weather Requirements. 4.1.1. All Fighter, Attack, Trainer or any other single pilot mandatory crew position aircraft may fly approaches to published minimums or 300 feet and 1 mile, whichever is higher. Exception: UH-1, comply with 4.1.2. 4.1.2. All multi-pilot mandatory crew position aircraft may fly approaches to published minimums unless limited by the MD-specific attachment or OG/CC. 4.2. Approach Category. Refer to MD-specific attachments for aircraft approach categories. 4.2.1. Approach Category E Aircraft. 4.2.1.1. Approach speeds equal to or greater than 166 knots, no matter the configuration or type of approach (i.e. straight-in, side-step, circling). 4.2.1.2. Approach Category D minimums may be used when no Category E minimums are published, provided: 4.2.1.2.1. A straight-in approach is flown. 4.2.1.2.2. The aircraft is flown at a final approach airspeed of 165 KCAS or less. 4.2.1.2.3. The aircraft is flown at 255 KTAS or less for the missed approach segment of the approach. At high pressure altitudes and temperatures, 255 KTAS may not be compatible with published missed approach airspeeds and Category D approaches should not be flown. 4.2.2. Approach Category D Aircraft. 4.2.2.1. Approach speeds of 141 knots to 165 knots. 4.2.2.2. If approach speed exceeds 165 knots, no matter the configuration or type of approach (i.e. straight-in, side-step, circling), use the category E minimums. 4.2.2.3. Approach Category C minimums may be used when no Category D minimums are published, provided: 4.2.2.3.1. A straight-in approach is flown. 4.2.2.3.2. The aircraft is flown at a final approach airspeed of 140 KCAS or less. 4.2.2.3.3. The aircraft is flown at 240 KTAS or less for the missed approach segment of the approach. At high pressure altitudes and temperatures, 240 KTAS may not be compatible with published missed approach airspeeds and Category C approaches should not be flown. 4.2.3. Approach Category C Aircraft. 4.2.3.1. Approach speeds of 121 knots to 140 knots.

46

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 4.2.3.2. If approach speed exceeds 140 knots, no matter the configuration or type of approach (i.e. straight-in, side-step, circling), use the minimums for the appropriate category. 4.2.4. Approach Category B Aircraft. 4.2.4.1. Approach speeds of 91 knots to 120 knots. 4.2.4.2. If approach speed exceeds 120 knots, not matter the configuration or type of approach (i.e. straight-in, side-step, circling), use the minimums for the appropriate category. 4.2.5. Approach Category A Aircraft. 4.2.5.1. Approach speeds of 90 knots or less. 4.2.5.2. If approach speed exceeds 90 knots, no matter the configuration or type of approach (i.e. straight-in, side-step, circling), use the minimums for the appropriate category.

4.3. Weather Avoidance. 4.3.1. Plan and fly all missions to avoid areas of known or forecast severe weather including severe icing or severe turbulence. These restrictions do not apply to planned severe weather penetration as part of an approved test plan. 4.3.2. During flight, attempt to avoid thunderstorms by at least the following unless further restricted in MD-specific attachments: 4.3.2.1. 20 NMs laterally at or above flight level (FL) 230. 4.3.2.2. 10 NMs laterally below FL 230. 4.3.2.3. 5 NMs for operations below 5000 feet. 4.3.2.4. Avoid gust fronts and winds preceding a rapidly moving thunderstorm. Avoid areas of high lightning potential; i.e. clouds within plus or minus 5000 feet of the freezing level. 4.3.2.5. Do not fly directly above (within 2,000 feet) thunderstorms or cumulonimbus clouds. 4.4. Advisory Calls (N/A C-130 and helicopters. See MD-specific attachments). The following procedures are applicable to multi-place aircraft that do not have guidance defined in Technical Orders. Fighter-Trainers are considered single-place aircraft and exempt from these requirements. 4.4.1. Advisory Calls. The pilot flying will periodically announce intentions during departures, arrivals, approaches, and when circumstances require deviating from normal procedures. (T-3). Mandatory advisory calls are provided in paragraphs 4.4.2 through 4.4.3.1. (The pilot not flying the aircraft will make these calls except those designated for any crewmember). (T-3). 4.4.2. Altitude Calls, unless announced by an aircraft system. 4.4.2.1. 1,000 feet above Initial Approach Fix (IAF) (or holding) altitude.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

47

4.4.2.2. Transition altitude/level. 4.4.2.3. 1,000 feet above or below assigned altitude. 4.4.2.4. During instrument approaches call 100 feet above procedure turn, FAF, minimum descent altitude (MDA), or Decision Height (DH) altitude. 4.4.2.5. Non Precision Approaches. The pilot not flying will state “MDA” when reaching MDA and “Runway in Sight” when the runway environment is in sight. (T-3). The pilot flying will state intentions (i.e. “Continue” or “Land”) and continue the approach below the MDA only if the aircraft is in a position to make a normal approach to the runway of intended landing and the pilot flying clearly sees the approach threshold of the runway, approach lights, or other markings identifiable with the approach end of the runway. (T-3). Otherwise, either pilot will state “Go Around” at the missed approach point (MAP) and the pilot flying will execute the appropriate missed approach procedure, ATC issued climbout instructions, or ATC clearance. (T-3). 4.4.2.6. Precision Approaches. The pilot not flying will state “DH” when reaching DH. (T-3). At DH the pilot flying will state intentions (i.e. “Continue”, “Land” or “Go Around”). (T-3). The pilot flying may continue the approach below DH only if the aircraft is in a position to make a normal approach to the runway of intended landing and the pilot flying clearly sees the approach threshold of the runway , approach lights, or other markings identifiable with the approach end of the runway. Otherwise, the pilot flying will execute the appropriate missed approach procedure, ATC issued climbout instructions, or ATC clearance. (T-3). 4.4.3. Deviations. The pilot not flying the aircraft will tell the other pilot when heading or airspeed deviations are observed or altitude is more than 100 feet from desired and no attempt is being made to correct the deviation. (T-3). 4.4.3.1. Any crewmember seeing a variation of 200 feet altitude, a deviation of +/- 10 knots in airspeed or a potential terrain or obstruction problem will immediately tell the pilot. (T-3). Also announce deviations from prescribed procedures for the approach being flown. 4.5. Instrument Approach Briefings/Checklists. Aircrews of multi-place aircraft that do not have guidance defined in Technical Orders will ensure the following items are set or checked and briefed prior to the IAF: heading and attitude systems, navigation and communication radios, TACAN/VOR select switch, the final approach course and altimeters. (T-3). In addition, review the approach and the aerodrome sketch and brief the following items: sector altitude, DH or MDA, field elevation, weather required for approach, missed approach point, climbout, and intentions, terrain/obstacle hazards, crew duties and responsibilities, lost communication intentions, and backup approach and frequencies.

48

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

Chapter 5 OPERATING PROCEDURES AND RESTRICTIONS 5.1. General. These procedures do not supersede flight manual guidance. Refer to MD-specific attachments for additional aircraft specific operational limits and restrictions. 5.2. Technical Orders. Aircrews will operate all aircraft IAW the applicable technical orders. (T-2). In the case where technical orders do not yet exist personnel will not operate new equipment or modified aircraft without properly validated and verified tech data in accordance with 00-5 series T.O.s. (T-2). Once validated by flight test, new equipment can be operated using test cards derived from an approved test plan if other tech data does not yet exist. Modified aircraft are operated in accordance with the aircraft modification flight manual. 5.3. Developmental Software. All software, including mission planning software, must be approved IAW the USAF Airworthiness Process prior to use for flight outside of a test program. (T-2). Under no circumstances can a flight outside of a test program take place with software that has not passed a safety of flight evaluation. 5.4. New/Modified Aircraft Equipment/Weapons. Aircrew members not qualified in the operation of new or modified aircraft equipment are restricted in aircrew duties. They will not operate that equipment on any flight unless under the supervision of a current and qualified instructor of like specialty qualified in that equipment. (T-2). This restriction does not apply to aircraft and aircrew under a formal test plan. 5.5. Wind and Sea State Restrictions (Ejection Seat Aircraft). Units will not conduct normal flying operations when surface winds along the intended route of flight exceed 35 knots steady state or when the sea state exceeds 10 feet wave height. (T-3). This is not intended to restrict operations when only a small portion of the route is affected. If possible, alter mission plan to avoid the area. 5.6. Aerial Demonstration/Show Formation. Refer to AFI 11-209, Aerial Event Policy and Procedures, AFI 11-246, Air Force Aircraft Demonstrations, and applicable MAJCOM directives for specific rules and appropriate approval levels to participate in static displays and aerial events. 5.7. Aerial Photography and Equipment . 5.7.1. Personnel authorized to use photographic equipment. Per AFI 35-109, Visual Information, only qualified aerial photographers (Air Force Specialty Code 3N0XX) and contractor aerial photographers are authorized to carry and operate photographic equipment in flight for mission related requirements. Non-aerial photographer qualified personnel will not carry or use photographic equipment under the following conditions: when flying in ejection seat aircraft; when occupying a crew station with a set of flight controls. (T-3). 5.7.2. Approved equipment. Aircrew will only use equipment during flight that meets the requirements in AFI 11-202V3. 5.7.3. Fighter/Trainer Aircraft. Due to limited space and safety considerations, do not take more than two camera systems on board the aircraft. A mission requiring more than two cameras requires OG/CC approval. Equipment size must be small enough to take out and/or

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

49

stow quickly without interfering with flight controls or throttles. (T-3). Keep equipment stored until needed. Remove straps and lens caps before departing for the aircraft. Cords must be coiled, not rigid. (T-3). Inventory equipment before and after each mission. Notify crew chief of FOD, if applicable. Do not lay professional gear on bare consoles, instead, place gear inside helmet bag. Equipment must remain clear of the control stick/yoke, throttles and any other cockpit controls or displays that are critical to flight safety. (T-3). If time permits, store all gear prior to ejection. 5.8. Aircrew flying g-suit capable aircraft must wear a g-suit. (T-2). 5.8.1. Full Coverage Anti-G Suit (FCAGS) Aircrew are authorized to wear previously issued g-suits for all sorties until the FCAGS is personally issued. Once personally issued an FCAGS, the FCAGS becomes the primary g-suit. Aircrew who completed F-15C/F-16 centrifuge training or the air-to-air portions of an F-15C/F-16 formal training course (BCourse/TX/SOC) with the CSU-13B/P (legacy) g-suit may continue to use the legacy g-suit for sorties on which maximum load factor is planned to be 7g or less. Aircrew will wear the FCAGS when maximum load factor is planned (to include alternate missions) to exceed 7g. OG/FOA may stipulate further risk mitigations. (T-2) 5.9. Preflight/Ground Operations. 5.9.1. MA-1 Portable Oxygen Bottles. 5.9.1.1. There are three types of A-21 regulators on MA-1 portable oxygen bottles: unmodified, modified, and modified2. Except for fill times, operation of the bottles is identical. Refill valve type is determined by viewing the inside of the fill nozzle and/or identaplate as specified below: 5.9.1.1.1. Unmodified: Refill valves have a push valve inside the nozzle resembling a standard tire valve stem. 5.9.1.1.2. Modified: Refill valves have a brass plate/filter covering the inside of the nozzle and no valve stem is visible. 5.9.1.1.3. Modified2 (Fast Fill): Refill valves have a brass plate/filter covering the inside of the nozzle and no valve stem is visible. Part number on the identaplate is one of the following: 9010A4, 9010A5, 3260007-0201, 3260007-0103. 5.9.1.2. For aircraft utilizing MA-1 portable oxygen bottles, ensure a minimum of two unmodified/modified2 bottles are installed on the aircraft. Placement varies by MDS; during preflight, ensure at least two unmodified/modified2 bottles are placed in appropriate locations to enable execution of effective firefighting and/or fumes elimination procedures. 5.9.1.2.1. Enroute Operations. While operating away from home station, maintain minimum number of unmodified/modified2 bottles. If unable, continue until reaching a location with replacement bottles. 5.9.2. When an aircraft gas turbine compressor or auxiliary power unit is being operated during preflight or other ground operation, a person qualified in its operation must be in a position to monitor audible and/or visual warning systems. (T-2).

50

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

5.10. Seat and Safety Belt Requirements. PICs must ensure each occupant over 2 years old has an approved seat equipped with a safety belt. (T-2). Aircrew must ensure seatbelts are worn for the following: (T-2). 5.10.1. When an ejection seat is occupied. 5.10.2. In the pilot and copilot positions. 5.10.3. As directed by the PIC. 5.10.4. During taxi, takeoff, landing, and air refueling except for crewmembers (including test personnel conducting official test points) performing official flight duties or cockpit observation when wearing the seat belt is impractical. 5.10.5. By each passenger and crewmember to avoid injury in the event of turbulence, unless crew duties dictate or the PIC has authorized otherwise. The PIC will direct all occupants to fasten seatbelts securely when turbulence is encountered or expected. (T-3). 5.10.6. If a shoulder harness is installed, wear it with the seat belt during each taxi, and takeoff, landing and critical phases of flight. Instructors and Special Mission Aviators (SMA) need not wear the shoulder harness if it interferes with performing duties. OG/CCs may waive this requirement for other selected crew positions if the shoulder harness interferes with crew duties. 5.11. High Speed Taxi Checks . A high speed taxi check is a maintenance operational check which requires the aircraft to be moving at higher than normal taxi speed. Consider brake energy limits and cooling when planning high speed taxi checks. Accomplish high speed taxi checks, to include barrier certifications, according to an approved test plan or established FCF profile. In the absence of a test plan or FCF profile, these checks will be approved by the OG/CC and accomplished by a qualified IP or FCF pilot. (T-3). In multi-place aircraft, both pilots must be qualified in the aircraft. (T-3). Document high-speed taxi checks on a flight authorization form. 5.12. Aircraft Malfunctions and Damage. Do not taxi aircraft with malfunctions that affect the nosewheel steering or brake systems. Do not use a malfunctioning system unless it is needed for safe recovery of the aircraft. Do not continue in-flight trouble shooting of a malfunction after completing flight manual emergency procedures. If structural damage occurs or is suspected, abort the mission and land as soon as practical, regardless of apparent damage. 5.13. Duty Station (multi-place aircraft). A qualified pilot will be at a set of controls of the aircraft at all times during flight. (T-2). All primary aircrew members will be at their duty stations during critical phases of flight. (T-2). During other phases of flight, crewmembers may leave their duty station for brief periods to meet physiological needs and to perform normal crew duties. Only one pilot may be absent from their duty station at a time. Notify the aircraft commander before departing assigned primary duty station. The aircraft commander is the final authority for allowing personnel to move about the aircraft during flight. Reference Table 4.1 AFI 11-202V3 AFMC Sup for further restrictions and exceptions. 5.14. Transfer of Aircraft Control. Both pilots of crew aircraft or pilots in two-seat aircraft must know at all times who has control of the aircraft. (T-2). Transfer of aircraft control is made with the statement “P/CP/You have the aircraft (controls).” The pilot receiving control of the aircraft will acknowledge “P/CP/I have the aircraft (controls).” (T-2). Once assuming control of the aircraft, maintain control until relinquishing it as stated above. For fighter and trainer

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

51

aircraft, if the intercom fails, the pilot in the front cockpit (if not in control of the aircraft) will rock the wings and assume control of the aircraft, radios and navigational equipment unless prebriefed otherwise. (T-2). In fighter, trainer, attack aircraft either person flying can pump the stick (“pump to pass”) to pass control to the other, who should then rock the wings (“shake to take”) to acknowledge transfer of aircraft control. 5.15. Takeoff Aborts. Prior to flight, all aircrew (pilots, flight engineers, etc) on the flight deck or in the cockpit will review and understand takeoff data. (T-3). Place particular emphasis on takeoff and abort factors during abnormal situations such as short/wet runway, heavy gross weights, and abort sequence in formation flights. Anytime an aircraft experiences a high speed abort, hot brakes should be suspected. If confirmed, declare a ground emergency and taxi the aircraft to the designated hot brake area and perform hot brake procedures. If an abort occurs during a takeoff roll, the pilot will focus on maintaining directional control and slowing or stopping the aircraft as appropriate. (T-2). Following members of a formation ensure clearance from an aborting aircraft or abort their takeoff if unable to maintain adequate clearance 5.16. G-Awareness. Perform a G-awareness exercise whenever 5g or greater are expected during the sortie. If available, select Pressure Breathing for G (PBG) on all sorties regardless of anticipated g-loading. The wearing of the Combat Edge vest in the F-15 and F-16 is optional. If the vest is not worn, the CRU-94/120 port plug should be installed to ensure full pressure is available to the mask. F-22 pilots will wear the Combat Edge (UPG) vest on all sorties where flight will be conducted above 44,000 ft. MSL. If the UPG vest is not worn, F-22 pilots will ensure and confirm that the CRU-122 Vest Port Plug is installed. If the plug is found missing during flight, then pilots are limited to 6g. (T-2). 5.16.1. Maintain a minimum of 6,000 ft. spacing between aircraft during the g-awareness exercise. The g-awareness exercise consists of two turns with at least 90 degrees of heading change. The second turn of the g-awareness exercise for air-to-air sorties is a minimum of 180 degrees of turn. The first turn is a smooth onset rate to approximately 4g. Pilots will use this turn to ensure proper g-suit operation and to practice their anti-g straining maneuver. (T2). Regain airspeed and perform another 90-180 degree turn at up to 6-7g. If aircraft limits preclude either of the above, turns should be performed so as not to exceed aircraft limits. 5.16.2. Flight/element leads will ensure airspace intended for conducting the g-awareness exercise is free from potential traffic conflicts. (T-3). Use air traffic control services to the maximum extent practical to ensure the airspace is clear. Pilots will conduct the g-awareness exercise in the following airspace with preference to the order as listed: (T-3). 5.16.2.1. Special Use Airspace (e.g. restricted/warning areas, ATC-Assigned Airspace (ATCAA), Military Operating Areas (MOA), and MAJCOM approved special mission areas). 5.16.2.2. Above 10,000 ft. MSL outside of SUA. 5.16.2.3. Inside the confines of MTR. 5.16.2.4. Below 10,000 ft. MSL outside of SUA. 5.17. Unusual Attitude and Training Maneuvers (non-aerobatic). Do not perform unusual attitude recoveries in single seat aircraft, at night or in IMC, and anytime the safety observer is not qualified in the aircraft. Abrupt training maneuvers (intentional maneuvers involving an

52

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

abrupt change in aircraft attitude, an abnormal attitude, or abnormal accelerations or decelerations not necessary for normal flight) are prohibited at night or in IMC and any time the safety observer is not qualified in the aircraft. Initiate such maneuvers at an altitude that allows recovery no lower than 5,000 (500 for helicopters) feet AGL. Perform these type of maneuvers in SUA, ATCAA, MTRs or host nation approved airspace. For units without SUA, ATCAA, etc, OGs will pre-coordinate and establish repeatable consistent routing and maneuver locations with ATC for unit mission accomplishment. (T-3). Aircraft deployed or based at overseas locations will operate IAW applicable host nation agreements or ICAO Standard and Recommended Practices. (T-0). If the aircraft operating requirements (altitude requirements, maximum airspeeds, dropping of objects, etc) dictated in the host nation agreement are less restrictive than USAF/MAJCOM guidance, use the most restrictive guidance. 5.18. Simulated Emergencies. Do not practice emergency procedures that degrade aircraft performance or flight control capabilities unless specifically authorized by an approved training syllabus, test plan or in accordance with applicable AFIs. Do not perform simulated emergency procedures with MESPs or MEPs onboard except as defined in an approved test plan. In addition to the restrictions in AFI 11-202V3, the following restrictions apply: 5.18.1. Fighter, Attack, Trainer, and U-2. 5.18.1.1. During initial qualification or re-qualification sorties in single seat aircraft, the IP or EP will be in a chase aircraft (U-2 see MD-specific attachment) and in a position to direct a go-around, if needed. (T-3). 5.18.1.2. Day VMC only. 5.18.1.3. Gross weight cannot exceed basic weight plus weight of full internal fuel or flight manual limits, whichever is less. 5.18.1.4. No external ordnance, except training ordnance, may be carried. 5.18.1.5. Simulated Single Engine (SSE). Use all engines for unplanned go-arounds. Initiate SSE go-around above 200' AGL. SSE climb out is not authorized. 5.18.1.6. No Flap full stop landings are prohibited unless required in an approved training syllabus or considered a normal procedure in the flight manual. 5.18.1.7. Simulated Flameout (SFO) patterns. Specific procedures for conduct of SFO training are established in letters of agreement with appropriate agencies and published in appropriate local publications. The ceiling may be no lower than 500' above the highest portion of prescribed pattern. The SFO pattern may be entered from any direction or altitude that ensures the aircraft is properly configured prior to base key and in a position to safely complete the approach. An SFO is not initiated or continued if a potential traffic pattern conflict exists which would require that the pilot divide attention between the SFO and sequencing with traffic. In addition, SFOs should be discontinued whenever excessive maneuvering is needed, whether as a result of a traffic conflict or when making corrections. Once discontinued, initiate a go-around and do not attempt to re-enter or complete that pattern/approach. If flown to a dry lakebed, begin the go-around to descend no lower than 50 ft. AGL. Full stop and touch-and-go landings may be flown by fully qualified pilots or by students under the direct supervision of an IP or EP. From the rear cockpit, only qualified IPs or upgrading IPs may fly SFOs and continue to

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

53

touchdown. Roll the aircraft to wings level at a point no lower than 200 feet AGL on final. Maintain airspeed no slower than technical order minimum landing gear down airspeed until the sink rate is under control and landing is assured. If these parameters are not met perform a go-around. 5.18.1.8. For all simulated emergency patterns include the type of simulated emergency in the “gear down” radio transmission. 5.18.2. Bomber, Cargo, Tanker. 5.18.2.1. Before initiating any simulated emergency, the PIC/IP/EP will brief the cockpit crew on the condition to be simulated and state “simulated” over the interphone communication system prior to accomplishment of each simulated emergency condition or as the simulated condition is established. (T-3). 5.18.2.2. Refer to Table 5.2 for additional restrictions. Exception: C-130 and H-1 aircrew reference MD-specific attachments for restrictions. Table 5.1. Simulated Emergency Restrictions – Bomber, Cargo, Tanker (C-130 and H-1 see MD-specific attachment.). Event

IP or EP at a Set of Controls

No IP or EP

Simulated Emergency Procedures

1. Weather is at or above circling minimums during daylight and 1000' ceiling and 2 miles visibility or circling minimums (whichever is higher) at night 2. No passengers B-52 may simulate single engine loss above 100 KIAS during touch and go landings. Prohibited for all other aircraft.

1. Day VFR (1500' & 3) 2. No passengers

Simulate engine failure after a positive rate of climb is established Ensure adequate obstacle clearance is maintained

Simulate engine failure above 200' AGL 1. Ensure adequate obstacle clearance is maintained 2. Initiate no lower than 200' AGL Prohibited

Simulated Engine Out Takeoff (Exception: C130 see MDspecific attachment for guidance.) Simulated Engine Out Climb Out Simulated Engine Out Approach & Go-around Simulated Engine Out Landing Practice Engine Shutdown

Crosswind corrected for RCR is in the recommended zone of the aircraft's landing crosswind chart 1. VMC with a discernable horizon 2. Shutdown & restart is accomplished above 5000' AGL (2500’ AGL for C-130)

Prohibited

1. Prohibited, except for FCF qualified pilots during FCF proficiency training under the following conditions:

54

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 - VMC with a discernable horizon - Shutdown & restart is accomplished above 5000' AGL (2500’ AGL for C-130)

No Flap

IAW flight manual or AFI 11-2FT Volume 3 MD-specificAttachment

Prohibited for all aircraft except C-12

5.19. Fuel Jettisoning/Dumping. Conduct fuel jettisoning only to reduce aircraft gross weight in an emergency, for operational necessity, or as required for flight test or FCF. When circumstances permit, jettison fuel over unpopulated areas at an altitude above 5,000 AGL, when feasible. Advise the appropriate air traffic control agency of intention, altitude, and location when fuel is jettisoned and when the operation has been completed. Units will establish jettison areas and procedures to minimize the impact of fuel jettisoning into the atmosphere. (T-2). Use designated jettison areas and local area procedures to the maximum extent possible, except when safety of flight would be compromised. Refer to MD-specific attachments for additional guidance. 5.20. Fuel Conservation . In addition to AFI 11-202V3 guidance, all AFMC aircrew will utilize fuel conservation techniques in the conduct of their missions. (T-2). Aircrew should consider safety-of-flight first and maximize mission accomplishment while conserving fuel to the maximum extent possible. Actions to consider include executing mission tasks at fuel efficient airspeeds (such as maximum range or endurance), completing training events in conjunction with test sorties, flying at lower gross weights, deleting unnecessary mission items, etc.. 5.21. Dropped Objects. If an object inadvertently departs the aircraft, the aircrew will notify the controlling agency as soon as practical; include details of routing, altitude, winds aloft, etc. (T-2). After landing, notify maintenance and initiate appropriate safety processes. 5.22. Hazardous Conditions. Relay any safety hazard (e.g. icing, turbulence, thunderstorms, bird concentrations etc.), through a Pilot Weather Report (PIREP) to the controlling agency. 5.23. Back Seat Landings. Only qualified or upgrading instructor pilots may conduct back seat landings. 5.24. Touch-and-Go Landings – Fixed Wing Aircraft. 5.24.1. Designated First Pilots (FP) or Mission Pilots (MP) may perform touch-and-go landings at OG/CC designated airfields. IPs and MP/FPs under IP supervision (on board the aircraft) may perform touch-and-go landings at any airfield that meets aircraft landing requirements. Only pilots that are touch and go qualified or enrolled in an applicable training plan may perform touch and go landings. 5.24.2. Pilots will not fly touch-and-go landings with passengers onboard the aircraft. (T-2). 5.24.3. Set all engines to military power or as specified in the flight manual or MD-specific attachment. 5.24.4. Fighter and Attack. Pilots will not perform touch-and-go landings when configured with air-to-air missiles with live rocket motors or air-to-surface ordnance (live or inert) that is

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

55

carted for release. (T-2). Touch-and-go landings may be performed with live gun ammunition on board and the master arm in safe. 5.24.5. Bomber, Cargo, Tanker. A current and qualified IP or touch-and-go certified MP must have access to the flight controls and brief the crew on procedures to be followed prior to executing the first touch-and-go landing of a training mission. (T-2). Refer to Table 5.2 for additional restrictions. 5.24.6. Unimproved Landing Surfaces. Pilots must ensure touch-and-go landings comply with flight manual and MD-specific attachment procedures. (T-2). Unless authorized by local procedures, touch and go landings on lakebeds are prohibited. 5.24.7. NVG Touch and Go. See MD-specific attachments. Table 5.2. Touch-and-Go Landing Restrictions – Bomber, Cargo, and Tanker (C-130 see MD-specific attachment). IP or EP at a Set of Controls 1. Weather is at or above the minimums for the approach being flown but no lower than 300' & 1. 2. Wet runway or better 3. Pilots must ensure crosswind corrected for RCR is in the recommended zone of the aircraft's landing crosswind chart (T-2).

No IP or EP 1. Weather is at or above the minimums for the approach being flown, but no lower than 1000' & 3 2. Day = Same; Night = Dry runway 3. Crosswind component 10 knots or less

5.25. Post Arresting Gear Engagement Procedures: Do not shut down the engine unless fire or other conditions dictate or directed to do so by the arresting gear crew. Do not raise the tailhook or taxi until directed to do so by the arresting gear crew. Further procedures are conducted IAW local unit directives (if applicable). 5.26. Reduced Runway Separation (RRS). OG/CCs are authorized to implement RRS IAW AFI 13-203, Air Traffic Control, and minimum criteria established by AFMC/A3O. If implemented, local RRS criteria and procedures should be published in the local flying (11series) directives. Questions regarding AFMC minimum RRS standards should be directed to AFMC/A3O. 5.27. Search and Rescue (SARCAP) Procedures. In the event an aircraft is lost in flight, units must begin actions to locate possible survivors and initiate rescue efforts. (T-2). When establishing SARCAP, care should be taken to not endanger the aircraft searching for the survivor(s) by flying too low or slow in an attempt to visually acquire the survivor. Pilots should know their aircraft limits and not unnecessarily place the aircraft so close to airspeed and power limits that an unexpected encounter with a bird or civilian traffic could cause another accident. Safety of the searching aircraft is paramount as channelized attention, target (wreckage) fixation, or marginal weather conditions may expose the searching aircraft to unacceptable risks. The following procedures are by no means complete and should be adjusted to meet each unique search and rescue situation.

56

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 5.27.1. Mark. Mark the last known position of survivor or crash site using any means available. TACAN, INS/GPS position, ATC/GCI positioning, target pod, or ground references should be used to identify the immediate area for subsequent rescue efforts. 5.27.2. Squawk. Immediately terminate maneuvering using appropriate Knock-It-Off procedures. Establish a SARCAP on-scene commander (OSC). IFF should be placed to EMER to alert ATC/GCI of the emergency situation. 5.27.3. Talk. Communicate the emergency situation, including crash site location and the downed aircraft’s call sign and type, and aircraft intentions immediately to applicable control agencies. Broadcast an emergency distress call on GUARD. Establish communications with survivors on GUARD frequency or 282.8. Pass on other pertinent information to rescue forces: number and condition of survivors, ordnance at crash site, weather conditions, signaling devices, etc. 5.27.4. Separate. Remain above the last observed parachute altitudes until position of all possible survivors is determined. The OSC deconflicts other aircraft assisting in the SARCAP by altitude to preclude midair collision. Direct non-essential aircraft to clear the area. Establish high and low CAPs as necessary to facilitate communication with other agencies. 5.27.5. Bingo. Revise BINGO fuels or recovery bases as required to maintain maximum SARCAP coverage over survivors/crash site. Do not over-fly BINGO fuel. Hand off OSC duties, if needed. Relinquish SARCAP operation to designated rescue forces upon their arrival.

5.28. Flight Test Technique Restrictions. 5.28.1. High-G Guidance. The following guidelines are to be used when flying test missions involving high-G maneuvers (defined as 7.0 Gs or greater). The term “sustained high- G” applies to a high-G loading duration longer than 5 seconds. The term “short duration highG” applies to a high-G loading duration of 5 seconds or less. Pilots must adhere to the following limits when performing multiple high G test points: (T-3). 5.28.1.1. Sustained high-G test points: No more than eight sustained high-G test points per sortie. 5.28.1.2. Short duration high-G test points: No more than 16 short duration high-G test points per sortie. 5.28.1.3. When short duration and sustained test points are combined, the limits are prorated. For example, one sortie may contain two sustained high-G test points (25% of the limit) and 12 short duration, high-G tests points (75% of the limit). 5.28.1.4. The symmetric pull-up (lift vector above the horizon) FTT is used, in lieu of maneuvering flight, when attempting to achieve load factors greater than 7.0 Gs below 10,000 feet AGL. MARK C. NOWLAND, Lt Gen, USAF Deputy Chief of Staff, Operations

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

57 Attachment 1

GLOSSARY OF REFERENCES AND SUPPORTING INFORMATION References AFI 10-220, Contractor’s Flight and Ground Operations, 21 Aug 2013 AFPD 11-2, Aircraft Rules and Procedures,19 Jan 2012 AFPD 11-4, Aviation Service, 1 Sep 2004 AFI 11-2A-10CV3, A-10 Operations Procedures, 22 Mar 2012 AFI 11-2T-38V3, T-38 Operations Procedures, 02 Oct 2015 AFI 11-2B-1V3, B-1 Operations Procedures, 20 Mar 2015 AFI 11-2B-2V3, B-2 Operations Procedures, 03 May 2010 AFI 11-2B-52V3, B-52 Operations Procedures, 14 Jun 2010 AFI 11-2C-5V3, C-5 Operations Procedures, 24 Feb 2012 AFI 11-2C-12V3, C-12 Operations Procedures, 16 Jun 2015 AFI 11-2C-17V3, C-17 Operations Procedures, 16 Nov 2011 AFI 11-2C-130V3, C-130 Operations Procedures, 23 Apr 2012 AFI 11-2KC-135V3, C/KC-135 Operations Procedures, 15 Aug 2013 AFI 11-2F-15V3, F-15 Operations Procedures, 18 Sep 2014 AFI 11-2F-15EV3, F-15E Operations Procedures, 05 Apr 2013 AFI 11-2F-16V3, F-16 Operations Procedures, 13 Jul 2016 AFI 11-2FTV1, Flight Test Aircrew Training, Pending AFI 11-2FTV2, Flight Test Aircrew Evaluation Criteria, 12 Mar 2007 AFI 11-2UH-1NV3, UH-1N Operating Procedures, 19 Apr 2012 AFI 11-2HH-60V3, HH-60 Operations Procedures , 05 Jan 2011 AFI 11-2RC-135V3, RC/OC/WC/TC-135 Operations Procedures, 22 Apr 2010 AFI 11-2U-2V3, U-2 Operations Procedures, 15 Aug 2013 AFMCI 11-201, Supervision of Flight Operations, 1 Aug 2007 AFI 11-202V1, Aircrew Training, 22 Nov 2010 AFI 11-202V2, Aircrew Standardization/Evaluation Program, 13 Sep 2010 AFI 11-202V3, General Flight Rules, 10 Aug 2016 AFH 11-203V1, Weather for Aircrews, 12 Jan 2012 AFI 11-205, Aircraft Cockpit and Formation Flight Signals, 19 May 1994 AFI 11-207, Combat Aircraft Delivery, 31 Mar 2015

58

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

AFI 11-209, Aerial Event Policy and Procedures, 4 May 2006 AFMAN 11-210, Instrument Refresher Program (IRP), 3 Feb 2005 AFI 11-214, Air Operations Rules and Procedures, 14 Aug 2012 AFI 11-215, Flight Manuals Program (FMP), 22 Dec 2008 AFPAM 11-216, Air Navigation, 1 Mar 2001 AFMAN 11-217V1, Instrument Flight Procedures, 22 Oct 2010 AFMAN 11-217V2, Visual Flight Procedures, 22 Oct 2010 AFI 11-218, Aircraft Operations and Movement on the Ground, 28 Oct 2011 AFI 11-230, Instrument Procedures, 27 Sep 2013 AFI 11-246V1, Air Force Aircraft Demonstrations(A-10, F-15, F-16, F-22), 23 Oct 2014 AFMAN 11-248, T-6 Primary Flying, 10 August 2006 AFI 11-290, Cockpit/Crew Resource Management Training Program, 15 Oct 2012 AFI 11-301V1, Aircrew Flight Equipment (AFE) Program, 25 Feb 2009 AFI 11-301V2, Maintenance and Configuration Requirements for Aircrew Flight Equipment (AFE), 20 Dec 2013 AFI 11-401, Aviation Management, 10 Dec 2010 AFI 11-402, Aviation and Parachutist Service, Aeronautical Ratings and Aviation Badges, 13 Dec 2010 AFI 11-404, Centrifuge Training for High-G Aircrew, 28 Oct 2005 AFI 11-410, Personnel Parachute Operations, 04 Aug 2008 AFPAM 11-419, G-Awareness for Aircrew, 17 Oct 2014 AFI 13-201, Airspace Management, 21 Aug 2012 AFI 13-202, Overdue Aircraft, 11 Mar 2010 AFI 13-210, Joint Airdrop Inspection Records, Malfunction/Incidents, Investigations, and Activity Reporting, 23 Jun 2009 AFI 13-212, Range Planning & Operations, 23 Apr 2015 AFI 13-217, Drop Zone and Landing Zone Operations, 10 May 2007 AFI 16-402, Aerospace Vehicle Programming, Assignment, Distribution, Accounting, and Termination, 30 May 2013 AFMAN 33-363, Management of Records, 1 March 2008 AFI 24-101, Passenger Movement, 19 Oct 2012 AFJMAN 24-204(I), Preparing Hazardous Materials For Military Air Shipments, 03 Dec 2012 AFI 33-360, Publications and Forms Management, 01 Dec 2015 AFI 35-109, Visual Information, 12 March 2010

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

59

AFI 90-1001, Responsibilities for Total Force Integration, 29 May 2007 AFPD 33-3, Information Management, 08 Sep 2011 AFPAM 91-212, Bird/Wildlife Aircraft Strike Hazard (BASH) Management Techniques, 1 Feb 2004 NATO ATP-3.3.4.2., Air-to-Air Refuelling, 2016 T.O. 00-25-245, Operating Instructions Testing and Inspection Procedures for Personnel Safety and Rescue Equipment, 1 Sep 2006 T.O. 00-75-5, Use, Inspection and Maintenance Stokes Rescue Litters, 1 Apr 1979 T.O. 1-1-300, Functional Check Flight Procedures, 15 Mar 2012 FM 31-19, Military Free-Fall Parachuting Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures, 18 Feb 1993 Note 1. The entire AFTTP3-1 and 3-3 series of instructions contains useful reference information for areas not specifically covered in the instruction and may be used to enhance safe operations. Note 2. Guidance in aircraft Flight Manuals, performance manuals, weapons delivery manuals, air refueling manuals and Technical Orders are the primary references for operation of the corresponding aircraft. Adopted Forms AF Form 847, Recommendation for Change of Publication, 22 Sep 2009 AFMC Form 73, AFMC Waiver and Approval Request, 22 Dec 2015 AF Form 8, Certificate of Aircrew Qualification, 08 Dec 2006 AFTO Form 781, ARMS Aircrew/Mission Flight Data Document, 11 Sep 2008 AFTO Form 781A, Maintenance Discrepancy and Work Document, 11 Jul 2013 AFTO Form 781H, Aerospace Vehicle Flight Status and Maintenance,15 Sep 2010 DD Form 365-4, Weight And Balance Clearance Form F-Transport/Tactical, Aug 1996 AF Form 4097, Aircraft Identification, 14 Apr 2003 DD Form 1748, Joint Airdrop Inspection Record (Platforms), Nov 1997 AF Form 4063, Pilot Information Card, 20 Jun 2003 Abbreviations and Acronyms A/A—Air to Air AAC—Air Armament Center AAI—Air to Air Intercept AAR—Air to Air Refueling AB—Afterburner AC—Aircraft Commander

60 AC—Advisory Circular ACBT—Air Combat Training ACF—Acceptance Check Flight ACC—Air Combat Command ADI—Attitude Director Indicator ADS—Aerial Delivery System/Support AFTC—Air Force Test Center AFI—Air Force Instruction AFJI—Air Force Joint Instruction AFM—Air Force Manual AFMC—Air Force Materiel Command AFMCI—Air Force Materiel Command Instruction AFMSS—Air Force Mission Support System AFPAM—Air Force Pamphlet AFPD—Air Force Policy Directive AFR—Air Force Regulation AFRC—Air Force Reserve Command AFTO—Air Force Technical Order AFTTP—Air Force Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures AGL—Above Ground Level AHC—Aircraft Handling Characteristics AHO—Above Highest Obstacle AHRS—Attitude Heading Reference System AIM—Air Intercept Missile AMC—Air Mobility Command AOA—Angle of Attack APU—Auxiliary Power Unit AR—Air—Refueling ARA—Airborne Radar Approach ARDA—Airborne Radar Directed Approach ARMS—Automated Records Management System ARTCC—Air Route Traffic Control Center

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 ASL—Above Sea Level ASR—Airport Surveillance Report ATC—Air Traffic Control ATD—Aircrew Training Device AWACS—Airborne Warning and Control System BASH—Bird Aircraft Strike Hazard BFM—Basic Fighter Maneuver BIT—Built-in Test BMC—Basic Mission Capable BRA—Bomb Rack Assembly/Bearing-Range-Altitude CADC—Central Air Data Computer CAPS—Critical Action Procedures CARA—Combined Altitude Radar Altimeter CC—Commander CCP—Command Chief Pilot CDI—Course Deviation Index CDS—Container Delivery System CE—Combat Edge CFL—Critical Field Length CFP—Compatibility Flight Profile CFPS—Combat Flight Planning System CFT—Cockpit Familiarization Trainer CG—Center of Gravity CONV/VTOL—Conventional airplane mode/Vertical Takeoff/Landing mode CPT—Cockpit Procedures Trainer CRM—Crew Resource Management CSO—Combat Systems Officer CT—Continuation Training CX—Communications Operator DAFIF—Digital Aeronautical Flight Information File DCMA—Defense Contract Management Agency DCPPI—Displaced Center Plan Position Indicator

61

62

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

DH—Decision Height DO—Director of Operations DOD—Department of Defense DP—Departure Procedures DR—Dead Reckoning DSO—Defensive Systems Officer DT&E—Developmental Test and Evaluation d-TPP—Digital Terminal Procedures Publication DZ—Drop Zone EA—Electronic Attack EADI—Electronic Altitude Director Indicator EC—Electronic Combat ECM—Electronic Countermeasures ELP—Emergency Landing Pattern EMI—Electromagnetic Interference EO—Electro-Optical EOD—Explosive Ordinance Disposal EOR—End of Runway EP—Evaluator Pilot/Emergency Procedure EPE—Emergency Procedures Evaluation EPR—Exhaust Pressure Ratio EPU—Emergency Power Unit ERAA—Emergency Route Abort Altitude ERCC—Engine Running Crew Change ESA—Emergency Safe Altitude ETA—Expected Time of Arrival EVS—Electro-Optical Viewing System EWO—Electronic Warfare Officer FAA—Federal Aviation Administration FAF—Final Approach Fix FAR—Federal Aviation Regulation FENCE—Fuel, Emissions, Navigation, Communications, Expendables

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 FCAGS—Full Coverage Anti-G Suit FCF—Functional Check Flight FCIF—Flight Crew Information File FCS—Flight Control System FDE—Fault Detection and Exclusion FE—Flight Engineer FIC—Flight Instructor Course FIE—Fighter Inceptor Exercise FL—Flight Level; Flight Lead FLIP—Flight Information Publications FLIR—Forward Looking Infrared FM—Field Manual/Frequency Modulation FOD—Foreign Object Damage/Debris FQIS—Fuel Quantity Indicating System FRL—Fuselage Reference Line FSS—Flight Service Station FTT—Flight Test Technique FTU—Formal Training Unit GCAS—Ground Collision Avoidance System GCI—Ground Control Intercept GFR—Government Flight Representative GNSS—Global Navigation Satellite System GPS—Global Positioning System GCS—Ground Control Station (LRE or MCE) GSS—Gyro Stabilization System GRM—Gate Release Mechanism HA—Absolute Altitude HAA—Height Above Aerodrome HAT—Height Above Touchdown HF—High Frequency HHQ—Higher Headquarters HQ—Headquarters

63

64

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

HUD—Heads-up Display IAF—Initial Approach Fix IAW—In Accordance With ICAO—International Civil Aviation Organization ID—Identification IFF—Identification Friend or Foe IFR—Instrument Flight Rules ILS—Instrument Landing System IMC—Instrument Meteorological Conditions INS—Inertia Navigation System INU—Initial Navigation Unit IOS—Instructor Operator Station IP—Instructor Pilot or Initial Point IQT—Initial Qualification Training IR—IFR Military Training Route IRC—Instrument Refresher Course KCAS—Knots Calibrated Airspeed KGS—Knots Ground Speed KIAS—Knots Indicated Airspeed KTAS—Knots True Airspeed LAAF—LANTIRN Altitude Advisory Function LANTIRN—Low Altitude Navigation and Targeting Infrared for Night LASDT—Low Altitude Step Down Training LAWS—Low Altitude Warning System LC—Lost Communications LDTO—Lead Developmental Test Organization LG—Logistics Group LIS—Line in the Sky LNAV—Lateral Navigation LOS—Line of Sight LOWAT—Low Altitude training LPU—Life Preserver Units

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 LRE—Launch and Recovery Element LSS—Laser Spot Search LST—Laser Spot Track LZ—Landing Zone MAC—Mean Aerodynamic Chord MAJCOM—Major Command MAP—Missed Approach Point MARSA—Military Assumes Responsibility for Separation of Aircraft MC—Mission Capable/Mission Commander MCE—Mission Control Element MD—Mission Design MDA—Minimum Descent Altitude MDS—Mission Design Series MEA—Minimum Enroute Altitude MEL—Minimum Equipment List MEP—Mission Essential Personnel MESP—Maintenance Engineering Support Personnel MFC—Multifunction Control MFD—Multi-Functional Display MFM—Modification Flight Manual MIL—Military ML—Mission Lead MLG—Main Landing Gear MOA—Military Operating Area MP—Mission Pilot MPS—Mission Planning Software/Mission Planning System MQT—Mission Qualification Training MRR—Minimum Runway Required MS—Mission Support MSA—Minimum Safe Altitude MSL—Mean Sea Level MT—Mission Trainer

65

66 MTR—Military Training Route N/A—Not Applicable NACO—National Aeronautical Charting Office NAVAID—Navigation Aid NDI—Non-Destructive Inspection NGA—National-Geospatial-Intelligence Agency NM—Nautical Miles NORDO—No Radio NOTAM—Notice to Airmen NSS—Navigation System NVG—Night Vision Goggles OAS—Offensive Avionics System OBS—Omnibearing Select OCF—Out-of-Control Flight; Operational Check Flight OEM—Original Equipment Manufacturer OFP—Operational Flight Program OG—Operations Group OG/CC—Operations Group Commander ONC—Operational Navigation Charts OPR—Office of Primary Responsibility OSO—Offensive Systems Officer OSS—Operations Support Squadron OWS—Overload Warning System PAR—Precision Approach Radar PCL—Power Control Lever PIC—Pilot in Command PDM—Programmed Depot Maintenance PECP—Primary Entry Control Point PF—Pilot Flying PFPS—Portable Flight Planning Software PIC—Pilot in Command PIREP—Pilot Report (Weather)

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 PMSV—Pilot to Metro Service PNF—Pilot Not Flying PPI—Plan Position Indicator PTA—Planned Time of Arrival PTAIP—Primary Terrain Avoidance Initiation Point QC—Quality Control RAIM—Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring RCO—Range Control Officer RCR—Runway Conditions Reading RDT&E—Research Developmental Test and Evaluation RIA—Recovery Initiation Altitude RLA—Rotary Launcher Assembly RNAV—Enroute Area Navigation RNP—Required Navigation Performance ROE—Rules of Engagement RPA—Remotely Piloted Aircraft RPI—Rated Position Identifier RPM—Revolutions Per Minute RTB—Return to Base RVR—Runway Visual Range SA—Situational Awareness or Surface Attack SAR—Search and Rescue or Synthetic Aperture Radar SARCAP—Search and Rescue Combat Air Patrol SAT—Surface Attack Tactics SCA—Self Contained Approach SD—Spatial Disorientation SEFE—Stan/Eval Flight Examiner SFO—Simulated Flame Out SID—Standard Instrument Departure SIF—Selective Identification Feature SIGMET—Significant Meteorological Information SILS—Synthetic Instrument Landing System

67

68 SKE—Station Keeping Equipment SMA—Start Maneuver Area SMA—Special Mission Aviator SOF—Supervisor of Flying SPINS—Special Instructions SPD—System Program Director SPRS—Single Point Refueling SQ—Squadron SRB—Safety Review Board SSE—Simulated Single Engine SSM—System Support Manager STAN/EVAL—Standardization & Evaluation STAR—Standard Terminal Arrival STV—Steerable Television SUA—Special Use Airspace SUAS—Small Unmanned Aerial System TA—Terrain Avoidance TACAN—Tactical Air Navigation TAL—Transfer Alignment TAS—True Air Speed TBD—To Be Determined/Developed TDY—Temporary Duty TDZ—Touch Down Zone TDZE—Touch Down Zone Elevation TERPS—Terminal Instrument Procedures TF—Terrain Following TFR—Terrain Following Radar TOLD—Take Off Landing Data TOT—Time Over Target TPC—Tactical Pilotage Chart TPS—Test Pilot School TR—Transit Route

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

69

TSM—Time Safety Margin TSO—Target Study Officer; Technical Standard Orders TTR—Tactics and Training Range UHF—Ultra High Frequency USAF—United States Air Force UTD—Unit Training Device VOR—VHF Omni Range VFR—Visual Flight Rules VHF—Very High Frequency VMC—Visual Meteorological Conditions VR—VFR Military Training Route VRD—Vision Restricting Device VVOD—Vector Vertical Obstruction Data WSO—Weapons Systems Officer WST—Weapons Systems Trainer Terms Airlift—Aircraft is considered to be performing airlift when manifested passengers or cargo are carried. Allowable Cabin Load (ACL)—The maximum payload that can be carried on an individual sortie. Alternate Entry Control Point (Alternate Entry Fix)—The route point(s) upon which a control time for an alternate entry into the route is based. Assault Landing Zone (ALZ)—A paved or semi-prepared (unpaved) airfield used to conduct operations in an airfield environment similar to forward operating locations. ALZ runways are typically shorter and narrower than standard runways. Augmented Crew—Basic aircrew supplemented by additional qualified aircrew members to permit in-flight rest periods. Bingo Fuel—The computed fuel remaining at a point in flight that will allow safe return to the point of intended landing with required fuel reserve. Block Time—Time determined by the scheduling agency responsible for mission accomplishment for the aircraft to arrive at (block in) or depart from (block out) the parking spot. Category I Route—Any route that does not meet the requirements of a category II route, including tactical navigation and over-water routes.

70

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

Category II Route—Any route on which the position of the aircraft can be accurately determined by the overhead crossing of a radio aid (NDB, VOR, TACAN) at least once each hour with the positive course guidance between such radio aids. Circular Error Average (CEA)—Indicator of the accuracy of an airdrop operation. It is the radius of a circle within which half of the air-dropped personnel and items or material have fallen. Combat Control Team (CCT)—A small task organized team of Air Force parachute and combat diver qualified personnel trained and equipped to rapidly establish and control drop, landing, and extraction zone air traffic in austere or hostile conditions. They survey and establish terminal airheads as well as provide guidance to aircraft for airlift operation. They provide command and control, and conduct reconnaissance, surveillance, and survey assessments of potential objective airfields or assault zones. They also can perform limited weather observations and removal of obstacles or unexploded ordinance with demolitions. Also called CCT. Command Chief Pilot—An aircrew assigned to AFMC/A3V or an appointee that assists the HQ Stan/Eval team and conducts flight evaluations on behalf of the headquarters Conference SKYHOOK—Communication conference available to help aircrews solve in-flight problems that require additional expertise. Critical Phase of Flight—For the purposes of this AFI, this term shall include: Terminal Area operations including takeoff and landing, low-level flight, air refueling, airdrop, actual weapons delivery, simulated weapon delivery (other than level), tactical/air combat operations, envelope expansion test points, and any aerial demonstration. NVG wear in and of itself does not constitute a critical phase of flight. Deadhead Time—Duty time for crewmembers positioning or de-positioning for a mission or mission support function and not performing crew duties. Deviation—A deviation occurs when takeoff time is not within –20/+14 minutes of scheduled takeoff time. Difference (conversion) Evaluation—An evaluation administered to an aircrew qualified in a variant of a particular aircraft. For example, variants of the B-707 airframe, different series of a particular M/D, or different block versions. Difference training is considered Phase I (initial qualification) training. Digital Terminal Procedures Publication—Airfield approach plates that are published by NACO and the NGA. They are available online at http://www.naco.faa.gov and http://aerodata.nga.mil/AeroDownload/?section=flip Direct Instructor Supervision—Supervision by an instructor of like specialty with immediate access to controls (for pilots, the instructor must occupy either the pilot or copilot seat). Drop Zone (DZ)—A specified area upon which airborne troops, equipment, or supplies are airdropped. Due Regard—Operational situations that do not lend themselves to International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) flight procedures, such as military contingencies, classified missions, politically sensitive missions, or training activities. Flight under “Due Regard” obligates the

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

71

military aircraft commander to be his or her own air traffic control (ATC) agency and to separate his or her aircraft from all other air traffic. (See FLIP General Planning, section 7). DZ Entry Point—A fixed point on DZ run-in course where an aircraft or formation or aircraft may safely begin descent from IFR en route altitude to IFR drop altitude. The DZ entry point is a maximum of 40 NM prior to the DZ exit point according to Federal Aviation Administration FAR exemption 4371C. Formation descent will not begin until the last aircraft in formation is at or past the DZ entry point. DZ Exit Point—A fixed point on the DZ escape flight path centerline, established during premission planning, at which the formation will be at the minimum IFR en route altitude. Calculate the exit point based upon three-engine performance at airdrop gross weight. This point will be planned no less than four NM track distance beyond the DZ trailing edge. Earliest Descent Point (EDP)—Earliest point in the DZ run-in course where the lead aircraft may begin IFR descent to IFR drop altitude and be assured of terrain clearance for the entire formation. Compute EDP by subtracting formation length from the computed DZ entry point. Emergency Safe Altitude (ESA)—The Emergency Safe Altitude provides a minimum of 1,000 feet (2,000 feet in mountainous terrain as defined in AFI 11-202V3) separation from the highest obstacle/terrain (rounded to the next highest 100 feet). For training areas use the highest obstacle within the training area and 5NM beyond the lateral boundary. For route planning use 5NM either side of planned course but in no case less than the route boundary. End Maneuver Area (EMA)—A control point terminating the bomb run area. Entry Control Time—The scheduled time over the Primary/Alternate Entry Control Point. Entry Track—A track, usually associated with a bomber IR and beginning at the Primary or alternate Entry Point, along which decent is made to the low altitude portion of the route. Equal Time Point—Point along a route at which an aircraft may either proceed to destination or first suitable airport or return to departure base or last suitable airport in the same amount of time based on all engines operating. Estimated Time In Commission (ETIC)—Estimated time required to complete required maintenance. Evaluation Form—Worksheet used to document any evaluation to prepare the AF Form 8, Certificate of Aircrew Qualification. Execution—Command-level approval for initiation of a mission or portion thereof after due consideration of all pertinent factors. Execution authority is restricted to designated command authority. Familiar Field—An airport in the local flying area at which unit assigned aircraft routinely perform transition training. Each OG/CC will designate familiar fields within their local flying area. Fix—A position determined from terrestrial, electronic, or astronomical data. Normal Fuel—Fuel state on initial or at the FAF such that the aircraft can land with the fuel reserves specified in AFI 11-202V3.

72

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

Minimum Fuel—Fuel state, where, upon reaching the destination, the aircraft can accept little or no delay. This is not an emergency situation but merely indicates an emergency situation is possible should any undue delay occur. Emergency Fuel—Fuel state requires immediate traffic priority to safely recover the aircraft. An emergency will be declared and the aircraft immediately recovered at the nearest suitable field. Global Decision Support System (GDSS)—AMC primary execution command and control system. GDSS is used to manage the execution of AMC airlift and tanker missions. Hazardous Cargo or Materials (HAZMAT)—Articles or substances that are capable of posing significant risk to health, safety, or property when transported by air and classified as explosive (class 1), compressed gas (class 2), flammable liquid (class 3), flammable solid (class 4), oxidizer and organic peroxide (class 5), poison and infectious substances (class 6), radioactive material (class 7), corrosive material (class 8), or miscellaneous dangerous goods (class 9). Classes may be subdivided into divisions to further identify hazard (i.e., 1.1, 2.3, 6.1, etc.). Initial Cadre—Those personnel assigned to conduct flight testing of experimental, developmental, or new aircraft for which there are no established formal training programs nor standardized evaluation criteria. Initial Cadre designations are appropriate through Initial Operational Capability. Instructor Supervision—Supervision by an instructor of like specialty (see also Direct Instructor Supervision). Inter-fly—The exchange and/or substitution of aircrews and aircraft between other MAJCOMS and AFMC. These forces are not gained by AFMC. Jumpmaster—The assigned airborne qualified individual who controls parachutists from the time they enter the aircraft until they exit. Knock-it-Off—A term any crewmember may call to terminate a training maneuver. Upon hearing “knock-it-off” the crew should establish a safe altitude, airspeed and return the aircraft power and flight controls to a normal configuration. Landing Zone (LZ)—An area of sufficient size to allow discharge or pickup of passengers or cargo by touchdown or low hover. Latest Descent Point—Latest planned point on the DZ run-in course where the formation plans to initiate descent to drop altitude. This is planned to ensure all aircraft in the formation are stabilized (on altitude and airspeed) prior to the drop. Lead Crew—A crew consisting of a lead qualified aircraft commander and a lead qualified navigator/CSO. Letter of “X”s—A document used in AFMC, signed by appropriate authority, that lists each assigned/attached aircrew’s aircraft designation, crew position, and mission qualifications. Local Training Mission—A mission scheduled to originate and terminate at home station (or an off-station training mission), generated for training or evaluation and executed at the local level.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

73

Low Altitude Navigation Leg—The low altitude navigation leg is that portion of the route designed primarily for low altitude flight; does not include segments intended for descent into and climb-out from the route. Maintenance Status Code 1—No maintenance required. Maintenance Status Code 2 (Plus Noun)—Minor maintenance required, but not serious enough to cause delay. Add nouns that identify the affected units or systems, i.e. hydraulic, ultra high frequency (UHF) radio, radar, engine, fuel control, generator, etc. Attempt to describe the nature of the system malfunction to the extent that appropriate maintenance personnel will be available to meet the aircraft. When possible, identify system as mission essential (ME) or mission contributing (MC). Maintenance Status Code 3 (Plus Noun)—Major maintenance. Delay is anticipated. Affected units or systems are to be identified as in Code 2 status above. Manmade Obstructions—Structures which present a hazard to flight. measured from the ground-base.

Structure height is

Mark—The time when an aircraft passes over the landing zone or ground party. Maintenance/Engineering Support Personnel—The MESP program is intended to allow personnel to perform airborne duties in support of test programs or depot operations (observation, data collection, etc.) when full-time crewmember support isn’t possible or practical. Flying by MESPs should be on a short duration, infrequent basis and must be approved by the FOA. Minimum Safe Altitude—The MSA is defined as an altitude of a route leg which provides 1,000 feet (500 feet for helicopters and tilt-rotor aircraft conducting operations in the CONV/VTOL mode) of clearance above the highest obstacle/terrain (rounded to the next highest 100 feet) within 5 NM of the planned course, or route boundary, whichever is greater. Mission Essential Personnel—Personnel who are required for the execution of the aircraft or unit mission, to include follow-on missions. Includes additional aircrew members required for follow-on missions and personnel not authorized AOs who are tasked to perform ground support duties at en-route locations or destination points that are directly related and essential to accomplishment of the aircraft or unit mission, e.g. a specialist or technician required to provide aircraft support or a security team required to guard the aircraft. MEP may include military staff personnel and U.S. Government employees when those individuals are required for the mission. The OG/CC (or equivalent) with operational control of the aircraft grants MEP status. Mission Contributing (MC)—Any degraded component, system, or subsystem which is desired, but not essential to mission accomplishment. Mission Essential (ME)—An degraded component, system, or subsystem which is essential for safe aircraft operation or mission completion. Modified Contour—Flight in reference to base altitude above the terrain with momentary deviations above and below the base altitude for terrain depressions and obstructions to permit a smooth flight profile. Off Station Training Flight—A training flight that originates or terminates at other than home station that is specifically generated to provide the aircrew experience in operating away from

74

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

home station. Off station training flights will not be generated solely to transport passengers, cargo, or position/deposition crewmembers. OG/CC—The Operations Group Commander or equivalent authority having Flight Operations Authority (FOA). See AFI 11-401 AFMC SUP, Aviation Management. Operational Risk Management (ORM)—A logic-based common sense approach to making calculated decisions based on human, machine, mission, and media factors before, during, and after Air Force operations. It enables commanders, functional managers and supervisors to maximize operational capabilities while minimizing risks by applying a simple systematic process appropriated for all personnel and Air Force functions. Operational Site—An LZ that has (1) been surveyed by an instructor pilot (IP) experienced in remote operations to ensure no hazards exist, (2) a photograph available for aircrews to study the site prior to landing and (3) approval from the OG/CC to be designated an operational site. Whenever practical, operational sites should have permanently installed and properly maintained wind indicators (wind sock, streamer, etc.). Opportune Airlift—Transportation of personnel, cargo, or both aboard aircraft with no expenditure of additional flying hours to support the airlift. Originating Station—Base from which an aircraft starts on an assigned mission. May or may not be the home station of the aircraft. Over Water Flight—Any flight that exceeds power off gliding distance from land. Primary /Alternate Exit Point—The final way-point published in FLIP for the primary or alternate exit route. For bomber IR, the final point on the climb-out track. For other routes, may coincide with the final TA Termination Point. Primary/Alternate TA Initiation Point (Initial/Start TA)—The way-point at which aircrew are authorized to begin TA operations. Primary/Alternate TA Termination Point (Final/End TA)—The point which denotes the end of TA operations. Primary Entry Control Point (PECP)—Referred to as the Entry Fix. The route point upon which a control time for route entry is based. Provisions—A statement on the front of the AF Form 8 indicating conditions for which the evaluation may satisfy recurring evaluation requirements, usually used for no-notice or out-ofthe-eligibility-period evaluation. For example: “Provision: Open and closed book exams due NLT 30 Apr 97.” Reentry Track—A track, commencing at the end of a Maneuver Area, on which low altitude reentry to the route can be achieved to execute additional bomb/ECM/AGM runs. Remotely Piloted Aircraft—Full scale (e.g. MQ-1/9, RQ-4) aircraft primarily controlled by a pilot outside of the aircraft. Restriction—A statement on the front of the AF Form 8 that places limitations on the duties that may be performed by an aircrew, usually as a result of a failed ground or flight phase event. For example, “Restriction: Examinee will not fly unless under the supervision of an instructor pilot, Day Only, Conus Only”.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

75

Route Width (Route Perimeter)—The route boundary limits within which aircraft are restricted to conduct operations. Senior Flight Examiner—A commander authorized to conduct SPOT evaluations for assigned/attached aircrews. Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET)—Area weather advisory issued by an ICAO meteorological office relayed to and broadcast by the applicable ATC agency. SIGMET advisories are issued for tornadoes, lines of thunderstorms, embedded thunderstorms, large hail, sever and extreme turbulence, severe icing, and widespread dust or sand storms. SIGMET frequently covers a large geographical area and vertical thickness. They are prepared for general aviation and may not consider aircraft type or capability. Small Unmanned Aerial System—Miniature (e.g. Raven, Hunter) operator controlled aircraft. Special Use Airspace—As defined by Flight Information Publication General Planning: Airspace of defined dimensions identified by an area on the surface of the earth wherein activities must be confined because of their nature and/or wherein limitations may be imposed upon aircraft operations that are not a part of those activities. Types of Special Use Airspace include: alert areas, controlled firing areas, MOAs, prohibited areas, restricted areas and warning areas. Squadron Top 3—Squadron ADO, DO, CC. Stabilization Point—Point on the DZ run-in course at which the lead aircraft should plan to be stabilized at drop altitude and airspeed. This point will be planned to be at least 6 NM prior to the point of impact. Station Time—In air transport operations, the time at which crews, passengers, and cargo are to be on board and ready for the flight. Start Maneuver Area (SMA)—The point that defines the start of the bomb run area. Timing control must be within applicable tolerances. Suitable Airfield (C130)—Normally, suitable airfields are those which meet C-130 weather, fuel, and runway requirements (chapter 6) are within 50 NM of flight plan course centerline. Temporary 2 (T-2) Modification—T-2 modifications are temporary modification required to support research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E), in service testing of potential replacement items (form, fit, and function), and for aircraft/stores compatibility testing. Tactical Event (C-130)—Airdrop, low-level, formation, and threat avoidance approaches/ departures. TA Visual Conditions (B-52)—Weather conditions that permit aircraft operations clear of clouds, provide the pilots visual contact with the ground, and three miles forward visibility. Terminal Fuel Flow (TFF) (C-130)—The fuel flow rate expected during the last hour at cruise altitude. It is the difference between the fuel required for en-route time plus 1 hour and fuel required for en-route time. TFF may also be computed using the T.O. 1C-130X-1-1 fuel flow table and the estimated aircraft weight at destination. Estimated gross weight is determined by subtracting fuel burn off from takeoff gross weight.

76

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

Terrain Avoidance (TA) (B-52)—Method of maintaining ground clearance by Terrain Trace, Electro-Optical Viewing System (EVS), or Radarscope Interpretation as close to the terrain as equipment, command directives, and crew judgment allow. Time Out—See definition for “Knock it Off.” Time Safety Margin—The time required to progress from the worst-case aircraft attitude and vector to an unrecoverable condition. Training Mission—Mission executed at the unit level for the sole purpose of aircrew training for upgrade or proficiency. Does not include operational missions as defined in this AFI. Unilateral—Operations confined to a single service. Visual Contour Flight—Operation at a predetermined altitude above the ground, following contours visually using the radar altimeter to crosscheck altitude. An operating radar altimeter is required. Visual Reconnaissance—Aerial survey of areas, routes, or LZs. Zero Fuel Weight—Weight, expressed in pounds, of a loaded aircraft not including wing and body tank fuel. All weight in excess of the maximum zero fuel weight will consist of usable fuel.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

77 Attachment 2

A-10 OPERATING PROCEDURES A2.1. General Information. This attachment, in conjunction with other governing directives, outlines procedures for operation of the A-10 aircraft under most circumstances. AFMC aircrews and all management levels concerned with operation of all A-10 aircraft must comply with the outlined requirements and consult AFMC/A3V for waivers to this attachment. Operations or procedures not specifically addressed may be accomplished if they enhance safe, effective mission accomplishment. A2.2. Mission Planning: No additions. A2.3. Common Mission Guidance. A2.3.1. Ground/Taxi Operations. A2.3.1.1. Pilots will be cleared by the crew chief prior to starting the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), engines or actuating flight controls. A2.3.1.2. All flights require the bleed air function of the APU. A2.3.1.3. Aircraft stall warning devices will be fully operational for all flights. A2.3.2. Takeoff. A2.3.2.1. If RCR waived to 10, the following restrictions apply. When the RCR is less than 12, a run-up check will not be performed prior to brake release, the takeoff roll will not be started until the preceding aircraft is airborne, and if the crosswind component exceeds the RCR, takeoffs are prohibited. A2.3.2.2. AFMC/A3 (as delegated) authorizes VFR takeoffs if required for mission accomplishment; however, the aircraft must be capable of achieving a minimum singleengine climb rate of 150-feet/minute (gear up, failed engine wind-milling, and all jettisonable stores-jettisoned), unless a higher rate of climb is required for unique obstacle clearance requirements. IFR takeoffs will be conducted IAW AFI 11-202V3. Aircraft operating under IFR that are unable to comply with the required minimum climb gradients may be required to reduce fuel and ordnance loads, cart all stores (except electronic countermeasures/targeting pods), or wait for environmental conditions to change. If operational requirements dictate, takeoffs may be made without a positive single-engine climb rate when approved by the OG/CC. A2.3.2.3. Join-up/Rejoin. Flight leaders will maintain 200 KIAS until join-up is accomplished unless briefed otherwise. A2.3.3. Formation Instrument Trail Departure Procedures. A2.3.3.1. Each aircraft/element will accelerate to 200 KIAS. Climb speed will be 200 KIAS and power setting will be 800 degrees ITT unless specifically briefed otherwise. A2.3.3.2. Each aircraft/element will climb on takeoff heading to 1,000 feet AGL and accelerate to 200 KIAS before initiating any turns, except when departure instructions specifically preclude compliance.

78

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A2.3.4. Formation Approaches and Landings. approaches above 40,000 pounds gross weight.

Do not perform practice formation

A2.3.5. Maneuvering Limits. A2.3.5.1. Confidence Maneuvers: Entry will be made at a minimum of 10,000 feet AGL. A2.3.5.2. Do not perform aerobatics below 5,000 feet AGL A2.3.5.3. Perform Stalls to recover above 5,000 feet AGL. A2.3.6. Air-to-Air / Air-to-Surface Weapons Employment. A2.3.6.1. Simulated, off range air-to-air and air-to-ground attacks requiring activation of the weapons release button with expendable training ordnance and/or suspension equipment are allowed if the following conditions are met: (1) MASTER ARM switch is in TRAIN, (2) Flight lead verbally confirmed training mode (“TRN” in the HUD or “TRAIN” on the MFCD) and acknowledge throughout the flight, and (3) cold pickle check accomplished and acknowledged throughout the flight. A2.3.6.2. Simulated, off-range air-to-air and air-to-ground attacks (with 30mm TP loaded) requiring activation of the gun trigger are allowed if the following conditions are met: (1) MASTER ARM switch is in TRAIN, (2) GUN/PAC ARM switch is in SAFE, (3) flight lead verbally confirmed training mode (“TRN” in the HUD or “TRAIN” on the MFCD) and acknowledged throughout the flight, and (4) cold trigger check accomplished and acknowledged through the flight (Note: With MA switch in TRAIN and GUN/PAC ARM switch in SAFE, pilots will have BATA but not PAC). A2.3.7. Air-to-Air Maneuvering Limits. A2.3.7.1. Pilots will not maintain an angle of attack (AOA) that triggers the chopped stall warning tone. A2.3.7.2. The minimum maneuvering airspeed during LOWAT is 240 KIAS. A2.3.7.3. Flaps will not be used as an aid to slow speed maneuvering. A2.3.8. Air-to-Surface Training Rules. A2.3.8.1. If airspeed decreases below 210 KIAS in a pop-up attack, abort the maneuver. Base this airspeed on typical training weights and configurations. At heavy gross weight, adjust abort airspeed upward to provide sufficient G and turning room to recover from an adverse flight condition. A2.3.8.2. LSS/LST Procedures. LSS/LST employment utilizes the concepts of a safety and optimum attack zones. A2.3.8.2.1. Reference JP 3-09.1 for laser safety and optimal attack zones. A2.3.8.2.2. LSS/LST will not be used as a sole source for target identification. In some situations, laser spots shift from the designated target to the laser source while operating in the optimal attack zone - precluding total reliance on the laser spot. A2.3.8.2.3. Attack heading should avoid the target-to-laser designator safety zone to preclude false target indications. A2.4. Instrument Procedures.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

79

A2.4.1. The A-10 is Approach Category D. Accomplish missed approach in accordance with the flight manual procedures. A2.4.2. If using category C approach criteria, use 200 to 210 KIAS to meet missed approach airspeed. A2.4.3. Use of the Heads-Up Display. The HUD may be used as an additional instrument reference in night/IMC conditions; however, do not use it as the sole instrument reference in these conditions. In addition, do not use the HUD to recover from an unusual attitude or when executing lost wingman procedures except when no other reference is available. A2.5. Operating Procedures and Restrictions. A2.5.1. Abnormal Operating Procedures A2.5.1.1. Fuel Imbalance: IAW flight manual guidance. Terminate the mission if fuel imbalance cannot be corrected. Instruments, navigation above 2,000 ft. AGL, deployment missions, and level weapons deliveries above 2,000 ft. AGL are authorized profiles to reduce gross weight. A2.5.1.2. Aircraft operating in the low altitude environment will climb to a pre-briefed safe altitude (minimum 1,000 feet AGL) when a Knock-It-Off is called. A2.5.2. Practice of Emergency Procedures. A2.5.2.1. Accomplish all practice and/or training related to aborted takeoffs in the Cockpit Familiarization Trainer (CFT), Full Mission Trainer (FMT), or a static aircraft (if trainers unavailable). A2.5.2.2. Practice in-flight engine shutdown is prohibited (except during FCF profiles). A2.5.2.3. While airborne, simulated loss of both engines is prohibited. A2.5.3. Practice of emergency landing patterns at active airfields is authorized provided that: A2.5.3.1. Adequate crash rescue and air traffic control facilities are available and in operation. A2.5.4. Simulated Single Engine (SSE) Approach/ Landing. A2.5.4.1. Do not initiate simulated single engine failure below 1,000 feet AGL and terminate if the aircraft descends below 800 feet AGL prior to base leg. A2.5.4.2. Follow procedures in the flight manual for emergency landing patterns. Pilots will engage anti-skid prior to landing. A2.5.4.3. Pilots will plan approaches to avoid turns into the simulated dead engine when practical. If turns into the simulated dead engine are necessary, plan patterns to minimize bank angle. A2.5.4.4. SSE approaches will be discontinued if the airspeed decreases below computed single engine final approach speed. A2.5.5. Manual Reversion.

80

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A2.5.5.1. A thorough review of manual reversion procedures in the Dash-1 and/or Dash6 will be accomplished before any flights where manual reversion is a mandatory part of the flight profile. A2.5.5.2. Other than actual emergencies requiring manual reversion, pilots will only go into manual reversion when on a dedicated FCF, FCF upgrade sortie, qualification training sortie, or during an approved test sortie via an approved test plan. A2.5.5.3. Manual Reversion Operations: If aircraft will not go into Manual Reversion or the pitch trim does not work, return Manual Reversion switch to NORM. A2.5.5.4. Manual Reversion Approach and Landing. Factors to consider are pilot proficiency, instrument approach facilities, runway conditions, weather at the recovery field, and any accompanying aircraft malfunctions. Controlled bailout is recommended any time existing conditions may preclude a safe recovery or during single engine operations.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

81 Attachment 3

B-1 OPERATING PROCEDURES A3.1. General Information. This attachment, in conjunction with other governing directives, outlines procedures for operation of the B-1 aircraft under most circumstances. AFMC aircrews and all management levels concerned with operation of B-1 aircraft must comply with the outlined requirements and consult AFMC/A3V for waivers to this attachment. Operations or procedures not specifically addressed may be accomplished if they enhance safe, effective mission accomplishment. A3.2. Mission Planning. A3.2.1. Chart/Map Preparation. On low altitude training flights, one member of the pilot team, and both the Offensive Systems Officer (OSO) and Defensive Systems Officer (DSO) will carry a chart. Annotate headings and maximum/minimum route structure altitudes. The chart will be of scale and quality that terrain features, hazards, noise sensitive areas, and chart annotations are of sufficient detail to allow navigation and safe mission accomplishment. Review pilot's and OSO/DSO low altitude charts for compatibility and accuracy. A3.2.2. Fuel Requirements. When overhead a remote island with no alternate required, aircrew will use 40,000lbs as “minimum” fuel for planning purposes. Overhead a remote island with an alternate required, use 60,000lbs for “minimum” fuel. A3.3. Common Mission Guidance. A3.3.1. Traffic Pattern Limitations. A3.3.1.1. See Table A3.1. for limitations and restrictions. A3.3.1.2. Practice no-flap or slat full stop landings are prohibited. A3.3.1.3. Practice pattern operations are prohibited under the following conditions: A3.3.1.3.1. Any engine shut down. A3.3.1.3.2. Unable to set military power on all four engines using normal throttle. A3.3.1.3.3. Any flight control problem A3.3.1.4. SCAS Failure. Normal touch-and-go landings or low approaches are permitted with a PITCH AUG 1, ROLL AUG 1, YAW AUG 1, and/or SPOILER 1 caution light illuminated. A3.3.1.5. Loss of all radar altimeter does not prevent transition work during day VMC. A3.3.2. FCF Operating Guidelines. The minimum crew for an FCF/Test mission consists of two pilots, an Offensive Systems Officer, and one person trained in CITS/EMUX operation. A qualified DSO/WSO must be on board if ECM systems are to be tested during the FCF. A3.3.3. Advanced Handling Characteristics/Advanced Handling Maneuvers (AHC/AHM). A3.3.3.1. Approach to Stall. Due to the increased stress placed on engines, approaches to stall will only be accomplished when required for FCF checks, instructor proficiency, upgrade training, or when required as part of a formal test program. The number of times

82

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 the maneuver is repeated should be kept to a minimum. Terminate by 8,000 feet AGL to recover by 5,000 feet AGL. A3.3.4. NVG Restrictions. Do not use NVGs at night during low altitude operations without the TF system engaged, unless operating at MSA/ESA. A3.3.5. Air to Surface Weapons Delivery A3.3.5.1. Weapons release is prohibited if: A3.3.5.1.1. An in-flight emergency procedure is being accomplished or when an engine is shut down. A3.3.5.1.2. When release exceeds aircraft T.O. limits or CG limits unless specifically approved in a test/safety package. A3.3.5.1.3. If briefed track/timing tolerances or fragmentation deconfliction cannot be met. A3.3.5.2. The following maneuvers are prohibited while carrying live or inert weapons: simulated bomb runs, simulated missile runs, approach to stalls/unusual attitudes (unless part of authorized test plan), touch and go landings (touch and go landings with un-carted inert weapons are authorized), or any other potentially hazardous activity. A3.3.5.3. The following maneuvers are permitted while carrying live or inert weapons; intercept training with fighter aircraft, air refueling, transition, low altitude training and Electronic Attack (EA) (provided targets are not selected or designated) A3.3.5.4. Do not open weapon bay doors during flight with weapons on board other than for intentional release/jettison or during approved weapons testing. A3.3.6. Air Expendable Employment. Units must ensure that all personnel concerned are familiar with CJCSM 3212.02, Performing Electronic Attack in the United States and Canada and AFI 11-214. In case of an inadvertent flare drop, contact the applicable airspace controller and advise them of the incident. A3.3.7. Low-level Navigation Operations. Do not initiate the penetration to low-level or continue low-level training if any of the following conditions exist: A3.3.7.1. Any flight control system malfunction that denies the pilot a safe margin of control. A3.3.7.2. Loss of Real Beam Ground Map (RBGM) or High Resolution Ground Map (HRGM), during night/IMC. RBGM or HRGM off/out operations are authorized during day VMC only. A3.3.7.3. Loss of INS(s) during night/IMC. INS(s) off/out operations are authorized during day VMC. A3.3.7.4. Loss of Avionics Control Unit Complex (ACUC) during night/IMC. ACUC off/out low-level operations are authorized during day VMC while attempting to recycle the ACUC. A3.3.7.5. Loss of all MFD’s at either the OSO or DSO position.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

83

A3.3.7.6. Loss of all attitude reference systems (Gyro Stabilization System (GSS) and INS). A3.3.7.7. Loss of all radar altimeter. Low-level activity may be continued at MSA/ESA in VMC conditions. A3.3.7.8. Loss of all aft station ADI’s. A3.4. Instrument Procedures. A3.4.1. The B-1 is approach category E. A3.5. Operating Procedures and Restrictions. A3.5.1. Unusual Attitudes. Do not intentionally place the aircraft in an unusual attitude for the purpose of practicing recoveries. A3.5.2. Navigation Equipment: A3.5.2.1. An INS must be operational for takeoff on all missions except for flight in the local area during day VMC. Specific pre-designated missions requiring INS in-flight alignment may launch, provided VMC can be maintained until INS is aligned. A3.5.2.2. Do not takeoff with the GSS inoperative (steady illumination of the GSS caution light) unless day VMC can be maintained. Table A3.1. Operating Limitations. Event SCAS Off Low Approach (Note 1) SCAS Off Full Stop (Notes 1, 2)

Simulated Engine Failure Low Approach (Note 1)

Simulated Engine Failure Touch & Go / Full Stop (Notes 1, 2)

25 Wing Approach (Notes 1,2,3) Slat Only Approach (Notes 1,2,3) Partial Flap Approach (Notes 1,2,3)

Restriction 1. 275,000 lbs. Maximum 2. IP on Board 1. 275,000 lbs. Maximum 2. IP on Board 3. 10 knot maximum crosswind 4. Day Only 1. 275,000 lbs. Maximum 2. IP on Board 3. Initiate Go-Around no lower than 200 ft. HAT 1. 275,000 lbs. Maximum 2. IP on Board 3. 10 knot maximum crosswind 4. Unplanned go around/takeoff portion of maneuver requires symmetrical thrust 1. 250,000 lbs. Maximum 2. IP on Board 3. Touch & Go or Low Approach Only 1. 230,000 lbs. Maximum 2. IP on Board 3. Touch & Go or Low Approach Only 1. 250,000 lbs. Maximum 2. IP on Board

84

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

3. Touch & Go or Low Approach Only 1. 250,000 lbs. Maximum 2. Touch & Go or Low Approach Only 1. Authorized to approach minimums 2. Min RCR = 9 3. Crosswind = tech order limits 4. 300,000 lbs. Maximum for Full Stops and Touch & Go All simulated emergency procedures require notes 1-4: Note 1: Wx (1000-2) or circling minimums whichever is higher. Note 2: Dry runway. Note 3: 15 knot maximum crosswind component. Note 4: Touch-n-go authorized with un-carted, inert weapons. No-Flap Approach (Notes 1,2,3) Normal Approach (Note 4)

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

85 Attachment 4

B-2 OPERATING PROCEDURES A4.1. General Information. This attachment, in conjunction with other governing directives, outlines procedures for operation of the B-2 aircraft under most circumstances. AFMC aircrews and all management levels concerned with operation of B-2 aircraft must comply with the outlined requirements and consult AFMC/A3V for waivers to this attachment. Operations or procedures not specifically addressed may be accomplished if they enhance safe, effective mission accomplishment. A4.2. Mission Planning. A4.2.1. Mission Briefing. If the interval from the initial briefing to takeoff exceeds 72 hours, a complete review and briefing must be re-accomplished. A4.3. Common Mission Guidance. A4.3.1. Preflight. A4.3.1.1. Flight control BITs (ABIT). Pilots will complete an ABIT of the FCS after performing any flight control (FC) memory reads. A4.3.2. Ground/Taxi. A4.3.2.1. Induction Icing Ground Operations. If the ice detection system indicates ice and/or ice is noticed on the inlet areas, shutdown the engines as soon as possible minimizing throttle movement. The risk of engine FOD increases during continued operation in icing conditions longer than 5 minutes. If an ICING advisory occurs after brake release, crews may continue the takeoff and follow in-flight icing procedures. A4.3.2.2. Do not exceed 10 knots ground speed when taxiing over BAK-9/BAK-12 cables. A4.3.3. Takeoff. A4.3.3.1. Unless a flight test requirement exists, do not takeoff if any of the following conditions exist: A4.3.3.1.1. Standing or pooled water on the runway. A4.3.3.1.2. The computed takeoff roll exceeds 80% of the available runway (can be waived by OG/CC). A4.3.3.1.3. The tailwind exceeds 10 knots (can be waived by OG/CC). A4.3.3.1.4. Any attitude indicator, heading indicator, or standby instrument is inoperative. A4.3.3.1.5. One or more engines are inoperative from the start of takeoff roll. During emergency evacuations and at the discretion of the wing commander or with higher headquarters approval, aircraft may takeoff with one or more engines inoperative. Under no circumstances should a crew take off with a computed takeoff distance that exceeds 95 percent of runway available.

86

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A4.3.3.1.6. Over any raised web barrier (MA-1A or 61QS11). Do not start takeoff roll prior to approach end cables. Takeoffs accomplished beyond approach-end cables are permitted provided at least the minimum runway length specified in Chapter 2 is available beyond the cable. A4.3.3.2. If CFL is computed to be greater than 80% of the available runway, aircrew will use full available thrust on takeoff (TRT) and have OG/CC approval for operations. A4.3.4. Formation. Because B-2 formation flight within AFMC is uncommon, users will refer to AFI 11-2B-2 Volume 3, B-2 Operations Procedures. A4.3.5. Chase Procedures. A safety chase is not required for flights that primarily occur under IFR control or in exclusive use airspace. A safety chase is not required for flights within the R2508 complex outside of high traffic areas (at or above FL350). A safety/photo chase will be used as required on test flights per the approved safety package. A4.3.6. Air Refueling. A4.3.6.1. Do not conduct air refueling with control stick steering engaged. A4.3.6.2. Do not conduct air refueling with an FCS CAUTION, except when necessary for safe recovery of the aircraft. A4.3.6.3. Do not conduct air refueling with less than four engines operating, except when necessary for safe recovery of the aircraft. Simulated engine out air refueling is permitted under IP supervision. Pilots will place no more than one throttle to idle to simulate the loss of one engine. A4.3.6.4. Do not conduct air refueling when the tanker has less than all engines operating, unless required for safe recovery of the aircraft. A4.3.6.5. Do not conduct air refueling when tanker aircraft is unable to retract landing gear. A4.3.6.6. Discontinue air refueling after loss of all tanker disconnect capability, except during the following conditions: A4.3.6.6.1. Emergency fuel situation or emergency evacuation. Limit contact time to that required to obtain fuel. A4.3.6.6.2. Flight test mission warranting the increased risk as agreed upon by the test director and aircraft commander. It must be accomplished under IP supervision. Limit contact time to that required to obtain fuel. A4.3.6.7. Do not accomplish breakaway training while in contact. A4.3.6.8. Boom envelope demonstrations require IP supervision. A4.3.6.9. Visual Observation Position. Using quick-flow procedures from the ATP 56(B), the route/visual observation position may be used to expedite day, VMC AR operations. The position is defined as a 30-70 degree cone aft of tanker’s 3/9 line, no closer than 150 feet (wing tip spacing) and no farther than 1,000 feet. Use of the position requires clearance by the tanker. A4.3.7. Landing.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

87

A4.3.7.1. Do not land prior to approach end cables. Landing beyond approach-end cables is permitted provided at least the minimum runway length specified in Chapter 2 is available beyond the cable. A4.3.7.2. See Table A4.1 for traffic pattern limitations. Table A4.1. Traffic Pattern and Landing Limitations and Restrictions. Approach Type

Notes

Low Approach Touch & Go

1,2,3

Maximu m Gross Weight

Maximum Crosswind

Minimum Weather

IP Require d

Night

Min RCR

311,500

N/A

Approach Mins

No

Yes

N/A

311,500

20 30 w/ IP

500/1½ or nonprec minima 300/1 w/ IP

No

Yes

9

Sim Eng Out Low 2,4,5, 1000/2 or 311,500 N/A No Yes N/A Approach & 6 circling minima Go Sim Eng Out 1,2,5, 1000/2 or Touch & Go / 311,500 25 Yes Yes 13 7 circling minima Full Stop Notes: 1. Do not accomplish touch and go landings with any of the following: a)Any landing gear malfunction (including gear door malfunctions and nose wheel steering malfunctions). b)Any brake or anti-skid failure indications, any flight control caution or warning. c)Center of gravity outside landing limits. d)Runway length insufficient to abort a touch-and-go and stop in the remaining runway. 2. Minimum weather: Whichever is higher. 3. Normal Master Mode Touch & Go landings with the speed brakes intentionally retracted require an IP and should only be accomplished as a part of a formal training syllabus. 4. Initiate low approach/go-around no lower than 200 feet height above touchdown. 5. Use four engines for non-briefed/unplanned go-arounds. 6. Use of MCT or TRT for the low approach/go-around is at the discretion of the aircraft commander. 7. Use all 4 engines for the “go” portion of the Touch & Go. A4.3.8. Air-to-Surface Weapons Employment. A4.3.8.1. Do not release weapons if a release system, indicator, or weapon bay door malfunction exists, unless the malfunction is only a loss of redundancy which does not affect weapons accuracy or normal weapons release (e.g., single power drive unit controller failure). A4.3.8.2. While carrying weapons, do not conduct simulated bomb runs, unusual maneuvers (unless necessary for flight test), or other potentially hazardous activity. Carrying weapons does not preclude accomplishing air refueling. Touch and go's may be

88

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 accomplished with inert weapons that are un-carted/pinned/inert separation nuts installed(all that are possible). A4.3.8.3. Do not complete weapon unlock/release enable/release consent for releasable (carted/pinned) live or inert weapons until the aircraft is on the range, cleared HOT by the controlling authority, and weapons impact would be in the range danger area. A4.3.8.4. Do not open weapon bay doors during flight with weapons on board other than for intentional release, jettison, or if necessary for flight test (e.g. captive carry). A4.3.8.5. Do not practice simulated emergency procedures when weapons are loaded on the aircraft. A4.3.8.6. Do not “manually” rotate RLAs in partial SIM without RLAs installed. A4.3.8.7. Weather Minimums/IMC Weapons Deliveries. If range procedures permit, B2 pilots may release live or inert weapons in IMC. Unless further restricted by range guidance, B-2 aircrews will adhere to the following when conducting IMC operations or dropping through an undercast: A4.3.8.7.1. GPS FOM greater than or equal to 4 requires one OAP or target direct aiming on a 0.8 NM CM map. Without GPS and system buffers greater than 250 ft., one OAP within 5 minutes of release (or target direct aiming) on a 0.8 NM CM map is required. A4.3.8.7.2. For Coordinate only releases: Do not release if GPS FOM greater than or equal to 4. For non-GPS integrated releases, do not release if navigation system buffers are greater than or equal to 250 ft. and buffer values have been verified via a 0.8 NM CM map within 10 minutes of release. A4.3.8.8. Hung weapons procedures. A4.3.8.8.1. If pilots receive hung munitions indications, they will accomplish abort/post release checklist actions to safe the weapons, terminate all subsequent bombing activity scheduled for the sortie, and return to base or other suitable landing base, avoiding over-flight of populated areas. A4.3.8.8.2. Pilots will jettison weapons only if, in the opinion of the pilot in command, the retention of stores would adversely affect the safe recovery of the aircraft. After a successful jettison with suspected or known hung munitions, do not accomplish any further weapons delivery activity.

A4.4. Instrument Procedures. A4.4.1. The B-2A is designated as an approach category D aircraft. A4.4.2. Synthetic ILS (SILS) and Synthetic TACAN (STACAN) approaches require VMC. Visual glide path guidance is required at night. A4.4.3. Flight in Precipitation/Icing Procedures. A4.4.3.1. Lightning Strike/Static Discharge. In the event of a known or suspected lightning strike or static discharge, terminate the mission and maintain below 250 KCAS when practical.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

89

A4.4.3.2. Avoid thunderstorms laterally by 20 NM when below FL 200. A4.4.3.3. Avoid thunderstorms laterally by 40 NM when at or above FL 200. A4.4.3.4. When at or above FL 200, stay VMC when within 40 NM of any convective activity, not just thunderstorms, which have built above FL 200. A4.4.3.5. Avoid cruising at altitudes in IMC, or in areas of precipitation, that are within +/- 5,000 feet or +/- 10 degrees Celsius of the forecast or actual freezing level. Climb or descend through these areas as rapidly as is safely possible. A4.4.3.6. Do not climb or descend through forecast or reported icing conditions greater than light. A4.4.3.7. Do not cruise in any forecast or actual icing conditions. A4.4.3.8. Maintain Mach .65 or greater to minimize amount of ice accumulated (in icing conditions). A4.4.3.9. Minimize throttle movements with anti-ice/rain removal operating A4.4.4. INS/GPS/RVSM Flight. A4.4.4.1. RNAV and GPS approaches are not authorized. A4.4.4.2. Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) Airspace. Airspace where RVSM is applied is considered special qualification airspace. Both the aircrew and the specific aircraft must be approved for operations in these areas. All B-2As are approved for restricted operation within RVSM airspace as documented in Figure A4.1 B-2A RVSM Envelope Limitations. Refer to FLIP GP and the following guidance for additional RVSM requirements: A4.4.4.3. Required RVSM Equipment. Both altimeters (MDUs, one display before each pilot, and the standby altimeter), the autopilot altitude hold function, the IFF transponder altitude reporting (Mode C), and the flight control system (to include the air data ports and their heaters) must be fully operational (defined as not more than single channel failed) before entry into RVSM airspace. Should any failures of this equipment beyond the allowable single channel failure occur, immediately notify ATC and coordinate further clearance. If failure occurs before entering RVSM airspace, request a new clearance so as to avoid this airspace, or request ATC special handling as a non-equipped aircraft. A4.4.4.3.1. Autopilot. The altitude hold function of the autopilot shall be engaged throughout level cruise periods in RVSM airspace, except when special circumstances dictate, such as when turbulence procedures require disengagement. Report any aircraft deviations greater than 130 ft. from the commanded altitude to maintenance. A4.4.4.3.2. Altimeters. Crosscheck primary altitude displays with standby altimeter, before or immediately upon entry to RVSM airspace. A4.4.4.4. RVSM Operations. Monitor systems and crosscheck altimeters on primary displays to ensure they agree +/- 10 ft.

90

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A4.4.4.4.1. Aircrews should limit climb and descent rates to a maximum of 1,000 feet per minute when operating in RVSM airspace to reduce potential effects on other aircraft’s Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) operations, and to minimize risk of overshooting desired altitude during level-off. A4.4.4.5. Post Flight. Document (in the AFTO Forms 781) malfunctions or failures of RVSM required equipment, including the failure of this equipment to meet RVSM tolerances.

Figure A4.1. B-2A RVSM Envelope Limitations.

A4.4.5. B-2 BRNAV, RNP-10, MNPS RNP-12.6. The B-2 aircraft is cleared for operations in Basic Area Navigation (BRNAV), Required Navigation Performance-10 (RNP-10), and North Atlantic (NAT) Minimum Navigation Performance Specification (MNPS) airspace. A4.5. Operating Procedures and Restrictions. A4.5.1. Brief all practice maneuvers or emergency procedures before the maneuver (either in-flight or during mission planning). A4.5.2. Do not practice compound simulated emergencies during critical phases of flight. A4.5.3. After taking the appropriate action to rectify a malfunction, resume training only if the designated pilot in command determines no hazard to safe aircraft operations exists. In an actual emergency, terminate all training and emergency procedures practice. A4.5.4. Brake and nose wheel steering malfunctions. Do not taxi the aircraft with a brake system malfunction. Do not taxi with a nose wheel steering malfunction with the exception of using nose wheel steering override, or differential braking to clear the active runway.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

91

After clearing the runway, the pilots will stop until the malfunction can be cleared. If nose wheel failure occurs in-flight and cannot be cleared or reset, aircrews may taxi the aircraft clear of the runway using NWS Override or differential braking and stop until the malfunction can be cleared. A4.5.5. Practice unusual attitude recoveries are prohibited in flight. A4.5.5.1. Nose High Recovery Procedure. To recover from a nose high attitude, add power as required, establish a bank angle of no more than 60 degrees, lower the nose to a minimum minus three degree pitch attitude, then return the aircraft to level flight in both pitch and bank. A4.5.5.2. Nose Low Recovery Procedure. Recover from a nose low attitude by reducing power and extending speed brakes as required, rolling wings level, then increasing stick back pressure to return the aircraft to level flight.

92

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 Attachment 5 B-52 OPERATING PROCEDURES

A5.1. General Information. This attachment, in conjunction with other governing directives, outlines procedures for operation of the B-52 aircraft under most circumstances. AFMC aircrews and all management levels concerned with operation of all B-52 aircraft must comply with the outlined requirements and consult AFMC/A3V for waivers to this attachment. Operations or procedures not specifically addressed may be accomplished if they enhance safe, effective mission accomplishment. A5.2. Mission Planning. A5.2.1. Low Altitude Charts. Each pilot team and each navigator/CSO team will carry a low altitude chart if the crew will conduct low altitude operations. A5.2.2. Takeoff Planning Criteria. A minimum of 1,000 feet overrun must be available in addition to the minimum runway required (MRR). When 1,000 feet of overrun is not available, reserve a portion of the runway to satisfy the minimum overrun requirements. Runway available for takeoff planning must be actual runway length minus any portion of the runway used to satisfy overrun requirements at the departure end of the runway. A5.3. Common Mission Guidance. A5.3.1. Traffic Pattern Limitations. A5.3.1.1. Touch-and-go landings are authorized only under the following conditions: A5.3.1.1.1. Use a runway of sufficient width and length to permit a safe, normal full stop landing without the drag chute. Make the actual touchdown in the designated TDZ of the runway at a point and speed which would enable a safe full stop landing on the remaining runway. Initiate a go-around if this is not possible. A5.3.1.1.2. Non-IP aircraft commanders are limited to a maximum of 4 degrees crosswind crab. A5.3.1.1.3. Instructor pilots or aircraft commanders will brief (either in-flight or during mission planning) the individual being supervised on the following items prior to supervising touch-and-go landings. A5.3.1.1.3.1. Flight manual procedures. A5.3.1.1.3.2. The importance of smooth power application and stabilizing power before advancing throttles. A5.3.1.1.3.3. Compressor stalls, including proper preventive action, recognition, and corrective action. A5.3.1.1.3.4. Emergency jettison of drag chute. A5.3.1.1.3.5. Proper use of airbrakes and stabilizer trim. A5.3.1.1.3.6. Instructor Pilot (IP) or Aircraft Commander (AC) taking control of aircraft when necessary. A5.3.1.1.3.7. Unplanned go-around using all throttles.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

93

A5.3.1.2. Do not practice landings with less than 100 percent flaps, except where noted. A5.3.1.3. Normally, deploy the drag chute on all full stop landings. Should operational requirements dictate a full stop landing be made without a drag chute, comply with flight manual taxi back limitations. A5.3.1.4. Do not perform taxi back landings on wet runways. A5.3.1.5. See Table A5.1 for in-flight and traffic pattern limitations. A5.3.2. Flare Drop Activity. A5.3.2.1. Conduct live flare drop activity only in authorized special use airspace contained in current FLIP planning documents and over water firing areas. A5.3.2.2. Do not power the flare ejector system until within the approved flare drop area. A5.3.2.3. Do not accomplish low approaches or touch-and-go landings after making or attempting a flare drop. Touch-and-go's are authorized after munitions specialists confirm all flares were dispensed (none remaining). Do not attempt a taxi-back sortie with confirmed hung, retained, or misfired flares. A5.3.2.4. In case of an inadvertent flare drop, take the following actions: A5.3.2.4.1. Immediately safe the flare ejector system. A5.3.2.4.2. Record time and geographic coordinates of the inadvertent release. A5.3.2.4.3. Contact the applicable airspace controller and advise them of the incident, approximate location and estimated damage. A5.3.2.4.4. Units will develop local procedures to handle hung/hot flare situations if flares will be carried and/or expended in flight. A5.3.3. NVG Procedures. A5.3.3.1. The pilot flying the aircraft will use TA procedures, radar altimeter, and visual inputs gained from the NVG to maintain the proper terrain clearance. NVGs will not be used for visual contour low-level or visual formation. A5.3.3.2. Cockpit Lighting. AFTTP 3-3.B-52 will be used as the baseline for proper NVG cockpit setup. Units may supplement this information. Approved lighting systems include the indigenous NVG cockpit lighting (C+ modification), cyalume light sticks, and an approved battery powered LED light bar. Always carry cyalume light sticks as a backup as they remain the most reliable means of cockpit lighting. Unless on an approved test plan, do not use NVGs without one of the cockpit lighting systems mentioned above. A5.3.4. Air-to-Surface Employment A5.3.4.1. The radar navigator/navigator/CSO is responsible for ensuring the proper ballistics are loaded for the target and the proper bomb code (B-XX) is input into Format 10 for the target destination. A5.3.4.2. Do not open bomb bay doors during flight with internal weapons on board other than for intentional release, jettison or if directed in an approved test plan.

94

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A5.3.4.3. While carrying internal weapons, do not simulate internal weapons release and while carrying external weapons, do not simulate external weapons release. Carrying weapons does not preclude accomplishing fighter intercept exercise, air refueling, and transition excluding touch-and-go landings and simulated engine-loss. Furthermore, it does not preclude accomplishing simulated external weapons or missile runs, with SMO simulations, while in "full sim" with actual weapons carried internally. A5.3.4.4. If all weapons were loaded externally in positions visible to the aircrew, releases may be visually confirmed by the aircrew in lieu of confirmation by an RCO. Internal light indications must be consistent with visual observation. Do not rely on visual inspections by other aircraft or non-range personnel to clear the aircraft for subsequent training activity. A5.3.4.5. If RCO confirmation of internal release is not possible, crews must perform a visual bomb bay check prior to conducting any additional training. A5.3.4.6. Any crewmember entering the bomb bay must be qualified and must avoid inadvertent contact with the release mechanisms. A5.3.4.7. Crewmembers will not enter the bomb bay to release bombs or to perform maintenance on release equipment. A5.3.4.8. Observe the following safety precautions for continued activity with retained weapons: A5.3.4.8.1. No weapons will be programmed against any target that is not within an approved training or test area. A5.3.4.8.2. Accomplish post release/abort checklist before conducting any subsequent training activity. A5.3.4.8.3. No release system, indicator, or weapon bay door malfunction may exist. A5.3.4.9. If release is verified by the RCO and internal light indications are consistent with RCO observations, aircrews may conduct additional training without restriction provided no weapons remain on the aircraft. The RCO must positively confirm the exact number of weapons programmed for release. A5.3.4.10. For internal weapons, aircrews will visually inspect the bomb bay if a hung weapon is suspected. If there are no weapons remaining on the aircraft, the aircrew may conduct additional training without restriction. A5.3.5. Low Altitude Operations. A5.3.5.1. Icing. Do not conduct low altitude flight in areas of forecast severe icing or in areas of reported moderate or severe icing conditions. If moderate or severe icing is encountered, abort the low altitude area. A5.3.5.2. Turbulence. Do not fly low-level in areas of forecast severe turbulence. Do not fly low-level with forecast moderate turbulence associated with mountain wave effects, or with moderate or severe turbulence reported by military aircraft. If aircraft type (military or civilian) reporting turbulence is unknown, contact appropriate ARTCC for advisory. If moderate or severe turbulence is encountered, abort the low-level area.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

95

A5.3.5.3. Visibility/Cloud Clearance Requirements. Weather for TA operations on IR routes must be at or better than TA Visual Conditions (clear of clouds with 3 miles forward visibility). If TA Visual Conditions cannot be maintained, climb to MSA/IFR as soon as practical. Weather conditions for operations on VR routes must be 1500/3. If these weather conditions cannot be met, abort the route. For night operations, weather must meet the applicable day criteria. In addition, sufficient light and visibility must exist to recognize major changes in terrain elevations such as mountain peaks, ridgelines, valleys, and sloping terrain (NVGs may be used to satisfy visibility requirement). A5.3.5.4. Equipment Restrictions: A5.3.5.4.1. Mapping Radar Failure (Scope Blank or Inadequate for Navigation). Do not fly low-level, during day IMC or night, with mapping radar failure. Aircraft without mapping radar may penetrate to low altitude during daylight hours provided TA Visual Conditions can be maintained and the RN or Nav station has an operating FLIR or STV display. Abort the route if weather conditions fall below TA Visual Conditions at any time. A5.3.5.4.2. OAS Processors. Do not fly low-level without an operating OAS processor during night or IMC. Crews may penetrate to low-level and fly the route as long as day TA Visual Conditions can be maintained. A5.3.5.4.3. Multi-Function Displays (MFDs). Do not fly low-level unless there is at least one operable MFD at the RN or Nav station. A5.3.5.4.4. Attitude Heading Reference System (AHRS). Do not fly low-level with a malfunctioning AHRS. Exception: The AHRS does not need to be fully operational if one Inertial Navigation System (INS) is providing accurate heading and there is accurate MD-1 gyro stabilization for the pilot’s attitude director indicator (ADI) (this exception applies for day TA Visual Conditions only). A5.3.5.4.5. Radar Altimeter. TA or EVS/visual contour flight without a properly operating radar altimeter is prohibited. A5.3.5.4.6. Additional Night Equipment Restrictions. The following equipment must be fully operational for night TA operations, with or without NVGs: A5.3.5.4.6.1. Mapping radar (for any night low-level operation). A5.3.5.4.6.2. Terrain avoidance system. A5.3.5.4.6.3. Doppler/INS. Either Doppler or INS ground speed and drift information may be used. A5.3.5.4.6.4. EVS. Either Steer-able TV (STV) or Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) must be operational for night TA operations. A5.3.5.4.6.5. Do not fly night TA if the aircraft performance is significantly degraded; for example, engine out or main gear extended. A5.3.6. Low Altitude Limitations. A5.3.6.1. Low altitude weight restriction is 230,000 to 420,000 pounds. These restrictions apply whenever the aircraft is operated at or below 5,000 feet above ground

96

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 level or during ocean surveillance/reconnaissance operations at or below 5,000 feet MSL. The minimum low altitude weight restriction does not apply to en route, cruise or traffic pattern operations. A5.3.6.2. Use of the autopilot non-steering modes, other than second station, is not recommended for low altitude operations. Do not use non-steering modes of the autopilot below 1,000 feet AGL except for the stab modes comparison check. A5.3.6.3. Bank angles during low-level or operations below 1,000 feet AGL/ASL are limited to 30 degrees maximum. Use steep turn guidance as applicable for higher altitudes. A5.3.6.4. Normal minimum clearance plane settings: 300 feet day and 500 feet night. However, 200 feet clearance plane may be flown if necessary for the accomplishment of a test point or FCF. The time spent at this altitude will be kept to a minimum. The determining factor will be crew judgment, based on evaluations of aircraft equipment, weather conditions, aircrew capabilities, proficiency, and fatigue. A5.3.6.5. Do not conduct TA or EVS/visual contour flight without a properly operating radar altimeter. A5.3.7. TA Procedures. A5.3.7.1. Crewmembers must use all means available to clear terrain, including EVS equipment. Sound crew judgment must be used to determine whether current conditions warrant TA flight. If there is any doubt, the crew should climb to a safe altitude immediately. A5.3.7.2. Descent from IFR altitude must be accomplished in TA Visual Conditions. The PTAIP, or Start TA Point, is not a mandatory start descent point. The OAS radar will be in full scan TA (Plan Position Indicator {PPI} display or Displaced Center Plan Position Indicator {DCPPI} display) for all descents to TA altitudes. Range marks will be displayed to the maximum extent possible (N/A day Visual Flight Rules {VFR}). A5.3.7.3. TA flying under a cloud deck can be extremely hazardous, particularly under conditions of rising terrain or decreasing ceiling. In this case, climb immediately to MSA/IFR. A5.3.7.4. Attempt to maintain route centerline when flying at IFR altitudes without visual terrain clearance. Crews are not authorized to deviate from published route corridor except when aborting the route. Note: If a conflict arises between the pilot and navigator/CSO information, climb to a safe altitude and resolve it; obtain further flight clearance if necessary. If differences are resolved resume scheduled training activity. A5.3.7.5. If aircraft position is unknown, immediately climb to MSA/IFR altitude. If position cannot be determined after climbing to MSA/IFR altitude or any time route corridor has been exceeded, abort the route. A5.3.7.6. Whenever bank angle exceeds 15 degrees the pilot flying the aircraft will make the turn visually or, if at night, initiate a climb to a safe altitude before executing the turn. A5.3.7.7. Crews may omit the circled items of the Descent, After Descent, and TA Compensation checklist when weather conditions or time constraints prevent

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

97

accomplishment of the comparison/FRL compensation. During night mountainous conditions, crews will accomplish the entire checklist unless the TA set has been previously compensated. A5.3.7.8. Do not practice radar silent operations in IMC or at night. A5.3.8. Chase Operations. A5.3.8.1. It is unsafe to fly in close vertical proximity to another aircraft due to the interrelated aerodynamic effects. Never fly directly over or under another aircraft. The chase position for fighter/trainers chasing the B-52 is defined as: A5.3.8.2. Wings level position - at least 100 feet between wing tips or; A5.3.8.3. Stern position - approximately 1/4 mile behind and 100 feet below lead. A5.3.8.4. The normal chase position will be on the right wing of lead. A5.3.8.5. The lead aircraft must inform the chase aircraft and receive acknowledgment prior to initiating turns, climbs and descents, airspeed changes, or configuration changes (e.g. flaps, gear, airbrakes, etc.). A5.4. Instrument Procedures. A5.4.1. Approach Category. The B-52 is normally approach category D. Category E is applicable when best flare plus ten knots or approach speed exceeds 165. A5.5. Operational Limits And Restrictions. A5.5.1. Steep Turns. Except when otherwise required by an approved test plan, limit the maximum target bank angle to 45 degrees (not to exceed 60 degrees). The aircraft must remain clear of clouds throughout the maneuver. Do not perform steep turns during traffic pattern operations. For steep turns at or below 5,000 feet AGL/ASL, the following restrictions apply: A5.5.1.1. Weather must be day VFR. A5.5.1.2. Maneuver must be accomplished at or above 1,000 feet AGL/ASL with the flaps up. The aircrew will maintain at or above the minimum recommended airspeed or Mach for the planned bank angle throughout the maneuver. A5.5.2. Initial Buffet. A5.5.2.1. Perform initial buffet practice as prescribed in the flight manual and under instructor pilot supervision. A5.5.2.2. Pilots must review and discuss the correct recovery procedures and limitations for accomplishing initial buffet with the crew during mission planning. A5.5.2.3. Practice recovery from initial buffet at a minimum altitude of 20,000 feet above the terrain. If clouds exist between the aircraft and the terrain, the aircraft must be at least 10,000 feet above the tops of the clouds. Do not practice recovery from initial buffet above FL 300 or at gross weights above 300,000 pounds. A5.5.2.4. Perform the entire initial buffet maneuver with wings level. A5.5.2.5. Do not practice initial buffet with weapons or missiles loaded.

98

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A5.5.3. Fuel Minimums. In addition to the fuel requirements of chapter 2, the minimum fuel reserve for remote or island destination is 34,000 pounds. If weather conditions are such that an alternate airfield is required in accordance with AFI 11-202V3, then minimum fuel reserve is 54,000 pounds. A5.5.4. Air Refueling Limitations and Restrictions. Do not accomplish air refueling during training missions when two or more engines are shut down or when any engine has been shut down due to fire or fire indication. Also do not accomplish air refueling when the aircraft gross weight is less than 230,000 pounds. A5.5.5. Emergency Limitations. A5.5.5.1. If it becomes necessary to shut down two or more engines or one engine for fire or fire indication, abort the mission. A5.5.5.2. Refueling is not authorized with two or more engines inoperative or when any engine is shut down due to fire or fire indication, except when fuel is required to safely recover the aircraft. A5.5.5.3. Compute performance with one or more engines inoperative assuming the loss of another engine. A5.5.5.4. Aircraft with confirmed or suspected fuel leaks will abort the mission. Remain in the local area or proceed to the departure base or destination base by the most direct route. If circumstances permit, reduce to routine landing weight. Do not allow the center of gravity to exceed safe limitations or attempt any training activity, which would jeopardize safe recovery of the aircraft. A5.5.6. Fuel Quantity Indication System Failure. Normally, each fuel quantity indicator for each fuel tank must be fully operational. If a fuel quantity indicating system failure is discovered prior to flight, the following exceptions apply: A5.5.6.1. When a standard fuel load results in one or more empty tanks, the respective fuel quantity indicator for the empty tank need not be fully operational provided: A5.5.6.1.1. The tank will remain empty throughout the flight, including in-flight refueling. A5.5.6.1.2. The fuel quantity gauge indicates zero. A5.5.6.1.3. The circuit breaker for the respective indicator is pulled and a safety clip installed to prevent inadvertent resetting. A5.5.6.2. Aircraft may be flown with either one external or one outboard, but not more than one, wing tank gauge inoperative or malfunctioning, provided the following procedures are adhered to: A5.5.6.2.1. The aircraft is loaded with a standard fuel load. A5.5.6.2.2. The circuit breaker for the inoperative or malfunctioning gauge is pulled and a safety clip installed to prevent inadvertent resetting. In this situation, the pilots must realize that regardless of the gauge indication, the total fuel quantity indicator will be receiving indications that the tank is empty. Therefore, there will be a

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

99

discrepancy between the total fuel quantity indication and the actual amount of fuel on board. A5.5.6.2.3. The fuel flow indicator for that tank is fully operational. A5.5.6.2.4. Pilots must be particularly watchful when using fuel from a tank having an inoperative or malfunctioning fuel gauge since the only indication of fuel flow will be the fuel flow indicator light, lateral trim indications, and balance of fuel between main tanks one and four. The Fuel Quantity Indicating System (FQIS) sends a voltage to the total fuel quantity gauge rather than a restrictive value. When the circuit breaker is pulled, the indication to the total fuel quantity indicator from that gauge will be zero. A5.5.7. Aircraft/Aircrew Limitations A5.5.7.1. In B-52 aircraft, personnel occupying ejection seats may unstrap their parachute during non-critical phases of flight provided the ejection seat pins are installed (trigger ring stowed), seat belts remain fastened and adverse weather/turbulence is not expected. This does not preclude briefly vacating/swapping seats at safe clearance altitudes, pattern altitudes, or safe distance from tanker at the discretion of the PIC. Personnel not occupying ejection seats may unstrap their parachute during non-critical phases of flight. Instructors/evaluators not occupying ejection seats are exempt from wearing parachutes when performance of their essential duties makes wearing the parachute impractical. All crewmembers will wear helmets during initial takeoff/climb out, air refueling from 1/2 mile through termination of actual refueling operations, low altitude training routes, flight characteristics demonstration, flight below 10,000 feet MSL and any time an armed ejection seat is occupied. Pilots will have a visor down during any operations exceeding 300 KIAS below 10,000 feet MSL. If the visor interferes with the ability to see the instruments or terrain, minimize the time spent with the visor up. A5.5.7.2. Only the following compound practice emergencies are authorized with an IP in the seat. A5.5.7.2.1. Single Engine Loss on Takeoff following a Six Engine Landing see note 3 Table 5.1. A5.5.7.2.2. Six Engine Approach, Go-Around, or Landing in conjunction with an ARDA see applicable notes Table 5.1. Table A5.1. In-flight and Landing Limitations. Maneuver

Max Wt

Weather

Simulated Engine Loss on Takeoff

290,000 lbs.

Note 1

IP Supervision Required

Simulated Six

290,000 lbs.

Note 1

Required for

Additional Restrictions Note 4

Remarks Limited to one engine simulated inoperative above S-1 speed or 100 KIAS, whichever is higher.

100 Engine Approach Simulated Six Engine Landing Simulated Six Engine Approach and Go-Around Flaps Up Approach Flaps Up Touch-and-go Landings Low Approaches with One Engine Shut Down

Traffic Pattern Operations Landing Attitude Demonstration

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 other than day VFR Required

290,000 lbs.

Note 1

250,000 lbs.

Note 1

Required for other than day VFR

Symmetric

290,000 lbs.

Note 1

Note 5

250,000 3ºapproach; 270,000 2.5ºapproach 290,000 lbs.

Note 1

Required for other than day VFR Required

Required for other than day VFR

Note 2

Prohibited if engine(s) was shut down for fire, fire indication, or fuel leak.

Note 6

Required Flaps down, touch-andgo limitations apply

Note 1

Note 3 &4

Note 4 & 5

325,000 lbs. 290,000 lbs.

Day/Night Note 6

Notes: 1. Day/Night. No lower than circling minimums or 1,000 feet ceiling and 3 miles visibility (2 miles if under radar contact), whichever is higher. 2. 200 feet Height Above Touchdown (HAT) or Decision Height (DH)/Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) for the approach being flown, whichever is higher. 3. Comply with the following if a touch-and-go is to be accomplished: Touch-and-go limitations apply. Rudder trim must be centered when decision is made to land. If performing a single loss on takeoff, following the 6 engine landing, comply with restrictions for the single engine loss on takeoff in this table. If unplanned go-around is executed, symmetrical thrust will be established on all engines. 4. Dry runway crosswind component is 10 knots maximum. Touchdown must be made in the first third of the runway or go-around will be initiated. 5. 200 feet AGL to make decision to land or go-around. 6. Discernible horizon and the end of the runway visible.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

101 Attachment 6

C-5 OPERATING PROCEDURES A6.1. General Information. This attachment, in conjunction with other governing directives, outlines procedures for operation of the C-5 aircraft under most circumstances. AFMC aircrews and all management levels concerned with operation of all C-5 aircraft must comply with the outlined requirements and consult AFMC/A3V for waivers to this attachment. Operations or procedures not specifically addressed may be accomplished if they enhance safe, effective mission accomplishment. Refer to AFI 11-2C-5V3 for operations specific to the C-5A/B/C. A6.2. Mission Planning. A6.2.1. Obstacle Clearance Planning. Use AFI 11-202V3, AFMAN 11-217V1, and this instruction when planning an IFR departure. The Aircraft Commander shall provide the engineer with the following; planned IFR departure procedure, takeoff runway direction, length, slope, RCR/RSC, screen height, the height and distance of any known obstacles affecting departure path, and climb gradients (OEI and four engine). A6.2.2. Fuel Planning. On flights where a test plan does not dictate required fuel load, fuel planning is the responsibility of the aircraft commander. Utilize T.O. 1C-5M-1-1, Chapter 11 for fuel planning. A6.3. Common Mission Guidance. A6.3.1. Taxi Procedures. Refer to Table A6.1 for taxi clearance criteria. Table A6.1. Minimum Taxi Clearance Criteria. Lateral clearance of component

To an obstacle

Without Wing Walker

With Wing Walker

Main Gear Pod

Less than 3 feet high 3 feet high, but less than 6 feet high 6 feet or higher

25 feet

10 feet

25 feet 25 feet

10 feet 10 feet

Outboard Nacelle Wing Tip

A6.3.2. Aircrew Engine Running On-load/Offload/Crew change (ERO/ERCC). Aircrew will apply these procedures when conducting ERO/ERCCs through the crew entrance door. Crews should spend a minimum amount of time on the ground when accomplishing an ERO or ERCC. Aircraft commanders will brief crewmembers on the intended ERO/ERCC operation. The parking brake will be set and at least one pilot in the seat will monitor brakes, aircraft systems, interphone, and command radio. Prior to landing, the loadmaster or scanner will brief personnel in the cargo compartment regarding their locations, duties, and responsibilities during the ERO/ERCC. During enplaning or deplaning, station a crewmember on interphone (cord held taut) at approximately 20-30 feet and 45 degrees from the aircraft axis to establish a visual reference between personnel and the running engines. No deplaning/enplaning personnel should approach the airplane until this crewmember is in place. Brief deplaning/enplaning personnel to remain forward of the interphone cord and ensure hearing protection is used. Use wing leading edge lights, taxi lights, and landing lights to enhance safety at night as the situation dictates.

102

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A6.3.3. Observer. Use available crewmembers to assist in outside clearing during all taxi operations and any time the aircraft is below 10,000 feet MSL. A6.3.4. Landing Gear and Flap Operating Guidance. The pilot flying (PF) will command configuration changes. The pilot monitoring (PM) will verify appropriate airspeed and configuration prior to echoing the gear or flap actuation command. All gear operation will be activated by the pilot in the right seat and all in-flight flap operation will be activated by the PM. During touch-and-go operations, an instructor pilot (either PF or PM) will operate the flaps. A6.3.5. Flight Engineer Procedures. All flight engineers assigned to AFMC will use the following guidance when operating C-5s, regardless of location. This guidance contains normal procedures for flight engineers (FE) not contained in the flight manual or applicable technical orders (TO). A6.3.5.1. Authority to Clear a Red X. If a situation is encountered where the aircraft is on a Red X and qualified maintenance personnel are not available to clear it, the highest qualified flight engineer on scene may obtain authorization to sign off the Red X from the applicable MXG/CC or designated representative, in accordance with T.O. 00-20-1. Other crew members are not authorized to clear a Red X. Exception: The flight engineer may clear Red Xs for pitot covers, gear pins, engine cowls, access panels, throttle lock plate, NLG steering manifold input arm, and single point refueling (SPR) drains when qualified maintenance personnel are not available, unless prohibited by the applicable MXG/CC or OG/CC. A6.3.5.2. Aircraft Servicing and Ground Operations. The flight engineer is qualified and authorized to accomplish these duties when maintenance personnel are not available. This guidance is designed for support of the aircraft and its mission while away from home station. The applicable refueling and de-fueling checklists will be used during all refueling and de-fueling operations. If ground support personnel are not available, the aircraft commander will designate other crewmembers to assist the flight engineer. A flight engineer may assist the normal maintenance function when critical taskings dictate their use Exception: Flight Engineers will not service Nitrogen or Oxygen. WARNING: Do not load/off-load cargo containing explosives, oxygen, flammable gases or liquids during fuel servicing operations. A6.3.5.3. Fuel Servicing Operations. Unless servicing JP-4, simultaneous servicing of fuel while loading passengers, cargo, performing maintenance, aircrew members performing inspections, or operating aircraft systems is considered to be a normal fuel servicing operation. If refueling/defueling with JP-4 Concurrent Servicing operations are required IAW TO 00-25-172, Ground Servicing of Aircraft and Static Grounding/Bonding. Aircrew members qualified in ground refueling may perform fuel servicing duties. Aircrews will only refuel in cases when maintenance support is not readily available and the mission would be delayed. Flight Engineers are qualified in ground refueling operations. A6.3.5.3.1. When aircrew members are required to refuel, the flight engineer will act as the refueling team supervisor. Flight engineers will comply with T.O. 00-25-172 and applicable T.O. series when acting as refueling supervisor and panel operators.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

103

A6.3.5.4. Concurrent Ground Operations. The PIC and chief servicing supervisor (CSS) shall ensure aircrew members and servicing personnel accomplish concurrent servicing (CS) in accordance with T.O. 00-25-172 and servicing technical orders. Aircrews performing Dash-1 preflight inspections or cargo loading concurrent with servicing must have cooperation and close coordination with the CSS. The CSS will remain in continuous intercom contact with fuel servicing team members during the entire servicing operation. Team members include CSS, a monitor for each SPR in use, refueling panel monitor, fuel specialists. When the aircrew is at the aircraft, the PIC is responsible for all aspects of aircraft operations and shall inform the CSS how aircrew members will participate in passenger evacuation/safety. In keeping with the guidelines in T.O. 00-25172, CSS has authority over all phases of CS operations to include personnel participating in the refuel. A6.3.5.4.1. Designate a current and qualified maintenance personnel or aircrew member to remain on the flight deck to monitor interphone and be prepared to broadcast a request for emergency assistance on a radio tuned to the appropriate agency with ready access to an emergency response team anytime aircrew members are in the aircraft and fuel servicing is being conducted. The PA may be used to direct passenger evacuation in an emergency. A6.3.5.4.2. Unless environmental conditions dictate, the primary emergency exit will remain open and stairs/ladders in place. A6.3.5.5. The following guidance will be used for fuel servicing (refuel) operations: A6.3.5.5.1. Electric and electronic equipment may be on and operated to include operations performed by aircrew members during required inspections with the following exceptions: A6.3.5.5.2. TACANs and radar altimeters must be turned off. A6.3.5.5.3. Radar will be in STBY, TEST, or OFF. A6.3.5.5.4. IFF may be in standby but, if time permits, should be turned off. A6.3.5.5.5. Radio operations are authorized. Exception: Use of HF radios is prohibited. A6.3.5.6. Simultaneous fuel and oxygen servicing is not authorized. A6.3.5.7. APU‘s and ATM‘s may be used. A6.3.6. Weight and Balance. The flight engineer performing scanner duties is responsible for completing the DD Form 365-4, Weight and Balance Clearance Form F, when loadmasters are not on board and/or one has not been done through other means (i.e.- Canned DD Form 365-4, etc.). A6.3.7. Aircraft Structural Integrity Program. The purpose of this program is to provide a reliable system for predicting potential or impending failures based on historical records of the aircraft's exposure to those actions contributing to fatigue failures. A6.3.7.1. The C-5M Aircraft Structural Integrity Program is automated in the EDS. C5M Flight Engineer’s will:

104

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A6.3.7.1.1. Ensure all applicable tabs are completed within the EDS program according to procedures in paragraph A6.3.8. A6.3.7.2. Use the AF IMT 4097 and the procedures in AFI11-2C-5V3 during operations with a failed PCIU, AMC, or when deemed necessary. A6.3.7.3. When returning aircraft to home station remove the RMM and turn into maintenance debrief. Note: If the crew and maintenance do not conduct a formal debrief (e.g. debrief not available), the RMM will be left on the aircraft. A6.3.8. EDS Instructions. A6.3.8.1. Complete the applicable data input for each sortie. Do not complete input for any ground operation or sortie that does not involve an attempted takeoff. This includes ground aborts for maintenance, operations, weather, and on load or offload exercises. When a sortie is terminated before an attempted takeoff, complete the applicable sections to document crew actions. A6.3.8.2. Start-up and initialization. This data is entered and will be used to pre-populate additional fields. The flight engineer name shall be entered using first name initial, full last name, and rank. DSN phone number shall be used as the military employee number. Enter the initial takeoff and final landing airfield ICAO designations. A6.3.8.3. Log start. Select the log start event and enter the basic operating weight and cargo weight obtained from DD Form 365-4 Weight and Balance Clearance Form FTransport/Tactical or the automated Form F. Also enter the cumulative airframe hours as depicted in the AFTO Form 781-series. Note: Load Environmental Spectra Survey (LESS) equipped aircraft - fuel weights are prefilled for automatically detected events when the LESS circuit breakers are closed. A6.3.8.4. Take off. Select the takeoff event from the tab and document the gross weight (zero fuel weight plus fuel weight), center of gravity, and fuel weight as of brake release. Annotate with a check mark if the takeoff is accomplished on a substandard runway. A6.3.8.5. Cruise. If not automatically detected after 15 minutes when above 6,000 feet MSL or 5 minutes when at or below 6,000 feet MSL, manually enter a cruise event and document the start time, stop time, Mach and altitude. Use the remarks section to identify abnormal cruise conditions. A6.3.8.6. Fuel jettison. Record the incremental weight offloaded, Mach and altitude. A6.3.8.7. Touchdown. Record the fuel weight upon landing for full stop landings. This event also provides the capability to record a landing on a substandard runway or flights using nonstandard fuel sequencing. For touch and go operations, the fuel load entry is optional for each touchdown event logged. Use the remarks section to enter appropriate comments that could influence aircraft fatigue factors. Examples are: unpressurized flight, severe turbulence encountered, hard landing, high load maneuvers and unpressurized flight. A6.3.8.8. Engine start, ALDCS, taxi, lift off, gear cycle, new flight, engine shutdown and log stop. These are additional automatic events that do not require attention unless abnormal conditions occur. Use the remarks section to identify abnormal conditions.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

105

A6.3.8.9. Runway aborts. Select the runway abort event and then enter the reason for the rejected take off. A6.3.8.10. Over-g. Select the over-g event and enter relevant information about the exceedance condition. A6.3.8.11. After documenting the required information within each event details viewer, the save button shall be selected to record the data onto the RMM. A6.3.9. Fault Code Reporting Procedures: A6.3.9.1. The Fault Reporting Method (FRM) is used to isolate system malfunctions with a minimum amount of troubleshooting and provide a description of the malfunction for maintenance. A6.3.9.2. System malfunctions, monitored by EDS auto or manual faults or observed by a crewmember, will be troubleshot using the Fault Reporting Method (FRM) or Fault Isolation Manual (FIM) procedures contained in EDS to maximum extent possible. A6.3.9.3. The manual fault code (FC) derived from the troubleshooting routine and the auto fault code reported will be recorded in AFTO Form 781A along with the description of the malfunction. Include any additional information required for clarification of the discrepancy. A6.3.9.4. When documenting EDS faults, AFTO Form 781A discrepancies shall be based on the fault isolation (FI) and include reference to the fault detection (FD). If the FD does not have a FI, the AFTO Form 781A entry shall be based on the FD. A6.3.9.5. Before finalizing the flight during EDS shutdown, the flight engineer shall evaluate each active fault to determine its validity. To facilitate evaluation of recovered faults, select the event log and review each fault occurring after the MFDU fault log reset during the preflight. After eliminating any induced and/or nuisance faults, ensure all actual faults are recorded in the AFTO Form 781A. A comprehensive list of nuisance faults can be found in the current AMC Checklist Inserts. A6.3.10. Monitoring Primary Radios. The FE will monitor the primary radio for flight clearances, altitudes, heading changes, and radio frequencies. The FE is not required to copy departure clearances. A6.3.11. Scanner Duties. After takeoff, the scanner will normally make a walk-around when flaps are retracted, the after-takeoff climb checklist has been initiated, and the airplane is clear of turbulence. The walk-around should be completed by 10,000 feet. Exception: When the scanner is sitting in the jump seat, he or she will remain there until 10,000 ft., unless coordinated with the pilot to clear off earlier for the after takeoff climb scan. A6.3.12. Wheel and Brake Procedures. If dragging wheels or brakes are suspected during taxi, or after the Anti-Skid check, deplane the scanner and another crewmember, if available, and proceed as follows. A6.3.12.1. Maintain interphone contact throughout the inspection. A6.3.12.2. To inspect, approach directly from the front or rear of the tire, touch main landing gear tire and cautiously move the hand toward the wheel. Then place the hand

106

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 near the brake to determine excessive heat without touching the brake surface. Repeat for each main landing gear (MLG) wheel and brake assembly. A6.3.12.3. If any brake is significantly hotter than the majority, advise maintenance that corrective action is required. If an obviously dangerous overheated condition is observed, do not taxi the airplane. A6.3.12.4. If no brake is found significantly hotter than the majority of brakes, the brake check is satisfactory. A6.3.12.5. In Flight Procedures: A6.3.12.5.1. Inspect the MLG wheel wells after takeoff for evidence of heat, smoke, or fire. If abnormalities are detected, extend the landing gear immediately at or below 250 KCAS/.60 Mach. A6.3.12.5.2. Inspect the cargo compartment sidewall and floor areas adjacent to the MLG wheel wells for evidence of heat (discoloration or variation in surface temperature) at 15-minute intervals for the first hour of flight. Inspect hourly for the remainder of flight A6.3.13. PCIU Failure. To allow data recovery after a PCIU failure, attempt to replace the PCIU prior to AMC power down. If the PCIU is not replaced prior to power down, the AMC will store all data except the .dat files created for that flight (i.e. aircraft form entries). A6.3.13.1. Operations with a failed PCIU result in the loss of or inability to auto generate AFTO form 781A entries. When operating with a failed PCIU, the MFDU should be used as a reference to ensure accurate manual documentation of all AFTO form 781A entries. The flight summary report can be printed and taken to debrief if required. A6.3.13.2. During operations with a failed PCIU the FE shall annotate in the aircraft forms, all Thrust Reverser deployments including airspeed/groundspeed at time of deployment. For example; Engine 1, 2, 3, and 4 TRs deployed on landing airspeed 110 knots. If deployment is during ground operations, indicate engine operation at or above idle. For example #1 Eng. TR deployed for op ck, ground speed 0, throttle at idle. A6.3.13.3. The EDS Aircraft Structural Integrity Program is not fully functional with a failed PCIU. Use the AF IMT 4097 for all flights with a failed PCIU. A6.3.14. AMC Failure. Operations with a failed AMC will be held to a minimum. A6.3.14.1. During operations with a failed AMC the FE shall annotate in the aircraft forms, all Thrust Reverser deployments including airspeed/groundspeed at time of deployment. For example; Engine 2 and 3 TRs deployed on descent airspeed 230 knots. If deployment is during ground operations, indicate engine operation at or above idle. For example #1 and #4 Eng. TR deployed for op ck, ground speed 0, engine throttles idle. A6.3.14.2. The EDS Aircraft Structural Integrity Program is not fully functional with a failed AMC. Use the AF IMT 4097 for all flights with a failed AMC. A6.3.14.3. RMM Failure. If the RMM card fails prior to data download, attempt to replace the card prior to power down of the EDS and PCIU. If replacement is not practical all AFTO form 781A entries, TLDs, and exceedances must be reviewed and entered in the aircraft forms as appropriate.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

107

A6.3.15. Runway, Taxiway, and Airfield Requirements. In all cases ensure obstacle clearance requirements are met. Computed landing distance will not exceed runway available. A6.3.15.1. Runway Length for Takeoff/Intersection Takeoffs. Normally, takeoffs will be initiated from the beginning of the approved usable portion of the runway. Decision to make intersection takeoffs rests solely with the AC. Intersection takeoffs may be accomplished provided the operating environment (i.e. gross weight, obstructions, climb criteria, weather, etc.) will allow safe takeoff and departure. When less than the entire runway is used, takeoff and landing data (TOLD) card computations will be based on actual runway remaining from the point at which takeoff is initiated. A6.3.16. Arresting Cables. A6.3.16.1. Do not land on (touchdown on) approach end arresting cables (does not include recessed cables). If the aircraft lands before the cable, the crew should contact the tower to have the cable inspected. A6.3.16.2. Do not takeoff or land over an approach end cable that has been reported as slack, loose, or improperly rigged by NOTAM, automated terminal information service (ATIS), or ATC. A6.3.17. Aircraft Recovery from Unprepared Surfaces. Aircrews will not normally attempt to recover an aircraft after inadvertent entry onto unprepared surfaces not suitable for taxi; ground crews will accomplish aircraft recovery. A6.3.18. MA-1 Portable Oxygen Bottles. Ensure a minimum of two unmodified/modified2 bottles are installed on the aircraft. During preflight, ensure at least one unmodified/modified2 bottle is placed on the flight deck, forward of the #1 escape hatch and one unmodified/modified2 bottle is placed in the center of the cargo compartment. In the event that the crew consists of loadmasters, the aircraft commander should ensure a minimum of four unmodified/modified2 bottles are installed on the aircraft. A6.4. Instrument Procedures. A6.4.1. Aircraft Category. The C-5 is approach Category D. If approach speed exceeds 165 knots, the minimums for Category E will be used. A6.4.2. Data Insertion. Another pilot will verify flight plan or waypoint data inserted into the FMS/MCDU. Check the coordinate information and/or the distances between waypoints against the route of flight. A6.4.3. Use of Automation. A6.4.3.1. In flight, the PF will determine the most desirable level of automation for the given situation. However, the PIC still has the ultimate responsibility and authority for the safe operation of the aircraft. A6.4.3.2. One pilot should always remain heads up. One technique is to announce ―pilot heads down‖ or ―copilot heads down‖ when the task requires focusing significant attention on the FMS/MCDU in flight. A6.4.3.3. Extensive programming of the FMS/MCDU below 10,000 feet and during critical phases of flight should be avoided, especially during times of increased workload.

108

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A6.4.3.4. To maximize situational awareness, the PF should verbalize automation mode and level changes to the crew. Confirm inputs by observing the desired result. A6.4.3.5. Any system which increases situational awareness, such as EGPWS, TCAS or WX radar, should be operated by the PM at the direction of the PF. A6.4.4. Avionics Operations. A6.4.4.1. Normally the PM will make MCDU inputs, especially at low altitudes (e.g. below 10,000 feet). Changes which alter the flight path should be verified by the PF prior to execution. A6.4.4.2. AFCS operation is governed by the autopilot status with consideration given to aircraft altitude. A6.4.4.2.1. With the autopilot engaged, the PF should make all changes to AFCS modes and settings, unless directed otherwise by the PF. A6.4.4.2.2. With the autopilot disengaged, the PM should make all AFCS inputs at the direction of the PF. However, when receiving ATC vectors or altitude change clearances, the PM should set assigned headings or set the new altitude and await the PF‘s instructions to engage HDG SEL mode or a vertical mode. A6.4.5. The following standard terminology will be used: A6.4.5.1. SELECT, SET or ENGAGE directs the selection of a value and/or a mode on the AFCS panel which results in the value being placed in the ―engaged‖ (top green) portion of the FMA. SELECT or SET is normally used with rotary knobs, however ENGAGE is acceptable. A6.4.5.2. ARM directs the selection of a mode on the AFCS panel which results in the value being in the ―armed‖ (bottom, cyan) portion of an FMA. A6.4.5.3. ENGAGE should be used to request autopilot or autothrottle engagement. A6.4.5.4. UP or DOWN should be used to indicate a change in vertical speed. A6.4.5.5. EXECUTE should be used by the PF to indicate agreement with a programmed change to the flight path. A6.4.5.6. PRESET or PRESELECT should be used to change an AFCS value without changing the engaged or armed mode. A6.4.6. Autopilot and Auto-throttle Use. C-5M auto-throttles are approved for use during climb, cruise, descent, and approach. A6.4.6.1. The autopilot will be disconnected no later than DH, departing the MDA, or 300' for visual approaches. A6.4.6.2. The auto-throttles will be disconnected no later than DH or 100' at all other times.

A6.5. Operational Procedures and Restrictions. A6.5.1. Passenger Procedures. The aircraft commander has the discretion to release seats for passenger accommodations. Passengers can be carried on the flight station (jump seat or navigator‘s seat), in the relief crew area, or in the courier compartment. Any additional

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

109

members on the aircraft must have an oxygen source and a seat/seat belt for all phases of flight and ground operations. One additional current and qualified C-5 crewmember must be on board when carrying passengers other than on the flight deck. This crewmember will perform only passenger-related duties. Passengers will not normally be carried in the troop compartment. If passengers are carried in the troop compartment, obtain qualified loadmasters and reference AMC guidance contained in AFI 11-2C-5, Volume 3 for any specific requirements. A6.5.2. Cargo procedures. Cargo will not normally be carried. If cargo is carried, obtain qualified loadmasters and reference AMC guidance contained in AFI 11-2C-5, Volume 3 for any specific requirements. Parachute racks, survival equipment and a single B-1 stand are not considered cargo. Ballast for SCM-modified aircraft is not considered cargo. Small items capable of being hand-carried up the crew entrance ladder are also not considered cargo. A6.5.3. Wind Restrictions. Airfields will be considered below minimums for takeoff and landing when winds (including gusts) are greater than: Maximum wind (any direction)—50 knots; Maximum tailwind component—10 knots; Maximum crosswind components, corrected for RCR, are specified in TO 1C-5M-1-1. A6.5.4. Prohibited Maneuvers. The following maneuvers are prohibited in the aircraft unless they are part of an approved test plan or aircraft recovery plan: A6.5.4.1. Simulated/actual engine out takeoffs. A6.5.4.2. Aborted takeoffs. A6.5.4.3. Two engine out landings and missed approaches. A6.5.4.4. Stop and go landings. A6.5.4.5. No slat landings (unless associated with no-flap landings). A6.5.4.6. Full stalls. A6.5.4.7. Dutch rolls. A6.5.4.8. Unusual attitudes / spatial disorientation training. A6.5.4.9. Simulated runaway pitch trim malfunctions. A6.5.5. Training Restrictions. A6.5.5.1. No Flap Landing. Perform no flap landings to a full stop only. Maximum crosswind component will not exceed 15 knots. Limit gross weight to 525,000 lbs. or less. A6.5.5.2. Stallimeter Training. All practice approach to shaker onset/audible warning must be done in day, VMC only conditions at an altitude greater than 10,000 ft. AGL with an instructor pilot in the left or right seat. A6.5.5.2.1. For practice approach to shaker onset, recover the airplane at shaker onset or the lowest acceptable computed shaker onset airspeed, whichever occurs first.

110

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A6.5.5.2.2. For practice approach to audible warning, recover the airplane at audible warning or the highest acceptable computed audible warning AOA, whichever occurs first.

Table A6.2. Additional Training Restrictions. MANEUVER Simulated Engine Failures

RESTRICTIONS Initiate above 500 ft. AGL

Go Around/Missed Approach (4 engine) Go Around/Missed Approach (3 engine) Touch and Go

Initiate above 100 ft. AGL Initiate above 200 ft. AGL 7000 ft. runway length, 150 ft. width,

REMARKS Do not initiate at less than 2 engine Vmca or 125 KIAS, whichever is higher. Do not practice when any actual emergency exists or during no flap landings. Simulate the use of ―MIN Q.‖ Use all engines for unplanned go arounds below 200 ft. AGL

A6.5.6. Equipment Limitations. A6.5.6.1. Objective. Redundant systems may allow crews to safely perform some missions when a component/system is degraded. The Pilot in Command (PIC) is the final authority in determining the overall suitability of an aircraft for the mission. The PIC will ensure a detailed explanation of the discrepancy is entered in the AFTO Form 781A, Maintenance Discrepancy and Work Document; include the following maintenance identifiers to effectively communicate aircraft status: A6.5.6.1.1. Mission Essential (ME). The PIC will designate an item, system, or subsystem component essential for safe aircraft operation or mission completion as ME. A6.5.6.1.2. Mission Contributing (MC). The PIC will designate an item, system, or subsystem component, which is not currently essential for safe aircraft operation as MC. These discrepancies should be cleared at the earliest opportunity. If circumstances change or mission safety would be compromised, re-designate as ME. Do not delay a mission to clear a MC discrepancy. A6.5.6.1.3. Open Item (OI). The PIC will designate discrepancies not expected to adversely impact the current mission or any subsequent mission as an OI. These items are normally cleared at home station. A6.5.6.1.4. Time Limited Dispatch (TLD). TLD level A faults are ME. TLD level B and level C are initially designated OI. Level B and level C conditions are designated ME at repair capable facilities when time remaining is insufficient for mission completion. Designate level D faults as OI. TLD limits are contained in T.O. 1C-5M1. TLD faults that display a NOT ACTIVE status are still considered real faults because the condition which triggered the fault may not always be present. A6.5.6.2. Minimum Equipment List (MEL) Guidance. Command operating guidelines list the equipment and systems normally considered essential for routine, non-FCF

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

111

operations. This list is not inclusive of all equipment or systems essential to airworthiness. The aircraft commander is the approving authority for operations with degraded equipment and needs no further approval. This section provides guidance on how to operate with inoperative/degraded equipment. The Minimum Equipment List (MEL) shall not direct deviation from the aircraft flight manual limitations, emergency procedures or USAF/AFMC directives. A PIC who accepted an aircraft with degraded equipment/systems is not committed to subsequent operations with the same degraded equipment. PICs are not committed to operations with degraded equipment accepted by another PIC. If, after exploring all options, the aircraft commander determines that a safe flight is possible with an item listed below inoperative (beyond the scope listed here) a waiver shall be requested through channels to AFMC/A3V. Phone or e-mail methods are appropriate. Any inoperative item not covered in this publication shall be assessed by the aircraft commander and crew. If a safe flight can be accomplished, no further action is necessary. Exceptions for degraded operations is not intended for continued operations over an indefinite period with systems/subsystems inoperative. A6.5.6.2.1. The PIC shall account for the possibility of additional failures during continued operation with inoperative systems or components. A6.5.6.2.2. All emergency equipment will normally be installed, unless specifically exempted by mission requirements/directives. See Table A6.17 for equipment required for Depot input. A6.5.6.2.3. MEL Table Definitions. MEL tables are arranged by aircraft system to provide the PIC a mechanism to determine minimum system requirements. An asterisk (*) indicates the number required is situation dependent; refer to remarks/limitations/exceptions column for clarification. A6.5.6.2.4. Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions. Some technical information and procedures are contained in this column. This is not all-inclusive; crewmembers shall refer to the flight manual and other directives for procedures, techniques, limitations, etc. Table A6.3. Engines/Auxiliary Power Units (APU) (C-5M). Engines/Auxiliary Power Units (APU) C-5M. Item/System

Installed Required Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions

Engine Fire Detection System

Engine Fire Extinguishing System

2/eng

1/eng

Fire Detection Control Box shall be operative. One loop per engine may be inoperative provided that all segments of the parallel loop are operative.

112

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

b. Fire Extinguisher Bottle

2/eng

2/eng

c. Fire Extinguisher Discharge Button

4

4

d. Fire Extinguisher Bottle Select Switch

2

2

Thrust Reverser

4

2

Starter Air Valve

4

2

Auxiliary Power Unit (APU)

2

1

APU Isolation Valve

2

1

APU Fire Warning System

2

1

APU Fire Bottle

2

1

APU Start Battery Control Electronic Module (BCEM)

1

*

Shall be capable of firing bottles.

If either or both inboard TRs are deactivated, be familiar with 1C-5M-1, Section 2, Rapid Descent without TRs. One SAV may be electrically inoperative per wing. Refer to T.O. 1C-5M-1, Section 2 for single APU operation. If the valve is failed open, the associated APU bleed valve and both wing isolation valves shall be operative If either channel in the dual sensing loop is operative, the respective fire warning system shall be considered operational. For ground operations, do not operate APU and associated ATM with inoperative fire warning unless a fire guard is present. For ground operations, do not operate affected APU and associated ATM unless a fire guard is present. Place the APU Battery Charger Switch to BYP.

Table A6.4. Bleed Air, Environmental, Etc. Bleed Air, Environmental, Etc. Systems (Table A6.4. C-5M) Item/System

Installed

Required Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions

Air Conditioning Pack

2

1

Floor heat shall be operational. Fuel plan for cruise at less than 10,000 MSL.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

113

Air Conditioning Master Switch

1

1

Shall have control of air conditioning packs.

Air Conditioning Overheat Light

2

1

Required for each operating pack.

Air Conditioning Overheat Sensor

2

1

Required for each operating pack.

Flight Station Temp Control Valve

1

1

Relief Compartment Temp Control Valve

1

1

Cargo Compartment Temp Control Valve

1

1

Troop Compartment Temp Control Valve

1

1

1

1

Cooling Air Exit Door

2

1

Cooling Fan

2

1

2

1

Troop Compartment Shutoff Valve

Cooling Fan Control Valve

Auto mode may be inoperative provided temp control valve can be controlled in manual mode, or positioned using tools. Auto mode may be inoperative provided temp control valve can be controlled in manual mode, or positioned using tools. Auto mode may be inoperative provided temp control valve can be controlled in manual mode, or positioned using tools. Auto mode may be inoperative provided temp control valve can be controlled in manual mode, or positioned using tools. If compartment is unoccupied, valve will be closed. May be electrically inoperative, provided control valve can be positioned using tools. Door shall be installed. If the door is stuck closed, do not operate the affected A/C below .3 Mach, or with slats extended, or when the aircraft is on the ground. If the door is stuck open, do not plan flight above FL 280. Do not operate the affected system on the ground, or with slats extended, or below .3 Mach. If valve failed closed, do not operate the affected system on the ground, or with slats extended, or below .3 Mach.

114

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

Primary Heat Exchanger High Limit Sensor Primary Heat Exchanger Temp Control Sensor

2

1

Required for each operating pack.

2

1

Required for each operating pack.

Flow Control Valve (FCV)

2

1

Required for each operating pack.

Low Limit Temperature Control Sensor

2

1

Low Limit Temperature Control Valve

2

1

Diverter Valve

1

0

Aux Vent Valve

1

1

Bleed Air Overheat and Warning System (BAOWS)

7

7

If possible, install operative sensor in the left system. If possible, install operative components in the left system. May be electrically inoperative provided it can be positioned using tools. May be electrically inoperative provided it can be positioned using tools. One-time flight to repair capable facility. If either channel in the dual sensing loop is operative, the respective overheat system shall be considered operational.

Pylon Shutoff Valve (PSOV)

4

4

Valve must be fully operational for starting.

b. Pressure Regulator Shutoff Valve (PRSOV) c. High Pressure Regulator Shutoff Valve (HPSOV) d. Fan Air Modulating Valve (FAMV)

4

2

One may be failed per wing

4

2

One may be failed closed per wing.

4

2

May be failed in the open position.

Air Management System Control (AMSC)

2

1

Operative unit should be installed in the right-hand system. MAJCOM Stan/Eval approval required for a single flight (not to exceed 10,000 ft. MSL) to a repair capable facility.

Manifold Bleed Air Pressure Indicator

1

1

Wing Isolation Valve

2

1

Engine Bleed Air System

Cabin Pressure Control System (CPCS)

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

115

Table A6.5. Hydraulics (C-5M). Hydraulics (Tale A6.5. C-5M) Item/System

Installed

Required Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions

1-2 PTU

1

0

2-3 PTU

1

0

3-4 PTU

1

0

Flight Engineer Hydraulic Pressure Gauge

4

Hydraulic Boost Press Low Light

Hydraulic Pressure Gauge (Direct Reading)

4

4

May be inoperative provided the 12 and 3-4 PTUs, and #2 and #3 engine-driven pumps (all) are operative. May be inoperative provided #4 ATM and #3 & #4 engine-driven pumps (all) are operative.

2

Direct reading gauge shall be operative and periodically monitored. Associated PRESS LOW lights shall be operative. Two inoperative gauges requires one-time flight to repair capable facility.

3

Sight gauge shall be monitored periodically. Associated flight engineer hydraulic pressure gauge and BOOST PRESS LOW light shall be operative.

Flight Engineer Hydraulic Quantity Indicator 4

May be inoperative provided #1 ATM and #1 & #2 engine-driven pumps (all) are operative.

2

3

Monitor/scan associated system(s). One light inoperative requires repair at next repair capable facility. Two lights inoperative requires a one-time flight to a repair capable facility. Associated flight engineer hydraulic pressure gauge shall be operative.

116

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

Hydraulic Pump Press Low Light

8

6

Hydraulic Suction Boost Pump

4

2

RAT

1

1

Associated flight engineer hydraulic pressure gauge shall be operative. Depress unaffected hydraulic pump. No more than one light on each non-adjacent engine may be inoperative. Check applicable hydraulic service center filters for popped button. If button is popped all system filters must be checked for contamination. #1 and #4 may be inoperative if the respective electrical suction boost pump is operative. If #2 or #3 boost pump fails, swapping the failed boost pump with either #1 or #4 is permissible provided no contamination is present.

Table A6.6. Landing Gear (C-5M). Landing Gear (Table A6.6. C-5M) Item/System

Installed

Required Remarks/Limitations/ Exceptions Operation with less than all anti- skid components operative is an emergency procedure and shall be IAW the flight manual. If inoperative MAJCOM Stan/Eval approval required for one-time flight to a repair capable facility.

Anti-Skid System

a. Anti-Skid Off Light

1

1

b. Brakes Light

1

1

c. No Brakes Light

1

1

d. DET Fail Light

1

1

Normal Brake System

1

1

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

117

a. Normal Brake Pressure Indicator

1

0

Alternate Brake System

1

1

Emergency Brake System

1

1

a. MLG Free Lights

2

*

2/mlg

*

Emergency MLG Extension Accumulator

2

1

MLG Secondary Strut (deflated)

4

3

EMER HYD brake pressure light shall be operative. Alternate brake pressure indicator and flight engineer’s #4 hydraulic pressure gauge shall be operative. Select alternate brakes for landing. If normal brakes are required for landing, perform a Brake System Check (In-flight). Shall be repaired at next repair capable facility.

Mission dictates requirement. If inoperative, copilot shall monitor position indicators. If lights are inoperative, do not accomplish kneeling operations.

Landing Gear Warning System

MLG Inspection Light

Mission dictates requirement. One per MLG should be operative for night operations. One-time flight with affected gear (2) down to nearest repair capable facility. One-time flight to repair capable facility. Limit landing sink rate to 6 FPS (360 Ft/Min) or less.

A6.5.6.3. Landing Gear. A6.5.6.3.1. Gear Down Flight Operations. Limit gear down flight operations to sorties required to move the aircraft to the nearest repair capable facility. Consider gear down flight only after the PIC exhausts all avenues to repair the aircraft in place. A6.5.6.3.1.1. Standard climb-out flight path charts in T.O. 1C-5M-1-1 do not account for a gear-down configuration. Therefore, PICs shall not takeoff until there is reasonable assurance that they will achieve/maintain adequate obstacle clearance (to include en route stops and alternates). A6.5.6.3.1.2. AFMC/A3V waiver approval is not required for gear down flights. However, aircrew will consider potential aircraft and flight considerations, take off and landing data (TOLD) calculations, along with proper aircraft documentation prior to known gear down flights. If the airplane is on a red X for a

118

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 gear malfunction the airplane home station MXG/CC must downgrade the red X per T.O. 00-20-1 prior to flight. A6.5.6.3.1.3. Local Training Missions. Local missions will not be planned gear down. When in-flight malfunctions prohibit gear retraction (except MLG rotational malfunctions), the local may continue after the cause of malfunction has been identified and the AC and maintenance supervisor concur. Do not exceed 200 KCAS/M.60. A6.5.6.3.1.4. Gear Down Flight Procedures. A6.5.6.3.1.4.1. Refer to Variant Configuration Fuel Planning T.O. 1C-5M-11 for Gear Down Flight fuel planning. A6.5.6.3.1.4.2. Plan to not exceed 200 KCAS/M.60 to help prevent APU servicing door and gear door damage. When range is a factor, fly an airspeed that yields the maximum range; do not exceed 250 KCAS/M.60. A6.5.6.3.1.4.3. For planned gear down flight, the affected gear shall be pinned. The APU servicing door panel will be speed taped upon completion of the aircrew inspection and prior to flight. Taping may help prevent loss of the door panel. Only the door panel on the appropriate side requires speed tape. A6.5.6.3.1.4.4. After each gear down flight segment conduct a visual inspection. The MLG inspection will include affected gear-well area, LN2 servicing panel (if applicable), and doors. NLG inspection will include gearwell area, doors, folding bulkhead door, actuators, and brackets. This inspection may be accomplished by the flight engineer. A6.5.6.3.2. Operation with partial brakes. Limit operations with partial brakes only when necessary to recover the aircraft to a station that has confirmed repair capability. Any operations requiring more than one leg shall be coordinated with an AFMC/A3V waiver.

Table A6.7. C-5M Flight Controls (C-5M). FLIGHT CONTROLS (Table A6.7. C-5M) Item/System

Installed

Required Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions

AILERONS a. Aileron Actuator b. Aileron Trim Actuator ELEVATORS

2/wing 2

2/wing 1

Aileron shall be centered prior to flight. Shall be repaired at next repair capable facility.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

119

a. Inboard Elevator Actuator

2/control surface

2/control surface

b. Outboard Elevator Actuator

3/control surface

3/control surface

Horizontal Stabilizer Pitch Trim a. Normal Pitch Trim

1

0

Alternate and manual trim shall be operative. One-time flight to nearest repair capable facility.

b. Alternate Pitch Trim

1

0

Normal and manual trim shall be operative. One-time flight to nearest repair capable facility.

c. Manual Pitch Trim

1

1

d. Trim Disconnect Switch

2

2

e. Horizontal Stabilizer Trim Position Indicator

1

1

4

4

RUDDERS a. Rudder Actuator

b. Rudder Limiter

1

0

c. Rudder Trim

1

0

a. Flap Slat Asymmetry System

1

1

b. Slats

14

14

MIN Q position shall be operative and selected to assure full rudder travel is available. Shall be repaired at next repair capable facility. Yaw Aug Man Trim shall be operative. Shall be repaired at next repair capable facility.

FLAPS AND SLATS

Refer to flight manual Section 5.

120

c. Slat Position Indicator

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

1

0

a. Flight Spoilers

10

10

b. Ground Spoilers

8

8

a. AUG Power Switch

1

1

Automatic Flight Control System a. AFCS Power Switch

1

1

b. Autopilot

2

*

Flap indicator shall be operative. Scan slats to verify position. If the PCIU is operative, use the associated EDS test points to determine slat position in addition to a visual scan. If the slats are retracted, the slat position indicator circuit breaker for the malfunctioning side may be opened to remove the maximum safe airspeed indicator and normal airspeed may be resumed. The associate air conditioning pack will default to low flow. Shall be repaired at next repair capable facility.

SPOILERS

Flight Control Hydraulic System Off Light/Pressure Switch

Mission dictates requirement. Pitch autopilot required for flights through RVSM airspace. Note: Autopilot system is operative with one VIA/AIU subsystem/LRU disabled IAW the FE preflight procedure. * Outbd Elevator Check the affected system for proper 2/flight control operation prior to flight. All others 1/flight control

Outbd Elevator 3/flight control All others 2/flight control Flight Control Hydraulic Power Outbd * Outbd Elevator Verify valve is open prior to takeoff. Shutoff Valve Elevator 2/flight control Shall be repaired at next repair 3/flight All others 1/flight capable facility. control control All others 2/flight control

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

121

A6.5.6.4. SLATS INOPERATIVE. Slats retracted flight operations will be limited to those sorties required to move the aircraft to the nearest repair capable facility. Slats retracted flight should only be considered after reasonable efforts to repair the aircraft have been attempted. AFMC/A3V waiver approval is not required provided the airplane is being flown (slats retracted with flap system operational) to a repair capable facility. If the airplane is on a red X for a slat malfunction the applicable MXG/CC must downgrade the red X per T.O. 00-20-1 prior to flight. A6.5.6.4.1. Slats extended flight operations: Refer to T.O. 1C-5M-1, Section 5, LIMITATIONS FOR CRUISE OPERATIONS WITH FLAPS UP – SLATS EXTENDED. Table A6.8. Fuel Systems (C-5M). FUEL SYSTEMS (Table A6.8. C-5M) Item/System

Installed

Required Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions Open affected pump circuit breaker. Crossfeed and isolation valves shall be operative. Mission dictates requirement. One pump per tank may be inoperative if tank contains/will contain fuel. Both pumps may be inoperative if tank does not/will not contain fuel. Open affected pump(s) circuit breaker(s). Mission dictates requirement. One pump per tank may be inoperative if tank contains/will contain fuel. Both pumps may be inoperative if tank does not/will not contain fuel. Open affected pump(s) circuit breaker(s).

Main Tank Boost Pump

2/Tank

1/Tank

Auxiliary Tank Boost Pump

2/Tank

*

Extended Range Tank Boost Pump

2/Tank

*

4

3

Both boost pumps shall be operative. Place both boost pumps on. Shall be repaired at next repair capable facility.

2

1

One valve may be failed closed if all separation valves are operative.

Main Tank Press Low Light

Fuel Jettison Valve

122

Main Tank Fill Valve

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

4

3

4

*

4

*

Isolation Valve

4

3

Separation Valve

3

2

Aux Tank Refuel Valve

Extended Range Tank Refuel Valve

Crossfeed Valve

2

1

Ground Refuel Isolation Valve

2

1

Manifold Press Low Light

4

2

Fuel Manifold Pressure Indicator

2

1

One valve may be failed open. Control fuel level with associated aux/ext range tank boost pumps. Shall be repaired at next repair capable facility. Mission dictates requirement. Valves may be failed closed if the tank is not/will not be needed for fuel. Mission dictates requirement. Valves may be failed closed if the tank is not/will be needed for fuel. One valve may be failed closed. Respective crossfeed valve shall be operative. Shall be repaired at next repair capable facility. Center separation valve may be failed closed if both aerial refuel isolation valves are operative. Outboard separation valves may be failed closed if the respective Isolation and crossfeed valves are operative. One valve may be failed closed; respective isolation valves and outboard separation valve shall be operative. Shall be repaired at next repair capable facility. Inboard lights may be inoperative provided the associated manifold pressure gauge is operative. Both shall be operative for planned aerial refueling. Separation valves and manifold press low lights shall be operative.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

Sump Low Warning

123

2

0

4

3

b. Auxiliary Tank Fuel Quantity Indicator

4

*

c. Extended Range Tank Fuel Quantity Indicator

4

The system shall be made safe prior to flight. Both associated outboard main tank boost pumps shall be operative. Place both main tank boost pumps on. Refer to Section 3 of the flight manual. Shall be repaired at next repair capable facility. Do not launch with more than one inoperative fuel quantity indicator per wing. Symmetrically opposite indicator shall be operative. No more than one indicator may be inoperative.

Fuel Quantity Indicators a. Main Tank Fuel Quantity Indicator

Inoperative/malfunctioning system shall be made safe prior to flight. Refer to the flight manual Section 3.

*

Table A6.9. Electrics (C-5M). ELECTRICS (Table A6.9. C-5M) Item/System

Installed

Required Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions One may be inoperative per wing provided the ACXTR is operative. Generator shall be operative on engine with inoperative BTR.

Bus Tie Relay (BTR)

4

2

APU Power Relay (APR)

1

1

AC Load Meter

4

2

One may be inoperative per wing.

Generator Out Light

4

2

Shall be operative for each working generator.

Bus Tie Open Light

4

4

Aircraft Battery

1

1

a. Aircraft Battery Switch

1

1

OFF and BYP positions shall be operative.

124

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

b. Battery Charger Electronics Module (BCEM)

1

0

600 Amp Current Limiter

1

1

Regulated Transformer Rectifier Unit (RTRU)

2

1

Isolated Bus Switch

1

1

DC Load Meter

2

1

Emergency Generator System

1

1

Emergency Bus Power Relay (EBPR)

1

1

If inoperative place the battery switch to BYP. Shall be repaired at next repair capable facility. 750 Amp current limiter shall be operative. One-time flight to nearest repair capable facility. Shall be operative for each operable RTRU.

Exterior Lighting *

Table A6.10. Instruments (C-5M). INSTRUMENTS (Table A6.10. C-5M) Item/System

Installed Required Remarks/Limitations/Exception s When one SCADC is replaced and

Standard Central Air Data Computer (SCADC)

2

2

test equipment is not available or the mission dictates, and the pitot static system has not been disturbed, a leak check may be deferred. Cross-check pilot and copilot airspeed indicators at 80 knots on takeoff roll. Abort the takeoff if airspeed differs by five knots or more. Exception: Maintenance leak and accuracy checks are required before flights in RVSM airspace.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

125

12

12

1

1

a. SCADC drain bottles

Magnetic Compass

If any portion of the colored indicator float ball is at or above the beveled edge of the bottle(s), specified bottle(s) should be drained. If test equipment is not available or the mission dictates a leak check may be deferred. Crosscheck pilot and copilot airspeed indicators at 80 knots on takeoff roll. Abort the takeoff if airspeed differs by five knots or more. Exception: Maintenance leak and accuracy checks are required before flights in RVSM airspace.

Multifunction Display Units (MFDU) a. Pilots Station

6

4

b. Flight Engineer Station

1

1

a. Cursor Control Device (CCD)

2

1

b. Cursor Control Panel (CCP)

1

1

Operable units shall be installed in pilot’s left, pilot’s center, copilot’s left and copilot’s center positions. Operable unit may be taken from pilot’s or copilot’s right position.

MFDU Controls Cross-side function shall be operational. Operable CCD shall be installed on pilot’s side. Onetime flight to repair capable facility.

Multifunction Control Display Unit (MCDU) a. Pilot

1

0

b. Copilot

1

1

c. Observer

1

0

Copilots and observers MCDU shall be operational. Circuit breaker for inoperative MCDU shall be pulled. Pilots and copilots MCDU shall be operational. Circuit breaker for inoperative MCDU shall be pulled.

126

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

Table A6.11. Avionics (C-5M). AVIONICS (Table A6.11. C-5M) Item/System

Installed

Required Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions BIP shall be operational. Circuit breakers for associated VIA and AIU shall be pulled for flight. If C/B for VIA/AIU 1 is pulled, the VIA/AIU Alt power switch shall be placed to ALT for flight. Refer to Section 3 VIA/AIU Failures. One-time flight to nearest repair capable facility. BIP shall be operational. Circuit breakers for associated VIA and AIU shall be pulled for flight. If C/B for VIA/AIU 1 is pulled, the VIA/AIU Alt power switch shall be placed to ALT for flight. Refer to Section 3 VIA/AIU Failures. One-time flight to nearest repair capable facility.

Versatile Integrated Avionics (VIA)

2

1

Avionics Interface Unit (AIU)

2

1

VIA/AIU Alternate Power Switch

1

1

Bus Subsystem Interface Unit (BSIU)

2

2

Communication Navigation Panel (CNP)

2

1

If possible place the operative CNP in the pilot’s position. MCDUs shall be operable.

Multi-Mode Receiver (MMR)

2

1

Two required for CAT II ILS approaches

V/UHF Radio

2

1

Operational radio shall be placed in the #1 position.

UHF #3

1

1

2

1

1

1

Three sources of attitude required (1 EGI, MIRS and SAI). Shall be repaired at next repair capable facility. GPS function may be inoperative. Mode 3A and C shall be operative.

a. Mode S

1

*

Mission dictates requirement.

Flight Management System (FMS)

2

1

Refer to Unable RNP Procedures.

Embedded Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System (EGI) IFF

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 Standby Attitude Indicator (SAI)

127

1

0

1

1

Navigation Database

Interphone System

Both EGIs and the MIRs shall be operational. Line missions – Shall be repaired at next repair capable facility. The aircraft must always have a database loaded. May not depart any location with database loading capabilities with an expired database. Note: The PIC may request loading of the next period’s database if the current database will expire prior to reaching a database capable location. Comply with AFI 11-202V3. Shall be able to communicate with all occupied positions.

a. Cockpit Loudspeaker

3

1

b. Microphone Switch (Yoke)

2

1

Shall be repaired at next repair capable facility.

a. Troop Compartment PA Avionics Equipment Cooling System a. Avionics Cooling Fan

1

*

Shall be operative when carrying passengers unless other means of communication is available (i.e., bullhorn).

2

1

Shall be repaired at next repair capable facility.

b. Flight Engineer’s Panel Fan Fail Light c. Flight Engineer’s Panel Fan d. EPC Equipment Rack Fan

1

1

Periodically check fan in-flight.

1

1

2

1

e. AC Load Center Equipment Fan

1

0

1

0

Radar Altimeter

2

1

Weather Radar

1

*

f. A-41 Rack Fan

Refer to Section 3 for ground operating limits. Periodically scan courier compartment. Shall be repaired at next repair capable facility. Refer to flight manual Section 3 for ground operating limits. Periodically scan A-41 rack in-flight. One- time flight to repair facility. Refer to flight manual Section 3. The operative radar altimeter must be selected to the PFD of the pilot controlling the AFCS. Shall be operative for all flights into areas of known or forecast thunderstorms.

128

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

Table A6.12. Recording and Emergency Location (C-5M). RECORDING , EMERGENCY LOCATION, and EDS (Table A6.12. C-5M) Item/System

Installed

Required Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions

Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT)

Remote Interface Unit (RIU) Bus Adapter Unit (BAU)

1

1

6

3

2

1

May be inoperative for local airland flights at or in the vicinity of home station. FIR shall be operative. Operative RIUs shall be placed in odd numbered positions. Place operative even RIUs in the following sequence: 6, 2, 4. Refer to flight manual Section 3. Operative BAU shall be placed in the right hand (#2) position. Shall be repaired at next repair capable facility.

Table A6.13. Oxygen System (C-5M). OXYGEN SYSTEM (Table A6.13. C-5M) Item/System

Installed

Required Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions

Oxygen Shut-off Valve Flight Crew Oxygen Regulator Continuous Flow Oxygen Regulator

Oxygen Warning System

1

1

5

3

2

2

1

Table A6.14. Warning Systems (C-5M). WARNING SYSTEMS (Table A6.14. C-5M)

1

P, CP, and FE positions shall be operative. Navigator and Observer position shall be operative if occupied.

Not required for flights below 10,000 ft. MSL. If passengers are on board, and the oxygen warning system is inoperative, the flight is limited to 10,000 ft. MSL. If flight above 10,000 ft. MSL is required, the crew shall be on oxygen. Shall be repaired at next repair capable facility.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 Item/System

129

Installed

Required Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions

Stallimiter System

2

1

One fully functioning system required for all departures.

a. Visor

25

25

If all flight manual Section 3 criteria are met, one lock may be in bypass.

c. Crew Entrance Door

1

1

j. Center Cargo Door

2

2

k. Ramp to Pressure Door

4

2

Door Warning System (Lock Status Lights)

Outboard lights may be inoperative provided the door is verified closed and locked.

Table A6.15. Fire Suppression System (FSS) (C-5M). FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEM (FSS) (Table A6.15. C-5M) Item/System

Installed

Required Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions

DEWARS

2

1

FSS system functions shall be operative. Some malfunctions may require the dewar to be drained. Shall be capable of fire warning and discharge. Exception: Discharge capability is N/A when LN2 is depleted and no servicing capability exists. Shall be operative for each serviced dewar.

Nitrogen Fire Suppression Control Panel Isolation Valve

1

1

2

*

Outboard Main Tank ∆P Switch

2

0

Do not pressurize wings (vent wings). Shall be repaired at next repair capable facility.

Overboard Relief Valves

2

1

Shall be operative for each serviced dewar.

Pressure Limiters

2

*

Shall be operative for each serviced dewar.

Primary Regulator

2

*

Shall be operative for each serviced dewar.

Secondary Pressure Regulator Vent Box Float Switch

2

*

Shall be operative for each serviced dewar.

2

2

130

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

Wing Pressure Warning System Liquid Nitrogen Service Panel

2

2

1

1

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

1

1

FSS Fire Detection

1

1

As long as safety-of-flight is not affected, some functions may be inoperative. Repair at next repair capable facility. Shall be capable of fire warning and discharge. Exception: Discharge capability is N/A when LN2 is depleted and no servicing capability exists.

Table A6.16. Emergency Equipment (C-5M). EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT (Table A6.16. C-5M) Item/System

Installed

Required Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions

Escape Slide/Exit

Escape Rope

5

*

8

*

Mission dictates requirement. The #5 service door slide/exit shall be operational. If troop compartment is occupied, #4 hatch and #6 service door slide/exits shall be operational. Limit troop compartment to 40 pax/crew when 3L and/or 3R troop compartment slide/exit is not operational. Mission dictates requirement. Three escape ropes shall be installed in the cargo compartment and one above the troop compartment ladder. Troop compartment exits, slides, and life rafts are not considered operative unless an escape rope is installed.

Fire Extinguishers

a. Aircraft with operative FE 1301 System

15

9

Minimum of 3 operative extinguishers per compartment (flight deck, cargo, troop). Shall be replaced/repaired at next repair capable facility.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

131

b. Aircraft with inoperative FE 1301 System

17

10

Crash Axe

3

2

Emergency Exit Light

12

*

FE 1301

20

0

Minimum of 3 operative extinguishers per compartment (flight deck, cargo, troop), plus 1 additional extinguisher of not less than 1-gallon in the cargo compartment. Shall be replaced/repaired at next repair capable facility. A minimum of one crash axe shall be available on the flight deck and one available in the troop. Required for all operative exits. An emergency exit light may be repaired by replacing (2) 327 bulbs if not charging. Troop compartment lights not required when compartment is unoccupied. May result in pax limitations. Bottles may be inoperative as long as detection system is operative. If inoperative 1 fire extinguisher of not less than 1-gallon shall be placed in the cargo compartment. If an additional fire extinguisher is not available, onetime flight to repair capable facility.

A6.5.7. Minimum Equipment for Depot input. Table A6.17. Minimum Equipment for Depot. Flight Station 1 Crash Axe 1 Fire Extinguishers 1 Pair of Fire Gloves 3 Oxygen Bottles(no mask(s)) 2 First Aid Kits 1 Observer Jump Seat Relief Crew Compartment 2 Fire Extinguisher 3 Oxygen bottles(no mask(s)) 2 Emergency exit lights 1 Service door restraint gate

5 5 5 5 1 2

Head Rests, 1 for each position Seat Cushions, 1 for each position Back Cushions, 1 for each positon Quick-Don w/goggles Flight Safety Harness/strap Emergency Exit Lights

1 1 2

Escape Slide No. 5 Service Door Three man Seat Two man seat

5 5

Fire Extinguishers Emergency exit lights

Courier Compartment 1 Oxygen bottles(no mask(s)) Troop compartment 1 Crash Axe 4 Oxygen bottles(no mask(s)) 1 Service door restraint gate

132

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 Cargo Compartment 6 8 2 3 10 10 10 10

Oxygen bottles(no mask(s)) Fire extinguishers First Aid Kits Emergency exit lights 10,000lb chains 25,000lb chains Small tie down devices Large tie down devices

10 2 2 5 1 1 4 4

Tie Down Straps 2 inch Kneeling collars 4 inch kneeling collars Landing gear pins kneeling pad extend pin NLG Strut Limiter Pallet Stops Chocks

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

133 Attachment 7

C-12 OPERATING PROCEDURES A7.1. General Information. This attachment, in conjunction with other governing directives, outlines procedures for operation of the C-12 aircraft under most circumstances. AFMC aircrews and all management levels concerned with operation of all C-12 aircraft must comply with the outlined requirements and consult AFMC/A3V for waivers to this attachment. Operations or procedures not specifically addressed may be accomplished if they enhance safe, effective mission accomplishment. A7.2. Mission Planning. A7.2.1. Briefing/Debriefing. A7.2.1.1. Conduct C-12 Paradrop mission briefings with a qualified jumpmaster. Begin briefings NLT 1 hour prior to scheduled takeoff. C-12J will not conduct actual Paradrop missions. A7.3. Common Mission Guidance. A7.3.1. Aircrew should avoid MC-12 taxi, takeoff, or landing over any ground obstruction or obstacle (arresting cable, tie down cable etc.). Damage may result due to low clearance of the L-3 faring. High-speed taxi over ground obstructions, obstacles, or cables is prohibited due to possible L-3 faring damage. A7.3.2. Taxi. Instructor pilots may run engines and taxi the aircraft, as a single pilot. A7.3.2.1. Reverse Taxi. A7.3.2.1.1. The pilot will coordinate reverse taxi directions and signals with the crew chief, marshaller or scanner (any qualified C-12 aircrew member). A7.3.2.1.2. The crew chief or scanner will be outside the aircraft and positioned to effectively direct the reverse taxi. A7.3.2.1.3. The reverse motion should be stopped using forward thrust before the brakes are applied in order to prevent the aircraft empennage from contacting the ground. A7.3.3. Takeoff/Landing Requirements. A7.3.3.1. Compute takeoff and landing data for all flights. OG/CC-approved tab data may be used when available. A7.3.3.1.1. Compute MC-12 takeoff and landing data utilizing section 5 of the FAA approved Pilot Operating Handbook (POH). Use Special Departure Procedures (SDP) to the maximum extent for MC-12 Maximum Takeoff Weight (MTOW) departures. A7.3.3.2. C-12 Minimum Runway Length. Runway available for takeoff must exceed Accelerate-Stop distance plus 500 ft., computed without reverse and corrected for RCR. On runways with a screen height requirement, runway available must also exceed Accelerate-Go[J]/Accelerate After Lift-Off[C/D] computed to the specified screen height (normally 35 ft.). Runway available for landing must exceed landing distance plus 500

134

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 feet, computed without reverse from a 50-foot obstacle and corrected for RCR. Minimum runway for a touch and go is 5000 ft. for the C-12C/D and MC-12 and 6000 ft. for the C-12J. A7.3.3.3. MC-12 minimum runway length is Takeoff Field Length (TOFL) derived from the FAA approved POH. A7.3.3.4. Crosswind Limitations – reference Table A7.1.

Table A7.1. Crosswind Limitations. RCR Values Maximum Crosswind Component

6 10

7 12

8 15

9 17

10 20

11 22

12 and above 25

A7.3.4. Chase Operations. Chase operations are defined as flights involving similar or dissimilar aircraft performing maneuvers with a “non-cooperative” lead aircraft (i.e. moderate banked turns, shallow climbs, and descents) from a route or trail position. A7.3.4.1. Chase Restrictions. A7.3.4.1.1. Day VMC only. A7.3.4.1.2. No wing takeoff or landings. A7.3.4.1.3. Minimum ATC wake turbulence criteria applies when chasing larger aircraft. A7.3.4.1.4. Minimum lateral spacing is one-half the wingspan of the largest participating aircraft. A7.3.5. Airdrop Procedures. The C-12J is prohibited from airdrop operations. The C-12C is authorized to airdrop personnel out of the rear main cabin entry door. The following guidelines apply: A7.3.5.1. Maximum airspeed is 205 knots with the airstart door removed. A7.3.5.2. Normal airdrop configuration is 40% flaps or 100% flaps and gear as necessary. 0% flaps may be used for dummy drops where faster airspeed is desired. A7.3.5.3. Minimum airspeed is 100 knots with flaps 40% or 90 knots with flaps 100%. A7.3.5.4. A loadmaster is not required to be on board the aircraft when the jumpmaster is from the AFTC test parachute program. A7.3.5.5. The minimum exit altitude for free fall is 2500 ft. AGL. A7.3.5.6. The minimum emergency exit altitude is 1000 ft. AGL. A7.3.5.7. Below 1000 feet AGL all airdrop personnel will have lap belts securely fastened. A7.4. Instrument Procedures. A7.4.1. The C-12 is approach category C. A7.4.2. The MC-12 is approach category B. If approach speeds exceed 120 KIAS, use category C approach minimums.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

135

A7.5. Operating Procedures and Restrictions. A7.5.1. Maneuvering Parameters. A7.5.1.1. Unusual Attitudes. Perform unusual attitudes at an altitude that will allow recovery not lower than 5,000 ft. AGL and avoid exceeding bank angles of 60 degrees and pitch attitudes of + 25 degrees. A7.5.1.2. Stall Characteristics. Recover the aircraft at the first indication of stall warning or actual stall during stall demonstrations. During stall training under an approved syllabus, instructor pilots may allow the trainee to recover the aircraft at the first indication of aerodynamic stall. Perform all practice stalls and stall recoveries above 5,000 ft. AGL. A7.5.1.3. Practice Engine Shutdown/Restarts. Actual engine shutdowns and restarts for practice will only be accomplished during training under an approved training syllabus or during FCF proficiency training with the restrictions imposed by Table 5.2. Prior to engine shutdown, the pilot in command will verify that the altitude for the planned engine shutdown does not exceed the single engine service ceiling. A7.5.1.4. Simulated Engine Failure Immediately After Takeoff. Simulated engine failures immediately after takeoff may only be performed after a positive rate of climb is attained, the aircraft is above the safe single engine airspeed defined in the appropriate flight manual, and the aircraft is capable of meeting the published climb gradient or at least a 3.3% single engine climb gradient (200 ft./NM), if not published. A7.5.1.4.1. Do not initiate MC-12 simulated engine failure below 500’ AGL. MC12 simulated engine-out power will be IAW the FAA approved POH procedures for Simulated One-Engine Inoperative (zero thrust). A7.5.1.5. C-12 No Flap Landings/Touch and Goes. C-12s have no restrictions on No Flap landings or touch and goes. This is a normal flap setting and may be accomplished without an IP or EP. A7.5.1.5.1. C-12 Touch and Goes. Without a C-12 qualified IP or EP onboard, both MPs must be MP Touch and Go certified in order to perform actual touch and go events in the aircraft. A7.5.1.6. MC-12 No Flap Landings/Touch and Go’s. Due to possible L-3 faring damage, do not accomplish MC-12 no flap landings or touch and goes except in an actual emergency.

136

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 Attachment 8 C-17 OPERATING PROCEDURES

A8.1. General Information. This attachment, in conjunction with other governing directives, outlines procedures for operation of the C-17 aircraft under most circumstances. AFMC aircrews and all management levels concerned with operation of all C-17A aircraft must comply with the outlined requirements and consult AFMC/A3V for waivers to this attachment. Operations or procedures not specifically addressed may be accomplished if they enhance safe, effective mission accomplishment. A8.2. Mission Planning. A8.2.1. Aircrew Publication Requirements In Flight. In accordance with Table A8.1. Table A8.1. Aircrew Publications Requirements In Flight. PUBLICATION

PILOT

LM

TO 1C-17A-1 TO 1C-17A-1-1 TO 1C-17A-1-2 TO 1C-17A-1-4 Abbreviated Checklist AFI11-2FTV3 (w/ A10 only) TO 1C-17A-9 TO 1C-17A-1(-9,-5-1,-5-2) Modification Flight Manual

X

X

AIRCRAFT PUBS KIT X X X X X X X X

A8.3. Common Mission Guidance. A8.3.1. Functional/Acceptance Check Flights. FCFs and ACFs will be performed according to T.O. 1-1-300 and applicable MAJCOM instructions (i.e., 21-XXX series). Additional guidance can be found in T.O.s 00-20-6, 1C-17A-6CF-1 and 1C-17A-1. A8.3.2. Formation Procedures. Visual formation, to include chase and target support, is authorized with similar and dissimilar aircraft. Station Keeping Equipment (SKE)/Formation Flight System (FFS) formation will be flown in accordance with lead-command guidance to the maximum extent possible. A8.3.3. NVG Procedures A8.3.3.1. NVG Donning/Doffing. Donning and doffing of NVGs will be initiated by the aircraft commander as briefed. For non-NVG landings, cease NVG usage 5 minutes prior to activity to regain adequate night visual acuity. NVGs used for general SA (thunderstorm avoidance, traffic call-outs) are not restricted. A8.3.3.2. Takeoff and Landing Requirements. Use airfield marking patterns IAW AFI 13-217 appropriate to runway conditions. Preflight study of the airfield environment is key for successful NVG visual approaches.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

137

A8.3.3.3. Slowdown through Escape (airdrop only). If either pilot’s NVGs fail, continuing the airdrop will be at the aircraft commander’s discretion. As a guide, if the DZ is in sight and CARP alignment has been confirmed between the PF and PM, the airdrop may be continued. A8.3.3.4. Takeoff, Approach and Landing. During an NVG takeoff, if the PF experiences NVG failure, takeoff may be continued at the discretion of the aircraft commander; otherwise an abort will be initiated. If NVG malfunctions occur after Vgo, takeoff will be continued with the other pilot assuming control of the aircraft if necessary. If either pilot’s NVGs fail after takeoff, continue the climbout and transfer aircraft control to the pilot with operable NVGs. Strong consideration should be given to continuing the flight on autopilot. During an approach, if either pilot experiences NVG failure below 500’ AGL, perform a go-around. If the PF’s NVGs fail during or after touchdown, transfer control to the PM for the landing rollout. A8.3.4. Air Drop. Unless used in conjunction with drop execution, avoid use of the word GREEN after the Combat Entry Checklist and until completion of the Combat Exit Checklist. “GREEN LIGHT” will be seen or heard by the loadmaster for all drops. A8.3.4.1. NVG airdrop operations can include drops into unmarked drop zones. Mission requirements will dictate the release method used. A8.3.4.2. Jumpmaster directed and pilot directed airdrop without logic may be accomplished provided the drop zone is visually acquired and the jumpmaster or both pilots determine that the load will land within the confines of the drop zone. A8.3.5. Low-level Navigation A8.3.5.1. Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS) / Terrain Alert Warning System (TAWS). A8.3.5.1.1. For operations in day VMC conditions, with terrain and obstacles clearly in sight, the PF will call runway and/or terrain in sight, state intentions and visually clear terrain. A8.3.5.1.2. For operations at night or in IMC, if an aural warning is heard, immediately and simultaneously rotate the aircraft to establish a climb while rolling wings level, and add power until the warning has ceased and adequate terrain clearance is verified. WARNING: Do not delay pull-up for diagnosis of the low altitude warning. Failure to roll wings level during the maneuver described above will decrease stall margin at heavy aircraft gross weights. A8.3.5.1.3. Ensure the mode of the GPWS/TAWS is commensurate with the aircraft’s phase of flight. A8.3.6. Flight Test Mission. A8.3.6.1. TPS Curriculum. TPS qual eval flights will be conducted under the guidelines in the Qual Eval Review Board (QRB) documentation. Normal mission elements may be conducted under the supervision of an IP. All other mission elements and FTTs will be conducted under the supervision of an IP who is a TPS graduate. A8.4. Instrument Procedures.

138

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A8.4.1. The C-17 is approach category D. A8.4.2. Simulated Instrument Flight. Artificial vision restricting devices are not authorized for any phase of flight. Simulated instrument flight may be flown and logged without the use of a vision-restricting device. A8.4.3. Approaches. Crews are cleared at any time to fly approaches to published minimums (or unit specified minimums, whichever is higher) using raw data, flight director, or autopilot/auto-throttles. Exception: Mission Computer (MC) approaches are cleared for day/night VMC. For MC approaches in IMC refer to AFI 11-2C-17 Vol 3 for guidance.

A8.5. Operating Procedures and Restrictions. A8.5.1. Minimum Equipment List. A8.5.1.1. Due to the unique requirements of the test mission, the aircraft commander, in concert with inputs from maintenance, engineering, instrumentation, etc., will be the final authority on mission status. A8.5.1.2. It would be impractical to prepare a list that would anticipate all possible combinations of equipment malfunction and contingent circumstances. This section lists the equipment and systems considered essential for routine as well as test operations. The list does not necessarily include all equipment or systems essential to airworthiness (e.g. rudder, ailerons, elevators, flaps, tires, etc.). For this MEL, a local area departure is defined as a planned full stop landing outside the local Edwards AFB flying area. A8.5.1.3. The aircraft commander is responsible for exercising the necessary judgment to ensure no aircraft is dispatched with multiple items inoperative that may result in an unsafe degradation and/or an undue increase in crew workload. The possibility of additional failures during continued operation with inoperative systems or components shall also be considered. This section is not intended to allow for continued operation of the aircraft for an indefinite period with systems/subsystems inoperative. A8.5.1.4. Engine performance, aircraft attitude, vertical velocity indications, altitude, speed, and heading instruments should be operative in both pilot positions. A8.5.1.5. Aerial Delivery Systems. The PDM, TRM, Rail Bridge Assembly and Ramp Edge Cover will be operational for equipment airdrop missions. The retrieval winch(es), GRMs and BSA will be operational for CDS airdrop missions. A8.5.1.5.1. The retrieval winch(es), Canadian Retrieval System, paratroop door(s), and air deflector door(s)/pod fairing(s) will be operational for personnel airdrop missions. A8.5.1.5.2. The ADSC, LFCP, LACP, PADS, and all proximity sensors and indicating systems associated with these items will be fully operational for all airdrop missions. A8.5.1.6. AFCS Panel. AFCS panel will be operational for all departures. If the autopilot or auto-throttles are inoperative, comply with a 12 hour crew duty day limit. A8.5.1.7. Air Conditioning, Pressurization, and Environmental Systems. A8.5.1.7.1. One air conditioning pack will be operational for avionics cooling.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

139

A8.5.1.7.2. If the wing isolation valve fails closed en route, all engine pneumatic supply SOVs will be operational, and all en route stops will have the capability to manually reposition the wing isolation valve (i.e. open for engine start and close for takeoff). If a pneumatic supply SOV fails en route, do not plan flight through any area of forecast icing. A8.5.1.8. Air Data Computer. At least three channels are required before a local area departure. The aircraft will be flown on a onetime flight to a station with repair capability with only two channels. (At least one channel of ADC1 must be operational). A8.5.1.9. APU. The APU will be operational for any mission departure into a field without alternate electric/air sources when engine shutdown is planned. Only one loop A or Loop B light/detector system may be inoperative for operation. A8.5.1.10. Cargo Mission Systems. operational for flight:

The following door and ramp systems will be

A8.5.1.10.1. All cargo ramp latches and electrical safety locks. A8.5.1.10.2. Both cargo door down-latches, 34 sidewall jamb spindles, all ditching locks, and both cargo door up-lock assemblies. A8.5.1.10.3. All proximity sensors and indicating systems associated with the cargo door system. A8.5.1.10.4. The crew entrance door and all indicating systems will be operational for all flights. A8.5.1.10.5. Cargo door, ramp, and ditching locks will be operational for heavy equipment, CDS, Dual Row, and other missions which require the in-flight use of the cargo door and ramp. A8.5.1.10.6. Cargo Rail System Locks. A minimum of one lock per pallet per side is required for air-land pallets/platforms. A8.5.1.11. Communications and Navigation Systems. A8.5.1.11.1. Both CCUs and both CNCs will be operational for a local area departure. En route, if a CCU or CNC fails, a one-time flight to a facility with repair capability is authorized. A8.5.1.11.2. Intercom is required at all primary crew positions for all departures. A8.5.1.11.3. PA System. Required for passenger missions. No three adjacent speakers may be inoperative. A8.5.1.12. Electrical Systems. A8.5.1.12.1. AC System: A8.5.1.12.2. Generators. A minimum of three engine driven generators will be operational for a local area departure. En route, a minimum of two engine driven generators are required before departure on a one-time flight to a facility with a repair capability.

140

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A8.5.1.12.3. The AC X-TIE and all AC bus ties will be operational for a local area departure. If the AC X-TIE fails en route, continue the mission to a station with a repair capability, provided four engine driven generators and all AC bus ties are operational. If the AC X-TIE fails en route, and only three engine-driven generators are operational (or all AC bus ties are not operational), a one-time flight to a facility with repair capability is authorized. A8.5.1.12.4. DC System: A8.5.1.12.4.1. A minimum of two transformer rectifiers (TR) will be operational before flight. The DC X-TIE and both DC bus ties will be operational. A8.5.1.12.4.2. Emergency Power System. Both batteries, the static inverter, both transfer buses, and the emergency power relays will be operational for flight (i.e. the emergency power check will be satisfactory). The following components are required for flight: ADC1, FCC1 and FCC4, SCEFC1, SED, COM1, and WCC1. Note: Redundant components, except FCC and SCEFC, may be swapped into these positions. A8.5.1.13. Electronic Displays/Flight Instruments. A8.5.1.13.1. Both BDHIs will be operational for a local area departure. En route, if a BDHI fails, continue the mission to a facility with a repair capability. A8.5.1.13.2. Standby Instruments. Both attitude indicators, and altimeter set functions of the standby air-speed/ altimeters will be operational for a local area departure. En route, one complete set of standby instruments (pilot or copilot) will be operational before flight. A8.5.1.13.3. Five of the six displays (HUD/MFDs) will be operational before a local area departure. The HUD used by the pilot flying will be fully functional for modified contour low-level operations. Both HUDs will be operational for ALZ or NVG operations. A8.5.1.13.4. Both Multifunction Controls (MFC) will be operational before a local area departure. En route, if one MFC fails, continue the mission to a station with a repair capability. A8.5.1.13.5. Three mission computer displays (MCD) and both mission computer keyboards (MCK) will be operational before a local area departure. En route, two MCDs (one on each side) and one MCK will be operable before flight. A8.5.1.13.6. Emergency Location Transmitter (ELT)/Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR)/Standard Flight Data Recorder (SFDR). The ELT, CVR and SFDR will be operational for all departures. Note: SFDR and CVR are not required for local area flight if telemetry is available and used. If either the SFDR or CVR system fails en route, a onetime flight to a facility with repair capability is authorized. Note: If involved in a mishap/incident, after landing and the emergency is terminated, open the CVR power circuit breaker. A8.5.1.14. Engines. Three engine ferry flights must be approved per AFI 11-202V3, AFMC Sup.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

141

A8.5.1.14.1. All engines will be operating in EPR mode before a local area departure. En route, if one engine drops to N1 mode and cannot be reset to EPR mode with a subsequent ground restart, continue the mission to a facility with a repair capability. If two or more engines are degraded to N1 mode, or any engine degrades to N2 mode, a onetime flight to a facility with a repair capability is authorized. A8.5.1.14.2. Both engine ignition channels will be operable before a local area departure. En route, if a channel fails, continue the mission to a facility with a repair capability. One engine ignition exciter/igniter per engine is required for all departures. Note: If Channel A is inoperative, ignition will not be available to the engine with emergency power. A8.5.1.14.3. Both electronic engine control (EEC) channels will be operable before a local area departure. En route, if one channel on one engine fails, a one-time flight to a station with repair capability is authorized. A8.5.1.15. Flight Controls. Aircraft will not be flown with a FAIL OP condition or if any EFCS FAIL lights are illuminated. All FCCs and both SC/EFCs will be operational for flight. A8.5.1.16. Fuel System. A8.5.1.16.1. At least two of the following valves will be operational for a local area departure: L MASTER valve, R MASTER valve, center SEPARATION valve. Note: Failure of the SEPARATION valve closed with a subsequent failure of an inboard tank transfer pump will result in trapped fuel in the inboard tank. In addition, use caution during air refueling to pre-vent an out of balance condition. The cross-feed valves will not open with a MASTER valve open. A8.5.1.16.2. One boost pump per wing may be inoperative if inboard transfer pumps and cross-feed valves are operational. A8.5.1.16.3. Both fuel quantity indicating channels and all fuel quantity displays will be operational for local area departures. En route, a maximum of one fuel quantity display, including the totalizer, may be inoperative. A8.5.1.16.3.1. If the fuel load required for flight does not require fuel to be loaded in the ER tanks, the ER tank quantities indicators are not required for flight. If fuel is required in the ER tanks, then adhere to the guidance in A8.5.1.16.3. A8.5.1.16.4. One ground refuel valve must be operational for all local area departures. One fuel jettison valve must be operational for all departures. A8.5.1.17. Hydraulics. A8.5.1.17.1. Six of eight engine driven hydraulic pumps must be operational. Each engine must have at least one engine driven pump and the auxiliary pump operable for flight. Only one engine driven pump on systems 2 and 3 (combined) may be inoperative provided the transfer pump and auxiliary pumps are operable.

142

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A8.5.1.17.2. The transfer pump will be operational for local area departures. If the transfer pump fails en route, the mission may be continued to a facility with a repair capability as long as all system #2 and #3 pumps are operational. A8.5.1.17.3. All auxiliary pumps are required for a local area departure. En route, continue the mission with one inoperable auxiliary pump to a station with repair capability (all engine driven pumps/transfer pump for the affected system must be operational). A8.5.1.17.4. Ram Air Turbine (RAT). The RAT will be operational and stowed before all departures. A8.5.1.18. Inertial Reference Units (IRU). All IRUs will be fully operational for a local area departure. En route, if a single failure occurs, the mission will continue to a station with repair capability. Note: Three IRUs are required for flight above 25,000’, and 2 of the 3 must be IRUs #1 and #4 which are required for yaw damping requirements on emergency power. A8.5.1.19. Lighting. For night ALZ landings, at least one landing light on each side of the aircraft (wingtip or nose) must be operational. A8.5.1.20. Core Integrated Processor (CIP). Both CIPs will be operational for flight. OG/CC approval required for flight with only one operational CIP. Note: Record predicted landing data in case a subsequent failure occurs. A8.5.1.21. Radar Altimeters. One radar altimeter is required for all IFR departures and arrivals. A8.5.1.22. Warning Systems. A8.5.1.22.1. Both WACS and the Central Aural Warning System (CAWS) will be fully operational before flight. A8.5.1.22.2. The GPWS will be operational before a local area departure. En route, if the GPWS fails, turn it off, and continue the mission to a facility with a repair capability. A8.5.1.22.3. Stall Warning System. Both channels will be operational before a local area departure. En route, if one channel fails, continue the mission to a facility with a repair capability. Without a stall warning system, a one-time flight to a repair facility is authorized. A 3/4 flap landing with CG forward of 32% MAC is advised. A8.5.1.22.4. All proximity sensors affecting AFCS operation (landing gear, slats, doors/access hatches, etc.) will be operational for a local area departure and for all airdrop missions. A8.5.1.22.5. Fire/Smoke Detectors. Only one loop A or Loop B light/detector system for one engine may be inoperative. The following are the minimum smoke detectors required for flight: One AV; all 4 IRU; CAR 9, 10, 13, 14 plus two others in the cargo compartment. A8.5.1.22.6. Weather Radar. Radar is required for overseas deployments, night IMC flight, and when possible imbedded thunderstorms are forecast or a coverage greater than “few” is expected for the planned route of flight.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

143

A8.5.1.22.7. Wheel Brakes. Ten operative brakes are required for all departures. A8.5.1.23. Oxygen Requirements. The minimum quantity of oxygen aboard the aircraft before takeoff must be sufficient to accomplish the planned flight to a suitable recovery base, should oxygen be required. Crewmembers occupying a crew station will have an oxygen mask connected and readily available for use from engine start until engine shutdown. A8.5.2. Restrictions. A8.5.2.1. Simulated engine out approaches may be flown with an IP or flight examiner in one of the pilot seats, except for IP candidates under the supervision of a flight examiner during initial or re-qualification upgrade evaluation to IP. One throttle may be retarded to idle under the following conditions: airspeed not less than VMCA; positive rate of climb established during takeoff and climb out; and no lower than 500 ft. AGL on approach to land. Rudder pedals are not active with the autopilot engaged. A8.5.2.2. Abnormal flap/slat configuration approaches will not be flown in the aircraft for training. A8.5.2.3. Approach to stall training will be performed no slower than stick shaker onset speed and with an instructor pilot in one of the seats. A8.5.2.4. Checklists. All checklists are initiated by the pilot flying; however, individual items may be accomplished prior to starting the respective checklist. A8.5.2.5. Unusual Attitudes. Practice unusual attitude recoveries are prohibited at night or in IMC and any time the safety observer is not qualified in the aircraft. Initiate practice unusual attitude recoveries at an altitude of at least 10,000 feet above the ground level (AGL) and complete no lower than 5,000 feet AGL.

144

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 Attachment 9 C-37 OPERATING PROCEDURES

A9.1. General Information . This attachment, in conjunction with other governing directives, outlines procedures for operation of the C-37A/B aircraft under most circumstances. AFMC aircrews and all management levels concerned with operation of all c-37 aircraft must comply with the outlined requirements and consult AFMC/A3V for waivers to this attachment. (T-2) Operations or procedures not specifically addressed may be accomplished if they enhance safe, effective mission accomplishment. A9.2. Mission Planning. A9.2.1. Minimum Crew for Flight. The minimum crew for the C-37A/B is a pilot and copilot. A9.2.2. Minimum Runway Length. The minimum runway length for the C-37A/B is 5,000 ft. or 1,525 meters. A9.2.2.1. Runway Length for Takeoff. A9.2.2.1.1. Do not attempt takeoff if runway available is less than critical field length (Use the greater of accelerate-and-stop or accelerate-and-go distance for the C37). A9.2.2.2. Runway Length for Landing. A9.2.2.2.1. Minimum required runway for landing is based on landing distance computed from 50 feet over threshold. A9.2.2.2.2. Compute landing distance with no-reverse thrust. Exception: C-37B landing distance on wet or contaminated runways is computed using maximum reverse thrust. A9.2.2.3. Minimum Runway and Taxiway Width Requirements. Reference Table A9.1. Table A9.1. Minimum Runway and Taxi Width Requirements. Minimum Runway Width

Minimum Taxiway Width

75 feet (23 meters)

25 feet (8 meters) (Notes 1 & 2)

Minimum Width 180 Degree Turn 75 feet (23 meters)

Notes: 1. For 90 degree turns to/from a surface less than 35 feet, but no less than 25 feet, the other surface must be a minimum width of 55 feet. Offset to the larger surface to keep on pavement. 2. Minimum taxiway width for 90 degree turns (with fillets) is from a 35 foot to 35 foot taxiway. Even when fillets are available, these turns may not be possible in the given taxiway surface. Deplane a crewmember if in doubt to marshal the turn. A9.2.3. Use of Overruns. If approach end overruns are available and stressed or authorized for normal operations, they may be used to increase the runway available for takeoff. Departure end overruns (if stressed and authorized) may also be used for landing if needed.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

145

A9.2.4. Inflight Publications. Gulfstream provides electronic flight manuals and checklists intended for use as part of an Electronic Flight Bag (EFB). Aircrew will utilize an EFB for inflight reference to the maximum extent allowable in accordance with governing regulations. A9.2.4.1. If the inflight use of an EFB is not approved as the sole source of inflight publications by AFMC, carry a complete set of paper publications on board the aircraft. A9.2.5. Fuel Planning. A9.2.5.1. General. As a minimum, required ramp fuel will consist of all fuel required for engine start, taxi, warm-up, APU operation, takeoff, climb, cruise, en route reserves (if required), alternate/approach/missed approach (if required), descent, approach, and landing. Use the following fuel planning numbers as general guidance. A9.2.5.1.1. APU, Start, Taxi, Takeoff Fuel: 500 lbs. A9.2.5.1.2. Approach and Landing Fuel: 500 lbs. A9.2.5.2. Reserve Fuel Planning. Reserve fuel planning is IAW 11-202V3. Minimum fuel required upon landing at destination, or landing at alternate (if an alternate is required IAW AFI 11-202V3): 3,000 lbs. A9.3. Common Mission Guidance. A9.3.1. Duty Station. Both pilots shall be in their seats during flight. One of the pilots may be out of their seat for brief periods (approximately 15 minutes) to meet physiological needs. Crewmembers will notify the pilot prior to departing assigned primary duty stations. A9.3.2. Flight Station Entry. PICs may authorize passengers and observers access to the flight station during all phases of flight. In all cases, sufficient oxygen sources must be available to meet the requirements of AFI 11-202V3. A9.3.3. Landing Gear and Flap Operations. Unless the Aircraft Operating Manual (AOM) directs otherwise, the pilot in the left seat will command gear and flap operations and the pilot in the right seat will activate the systems. The right seat pilot will acknowledge the command prior to system activation. If the pilot flying (PF) the aircraft is in the right seat, that pilot should command gear and flap operations to include a go-around. The pilot monitoring (PM) in the left seat will acknowledge the command prior to gear/flap system activation by the right seat pilot. A9.3.4. Takeoff and Landing Pilot. Takeoff and landings may be conducted from either the left or right seat. A9.3.5. Portable Electronic Devices. A9.3.5.1. Portable non-transmitting devices are authorized IAW AFI 11-202V3, paragraph 3.9.1 and include audio and video recorders, playback devices, computers, peripherals, electronic entertainment devices, radio receivers, and personal digital assistants (PDA). A9.3.5.2. Portable Satellite (SAT) Phones. The use of portable SAT phones (IRIDIUM, FLIGHTCELL, etc.) in flight is authorized in Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC)

146

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 above 10,000 feet. Suction cup antenna use is authorized. Do not connect SAT phones to aircraft power or use in IMC.

A9.4. Instrument Procedures. A9.4.1. RNAV, GPS, and RNAV(GPS) Departures, Arrival and Approaches. A9.4.1.1. GPS, RNAV, and RNAV(GPS) instrument departures and arrivals in day or night, IMC or VMC are authorized. The PM shall monitor lateral cross track, vertical velocity trends and report alerts [RNP, RAIM or loss of GPS signal] to the PF. The PF shall execute a missed approach if excessive deviations occur. A9.4.1.2. LNAV Approaches. LNAV approaches may be flown IMC to barometric LNAV MDA(H). They may also be flown using VNAV procedures to a derived decision altitude (DDA) = LNAV MDA(H)+50 ft. The PM shall monitor lateral track error and provide trends to the PF A9.4.1.3. VNAV Approaches. VNAV approaches may be flown IMC to VNAV DA(H). C-37 aircraft are authorized descent to published barometric VNAV DA (corrected for temperature) in World Geodetic System (WGS-84) compliant airspace only. Use of remote altimeter settings to VNAV DA(H) minimums is prohibited. The PM shall monitor lateral/vertical track error and provide trends for PF. A9.4.1.4. Overlay approaches. Only approaches contained in the current onboard navigation database are authorized. A9.4.1.5. WGS-84 compliance. PICs shall check www.jeppesen.com to determine compliance if a country’s WGS-84 status is in doubt. On the Jeppesen home page, type “WGS-84 Status Report” in the search field to access the compliance list. Except as noted below, only those procedures that are WGS-84 compliant may be flown using FMC/FMS guidance. A9.4.2. Enhanced Vision System. C-37A/B Approach to straight-in landing operations below DA, DH, or MDA using enhanced vision system (EVS). C-37A/B EVS is approved for use in day, night, or IMC IAW the applicable FAA-approved Gulfstream Airplane Flight Manual (AFM), AOM, and Quick Reference Handbook (QRH) procedures and limitations. For straight-in instrument approach procedures other than Category II or Category III, operating below the authorized MDA or continuing an approach below the authorized DH is not authorized unless: A9.4.2.1. A current and qualified pilot for the approach to be flown occupies the left seat. A9.4.2.2. The aircraft is continuously in a position from which a descent to a landing on the intended runway can be made at a normal rate of descent using normal maneuvers, and the descent rate will allow touchdown to occur within the touchdown zone of the runway of intended landing. A9.4.2.3. The pilot determines that the enhanced flight visibility observed by use of a certified enhanced flight vision system is not less than the visibility prescribed in the standard instrument approach procedure being used.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

147

A9.4.2.4. The following visual references for the intended runway are distinctly visible and identifiable to the pilot using the enhanced flight vision system: A9.4.2.4.1. The approach light system (if installed). A9.4.2.4.2. The runway threshold, identified by at least one of the following: the beginning of the runway landing surface; the threshold lights; or the runway end identifier lights. A9.4.2.4.3. The touchdown zone, identified by at least one of the following: the runway touchdown zone landing surface; the touchdown zone lights; the touchdown zone markings; or the runway lights. A9.4.2.5. At 100 feet above the touchdown zone elevation of the runway of intended landing and below that altitude, the flight visibility must be sufficient for the following to be distinctly visible and identifiable to the pilot without reliance on the enhanced flight vision system to continue to a landing: A9.4.2.5.1. The lights or markings of the threshold; or A9.4.2.5.2. The lights or markings of the touchdown zone. A9.4.3. CAT II/III Procedures. Special aircraft and aircrew training required. Refer to AOM for CAT II/III ILS information. A9.4.3.1. CAT II minimum RVR of 1200 ft. (350 meters). A9.4.3.2. CAT II minimums based on a HAT no lower than 100 ft. A9.4.3.3. CAT II approaches without radio altimeter (RA) setting for DH are authorized. In this case IAP statement “RA NA” denotes irregular terrain changes that affect RA. Utilize barometric DH and inner marker if approved on the IAP. If inner marker is inoperative, CAT II approaches are not authorized. A9.4.3.4. CAT I ILS procedures are used when unable to use alternate FCM guidance for local barometric DA(H) procedures. A9.4.3.5. CAT IIIA minimum RVR of 700 ft. (200 meters). A9.4.3.6. CAT IIIB minimum RVR of 150 ft. (50 meters). A9.4.3.7. Use Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (SMGCS) lighting (if available) at destination and taxi route. A9.4.3.8. CAT II/III training and evaluations may be conducted at any ILS facility where signal output is accurate and stable enough to achieve the desired training with the following restrictions. A9.4.3.8.1. Weather. No lower than 200-foot ceiling and 1/2-mile visibility (RVR 24) or Category I minimums, whichever is greater. A9.4.3.8.2. Winds. Maximum crosswind component is IAW Table A9.7 of this regulation. A9.4.3.8.3. When a CAT II DH is not published, DH is based on HAT of 100 feet. A9.5. Operating Procedures and Restrictions.

148

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A9.5.1. Checklists. C-37A/B checklists are designed as clean-up checklists, and items may be accomplished prior to the checklist being read. A checklist is not complete until all items have been accomplished. Momentary hesitations for coordination items, ATC interruptions, and deviations specified in the FCM, etc., are authorized. A9.5.1.1. The “Pilot/Flight Engineer Checklist for the USAF C-37A Aircraft” assigns checklist items to the pilot, copilot, and flight engineer. If flying without a flight engineer (or a qualified pilot acting as a flight engineer), the copilot is responsible for all items assigned to the flight engineer. A9.5.2. Advisory Calls. The PF will announce changes to the level of automation, flight director and autopilot mode selections and mode transitions, and/or when circumstances require deviating from normal procedures. The PM will make all advisory calls except those designated for other crewmembers. Note: Automated aircraft advisory calls satisfy this requirement. Table A9.2 through Table A9.6 depict suggested calls for nonprecision approaches, precision approaches, climb out and descent, and supplement AOM guidance on mandatory calls.

Table A9.2. Nonprecision Approaches. PHASE OF FLIGHT

PM CALL

PF RESPONSE

100 feet above Final Approach Fix (FAF) altitude

“100 Above”

100 feet above step down altitude

“100 Above”

100 feet above Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA)

“100 Above”

MDA

Minimums

Runway environment in sight

“Runway in Sight”

“Land” (Note 3)

Missed Approach Point (MAP)

“Go-around” (Note 1)

“Go-around” (Note 1)

Table A9.3. Precision/Vertical Navigation (VNAV) Approaches. PHASE OF FLIGHT

PM CALL

100 feet above glide slope intercept altitude

“100 Above”

100 feet above Decision Height (DH)/Altitude (DA) At DH/DA

“100 Above”

- Runway environment in sight “Land” (Note 3) - Approach Lights in sight (CAT I ILS)

“Continue”

PF RESPONSE

“Land” (Note 3) “Continue” (Note 2)

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 - Approach lights and/or Runway environment not in sight

149 “Go-around” (Note 1)

“Go-around” (Note 1)

Table A9.4. Cat II ILS Approaches. PHASE OF FLIGHT

PM CALL

100 feet above glide slope intercept altitude

“100 Above”

100 feet above DH

“100 Above” (Note 4)

PF RESPONSE

At DH (Notes 4 & 5) Runway environment in sight

“Land” (Notes 3 & 5)

“Land” (Notes 3 & 5)

Approach lights and/or Runway environment not in sight

“Go-around” (Note 1)

“Go-around” (Note 1)

PHASE OF FLIGHT

PM CALL

PF RESPONSE

Transition Altitude

“Transition, 2992”

“Transition, 2992”

1000 below assigned altitude

“One thousand below”

Table A9.5. Climb Out.

Table A9.6. Descent. PHASE OF FLIGHT

PM CALL

PF RESPONSE

Transition Level

“Transition, state local setting”

“Transition, state local setting”

1000 above assigned altitude

“One thousand above”

Table A9.7. Notes for Tables A9.2 through A9.6. Table A9.2 – A9.6. Notes 1. The PF will announce his/her intentions to either land or go-around. If the runway environment is not in sight and/or the aircraft is not in position for a normal landing, execute a go around. 2. With weather at CAT I minimums on a CAT I ILS, the pilot may not see the runway environment at DH; however, the initial portion of the approach lights should be visible. The pilot may continue to 100 HAT with reference to the approach lights. For a CAT I/II ILS, the pilot may not descend below 100 feet above touchdown zone elevation using the approach lights as the sole reference unless the red terminating bars or the red side row bars are distinctly

150

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

visible and identifiable. 3. The PF will announce his/her intentions to either land, continue, or go- around. Respond intention to ―Land‖ if runway environment is in sight, will remain in sight throughout touchdown and the aircraft is in a position for a safe landing. The ―Land‖ call will not be made solely off of the approach lights unless the requirements in Note 2 are satisfied. 4. Calls are based off of the radio altimeter. 5. Tolerances to call “Land” are IAW AOM guidance or as follows if not specified: a) Airspeed is plus or minus 5 knots of the computed final approach. b) Localizer or glideslope deviations do not exceed ½ dot deviation on the course deviation indicator (CDI) or glideslope indicator. c) Aircraft track will remain within the lateral confines of the runway extended. d) If any of these are exceeded, or if the aircraft is not stabilized IAW the FCM, call a Go Around. A9.5.3. Deviations. A9.5.3.1. The PF will brief any planned deviations from procedures. The PM will announce any deviations from planned or prescribed procedures for the approach or departure being flown. They will also announce course and heading deviations, airspeed deviations of 5 knots or more below desired, and altitude deviations of 100 feet or more from desired. A9.5.3.2. Any crewmember will announce an altitude variation of 200 feet or more, an airspeed deviation of 10 knots or more below desired, or any potential terrain, obstruction or traffic clearance problem. A9.5.4. Communications. A9.5.4.1. Sterile Cockpit. Limit conversation to that essential for crew coordination and mission accomplishment during taxi, takeoff, approach, landing, flight below 10,000 feet Mean Sea Level (MSL) (except cruise). A9.5.4.2. Aircraft Interphone/Datalink. Do not discuss classified information over interphone or clear VHF/HF datalink [Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS)/Airborne Flight Information System (AFIS)] channels. Primary crewmembers will monitor interphone. Crewmembers will advise the PIC prior to checking off interphone. A9.5.4.3. The PM normally makes all ATC radio calls. Normally, use only one command radio, plus guard. Monitoring two controlling agencies' transmissions simultaneously is not recommended. Exception: ILS/PRM approaches. A9.5.4.4. In terminal areas the primary crewmembers at assigned stations will monitor the primary command radio unless directed otherwise. A9.5.4.5. Both pilots will monitor UHF and VHF guard frequencies to the maximum extent possible. A9.5.4.6. When the aircraft is in an other than normal configuration (for example, an engine inoperative, hydraulic or electrical malfunction, communications difficulty, etc.), the pilot should request simultaneous transmission of the controller's instructions on a single frequency approach if in a terminal area under radar control.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

151

A9.5.5. Takeoff or Landing Over Raised Arresting Cables (does not include recessed cables). A9.5.5.1. When conditions permit [aircraft gross weight, runway length, weather, winds, Takeoff and Landing Data (TOLD), etc.] and the PIC has considered the potential for damaging the aircraft, make takeoffs and landings beyond raised cable barriers. Use the entire length of runway if necessary. Be aware that operations over arresting gear barriers at speeds in excess of taxi speed may result in damage to the aircraft. A9.5.5.2. Do not land on a raised arresting cable. Damage may occur to the cable or aircraft. A9.5.5.3. If the aircraft lands before a raised arresting cable and rolls over it, the flight crew should contact the tower to have the cable inspected (this does not include rolling over a cable at normal taxi speeds). A9.5.5.4. Do not takeoff or land over a raised arresting cable that has been reported as slack, loose, or improperly rigged by NOTAM, Automated Terminal Information Service (ATIS), ATC, etc. A9.5.6. Wind Restrictions. Airfields are considered unusable for takeoff and landing when winds (including gusts) are greater than established in Table A9.8. Table A9.8. Wind Restrictions. Maximum Wind Any Maximum Tailwind Direction Component

Maximum Crosswind Component

50 knots

AOM limit

10 knots

A9.5.6.1. The maximum crosswind component during manual (autopilot off) CAT II and CAT III ILS approaches is 10 knots. A9.5.6.2. The maximum crosswind component for autopilot on CAT II approaches is 20 knots. A9.5.7. Runway Condition Reading (RCR) or Runway Surface Condition (RSC). A9.5.7.1. Determine RCR versus maximum allowable crosswind component from the FCM. Braking Action/Mu values from the FCM define runway condition and aircraft capability. RCR equivalents to Braking Action/Mu values are found in the FCM. A9.5.7.2. Operations on runways partially covered with snow or ice, takeoff data is based on the reported RSC or RCR for the cleared portion of the runway. To ensure proper takeoff performance in the event of an engine failure, the runway should be cleared to allow for your maximum VMCG offset. If your required VMCG offset either side of centerline is not cleared to the reported RSC, then the RSC of the unclear portion, up to your required offset, is used for takeoff data computations. A9.5.7.3. RCR Reporting. RCR information is obtained only within 20 feet of the runway centerline. Only the average RCR is reported. Many portions of the runway (laterally and longitudinally) may have a significantly lower RCR than the value reported.

152

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A9.5.7.4. Wet vs. RCR.For operations on wet, un-grooved runways, use the RCR designated as "wet" in the FCM for all takeoff and landing data. Use RCR 12 if the "wet" RCR is not designated in the FCM. For wet operations on grooved runways, use the RCR corresponding to Dry in the FCM. A9.5.7.5. No Reported RCR or RSC. When RCR or RSC reporting is not available, flight crews are to consider a runway surface as wet when there is sufficient water on the surface to cause reflective glare or when rain is falling. A9.5.7.6. Localized Hazards. RCR or RSC reports do not call attention to localized RSC hazards, i.e. standing water pools, snow, and sand drifts. Such hazards probably will not be reported unless accompanied by reduced RCR. Pilots should be alert to the possibility of this condition existing and, if deemed safe, attempt to avoid these hazards. A9.5.7.7. RCR Corrections. Do not use runways with reported RCR lower than the lowest RCR correction contained in the FCM. A9.5.7.8. If the runway is wet and the reported RCR is higher than the FCM wet RCR, the actual reported RCR may be used for mission accomplishment. A9.5.7.9. C-37B operations on wet or contaminated runways require a correction to effective runway length to ensure a screen height of 35 feet is met on takeoff with engine failure. The PIC will ensure applicable performance data is referenced when operating on wet or contaminated runways. A9.5.8. Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS). The PIC will file an AF Form 651, Hazardous Air Traffic Report (HATR) if required to deviate due to a resolution advisory (RA). A9.5.8.1. Aircrew must comply with all RA’s. This ensures aircraft separation computed by TCAS. Advise ATC as soon as practical when a deviation becomes necessary due to a TCAS resolution advisory. A9.5.8.2. Aircrew should visually clear the airspace and obtain clearance prior to maneuvering the aircraft in response to a TCAS traffic advisory (TA). A9.5.9. Touch-and-Go Landings. A9.5.9.1. Touch-and-go-landings may be performed by pilots qualified in the basic aircraft from either seat. A9.5.9.2. Do not place the throttles in reverse during a touch-and-go landing. Rejected takeoffs will not be practiced. A9.5.9.3. Stop-and-go-landings are not authorized. A9.5.9.4. The minimum runway for touch and go landings is 5000’ for full flap or 7000’ for partial flap configurations. A9.5.9.4.1. Ensure aircraft performance assures full stop capability corrected for [configuration, pressure altitude (density altitude if appropriate), temperature, RCR/RSC and crosswinds] per AOM.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

153

A9.5.10. Basic Training Maneuver Restrictions. Table A9.9 lists the training maneuver restrictions and associated minimum altitudes. These restrictions apply unless deviations are contained in an approved test plan. Table A9.9. Training Maneuver Restrictions. Maneuver Any Simulated Emergency On Takeoff

Altitude Restrictions Initiate at or above 500 feet AGL

On Approach

Initiate at or above 500 feet AGL

Approach to Stalls

10,000 feet AGL minimum

Planned VFR GoArounds With Simulated Emergencies Other Than Engine Out Simulated Landing

Initiate at or above 100 feet AGL

Steep Turns

5,000 feet AGL minimum

Initiate at or above 50 feet AGL

Other Restrictions For simulated engine failure on takeoff, pilot not flying must guard the appropriate rudder.

Limited to day VMC conditions. Do not accomplish unless required for FCF training, certification, or accomplishment. None

Limited to weather required for circling minimums. (See Note) Limited to day, VMC conditions. Limited to day, VMC conditions.

10,000 feet AGL minimum Slow Flight and Flight on the Back Side of the Power Curve Note: Simulated Landings. Use this procedure only when conducting simulated landing training and not to practice missed approaches; it allows simulated training in restricted aircraft when the objective is to practice setting up the correct landing picture. Begin the go-around no later than approximately 2,000 feet remaining. No simulated emergencies allowed. Use the normal landing configuration: Gear down, flaps 39 for the C-37. All other training restrictions apply. A9.5.11. CAT II/III ILS Training.

A9.5.11.1. CAT II/III training and evaluations may be conducted at any ILS facility where signal output is accurate and stable enough to achieved the desired training. A9.5.11.1.1. Weather. No lower than 200-foot ceiling and ½ mile visibility (RVR 24) or Category I minimums, whichever is greater.

154

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A9.5.11.1.2. Winds. Maximum crosswind component is IAW with A9.5.6 of this regulation. A9.5.11.1.3. When a CAT II DH is not published, DH is based on HAT of 100 feet. A9.5.12. Simulated Emergency Procedures. A9.5.12.1. Unless part of an approved test plan, simulated emergency procedures other than engine-out approaches and landings are limited to non-critical phases of flight and kept to a minimum at night or in IMC. Use a realistic training/evaluation approach and do not compound emergencies. Table A9.9 provides restrictions for simulated emergency procedures in addition to those presented in this section. A9.5.12.1.1. Unless specifically authorized elsewhere in this instruction, do not practice emergency procedures that degrade aircraft performance or flight control capabilities (in-flight). A9.5.12.2. Simulated engine failures. Simulated engine failures are not authorized at less than the engine-out minimum control speeds or when any actual emergency exists. A9.5.12.2.1. Do not perform simulated engine-out approaches at night or in IMC. A9.5.12.3. Do not perform no-flap approaches at night or in IMC.

A9.6. Prohibited In-Flight Maneuvers. A9.6.1. The following maneuvers are accomplished in the simulator and not practiced or demonstrated in-flight unless part of an approved test plan: A9.6.1.1. Simulated engine-out takeoffs. A9.6.1.2. Aborted takeoffs. A9.6.1.3. Full stalls. A9.6.1.4. Unusual attitudes. A9.6.1.5. Dutch roll demonstrations. A9.6.1.6. Simulated emergency descents. A9.6.1.7. No-flap landings. A9.6.1.8. Simulated jammed stabilizer approach and landings. A9.6.1.9. Landing with inoperative hydraulic system. A9.6.1.10. Simulated two engine out flight. A9.6.1.11. Tactics maneuvers.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

155 Attachment 10

C-130 OPERATING PROCEDURES A10.1. General Information . This attachment, in conjunction with other governing directives, outlines procedures for operation of the C-130 aircraft under most circumstances. AFMC aircrews and all management levels concerned with operation of all C-130 aircraft must comply with the outlined requirements and consult AFMC/A3V for waivers to this attachment. Operations or procedures not specifically addressed may be accomplished if they enhance safe, effective mission accomplishment. A10.1.1. Crew Complement and Management. A10.1.1.1. Non-Currency and Qualification Training. Non-current or unqualified crewmembers may perform in their primary crew position when supervised by an instructor of like specialty. For pilots, the instructor must occupy the other pilot seat. Crewmembers may instruct across like specialty lines for the purposes of scanner duties. (i.e. an instructor pilot qualified as a scanner may instruct a flight engineer during scanner upgrade and log instructor flight time on the AFTO Form 781). MC-130J pilots may instruct MC-130J CSO’s for the purpose of regaining currency in Phase I or Phase II events. A10.1.1.2. Crew Complement. Crew complement for the C-130 is IAW Table A10.1. A10.1.1.2.1. The minimum crew in AFMC is: A10.1.1.2.1.1. C-130H and derivative aircraft: pilot; copilot; and flight engineer, or as directed in the applicable aircraft T.O. A10.1.1.2.1.2. C-130J and derivative aircraft: pilot, copilot, and loadmaster. Table A10.1. Crew Complement. C-130H and Variants Aircraft Commander Copilot Navigator/CSO Flight Engineer Scanner/Loadmaster Other Aircrew AC-130U (H plus) Gunner FCO EWO TV IR AC-130W (H plus) CSO Gunner

Basic # Req’d

Note(s)

1

Mission # Req’d Notes(s) 1

A/R 1 A/R A/R

1

1

5

2,3

A/R 1 1/2 A/R

FCF #Req’d

Note(s)

1 1 4

5

A/R 1 1 A/R

1

1

5

1

5

2

1

1

5

1 2

6

156

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

EC-130H (H plus) AMT 1 5 1 EWO C-130J Aircraft Commander Copilot 1 1 4 1 7 Loadmaster MC-130J (J plus) CSO 1 A/R AC-130J (J plus) Aircraft Commander 1 1 1 Copilot CSO A/R 1 A/R 1 A/R 1 FCO 1 SO Gunner 1 5 3 1 5 Notes: 1. When required for mission accomplishment. Required for low-level navigation unless waived by OG/CC. For over-water missions, see FLIP AP. 2. An additional qualified aircrew member may perform scanner duties as authorized and required by the mission. FCF scanners must complete specific FCF scanner training. 3. Two loadmasters or one loadmaster and another qualified crewmember are required if more than 40 passengers are scheduled to be carried. Both crewmembers must remain in the cargo compartment, one forward and one aft for takeoffs and landings. Qualified crewmembers may perform these duties on missions where 15 passengers or less are carried, and floor loaded cargo weight does not exceed 500 pounds. 4. Only one loadmaster is required for airdrop missions if: a) Using only one paratroop door for personnel or door bundle (less than 100 lbs.) drops. b) High altitude (up to 13,000 MSL) non-static line personnel are dropped from the ramp and door, or only one paratroop door is opened c) Dropping a single CDS using manual gate cut procedures d) Dropping HE training loads using EPJS (C-130J Only) e) Dropping only simulated airdrop training bundles (SATB) f) A no-drop (dry pass only) is planned g) Conducting single hose HAR/TAR h) At Sq/CC discretion, an instructor loadmaster and student fulfills the two loadmaster requirement to drop unilateral training heavy equipment loads without the Emergency Parachute Jettison System (EPJS) (C-130J and C-130J variants only). This note is not applicable to SMA’s whose primary aircraft does not perform an airdrop mission. 5. An appropriately trained Loadmaster or Scanner may be substituted. 6. Comply with the following requirements during mission sorties: a) One AG: Only one AG is required during mission training sorties that will not conduct Common Launch Tube (CLT) installation/removal procedures or live fire

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

157

any Gun Weapon Systems (GWS). One AG is authorized to configure GWS for motion, but will not place rounds in the GWS. b) Two AGs: Required to conduct CLT installation/removal procedures or to perform live fire operations when only one GWS will be utilized. c) Three AGs: Required to perform live fire operations when utilizing multiple GWS. 7. An additional aircrew member may be added to facilitate the FCF mission and document check results. A10.1.1.3. Pilot Qualification Training. Pilot mission qualification training may be conducted on missions with passengers onboard only if the individual in training is qualified (completed aircraft checkride with a valid AF Form 8) for the seat position occupied. A10.1.1.3.1. Maintenance personnel and civilian employees under direct contract to the DoD, engaged in official direct mission support activities, are considered mission essential and may be onboard when touch-and-go or stop-and-go landings are performed. A10.2. Mission Planning. A10.2.1. Minimum Altitudes. See Section A10. 3.7. Minimum Altitudes, for guidance to compute all low-level related altitudes. A10.2.2. Departure Planning. Use AFI 11-202V3, AFMAN 11-217V1, and this instruction when planning an IFR departure. A10.2.2.1. IFR Departures. A10.2.2.1.1. AFMC/A3 authorizes reduced obstacle climb gradient takeoffs up to a gross weight (GW) which would, in the event of an engine failure, not lower the rate of climb to less than a 2.5 percent climb gradient (152 ft./NM). A10.2.2.1.2. Critical Field Length (CFL). Takeoff GW must never exceed that which would require CFL in excess of the runway available for a normal takeoff. If a DER crossing requirement exceeds 50 feet, use the correction chart in the performance manual for balanced critical field length for the first 50 feet, and add 50 feet to balanced critical field length for every foot of altitude above 50 feet. Example: 55 feet DER crossing requires the full correction on the balanced critical field length chart plus 250 additional feet of balanced critical field length. Required screen heights depend on the agency that wrote the standard instrument departure (SID). Note: N/A for Maximum Effort operations. Comply with MFLMETO guidance in the applicable Dash-1 / Dash-1-1. A10.2.2.1.3. If unable to determine the DER altitude required, use 35 feet for planning purposes. A10.2.2.1.4. If the requirements of AFI 11-202V3 have been complied with (Note: fuel dumping does not meet the requirements of immediate jettison to reduce weight) then use the following guidance for departure planning. If no minimum climb gradient is published, use 200 ft/NM with all engines operating and 152 ft./NM (per paragraph A10.2.2.1.1) with one engine inoperative. If a higher climb gradient is

158

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 published or required for radar vectors, use that climb gradient as the minimum with all engines operating and AFMC/A3 authorizes use of the required climb gradient minus 48 ft/NM as the minimum with one engine inoperative. If the departure airfield does not have an instrument approach, then an obstacle survey has not been completed. Therefore an IFR departure is not authorized. If the published IFR departure procedure does not include either routing or a minimum climb gradient (weather mins. only) then an IFR departure using those procedures is not authorized. A10.2.2.1.5. If the airport does not have an authorized IFR departure method, the weather at takeoff must permit a VFR climb to an IFR MEA, an appropriate IFR cruising altitude, or an altitude where an IFR clearance can be obtained (i.e. ATC vectors). A10.2.2.2. VFR Departures. VFR Departures will not be flown in lieu of proper obstacle clearance planning. A10.2.2.2.1. VFR departures require detailed planning to ensure obstacles and high terrain is avoided. Conduct VFR operations only when required for mission accomplishment. A10.2.2.2.2. The minimum climb gradient on four engines must ensure obstacles clearance along the planned departure route. Note: Use the climb-out flight path -4 engines charts for this calculation. A10.2.2.2.3. Engine-out climb gradient capability ensures that in the event of an engine failure, the planned departure or emergency return route provides obstacle avoidance. VFR departures must ensure they can vertically clear published IFR departure procedure restrictions along the planned departure route with one engine inoperative. When departing VFR and unable to vertically clear published IFR departure procedure restrictions along the planned departure route with one engine inoperative, AFMC/A3 (as delegated) authorizes operations at or below an aircraft gross weight that enables a climb rate of at least 300 feet per minute on three engines at obstacle clearance speed. Use the takeoff gross weight limited by 3 engine climb performance charts for this calculation. The pilot shall ensure pre-departure planning includes emergency return routing (if applicable) and a gross weight reduction plan (fuel dumping and/or cargo jettison) if applicable. A10.2.3. Flight Data Calculations. A10.2.3.1. Computer Flight Plans. The authorized flight planning software for most C130 variants is PFPS/CFPS/JMPS. If your aircraft is not supported by PFPS/CFPS, use a contractor-developed equivalent or compute the flight plan manually. A10.2.3.2. Navigators/CSOs will refer to applicable 11-2MDS Volumes for guidance for fuel planning when required for the mission. A10.2.3.3. (C-130H and variants) A pilot crewmember, or additional flight engineer, will crosscheck the TOLD Card for accuracy by using the performance manual or approved tab data. As a minimum, the person checking the data will: A10.2.3.3.1. Verify gross weight independently from the TOLD Card.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

159

A10.2.3.3.2. Review and compare the computed distances or ground roll with the actual conditions, runway available, and departure procedures. A10.2.3.3.3. Crosscheck minimum control, takeoff, and landing speeds. A10.2.3.4. (C-130J and variants) Pilots will crosscheck the CNI-MU TOLD information for accuracy. A10.2.3.4.1. Verify gross weight independently from the entered value. A10.2.3.4.2. Verify the entered parameters and configurations. A10.2.3.4.3. Verify the correct speeds have been entered into the V SPEEDS page. A10.2.3.4.4. Review and compare the computed distances or ground roll with the actual conditions and runway available. A10.2.4. Runway and Taxiway Minimums. are shown in Table A10.2.

Minimum dimensions for aircraft operations

Table A10.2. Minimum Dimensions. Parameter: Taxiway width

Minimum Requirement: 30 ft. 80 ft. for normal ops (non-assault qualified crews) 60 ft. for assault ops (assault qualified crews)

Runway width

Note: Both pilots must be assault qualified, or a non-qualified pilot must be under the direct supervision of an assault qualified IP. Critical Field Length (Balanced or Unbalanced for C-130H), or Runway length (Normal T/O) IAW Table 2.1, whichever is longer. Landing distance from 50 ft. over the threshold, plus 500 ft.* Runway length (Normal ldg)

*For RVR(Vis) less than 4000m (3/4 mile): Add 1,000 ft. to landing distance Ground roll plus 500 ft., but not less than 3000 ft. Runway length (Assault ldg) Compute landing performance with two engines in reverse, two engines in ground idle, and full brakes Charted Minimum Field Length for Maximum Effort Takeoff (MFLMETO) (corrected for one-engine Vcma, if applicable), but not less than 3,000 ft. Takeoff at Vmca in ground effect or Vmeto, whichever is Runway length (Assault T/O) greater, unless actual obstacles are a factor. Vmca corrections may be disregarded while conducting approved test plan operations or while conducting approved assault takeoff/landing upgrade training

160

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

NVG Takeoff NVG Landing (Normal) NVG Landing (Assault)

Same as Normal or Assault T/O Same as Normal Landing Ground Roll plus 500 feet for marked touchdown (500 ft.) zones. Use Ground Roll plus 1,000 feet for unmarked zones or 1,000 ft. marked zones.

A10.2.5. Operations over Runway cables. A10.2.5.1. Do not land on (touchdown on) approach end arresting cables (does not include recessed cables). If the aircraft lands before the cable, contact the tower to have the cable inspected. A10.2.5.2. Do not takeoff or land over an approach end cable that has been reported as slack, loose, or improperly rigged by NOTAM, automated terminal information service (ATIS) or ATC. A10.2.5.3. Operations are authorized on runways where BAK-12 systems are installed, with a minimum of a six-point cable tie-down system, without regard to the Dash-One Restriction. The aircraft must cross the cable within the lateral dimension of the tie down system to avoid damage. When operating from runways equipped with other types of systems, or if it is unknown if the BAK-12 system includes six point tie-downs, aircrews should recognize the increased risk of damage to the aircraft. A10.2.6. LZ Markings. Refer to AFI 13-217. The markings must be firmly established during mission planning and included in the aircrew briefing. A10.2.7. Minimum Runway Condition Report (RCR). Refer to paragraph 2.15 and 3.2.5. When no RCR is available, refer to the C-130 Dash-1-1 for standard ICAO conversions based on general runway condition. A10.2.8. Crash Fire Rescue (CFR). Up to four takeoffs and landings within 7 consecutive days may be accomplished at airfields without appropriate CFR readily available. Units will track landings to ensure a subsequent crew does not exceed this limit. A10.2.9. Reduced Power Operations. (C-130H and variants) Reduced power operations are intended to prolong engine service life. A10.2.9.1. During proficiency flights, TIT will not be less than 900 degrees C for takeoff, not to exceed 19,600 in-lbs. of torque. A10.2.9.2. Reduce power for formation takeoffs to a torque corresponding to a TIT of no less than 970 degrees C for takeoff and climb. Higher power settings may be used, if needed, and will be briefed by the formation commander. A10.2.9.3. Climb power to cruise altitude will be 970 degrees C TIT for -15 engines and 932 degrees C TIT for -7 engines, unless mission requirements dictate otherwise, not to exceed 19,600 in-lbs. of torque. A10.2.9.4. Use maximum power for max effort takeoffs (actual or simulated), not to exceed 19,600 in-lbs. of torque.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

161

A10.2.10. Turbulence. AFH 11-203V2, Weather for Aircrews – Products and Services, defines the C-130 as a category III aircraft for turbulence. Additionally, AFMC applies the following guidance/restrictions: A10.2.10.1. For Low Level Operations utilize turbulence category II criteria. A10.2.10.2. Comply with AFI 11-202V3 guidance for any forecast or observed Severe Turbulence. Do not use the AFH 11-203V2 Aircraft Turbulence Intensity Conversion Chart to downgrade severe turbulence for any flight regime. A10.2.10.3. AF produced turbulence products are based upon category II aircraft. If referencing other products or reports, crews should confirm the type of aircraft the forecast turbulence applies to, or what type of aircraft reported the encounter, to gain a more accurate picture for their route of flight. A10.3. Common Mission Guidance. Aircrew attached to AFSOC or AFSOC gained flying organizations will comply with AFSOC published guidance when flying sorties on an AFSOC Flight Authorization. A10.3.1. Air Refueling. The C-130 can fulfill roles as a tanker during Helicopter Air Refueling (HAR) or Tiltrotor Air Refueling (TAR). Special Mission C-130 variants may also be capable or Air-to-Air Refueling (AAR) as a receiver. Contact AFMC/A3V for guidance when/if these mission elements are required. N/A for AFMC aircrew attached to AFSOC or AFSOC gained flying organizations. A10.3.2. Formation. All tactical and special formation procedures will be flown in accordance with AFI 11-2C-130V3 or AFI 11-2C-130JV3. A10.3.2.1. The most probable formation flown in AFMC is visual fluid trail. Spacing will be as briefed/required but will be flown to assure nose/tail and wing tip separation. A10.3.3. NVG Operations. NVGs are approved for use during takeoffs and landings for properly qualified aircrew. A10.3.3.1. NVG Altitudes. Aircrew may use NVGs to maintain situational awareness and to visually clear at any altitude. NVG Low-level operations flown by qualified aircrew may be conducted at 300 ft. contours for level/rolling terrain and in mountainous terrain. A10.3.4. Airdrop Procedures. AFMC aircrew will reference AFI 11-2C-130V3/11-2C130JV3 and/or AFI 11-2MC-130V3/AFI 11-2MC-130JV3 for additional guidance for the various airdrop operations capable on the C-130. AFMC aircrew attached to AFSOC or AFSOC gained flying organizations will comply with AFI 11-2MC-130V3/AFI 11-2MC130JV3. A10.3.4.1. Specialized airdrop equipment (test articles, etc) will be operated in accordance with test plans and/or locally approved procedures. A10.3.5. Low-level Navigation. The low-level environment is defined in Chapter 3. C130 low-level operations are not held to LASDT constraints. Instead, if the crew member has received an AF Form 8 documented low-level evaluation from a formal school qualification program, that individual is low-level qualified to the altitudes outlined in this attachment. For all others, gain low-level qualification by completing the AFMC published

162

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 low-level training plan. Except for navigation profiles flown as part of approved test plans or in conjunction with FCF profiles, do not operate the aircraft lower than the altitudes shown below. A10.3.6. Minimum Altitudes. A10.3.6.1. Day VMC Enroute. Plan a minimum of 300 feet AGL modified contour altitude above the terrain using visual references and radar altimeter. Aircrews may fly lower to perform system checks (OCF/FCF/ Test etc.). However limit time below 300 feet to the minimum required for system checks. A10.3.6.2. Night VMC Enroute. (Non-NVG) Plan enroute legs at an indicated altitude of 500 feet above the highest obstruction to flight (man-made obstacle, terrain feature, or spot elevation), or 400 feet plus one chart contour interval above the highest depicted terrain contour, whichever is highest, within 3 NMs of route centerline to include the aircraft turn radius over each turn point. If the altitude for the next leg is higher than the current leg altitude, climb will be completed prior to the turn point. If the altitude for the next leg is lower than the current leg, do not initiate descent until over the turn point. Legs may be divided into segments for night altitude computations, depending on terrain differential or threats in order to allow flight closer to the ground. Once the obstacle or terrain feature is visually identified and the aircraft is confirmed well clear, the crew may descend to the next segmented altitude, if lower. Note: Planning a route on a JOG chart, if available, significantly reduces night enroute altitudes. If the route has been planned on a JOG and night altitudes are verified, the route may be flown with the lower altitudes when flying with reference to a tactical pilotage chart (TPC). A10.3.6.3. Night VMC (NVG) Plan a minimum of 300 feet AGL modified contour altitude above the terrain using visual references and radar altimeter. Minimum visibility is 3 NM. A10.3.6.4. TF Operations. TF operations may be flown at any set clearance. Day/IMC and night VMC TF operations requires additional training. See AFI 11-2FT Vol 1, C-130 Attachment. A10.3.6.5. Minimum Safe Altitude (MSA). MSA is an initial VFR altitude that provides additional terrain clearance while the aircrew analyzes situations that require interruption of low-level operations (route disorientation and equipment malfunctions or when either pilot must leave the seat during low-level operations, etc. Climb to the 500 set clearance plane if a pilot must leave the seat during TF operations.). An MSA will be computed for each leg, route segment, or entire low-level route. Compute MSA the same as night (non-NVG) altitudes above. A10.3.6.6. Minimum IFR Enroute Altitude. Compute minimum IFR enroute altitude by adding 1,000 feet (2,000 feet in mountainous terrain) above the highest obstruction to flight (man-made obstruction, terrain feature, or spot elevation) within 5 NMs of route centerline. Round this altitude to the next 100-foot increment. A10.3.6.6.1. Minimum altitudes for IFR operations within published Military Training Routes (MTRs) in US sovereign airspace will be the computed leg MSAs unless a higher altitude is required by FLIP AP/1B.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

163

A10.3.6.7. Emergency Safe Altitude (ESA). ESA is designed to provide positive IMC terrain clearance during emergency situations that require leaving the low-level structure. Several ESAs may be computed for route segments transiting significant terrain differentials, or a single ESA may be computed for the entire low-level route. To compute ESA, add 1,000 feet (2,000 feet in mountainous terrain) to the elevation of the highest obstruction to flight within 10 NMs either side of the planned route centerline. A10.3.6.7.1. Climbing to the ESA may put the aircraft in a controlled (i.e., IFR) altitude structure requiring coordination with air traffic control agencies. A10.3.6.8. Pressure altimeters are calibrated to indicate true altitudes under international standard atmospheric (ISA) conditions. Any deviation from these standard conditions will result in erroneous readings on the altimeter. This error becomes important when considering obstacle clearances in temperatures lower than standard since the aircraft's altitude is below the figure indicated by the altimeter. Refer to the flight information handbook to determine correction. A10.3.7. Chase Operations. C-130 aircrew are not normally required to maintain chase qualification. A10.3.7.1. If the C-130 is required to fly as a test mission chase, the following restrictions apply: A10.3.7.1.1. The C-130 acts as chase for another C-130. A10.3.7.1.1.1. The aircrew will be C-130 visual formation qualified. A10.3.7.1.1.2. All formation procedures will be IAW this Instruction. Formation spacing will be no closer than 200ft. A10.3.7.1.2. If the C-130 aircrew is required to chase any other aircraft, Chase qualification training will be completed IAW 2FT Vol 1 and the Procedures in Chap 3 of this Instruction will be complied with. A10.3.7.1.2.1. Chase spacing will be no closer than 200ft. A10.3.7.2. If a specific test mission requires an aircraft to chase the C-130, the following restrictions apply: A10.3.7.2.1. Prior to each chase sortie, supervisory personnel will ensure the C-130 PIC and chase pilots are briefed on the mission content, restrictions, and responsibilities. A10.3.7.2.2. The C-130 and chase aircraft must maintain radio contact throughout the chase operation. A10.3.7.2.3. It is unsafe to fly in close vertical proximity to another aircraft due to the interrelated aerodynamic effects. Never fly directly over or under another aircraft. The chase position is will be defined I the test plan, but will be no closer than 200ft. A10.3.7.2.4. The normal chase position will be dictated by the test plan requirements.

164

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A10.3.7.2.5. The C-130 aircraft must inform the chase aircraft and receive acknowledgment prior to initiating turns, climbs and descents, airspeed changes, or configuration changes (e.g. flaps, gear, etc.). A10.3.8. Test Pilot School (TPS) Curriculum. Any curriculum profile will be flown IAW the procedures and limitations of the applicable C-130 and IAW all guidance in this Instruction. An IP will be in the seat for all TPS curriculum events. A10.3.9. Use of Automation (C-130J). When automation is used (AFCS/FD and auto throttles) the pilot flying will normally initiate all AFCS/FD/autothrottole inputs into the system. When hand flying the aircraft, the non-flying pilot will normally make the inputs. A10.3.9.1. The “two button rule” will be used for C-130J system operations. The flying pilot should exchange aircraft control for any duty that requires the flying pilot to be heads down for more than two CNI inputs.

A10.4. Instrument Procedures. A10.4.1. Instrument Approach Procedures. A10.4.1.1. The C-130 is normally a category C aircraft. If approach speeds exceed 140 knots, the minimums for category D will be used. A10.4.1.2. Circling Approach. If the circling minimums are not published by category, ensure the HAA and visibility are not less than the following: A10.4.1.2.1. Category C - 500 feet – 1 ½ miles. A10.4.1.2.2. Category D - 600 feet - 2 miles. A10.4.1.3. If full flight instrumentation is not available and operational, base DH or MDA on a minimum HAT or HAA of 300 feet and RVR 40, or visibility ¾ mile if RVR is not available. Full flight instrumentation for all approaches includes barometric altimeters, airspeed indicators, vertical velocity indicators, heading indicators, and attitude indicators, in the pilot and copilot positions. For an ILS/MLS full flight instrumentation also includes dual flight displays. One flight director for the pilot flying the approach, plus ADI repeat (C-130J: same sources for the Primary Flight Display) for the pilot monitoring the approach satisfies this requirement. MC-130H standby instruments do not satisfy this requirement. A10.4.1.4. For precision radar approaches, visibility will be no lower than RVR 24 or ½ mile if RVR is not available. DH will be based on an HAT of no less than 200 feet. A10.4.1.5. Fly a precision approach, if available, at night and during marginal weather. If PAR, MLS, ILS, or LPV is not available, fly any available approved instrument approach. On training and evaluation flights, or flights at familiar airfields, pilots may fly nonprecision approaches or VFR patterns to accomplish required training or evaluation requirements. A10.4.2. Advisory Calls. C-130 crews will use the guidance below versus that listed in AFI 11-2FTV3 Chap 4. The pilot flying will periodically announce intentions during departure, arrivals, approaches, and when circumstances require deviating from normal procedures. Mandatory advisory calls are: (The pilot not flying the aircraft will make these calls except those designated for any crewmember).

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

165

A10.4.2.1. Takeoff. State "GO" at refusal speed or takeoff speed, whichever is lower. If refusal speed is lower than takeoff speed, state “Rotate” at takeoff speed. Any crewmember noting a safety of flight malfunction before hearing “GO” will state “REJECT” with a brief description of the malfunction. A10.4.2.2. Takeoff Aborts and Landings: The Flight Engineer (non-flying pilot for C130J) will state which throttles / power levers may be brought into reverse: “All 4”, “Inboards”, or “Outboards” as appropriate. A10.4.2.3. Altitude calls: A10.4.2.3.1. 1000 feet above initial approach fix (IAF) (or holding) altitude. A10.4.2.3.2. Transition altitude/level. A10.4.2.3.3. 1000 feet above/below assigned altitude. A10.4.2.4. Approaches: A10.4.2.4.1. Call 100 feet above procedure turn, final approach fix (FAF), MDA, or DH altitude. A10.4.2.4.2. Non-precision approaches. A10.4.2.4.2.1. “Minimums” when reaching MDA. A10.4.2.4.2.2. “Runway in sight”. Call when sufficient visual reference with the runway environment is established and the aircraft is in a safe position to land. Do not call too soon when obstructions to vision, such as fog, haze, low stratus clouds, etc., are present. A10.4.2.4.2.3. “Go-around”. Call at missed approach point when visual reference with the runway environment is insufficient to continue the approach, or if the aircraft is not in a position for a safe landing. A10.4.2.4.3. Precision approaches. A10.4.2.4.3.1. “Continue”. Call at DH if only the approach lighting system is in sight and a determination cannot yet be made that the aircraft is in a position for a safe landing. If an approach is continued below DH based on seeing the approach lights only (an approach to visibility minimums), “Go-around” must be called by 100 feet if a determination to land cannot be made. A10.4.2.4.3.2. “Land”. Call at DH if runway environment is in sight and the aircraft is in a position for a normal landing. A10.4.2.4.3.3. “Go-around”. Call at DH or later if the runway environment is not in sight or if the aircraft is not in a position for a safe landing. If an approach is continued below DH based on seeing the approach lights only (an approach to visibility minimums), ―Go-around‖ must be called by 100 feet if a determination to land cannot be made. A10.4.2.5. Deviations.

166

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A10.4.2.5.1. The pilot not flying the aircraft will tell the other pilot when heading or airspeed deviations are observed or altitude is more than 100 feet from desired, and no attempt is being made to correct the deviation. A10.4.2.5.2. Any crewmember seeing a variation of 200 feet altitude, a deviation of ±10 knots or a potential terrain obstruction problem will immediately notify the pilot. Deviations from prescribed procedures for the approach being flown will also be announced.

A10.5. Operating Procedures and Restrictions. A10.5.1. Flight Duty Period (FDP). Limit crew day to 12 hours with an inoperative autopilot. If the autopilot fails after departure, continue to the next scheduled stop and then comply with the 12-hour duty limitation. Engines Running On-load/Offload (ERO) are not limited in the three-sortie maximum. The maximum FDP for a basic aircrew (not augmented) is 16 hours. All tactical (mission) events, FCF, or test events will be completed within the first 12 hours of the FDP. A10.5.2. Duty Station. Only one pilot, or the flight engineer, may be absent from their duty station at a time. Notify the aircraft commander prior to departing assigned duty station. A10.5.3. Flight Deck Access. Aircraft commanders may authorize passengers access to the flight station during any phase of flight. Passengers will not be permitted access to any pilot position. A10.5.4. Personal Equipment Requirements. A10.5.4.1. Parachutes and Survival Kits. AFMC aircraft will be configured with parachutes and ML-4 survival kits for contingency, crash damage recovery flights, airdrop tests, refueling tests, hazardous acceptance/test, research flights to certify airworthiness, or O8E coded functional check flights. In addition to these missions, OG/CCs retain the option of requiring parachutes and survival kits on any other mission. Survival Vests may be used in lieu of Survival Kits. A10.5.4.2. Helmets and Oxygen Masks. Carry a personal helmet and oxygen mask anytime parachutes are required aboard the aircraft (to avoid head injuries during bailout). A10.5.5. Cockpit Congestion and Loose Objects. A10.5.5.1. During the flight, the number of persons on the flight deck will be the minimum commensurate with mission requirements. A10.5.5.2. Ensure helmet bags and other personal gear is properly stowed to prevent obstruction of egress routes during emergencies. A10.5.6. Outside Observer. When available, use a crewmember to assist in outside clearing any time the aircraft is below 10,000 feet MSL and during all taxi operations. A10.5.7. Aircraft Lighting. A10.5.7.1. Unless otherwise directed the aircraft strobe lights will be operated as follows: A10.5.7.1.1. "Before Starting Engines" Checklist, "red" position.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

167

A10.5.7.1.2. "Lineup" Checklist, "white" for day, night single-ship, and day formation. "Red" for night formation. A10.5.7.1.3. "After Landing" Checklist, "red" position. A10.5.8. Aircraft Servicing and Ground Operations. A10.5.8.1. Aircraft Refueling. allowed on board.

Non-essential crewmembers and passengers are not

A10.5.8.1.1. Simultaneous fuel and oxygen servicing is not authorized. A10.5.8.1.2. For aeromedical evacuation, refer to AFI 11-2C-130V3 or 11-2C130JV3. A10.5.8.1.3. Concurrent qualified ground crews may perform simultaneous refueling and cargo loading. A10.5.8.1.4. SCNS/INS and/or mission computers may be on and may have data inserted during refuel. Do not turn on or off during refuel operations. A10.5.8.1.5. Use primary fuel management IAW the aircraft flight manual whenever practical. A10.5.8.2. Fire Protection. A10.5.8.2.1. The aircraft engine fire extinguisher system fulfills the minimum requirements for fire protection during engine start. A10.5.8.2.2. A fire guard is required for all engine starts. In the absence of additional ground personnel, the ground controller or an additional crewmember may act as the fire guard. A10.5.9. Life Support/Aircrew Flight Equipment Requirements. A10.5.9.1. Oxygen. Oxygen on board for takeoff must be sufficient to accomplish the planned mission from the equal time point (ETP) should oxygen be required (minimum 5 liters or 300 PSI). A10.5.9.1.1. On missions carrying passengers, distribute supplemental oxygen to each passenger regardless if planned flight altitude is above FL 250. If POKs are used, the kits need only be positioned on the aircraft and distributed to each passenger for scheduled flights above FL 250. Demonstrate proper use prior to climbing through FL 250 A10.5.9.1.2. Crewmembers occupying a crew station will have an oxygen mask (helmet or quick-don) connected and readily available for use on all flights, from before engine start until engine shutdown. A10.5.9.1.3. Aircrews required to fly un-pressurized missions will follow the guidance in AFI 11-409. A10.5.9.1.4. Life preserver units (LPUs). The loadmaster/scanner will place an LPU within easy reach of each seated passenger and aircrew member for over-water flights. Crewmembers will fit and adjust LPUs for over-water flights and will wear

168

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 them on over-water missions below 2,000 ft AGL. (LPUs need not be worn for takeoffs, landings, or approaches). A10.5.10. Communications. A10.5.10.1. Sterile Cockpit. Limit conversation to that essential for crew coordination and mission accomplishment during taxi, takeoff, approach, landing, and any flight below 10,000 feet MSL (except cruise). A10.5.10.2. Aircraft Interphone. Primary crewmembers will monitor interphone during critical phases of flight. All C-130J crewmembers will monitor VOX in addition to Interphone / Primary net during critical phases of flight. Crewmembers will advise the aircraft commander prior to checking off interphone. A10.5.10.3. Command Radios: A10.5.10.3.1. The pilot not flying the aircraft normally makes all air traffic control (ATC) radio calls. A10.5.10.3.2. The pilot operating the radios will announce which radio is primary, and advise the crew when the primary radio changes. A10.5.10.3.3. One pilot will record and acknowledge all ATC clearances. Another crewmember should monitor the read back and ensure compliance. A10.5.10.3.4. Both pilots will monitor UHF guard (or VHF guard when appropriate) regardless of primary radio. A10.5.11. Reverse Taxi. A10.5.11.1. The pilot will coordinate reverse taxi directions and signals to be used with the scanner or loadmaster. A10.5.11.2. Secure all cargo and ensure all passengers are seated. A10.5.11.3. Open the aft cargo door and lower the ramp to approximately 12 inches above horizontal. A10.5.11.4. The scanner or loadmaster will be on the aircraft ramp in the best position to direct reverse taxi, report any hazards, and to provide the pilot with timely interphone instructions on turns, distance remaining, conditions of the maneuvering area, and stopping point. A10.5.12. Engine Running On-load and Offload (ERO). Comply with published ERO checklists (when available in applicable Dash-1 operations) and the general guidance listed below. Use ERO procedures when necessary to expedite aircraft movement or permit the exchange of crewmembers. ERO procedures may be used for any mix of personnel or cargo. Material handling equipment should be used if palletized cargo is to be on-loaded or offloaded. Aircraft commanders must assess prevailing weather, lighting and parking location to ensure safe operations. WARNING: Do not on-load or offload through the crew entrance door and cargo ramp and door at the same time. Paratroop doors will not normally be used. Note: At their discretion, aircraft commanders may ERO any category of passenger. The number of passengers and amount of baggage to be on-loaded or offloaded should be taken into consideration. Pilots

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

169

A10.5.12.1. General Procedures. A10.5.12.1.1. Aircraft commanders will brief crewmembers on the intended ERO operation. A10.5.12.1.2. The parking brake will be set and at least one pilot in the seat will monitor brakes, interphone, and radio. A10.5.12.1.3. The pilot will ensure the aircraft is depressurized and comply with guidance for emitters (STBY or OFF for items such as radar). A10.5.12.1.4. Use wing leading edge and taxi lights to enhance safety at night as the situation dictates. A10.5.12.1.5. Station another crewmember on interphone or public address (PA) in the cargo compartment as safety observer. Safety observers will remain forward of all cargo. A10.5.12.1.6. C-130 J crews should consider using HOTEL mode for the propellers. If this is utilized, select Emergency Brakes prior to selecting HOTEL mode on engines 1 and 2. While down-sped, the hydraulic pumps are also turning at 29% and may not deliver enough pressure to maintain normal brakes under certain circumstances. A10.5.12.1.7. Do not move the aircraft until a “Clear to Taxi” call is received from the Loadmaster or other appropriate crewmember. A10.5.12.2. Offload Preparation/Procedures. Aerial delivery support (ADS) arms will remain connected in flight. Prior to landing, the loadmaster will brief all personnel in the cargo compartment regarding their locations, duties, and responsibilities during the ERO. A10.5.12.2.1. One tie-down device forward and aft will remain connected to vehicles until the aircraft is parked. A10.5.12.2.2. Vehicles and passengers will proceed directly aft of the aircraft at least 50 feet before turning and/or 300 feet before stopping. A10.5.12.3. Personnel on/offload through the aft cargo door and ramp. A10.5.12.3.1. Passengers will be escorted by a crewmember when enplaning or deplaning through the aft door and ramp. A10.5.12.3.2. Auxiliary ground loading ramps should be used. A10.5.12.3.3. Unless cargo size and location dictate otherwise, deplane passengers before cargo, and enplane after cargo. A10.5.12.4. Personnel on-load and offload through the crew entrance door: A10.5.12.4.1. Station a crewmember on interphone with cord held taut at approximately 20 feet at an angle of 45 degrees from the aircraft axis. A10.5.12.4.2. Brief deplaning personnel to secure loose articles and remain forward of the interphone cord. A10.5.12.4.3. No enplaning personnel should approach the airplane until the crewmember is in place.

170

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A10.5.13. Takeoff and Landing Guidance. An aircraft commander or higher (IP/EP) will occupy either the left or right seat during all takeoffs, landings, and critical phases of flight. The designated PIC (A-Code) is not required to occupy a primary position, but still retains overall authority for the conduct of the mission. Pilots (MP/FP) or Instructor pilots may takeoff or land from either seat. Copilots (MC) will only takeoff or land from the right seat unless in upgrade status to MP/FP and under the direct supervision of an IP. A10.5.13.1. An instructor qualified pilot or aircraft commander will make all takeoffs and landings during: A10.5.13.1.1. Aircraft emergencies. A10.5.13.1.2. Assault or substandard airfield operations. Exception: Instructors providing upgrade training, receiving an evaluation, gaining currency, or proficiency. A10.5.13.1.3. Situations when in the opinion of the aircraft commander, marginal conditions exist. A10.5.14. Simulated Emergency Procedures. A10.5.14.1. Perform emergency procedures which require simulating an engine(s) shutdown, or placing switches in other than their normal positions, or an abnormal configuration, only during training, evaluation, or currency flights when an instructor or flight examiner is in one of the pilot seats. Instructor pilot candidates who occupy a pilot seat and are under the supervision of a flight examiner pilot (not in a pilot seat) may practice simulated emergency procedures during initial or re-qualification upgrade evaluations. Preface all simulated emergencies with the word ―simulated‖ and terminate simulated emergencies when an actual emergency arises. A10.5.14.2. When conducting simulated engine(s) out training, the flight engineer will post actual charted minimum control speed on the TOLD card. Comply with Dash -1 guidance for Simulated Engine Failure adjustments to Vmca. (Chap 3). During simulated 3-engine takeoff operations, takeoff speed will be adjusted for minimum control speed. The instructor pilot should strive to maintain zero to positive torque on the simulated shutdown engine(s). More detailed information is contained in chapter three of the applicable -1. C-130J pilots will reference the minimum control speeds through Tab data or the CNI. Turns into the simulated inoperative engine(s) should be minimized when possible. A10.5.15. Prohibited In-flight Maneuvers. The following maneuvers will not be practiced or demonstrated in-flight: A10.5.15.1. Rudder force reversals (fin stalls). A10.5.15.2. Spins. A10.5.15.3. Simulated runaway trim malfunctions. A10.5.15.4. Simulated hydraulic system loss by turning engine driven hydraulic pumps off. A10.5.16. Flight Maneuvers. The maneuvers listed in Table A10.3. are authorized for qualification and continuation training (or formal upgrade training where indicated). Certain maneuvers will only be performed during formal training under direct IP supervision. They

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

171

are applicable to all C-130 aircraft. Aircraft commanders will ensure their crews are advised of the maneuvers being flown. The intent is to eliminate confusion or concern over unusual procedures that might not be anticipated. Good communication is a matter of discipline and common sense. A10.5.16.1. Instructor Supervision. Operational Restrictions that require instructor supervision may be satisfied with the instructor observing the event over the shoulder. The instructor will be in the seat for all events that require direct instructor supervision. Table A10.3. Operational Restrictions. Simulated Engine Failure

Practice Engine Shutdowns No-Flap Landing

Touch-and-Go Landings

Direct IP supervision. Retard one throttle to flight idle at not less than VMCA (one-engine inoperative, out of ground effect) nor less than 200 feet AGL. WX at or above circling minimums during daylight and the greater of 1000‘ and 2 statute miles visibility or circling minimums at night. Crosswind component corrected for RCR must be in the recommended zone. Use all 4 engines for touch-and-go or unplanned go-around. Direct IP supervision (Ground or In-Flight) In-Flight: Day VMC. Must remain above 2500‘ AGL. IP supervision. Max gross weight is 120,000 lbs. Max gross weight is 125,000 for AC-130U. Crosswind component corrected for RCR must be in the recommended zone. Authorized in day IMC if WX is at or above circling minimums, and at night with WX of 1,000 foot ceilings and 2 SM visibility or circling minimums, whichever is higher. Authorized in conjunction with simulated engine(s)-out landings. Consider the copilot‘s level of experience when conducting no-flap training. (Direct IP supervision) Minimum runway length: flaps 50 percent / Flight Idle: 5000 feet – for all other: 6000 feet. Any MP/FP/CPs may conduct Flight Idle touch and go landings. Ground idle touch and go landings require direct supervision by an IP. No-flap ground idle touch and go landings not authorized. Crosswind component corrected for RCR must be in the recommended zone. WX: MP/FP/CPs minimum ceiling of 1000 ft. and minimum visibility of 2 SM. IP in either seat 300 ft. and 3/4 mile visibility. After touchdown, all engines will be set to 900 degTIT minimum (C130H and variants).

172

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

Stop-and-Go Landings

Authorized to be performed by any C-130 qualified pilot. Runway remaining for takeoff must be sufficient to allow takeoff and refusal speeds to be equal. Runway remaining for takeoff in the C-130J must be greater than the Refusal Distance in tab data for the existing conditions. Crosswind component corrected for RCR must be in the recommended zone. Ceiling and visibility must be at least 300 feet and 3/4 mile (RVR 40). Do not perform in conjunction with no flap landings. Go-around, Missed Initiated no lower than 200 feet AGL when practicing simulated engine Approaches failures emergencies. (Direct IP supervision) Practice instrument approaches - no lower than minimum altitude for the approach (Instructor not required). Initiate no lower than 500 AGL when aircraft, equipment, or personnel are on the runway. Initiate no lower than 100 AGL when practicing simulated emergencies other than simulated engine failures. (IP supervision) Simulated Engineout Go-around; Missed Approach Slow Flight Demonstration

Direct IP supervision Initiate simulated engine-out go around at no lower than 200 feet AGL or the minimum altitude for the approach. Direct IP Supervision At or above 5000 feet AGL. Fly at approach, threshold, and 1.2 times stall speed with gear down and flaps 0, 50, or 100 percent. Do not exceed 15 degrees of bank.

Approach to Stalls (Training)

Direct IP Supervision Authorized during formal upgrade training Requires day VMC at a minimum of 5000 feet AGL or 5000 feet above cloud deck. The aircraft may be flown to aerodynamic stall (C-130H: g-break; intolerable buffet, roll off) and stick pusher activation (C-130J) for FCF or approved test plans. Requires day VMC at a minimum of 5000 feet AGL or 5000 feet above cloud deck. Do not exceed 45 degrees of bank, except in day VMC. For bank angles in excess of 45 degrees, must be at or above 5000 feet AGL. Review stall speeds before performing turns. Aircraft commanders must be assault trained and certified. Assaults must be performed from the left seat by mission pilots , or instructors in either seat.

Stalls (Test / FCF)

Instrument Steep Turns

Assault Takeoffs and Landings

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 Windmill Taxi Start (Not for C130J Operations)

Aborted Normal Takeoff

Direct IP Supervision Authorized during daylight hours for training. Crosswinds must be in the recommended zone. Runway must be dry, hard-surfaced and 147 feet wide. T.O. –1 recommendations are mandatory. Direct IP Supervision Authorized in daylight only. Crosswind must be in the recommended zone. Runway must be dry, hard-surfaced and long enough for refusal and takeoff speeds to be equal. Initiate the abort by stating “REJECT” prior to refusal speed. Not authorized in conjunction with touch-and-go or stop-and-go landings. Pre-brief all actual engine shutdowns due to a simulated malfunction.

Simulated EngineOut Takeoff

Direct IP Supervision Authorized during day VMC conditions. Maximum gross weight is 120,000 lbs. Crosswind must be in the recommended zone. Runway must be dry, hard-surfaced and 147 wide x 7000 long. Not authorized in the AC-130U or EC-130H

Simulated 2Engine Out Landing

Direct IP Supervision Simulate failure of the second engine at not less than 1,000 feet AGL and not more than 120,000 lb. (125,000 for AC-130U) gross weight Authorized in day VMC conditions. Runway must be dry, hard-surfaced and 147 feet wide. Crosswind component must be in the recommended zone. Use all 4 engines for touch-and-go takeoff, go-around or missed approach. Direct IP Supervision Authorized in day VMC conditions. Minimum altitude is 5,000 feet AGL. Do not initiate at less than 2-engine air minimum control speed. (C130H)

Simulated 2Engine GoAround; Missed Approach

Simulated Emergency Procedures Other Than Simulated Engine Out Operations Unusual Attitudes and Spatial Disorientation

IP supervision. WX at or above circling minimums during daylight and the greater of 1000‘ and 2 miles visibility or circling minimums at night.

IP Supervision Authorized no lower than 10,000 feet AGL. Day VMC conditions only. Do not exceed –1 limitations

173

174

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A10.5.17. Radar Altimeter. A10.5.17.1. Any crewmember detecting the illumination of the radar altimeter Low Altitude warning light (C-130J, Special Alert) will notify the pilot flying the aircraft. Terrain clearance and aircraft position must be verified. Aircraft commander will brief radar altimeter advisory calls for low-level flights. A10.5.17.2. The navigator/CSO and pilot will use the same radar altimeter setting unless briefed otherwise. A10.5.17.3. (C-130E/H) The radar altimeter will be set to the HAT/HAA during instrument approaches. A10.5.17.4. (C-130J) The RADALT reference will be set to HAT minus 50 feet for precision approaches A10.5.17.5. Two radar altimeters are required for C-130J CAT II ILS. A10.5.17.6. (C-130J) Normally set the RADALT to 250 for non-precision approaches and 300 for circling approaches. A10.5.17.7. The radar altimeter will be set at the pilot’s discretion for VFR patterns. A10.5.18. Chaff and Flare Operations. Conduct the following procedures after the live firing of chaff and flares: A10.5.18.1. After landing, taxi to the de-arm area or another suitable safe location to check for hung ordnance. A10.5.18.2. The loadmaster or another qualified crewmember will deplane the aircraft and check all flare dispensers for hung ordnance. Note: The mid-fuselage dispensers can be visually checked by opening the paratroop doors. (Eye protection is required prior to opening the paratroop door.) The forward dispensers must be checked by deplaning a crewmember. A10.5.18.2.1. ALE-40/47 or flare squibs that fail to fire are not considered hung ordnance. A10.5.18.3. If hung ordnance is found, identified by a protruding or partially ejected flare cartridge, the aircraft will remain in a de-arm area until Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) personnel meet the aircraft. The aircraft must remain in the designated safe area until EOD personnel can clear all hung ordnance. A10.5.18.4. If hung ordnance is not found, the aircraft can proceed to the parking location. A10.5.19. Descent. Prior to descent into unfamiliar areas, appropriate terrain charts (Operational Navigation Chart (ONC), Sectional Aeronautical Chart, Tactical Pilotage Chart (TPC), or Joint Operations Graphic (JOG)) should be reviewed to increase aircrew situational awareness of obstructions. The C-130J Global Digital Map with the appropriate charts loaded meets this requirement. Primary crewmembers will not be involved in duties other than aircraft operations, descent and approach monitoring, and required checklist items from the initial descent point to landing.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

175

A10.5.20. Touch and Go Landings. Touch and go landings can only be performed by certified individuals. Refer to AFI 11-2FT Vol. 1, for specific certification requirements. Include type of touch and go as part of the briefing, (i.e., ground-idle or flight-idle). Use 900 TIT minimum during touch and go‘s (C-130H and variants). A10.5.21. Windmill Taxi Starts, Buddy Starts, and 3-Engine Takeoffs. A10.5.21.1. Actual Windmill taxi and buddy starts, dictated by operational requirements, may be authorized by the OG/CC to meet specific mission requirements. (N/A for C130J). A10.5.21.1.1. Windmill taxi starts, for training, may be accomplished during pilot proficiency training without further approval. Comply with all T.O. –1 restrictions and those contained in this instruction. A10.5.21.2. Actual 3-Engine takeoffs require specific approval from AFMC/A3. A10.5.22. Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS) / Ground Collision Avoidance System (GCAS) A10.5.22.1. For operations in day VMC conditions, with terrain and obstacles clearly in sight, the PF will call runway and/or terrain in sight, state intentions and visually clear terrain. A10.5.22.2. For operations at night or in IMC, if an aural warning is heard, immediately and simultaneously rotate the aircraft to establish a climb while rolling wings level, and add maximum power until the warning has ceased and adequate terrain clearance is verified. WARNING: Do not delay pull-up for diagnosis of the low altitude warning. Failure to roll wings level during the maneuver described above will decrease stall margin at heavy aircraft gross weights. A10.5.22.3. Ensure the mode of the GPWS/GCAS is commensurate with the aircraft‘s phase of flight. A10.5.23. Traffic Advisory and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS). Operate the TCAS with sensitivity set to Traffic Advisory/Resolution Advisory (TA/RA) to the maximum extent possible. ATC procedures and the ―see and avoid concept‖ will continue to be the primary means of ensuring aircraft separation. Pilots shall not deviate from an assigned ATC clearance based solely on TA information. Attempt to attain visual contact and maintain safe separation. However, if visual separation with the intruding traffic cannot be assured, it is imperative to follow resolution advisories (RA) to obtain aircraft separation computed by TCAS. Failure to follow the computed RA may increase the probability of a midair collision. Do not exceed aircraft structural limits or safe flight speed in order to follow the RA. Always attempt to visually clear the airspace before maneuvering your airplane in response to a TCAS advisory. Advise ATC as soon as practical when a deviation becomes necessary due to a TCAS resolution advisory. A10.5.24. Systems Operations Guidelines A10.5.24.1. Objectives A10.5.24.1.1. A fully mission capable aircraft is the ultimate objective of the logistics effort. The final responsibility regarding equipment required for a mission

176

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 rests with the aircraft commander. If one aircraft commander accepts an aircraft to operate a mission or mission segment without an item or system, this acceptance does not commit that aircraft commander, or a different aircraft commander, to subsequent operations with the same item or system inoperative. When the aircraft commander considers an item essential, designate the component mission essential (ME) on the AFTO Form 781, and the item will be repaired or replaced prior to departure. A10.5.24.1.2. Engine performance, aircraft attitude, vertical velocity indications, altitude, airspeed, and heading instruments should be operative in both pilot positions. For instruments with both analog and digital displays, as a minimum the analog portion must be operational. (Exception: the radar altimeter may have either analog or digital readouts operational.) A10.5.24.2. Minimum Equipment List Guidance. Command operating guidelines list the equipment and systems normally considered essential for routine operations. This list is not inclusive of all equipment or systems essential to airworthiness. The aircraft commander is the approving authority for operations with degraded equipment and needs no further approval. This section provides guidance on how to operate with inoperative/degraded equipment. The Minimum Equipment List (MEL) shall not direct deviation from the aircraft flight manual limitations, emergency procedures or USAF/AFMC directives. The diversity of C-130 variants flown by this command complicates the task of balancing operational reliability with safe mission completion. C130 Category specific guidance will be defined in the tables below. If there is no category listed, the restriction applies to all applicable versions. C-130J: Unless otherwise noted, when the item is duplicated on a soft panel (switch or indication), the number required may be satisfied by either location. For partial or complete hard panel failures, aircrews may revert to soft panel operations. Normally, if a soft panel is selected due to hard panel failure, it should be used for the remainder of the flight. A10.5.24.2.1. If, after exploring all options, the aircraft commander determines that a safe flight is possible with an item listed below inoperative (beyond the scope listed here) a waiver shall be requested through channels to AFMC/A3V. Phone or e-mail methods are appropriate. Any inoperative item not covered in this publication shall be assessed by the aircraft commander and crew. If a safe flight can be accomplished, no further action is necessary. Exceptions for degraded operations is not intended for continued operations over an indefinite period with systems/subsystems inoperative. A10.5.24.3. Navigation Systems. A10.5.24.3.1. For flights in Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS) airspace in the North Atlantic region or the Composite Hawaii/mainland US Route System, the following fully operable navigation systems are considered the minimum necessary to permit compliance. A10.5.24.3.1.1. SCNS aircraft. Fully functional SCNS, to include the navigator/CSO IDCU and either the pilot or copilot IDCU. A10.5.24.3.1.2. Non-SCNS aircraft. Two independent sources of drift and ground speed, i.e. doppler/DVS and INS, doppler/DVS and GPS, INS and GPS,

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

177

or dual INS. A10.5.24.3.2. Sextant and sextant mount. (Not required on aircraft with integrated GPS or dual INS). A10.5.24.3.3. Compass systems. When two systems are installed, both should be operational. If one system fails, refer to the flight manual to determine what other equipment is affected. One compass and one aligned inertial system is acceptable. The C-130 standby compass is not considered a separate source for the purposes of this paragraph. A10.5.24.3.4. For flights on all other Category I routes, the aircraft commander determines the minimum navigational capability required to safely accomplish the mission. A10.5.24.3.5. Equipment listed in FLIP AP/2 for permitting compliance with MNPS is mandatory. Loss of any component before track entry requires a return to station with maintenance capability or re-file via specified routes. A10.5.24.3.6. Comply with all GATM requirements as directed. (i.e. ILS FM immunity). Table A10.4. Engines/APU/GTC. Item/System Engines Torquemeter (C-130H) Horse Power (C-130J) Gas Generator Speed (NG) (C-130J) Measured Gas Temperature (C-130J)

Installed Operational Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions Do not depart unless all four engines will achieve predicted minimum 4 4 takeoff power. All 4 indications must be valid. 4 4 4

4

4

4

4

4

Tachometer

4

4

TIT Indicators

4

4

Fuel Flow Gages

4

4

Oil Temperature Gages

4

4

Oil Pressure Gages

4

4

All 4 indications must be valid. All 4 indications must be valid. All 4 indications must be valid. All 4 indications must be valid. Indicators for both the power section and the reduction gearbox section must be operational. All 4 power section and gearbox indications must be valid.

178

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

Oil Quantity gages

4

3

Low Oil Quantity Light

1

0

Oil Cooler Flap

4

0

Oil Cooler Flap Position Indicator

4

0

EIDS (Engine Instrument Display) (EC-130H AVP)

2

1

Automatic Thrust Control System (ATCS) C-130J

1

1

FADEC Panel (C-130J)

1

1

FADEC (C-130J)

8

7

Nacelle Interface Unit (NIU) (C-130J)

4

4

One oil quantity gage may be inoperative provided the oil quantity is verified prior to flight and the Low Oil Quantity light is operational. C-130J: Any number may be inoperative provided oil quantity is verified prior to flight and OIL QTY 1(2,3, or 4) LOI is operational

If inoperative, all four oil quantity gages must be operational. Oil Cooler Flap may be inoperative if the flap can be manually positioned to open and fixed and oil temperature can be maintained within normal limits.

Flight may be continued to next repair facility as long as operable EIDS is in the Top Position (Isol DC)

One may be inoperative provided all dedicated sensor input and control logic is serviceable to/from the operative FADEC on the engine with redundancy lost. Use ATCS inoperative procedures. Note: All FADECS must be serviceable for auto shut-down. ATCS will be degraded.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

179

APU

1

1

GTC

1

0

If the APU fails, flight in day VMC conditions is authorized provided no other electrical malfunction exists. Remain within 50 NM of a suitable airfield for landing. If the APU generator is inop, the generator will be removed and padded prior to operation of the APU

Table A10.5. Propellers. Item/System

Propeller

Installed Operational Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions Propeller may be operated with a feather override failure where the override button fails to pop out at full feather (faulty pressure switch) 4 4 provided maintenance instructions in the applicable fault isolation manual are followed and no other system is affected.

Synchrophaser (C-130H)

1

1

Synchrophaser (C-130J)

1

0

If the synchrophaser fails, the mission may continue to a repair facility provided no other portion of the propeller system is affected. The synchrophaser will be removed.

Table A10.6. Electrical System. Item/System AC Generators, EngineDriven (Note 1)

AC Generators, EngineDriven (enroute) (Note 1)

Installed Operational Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions 4

4

4

3

If a generator fails at an enroute stop, flight to a destination with repair capability, including enroute stops, may be made. If the AC generator is not equipped with a disconnect, it will be removed and the generator mount padded before flight.

180

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

AC Generators, EngineDriven (Local training) (Note 1)

4

3

Local training mission may continue after a generator is disconnected or removed and the mount padded, provided no other electrical malfunction exists.

Bus Switching Unit (BSU)

2

1

The #1 BSU must be operational.

Transformer Rectifiers (TR)

4

4

ATM and ATM generator/APU generator

1

1

DC Volt Meter

1

1

RTRU (EC-130H AVP)

4

3

5 TR‘s for the AC-130U. One essential TR may be inoperative for flight to a repair facility provided no other electrical malfunction exists. If the ATM, ATM generator/APU generator fails, flight in day VMC conditions is authorized provided no other electrical malfunction exists. Remain with 50 NM of a suitable landing airfield. The APU generator will be removed and padded before operation of the APU.

Electronic Circuit Breaker 13 13 C-130J Only Unit C-130J Indications (Systems All displays for both Loadmeter and 5 5 Status Display) Voltmeter indications are required Inverters (C-130J) 4 4 All versions of inverters are required. Note: All associated equipment and indicators will be operational for each operative enginedriven AC generator. (i.e. generator control panel, GCU, voltage regulator, generator out/caution light, AC loadmeter, etc.). Table A10.7. Fuel System. Note: The primary concern with inoperative fuel boost pumps or quantity indicators is fuel balance and wing loading. Degraded operation is permissible, however, flight crews must consider potentially trapped fuel and decreased range should further degradation occur. Item/System

Main Tank Fuel Pumps

Main Tank Dump Pumps

Installed Operational Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions On aircraft equipped with dump mast shutoff valve switches, one main tank fuel boost pump may be inoperative 4 4 for flight to a repair facility provided the respective fuel dump pump is operational. 4 4

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

181

Auxiliary Tank Fuel Pumps (per tank)

1

0

External Tank Fuel Pumps (per tank) (if tank contains fuel)

2

1

Auxiliary tank fuel pumps should be operational for any tank containing fuel If one external tank boost pump is inoperative, fuel within that tank will be trapped should the second boost pump fail. Fuel balancing with the opposite tank will then be necessary resulting in a reduction of usable fuel.

182

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 One main tank indicator may be inoperative provided: Both the tank with the inoperative indicator and its symmetrical tank quantity are verified by use of a fuel tank dipstick. The fuel tank did stick is calibrated for JP-4. Use with other fuels is inaccurate for reading pounds of fuel quantity.

Main Fuel Quantity Indicator (enroute) (Notes: 1 and 2)

4

2

At enroute stops when engines are shut down, the tank with the inoperative indicator and the symmetrically opposite tank will be dip checked Crossfeed operations will begin when the symmetrically opposite quantity indicator has decreased to 1,500 lbs. (inboard) and 2,500 lbs. (outboard). For tanker aircraft (HC-130P/N) begin crossfeed when any main tank decreases to 2,000 lbs. Engine out training using the engine corresponding to the inoperative indicator or its symmetrical opposite will not be conducted during tank to engine operations. Flights consisting of multiple stops when the profile e does not allow dipping the tanks will terminate with a minimum of 8,000 lbs. calculated main tank fuel. Two main tank indicators may be inoperative provided they are not symmetrical tanks or on the same wing.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

Main Fuel Quantity Indicators (local training)

External Fuel Quantity Indicator (See Notes 1and 2)

183

4

2

2

0

Auxiliary Tank Fuel Quantity Indicator

2

0

Crossfeed Manifold Fuel Pressure Indication

1

1

Local training flights may be conducted with two inoperative main tank indicators provided: Inoperative indicators are asymmetrical. Main tank fuel quantity is visually verified using the fuel tank dip stick. Engine out training is not performed unless all engines are on crossfeed from auxiliary or external tanks with operative indicators Symmetrical engine flow is maintained. Mission will terminate with a minimum of 8,000 lbs. calculated main tank fuel. One external fuel tank indicator may be inoperative provided both external fuel tanks are checked full or empty. Both external fuel tank indicators may be inoperative provided both external tanks are verified empty. When an external tank indicator is inoperative and the tank cannot be visually checked empty due to foam modification, comply with the following prior to flight: Check pressure with each pump in the external tank. If no pressure is obtained, the tank is verified empty. If pressure is obtained, ground transfer the fuel from the external tank. Defuel the external tank if unable to ground transfer. When unable to verify an external tank is empty prior to engine start, the tank will be placed on crossfeed until no pressure is obtained. This will be completed prior to takeoff.

If the fuel quantity indicator is inoperative, fuel quantity will be verified with the magnetic sight gage.

184

Cross ship/Crossfeed Separation Valve

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

1

0

May be inoperative provided the valve is electrically disconnected and secured OPEN

Notes: 1. Both a main tank and external fuel tank indicator may be inoperative on the same wing provided the limitations listed for a single inoperative main fuel tank indicator and a single external fuel tank indicator are followed. 2. Fuel will not be transferred into or out of a main or external fuel tank with an inoperative indicator or its symmetrical tank during Inflight Refueling (IFR) or Helicopter Aerial Refueling (HAR) Table A10.8. Hydraulics. Item/System Installed Operational Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions Engine–driven Hydraulic 4 4 Pumps Utility/booster System Engine Pump Warning 4 4 Lights Utility System Hydraulic 1 1 Pressure Indicator Booster System Hydraulic 1 1 Pressure Indicator Hydraulic Suction Boost 2 2 Pumps Auxiliary Hydraulic Pump 1 1 Auxiliary Hydraulic Pressure Direct reading gage in cargo 1 1 Indicator compartment may be inoperative Rudder Boost Pressure 2 2 Indicators Table A10.9. Anti-Ice/De-Ice System. Item/System Ice Detection System

Pitot Heat System

TAS Probe Heat

Installed Operational Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions 1 1 Note: 1. The associated pitot system will be considered inop. Both pilots will select the pitot static source with the operative pitot heat. The aircraft will 2 1 not be flown in known or forecast icing conditions. The aircraft will not be flown in RVSM airspace if using a single pitot static system 1 1 When Installed.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 Total Air Temperature Sensor Anti-Icing System (C130J) Wing/Empennage Anti- Icing System

185

2

0

Note: 1.

2

2

Note: 1. Valve(s) may be inoperative provide the valve has failed OPEN, otherwise see Note 1.

Engine Inlet Air Duct AntiIcing Systems

4

4

Leading Edge Temperature Indicators

6

6

Wing Leading Edge And Wheel Well Over Temperature Warning Lights

7

7

Propeller Anti-Icing Systems Propeller De-icing Timer Unit (C-130J) Windshield Anti-Icing Systems Radome Anti-Icing System (if installed) Angle of Attack Sensor AntiIce (C-130J)

Propeller Anti-Icing / De-Icing will be operational for flight into known or forecast icing conditions.

4

0

1

0

2

2

1

1

May be inoperative for flights which do not require the use of the radar.

1

If inoperative the associated AOA sensor is considered inoperative

2

Note: 1. Note: 1.

Note: 1: System may be inoperative provided the aircraft is not operated in known or forecast icing conditions. Table A10.10. Landing Gear/Brakes/Anti-Skid. Item/System

Installed Operational Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions

186

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

Landing Gear System

1

1

Wheel Brakes

4

4

If a landing gear malfunction is encountered, make a full stop landing and troubleshoot the malfunction before continuing the mission. If repair capability does not exist and further flights can be made with the gear down and locked, the aircraft may be flown to a destination with repair capability (including enroute stops), provided the gear is not moved from the down and locked position. Flights (including enroute stops) with the landing gear doors removed may be accomplished to a destination with repair capability (Comply with – 1 restrictions).

The anti-skid may be inoperative for flight to a destination with repair capability, including enroute stops. A local training flight may continue once airborne if the anti-skid fails provided the system is turned off. Limited to one full stop termination landing. Assault landings with the anti-skid inoperative is not authorized.

Anti-Skid

1

1

Parking Brake Landing Gear Position Indicators (C-130J)

1

1

3

3

Landing Gear Warning Light (C-130J)

3

0

Soft panel may be used. Limited to one full stop landing. May be inoperative provided GCAS is installed and fully functional

Landing Gear Warning System (C-130H)

1

1

Light and Horn must be functional.

Table A10.11. Flight Recorder/Indicating/Locating Systems. Item/System

Installed Operational Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

187

Flight Data Recorder

1

1

Cockpit Voice Recorder

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Emergency Locator Transmitter Underwater Acoustical Locator Beacon ACAWS or equivalent system

If CVR is operable, flight to repair facility is authorized If FDR (DFDR) is operable, flight to repair facility is authorized

Table A10.12. System Integration and Display (C-130J). Item/System Avionics Management Unit (AMU) Bus Adapter Unit (BAU) Type I

Installed Operational Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions All displays and data fields must be 2 1 operative to consider the AMU operative 6

4

4

4

2

2

Communication/Navigation/ Breaker Panel (CNBP)

1

1

Communication/Navigation/ Identification Management Unit (CNI-MU)

3

2

2

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

1

2

2

Bus Adapter Unit (BAU) Type II Bus Interface Unit (BIU)

Communication/Navigation/ Identification System Processor (CNI-SP) Data Bus (1553B) Avionics Data Bus (1553B) Communication/Navigation Bus Data Bus (1553B) Display Bus Data Bus (1553B) Interprocessor Communication Bus Data Bus (1553B) Panel Bus

BAU 3 (daytime only) and/or 6 will be used as replacements or can be failed. 1, 2, 4, & 5 must be operational

All displays and data fields must be operative to consider the AMU operative Observer position may be inoperative. All components must be operative for the CNI-MU to be considered operative One may be inoperative for one time flight to repair facility

188

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

Heads Down Display (HDD)

4

3

Heads Up Display

2

0

Mission Computer

2

2

One may be inoperative provided HUD on that side is operational All displays and data fields must be operative to consider the AMU operative May be inoperative provided both HDDs on that side are operational

Table A10.13. Fire Protection/Warning Systems. Item/System Fire Extinguisher System Engine Fire and Turbine Overheat Warning Systems Nacelle Overheat System GTC/APU Fire Warning System Smoke Detector (C-130J)

Installed Operational Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions 2 2 4

4

4

4

1

1

4

1

The under flight deck detector must be operational

Table A10.14. Air Conditioning, Pressurization and Bleed Air Systems. Item/System

Installed

Operational Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

189

Flight Deck and Cargo Compartment Air Conditioning Units

2

2

Flight Deck Auxiliary Vent

1

1

Cargo Compartment Auxiliary Vent

1

0

Pressurization and both air conditioning systems are normally essential if passengers are carried. If a system fails, flight to a destination with repair capability (including enroute stops) may be accomplished. Passengers will be briefed on the possibility that discomfort may be encountered. C-130H: One air conditioning pack may be inoperative provided the cabin altitude can be maintained below 10,000 feet and a reasonable temperature can be maintained. Air conditioning and pressurization are not required for low-level missions if a reasonable temperature can be maintained. C-130J: One pack may be inoperative provided the Cross Flow Valve is operative and the associated Flow Control Valve is verified CLOSED C-130J: Both packs may be inoperative provided both Flow Control Valves are verified CLOSED and the Aux Vent Valves are operative for ventilation

Air Conditioning Temp Control Panel: C-130J Only

2

1

Loss of the 2nd Channel will result in loss of all pneumatic-powered components and systems (except engine anti-ice)

Cargo Compartment Recirculation Fan C-130J Only

1

0

See Flight Manual for cooling restrictions

190

Cross-Flow Valve C-130J Only

Flow Control and Shut Off Valve (Cargo comp) C-130J Only

Flow Control and Shut Off Valve (flight deck) C-130J Only

Temperature Control Valve C-130J Only Duct Overheat Temp Sensor C-130J Only Flight Deck/Cargo Compartment Temperature Control System Avionics Cooling Fans C130J Cargo Comp Avionics Cooling Fans C-130J Only Overhead Console Cooling Fans C-130J Only

Under Floor Heat System

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

1

1

1

0

May be inoperative provided both A/C systems are operative or only one A/C is operative and the valve is manually positioned to Cargo Compartment 100% open

0

May be inoperative provided the divider valve is operative, the right wing isolation valve is operative and ECS Cross-flow valve is operative

0

May be inoperative provided the divider valve is operative, the left wing isolation valve is operative and ECS Cross-flow valve is operative

2

0

2

0

2

2

2

2

2

1

2

1

May be inoperative provided the valve is failed in the normal temp range, otherwise consider A/C inoperative May be inop provided associated A/C system is considered inop. Automatic or manual system may be inoperative provided the other control system is operable. C-130J: One fan may be inoperative

1

If both cooling fans fail in-flight, damage to HUDS may occur. Use PFDs as required. If HUDs are stowed, pull the associated ECBs to prevent damage from the heat

0

May be inoperative provided regulation of cargo compartment temperature is not a mission requirement.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

191

Automatic controller may be inoperative for pressurized flight provided the manual controller is operative. May be inoperative for unpressurized flight.

Cabin Pressure Controller / Automatic Pressure Control System (C-130J)

1

1

Cabin Altimeter

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Outflow Valve

1

1

Safety Valve

1

1

Bleed Air Augmenter Valve (C-130J)

4

3

One may be inoperative provided valve is CLOSED and all Nacelle Shut Off valves are operative May be inoperative when Wing Isolations Valves are installed. Both must be operative

Cabin Differential Pressure Indicator Cabin Rate of Climb Indicator Emergency DePressurization Switch Emergency Depressurization Handle

Bleed Air Divider Valve

1

1

Bleed Air Pressure Indications

1

1

1

1

4

4

2

2

Bleed Air Environmental Control System Electronic Controller (C-130J) Nacelle Shutoff Valves (C130J) Wing Isolation Valves

May be inoperative for unpressurized flight. May be inoperative for unpressurized flight. May be inoperative for unpressurized flight.

May be inoperative for unpressurized flight. May be inoperative provided valve is manually positioned full open, pressurization mode select is NO PRESS, and aircraft is operated unpressurized May be inoperative provided outflow valve is manually positioned full open and aircraft is operated unpressurized.

One Channel may be inoperative

If Installed

Table A10.15. Flight Instruments. Item/System

Installed

Operational

Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions

192

Airspeed Indicator

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

2

2

Information must be available to both pilot positions. Vertical Velocity indications may be inoperative on one indicator except for flights in RVSM airspace.

Vertical Velocity Indicator or Vertical Speed Indicator

2

2

Flight Director Systems

2

2

Attitude Director Indicator (ADI)

Turn needle may be inop provided no other malfunctions exist on either ADI

2

2

Standby ADI (if installed) Standby Flight Instruments Horizontal Situation Indicators EFI Displays (if installed) BDHI

1 1

1 1

2

2

4 3

3 0

Barometric Altimeters

3

2

Both pilots‘ altimeters must be operational.

CARA (Pilot‘s indicator)

1

0

Required to support GCAS/GPWS if carrying passengers.

GPWS (if equipped) GCAS (if equipped) TAWS (if equipped) TCAS (if equipped) Digital / Central Air Data Computer (if installed)

1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0

Required if carrying passengers. Required if carrying passengers. Required if carrying passengers. Required if carrying passengers.

1

1

Day VMC if inop

N/A: C-130J

Table A10.16. Navigation Systems/Communications. Item/System ADC (C-130J) Embedded Global Positioning / Inertial Navigation System (C-130J)

Installed Operational Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions Both must be operative for operations 2 1 I RVSM airspace One may be inoperative provided no 2 1 overwater flight, or BRNAV flight will be conducted

Total Air Temperature Sensor (C-130J)

2

2

Standby magnetic Compass Heading Systems

1 2

1 1

NAV Selector panel

2

2

VOR

2

1

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

193

ILS

2

1

ADF

2

0

TACAN

2

1

Installed and functional if required for planned instrument approach) Required if thunderstorms or hazardous conditions that can be detected by airborne radar are forecast or known along the route of flight Pilot‘s radar required for flight if known or forecast thunderstorms are expected along the route of flight or at night. (Aircraft equipped with two radar displays) if a navigator/CSO is not on board. A fully functional terrain following radar system is required for MC130H TF operation at night or IMC.

Radar

1

0

IFF/SIF

1

1

1

1

1

1

KC-130F/R/T

Get Home Radio Panel

1

0

One radio required. One time flight to repair facility is authorized

HF Radio Control Wheel Hush Switch Control Wheel Mic Switch Flight Station Speaker

2 2 2 2

0 1 1 1

#1 UHF Manual Control Head Radio #1 VHF Radio (Isol DC Bus power)

MFD (EC-130H AVP)

5

2

CDU (EC-130H AVP)

4

2

ADC (EC-130H AVP)

2

1

INS/AHRS (EC-130H AVP)

4

2

DCP (EC-130H AVP) IHC (EC-130H AVP)

3 3

2 0

As required for ATC and mission requirements (Note 1). SCNS Equipped Aircraft or AC130U/MC- 130H.

1 required for overwater flight C-130J Only

One must be operative at the pilot position & the co-pilot position. Copilot position must be in the outboard position (ISOL DC) Both must be operative at the pilot / co-pilot position Either On-side INS or AHRS must be operative at each pilot position Both pilot potions will be operative

194

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

Radar Control Panel (EC2 1 130H AVP) Note: 1. Perform a ground check of the IFF before takeoff, using either the self-test or a ground radar interrogation. If self-test is unacceptable and radar facilities do not permit a ground check, you may depart if the IFF was operational on the previous mission. Aircraft will not depart with an IFF known to be inoperative without ATC approval. Altitude reporting is required for RSVM Table A10.17. Flight Controls. Item/System Trim Indicators Trim System Elevator Trim Tab Control Wheel Switch Elevator Trim Tab Power Selector Switch Emergency Elevator Trim Tab Switch Flap Position Indicator

Stick Pusher (C-130J) Stall Warning System (C130J) Stall Warning Angle of Attack Sensors (C-130J)

Installed Operational Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions Flight to repair capability including enroute stops may be made. The 3 3 trim tab position must be visually verified prior to flight. 3 3 4

4

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

2

1

Two switches for single switch installations (ie C-130E)

C-130J: The Flap Position Indicator may be inoperative provided the AMU Indicator is operative Flight to repair capability including enroute stops may be made provided the Stall Warning System is operational All aural and visual warnings must be functional

Table A10.18. Auto Flight (C-130J). Item/System Go-Around (G/A) Switch Reference Mode Panel

Installed Operational Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions 2 1 Flight restricted to a repair facility including enroute stops as required 2 1

BARO SET Switch

2

1

Reference Select Switch

2

1

Both are required for RSVM operations

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 Reference Set knob

195 2

1

AFCS Annunciator Panel

2

0

Reference Set Panel Display

2

0

May be inoperative provided annunciations(s) is operative in HUD or HDD PFD at affected location May be inoperative if individual annunciations markers are visible on HUD or HDD PFD –or- Consider that mode inoperative

Note: Unless listed above, components of the Auto Flight Panel may be inoperative. If switches/buttons are inoperative, consider that function of the autopilot inoperative Table A10.19. Aircraft Exterior/Interior Lighting. Item/System Landing Lights

Taxi Lights

Formation Lights

Installed Operational Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions One may be inoperative provided the taxi light on the same side is 2 1 operational. One may be inoperative provided the landing light on the same side is 2 1 operational. Not required for daylight operations. Two lights per wing are required for 9 0 night formation flights.

Navigation Lights

6

3

Anti-Collision/Strobe Lights Wing Leading Edge Lights

2 2

2 0

Primary Instrument Cockpit Lighting

Flight Station Lighting (C130J) Copilot Displays Light Circuit (C-30J)

1

0

A/R

A/R

1

1

For night operations, the left and right wingtip NAV lights must be operational in addition to one of the white lights on the tail cone. Red or White is acceptable C-130H: All edge ―peanut‖ lighting or backlit lighting (MD-specific) will be operational for night operations for the following instruments: airspeed; altimeter; VVI/VSI; ADI; and HSI. May be inoperative provided sufficient lighting is operative to make each instrument, control, and other device easily readable

196

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

Lamp Test Circuit (C-130J)

1

1

Table A10.20. Doors and Ramp System. Item/System

Ramp and Ramp Locking System

Aft Cargo Door and Locking System

Crew Entrance Door and warning Light

Door Warning Lights

Installed Operational Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions Warning light, latching mechanisms, and locking systems will be operative for pressurized flight. Aircraft will not be released for flight with a malfunctioning ramp lock system, with cargo on the ramp. Aircraft may continue to a destination if ramp locks malfunction In flight. Cargo ramp 1 1 will not be operated in flight, with cargo on the ramp, with malfunctioning locks. Repair lock malfunction or remove cargo from the ramp prior to continuing flight operations. Do not pressurize the aircraft if the ramp locks fail to lock

1

1

A/R

1

Pressurized flight may be performed with an aft cargo door lock malfunction when mission requirements dictate.

1

C-130J: May be inoperative provided ACAWS DOOR OPEN messages are operative

All

C-130J: May be inoperative provided applicable ACAWS DOOR OPEN messages are operative

A10.5.25. Supplemental Aircraft Equipment A10.5.25.1. The following tables list supplemental equipment that is needed for routine operations in AFMC. These lists are not all inclusive of all items needed for safe and effective flight operations. Items listed in Table A10.21 are considered the minimum number required for flight. Guidance in this table does not override published directives on use of equipment nor provide relief when other directives require greater numbers. Items listed in Table A10.22 are highly desired for the missions indicated. Table A10.21. Required Items. Item/System

Operational

Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

197

Escape Rope Crash Ax O2 Walk-Around Bottle

3 2 4

Emergency Exit Lights

All Exits

Hand Operated Fire Extinguishers First Aid Kits Quick Don O2 Masks (w/goggles) Fire Fighter Smoke Mask ICS Communications Cords Restraint Harness Restraint Harness Tie down Ring MLG Handcrank MLG Emergency Extension Wrench Tie Down Straps 10K Tie-Down Devices 10K Tie-Down Chains MLG Emergency Tie-Down Devices Hydraulic Fluid Seats w/Cushions

4 2 1 per crew member 2 plus 2 A/R 1 1 2

Note 1 Note 2 As needed to support planned flight Note 3 Avail on Flight Deck Installed per Flight Manual

1

Installed per Flight Manual

2 7 14

Note 4 Note 4

2 sets

Required if chains/devices not avail

2 cases A/R

As needed to support flight

Safety Belts

A/R

Troop Seat

1 1 per crewmember

Parachutes

Installed IAW Flight Manual Installed IAW Flight Manual Installed/Charged IAW Flt Man Located at each emergency exit and Installed IAW Flight Manual Installed IAW Flight Manual

As needed to support planned flight 2-man if scanner/LM on board When required for specific mission

26

34 for ―stretch‖ variants. All critical positions installed and properly torque

Aircraft Markings

As Listed

Chopping, Leading Edge Ice, Escape Hatches and Doors, Tail Number

Water jug w/cups

1 gal

Required for crew comfort

A/R

Required for overwater operations (beyond power off gliding distance from land). Capacity will exceed the total number of personnel on board the aircraft. Floor loaded rafts may be used to fulfill this requirement.

Core Bolts

Life Raft(s)

198

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

Notes: 1. A Quick don oxygen mask with attached goggles is the preferred smoke and fume protection for aircrew personnel. Quick don masks with attached goggles will be available for each primary crew member aboard plus two extra mask/goggle sets located at FS 245 and 617 for the purpose of firefighting. Fire Fighter‘s Smoke masks may be used in lieu of Quick don masks/goggles at FS 245 and 617 if necessary. These requirements are in addition to the crew member‘s personal helmet and oxygen mask. Personal helmets/oxygen masks may be substituted for personal Quick don mask/goggles sets as mission directives require. Firefighting capability must be maintained through the use of Quick don mask/goggles and/or firefighters smoke masks. Total number of mask/goggle combinations must equal the primary crew positions for the mission to be planned/flown. Use and positioning of aircrew oxygen helmets/masks will be IAW published guidance. 2. Number may be reduced to zero if two quick don oxygen masks with attached goggles are used instead of smoke masks and positioned with walk around O2 bottles in the cargo compartment. IAW AFI 11-301 Vol 2 Table 4. Note 1, Smoke masks will not be placed on the flight deck. 3. One harness must be installed on the flight deck for the Flight Engineer. If parachutes are not used, a second restraint harness is required for FCF missions when doors are to be opened. A second harness may be desired for LM/Scanner use during door operations for Smoke/Fume Elimination. C-130J: One harness must be installed on the flight deck and a second harness will be prepositioned in the cargo compartment. Two harnesses will ensure that the Loadmaster will have a harness available for any door open warning. 4. Tie down devices and chains are not required when MLG Emergency Tie-Down Devices are carried aboard the aircraft. However, chains and devices provide an increased margin of safety in the event of device failure and these numbers are recommended.

Table A10.22. Desired Equipment. Item/System

Operational

Remarks/Limitations/Exceptions

Water Jug

5 gal

Needed for initial FCF flights for fluid spill

Chocks Maintenance Ladder Tool Kit

1 Set 1 1

Note 1

Accutach

1

Desired for initial FCF engine runs

Note: 1. Equip as needed for in-flight repair/emergencies. Units will publish a list of required items. Units will comply with all local requirements regarding FOD/Tool control.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

199 Attachment 11

C-135 OPERATING PROCEDURES A11.1. General Information. A11.1.1. Scope. This attachment, in conjunction with other governing directives, outlines procedures for operation of the C-135 aircraft under most circumstances. AFMC aircrews and all management levels concerned with operation of all C-135 aircraft must comply with the outlined requirements and consult AFMC/A3V for waivers to this attachment. Operations or procedures not specifically addressed may be accomplished if they enhance safe, effective mission accomplishment. A11.2. Mission Planning. A11.2.1. Aircrew Qualification. Primary crewmembers or those occupying a primary position during flight must be basic-qualified or in training for qualification for that crew position. If non-current, or in training for a particular event, the crewmember must be under the supervision of an instructor while accomplishing that event (direct supervision for critical phases of flight). Exceptions are IAW with AFI 11-401/AFMC S1. A11.2.1.1. Pilots: A11.2.1.1.1. Missions with passengers. Only a pilot that is qualified and current will occupy a pilot’s seat with passengers onboard the aircraft. One of the following conditions must be met: A11.2.1.1.1.1. Two qualified and current pilots must be at the controls. Or, A11.2.1.1.1.2. A qualified pilot regaining currency, a basic-qualified receiving difference, conversion, or mission training; and an IP providing direct supervision must be at the controls. A11.2.1.2. Other crewmembers: Non-current or unqualified navigators/CSOs, flight engineers, systems operators, flight attendants, boom operators or avionics flight technicians may perform in their primary crew position on any mission when supervised by a qualified instructor of like specialty. A11.2.2. Crew Complement. Minimum aircrew complement for basic and augmented FDP will be commensurate with the applicable T.O. 1C-135X(X)X-1 Flight Manual, applicable Partial/Modification Flight Manual and Table A11.1. Table A11.1. Crew Complement. Position Pilot Copilot Nav FE BO CSO FA

Basic 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Augmented 2 1 2 2 2 2 2

Notes

1, 2 1, 2 1, 3 1, 2 1, 4

200

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

BO – Boom Operator (KC-135) CSO – Communications System Operator (Speckled Trout) FA – Flight Attendant (Speckled Trout) Note 1: When required by basic/partial/modification flight manual or as mandated by Unit CC for mission accomplishment. Note 2: One Navigator/CSO, flight engineer, and communications system operator satisfies augmented crew member requirements for Speckled Trout executive airlift missions. Note 3: One boom operator satisfies augmented crewmember requirements during non-tanker executive airlift missions. Note 4: Two FAs will be the basic crew complement for all Speckled Trout executive airlift missions. No FAs are required on local missions with 10 or fewer passengers, provided another crew member trained in passenger handling is aboard and designated as passenger monitor. FAs are not required in the absence of passengers. A11.2.2.1. The unit commander will designate additional crewmembers if the mission complexity or priority dictates, or to meet navigator/CSO or other crew position currency/training requirements. A11.2.2.2. Augmented crews are required when a mission cannot be safely completed within a basic flight duty period. Augmentees must be basic-qualified in accordance with AFI 11-2FTV1, Flight Test Aircrew Training. In those situations requiring augmentation, the crew must be augmented from the start of the duty period. If augmentees are added to the crew, the crew’s flight duty period will be computed based on the flight duty period of the most limited person. A11.2.3. Runway, Taxiway, and Airfield Requirements. See Table 2.1. In all cases ensure obstacle clearance requirements are met. Landing distance will not exceed runway available. Crews will normally use 0.80 delayed braking factor (DBF) for computing landing distance. The pilot in command may direct using greater than 0.80 DBF as an exception on a case by case basis, but must be aware of the resultant increase in brake wear. OG/CC or equivalent approval is required for landing with greater than a 0.90 DBF. When using greater than 0.80 DBF crews will brief the planned braking speed. . For RC/TC/WC-135 aircraft, it is permissible to use 95% delayed braking factor when deciding 30 flap total landing distance on planned touch and go landings. A11.2.3.1. Runway Length for Takeoff and Intersection Takeoffs. Normally, takeoffs will be initiated from the beginning of the approved usable portion of the runway. Intersection takeoffs are authorized if the following conditions are met:

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

201

A11.2.3.1.1. Pilots may accomplish intersection takeoffs provided the operating environment (i.e., gross weight, obstructions, climb criteria, weather, etc.) allows a safe takeoff and departure. Calculate takeoff performance based on the runway remaining from the point at which the takeoff is initiated. In no case will a takeoff be made from a position where less than 7000 feet of runway remains. A11.2.3.2. During operations on runways partially covered with snow or ice, takeoff computations will be based on the reported RSC or RCR for the cleared portion of the runway. A minimum of 50 feet either side of centerline should be cleared. If 50 feet either side of centerline is not cleared, then compute data based on the un-cleared portion up to 50 feet either side of centerline. A11.2.4. Operations over Runway Cables (does not include recessed cables). A11.2.4.1. Do not land on (touchdown on) approach end arresting cables (does not include recessed cables). If the aircraft lands before the cable, the crew should contact the tower to have the cable inspected. A11.2.4.2. Do not takeoff or land over an approach end cable that has been reported as slack, loose, or improperly rigged by NOTAM, ATIS, or ATC. A11.2.5. Minimum Runway Condition Report (RCR). A11.2.5.1. Operations from RAF Fairford and RAF Mildenhall. An RCR 15 may be used for computing takeoff performance for all operational and training missions when wet runway conditions exist. This authorization does not apply to landing data computations or when standing water is on the runway. Determination of standing water versus wet runway conditions will be made by the 100 OG/CC. A11.2.6. Non-Standard Fuel Loads. For depot operations, after the initial PDM FCF landing fuel load may be left “as is” when fuel CG is in the range of 24-28%. This will result in a non-standard fuel load. Mission planning must take into account both the non-standard fuel load and FCF checks to be accomplished to ensure that the fuel is available and accessible in case of emergency and or divert. A11.3. Common Mission Guidance. A11.3.1. Engine Running Crew Change (ERCC). Use ERCC procedures when necessary to expedite aircraft movement or permit the exchange of crewmembers. Pilot in command must assess prevailing weather, lighting and parking location to ensure safe operations. Unless otherwise published, use the following procedures: A11.3.1.1. Pilot in command will brief crewmembers on the intended ERCC operation to include their locations, duties, and responsibilities during the ERCC. A11.3.1.2. Crewmembers should ensure that all loose items are secure prior to entering and exiting the aircraft. A11.3.1.3. The parking brake will be set and at least one pilot in the seat will monitor brakes, interphone, and radio. A11.3.1.4. Use terrain and taxi lights to enhance safety at night as the situation dictates.

202

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A11.3.1.5. A crewmember should be positioned at the point of entry to act as a safety observer. A11.3.1.6. No enplaning personnel should approach the airplane until the crewmember is in place. A11.3.1.7. Crewmembers should approach and depart the aircraft from the nose. When departing crewmembers will proceed forward of the aircraft at least 50 feet before turning. A11.3.1.8. Brief deplaning personnel to secure loose articles and remain forward of the interphone cord. A11.3.1.9. Pilot in command will ensure that the aircraft is clear prior to taxi. A11.3.2. Formation Flying. Formation is authorized IAW applicable technical order and AFI 11-2KC135Volume 3, C/KC-135 Operating Procedures or AFI 11-2RC-135Volume 3, RC/OC/WC/TC-135 Operating Procedures. A11.3.3. Air Refueling Limitations. A11.3.3.1. Do not accomplish AR operations when: A11.3.3.1.1. Conditions result in marginal control of either aircraft or boom (in the opinion of either PIC or BO). A11.3.3.1.2. Either the tanker or the receiver has less than the full number of engines operating (except B-52). A11.3.3.1.3. The tanker aircraft is unable to retract the landing gear. A11.3.3.1.4. Pod Control Panel malfunction exists that cannot be resolved. A11.3.3.1.5. MPRS pod malfunction. Note: If Pod Control Panel is operational and only one pod is malfunctioning, AR is permissible with operational pod. A11.3.3.2. Tanker Autopilot. If a tanker pilot or receiver pilot is required to fly autopilot-off for qualification training, the pilot flying the opposing aircraft will be qualified. Verbal notification and acknowledgment will take place between the tanker and receiver prior to conducting autopilot-off training. A11.3.3.3. A/R without Tanker Disconnect Capability. A/R without tanker disconnect capability means the boom operator cannot trigger an immediate disconnect. After a known loss of tanker disconnect capability with a particular receiver, no further contacts will be attempted with that receiver. The inability to get an immediate disconnect from one receiver by triggering a disconnect does not prohibit contact attempts with other receivers, if the tanker system (signal coil) checks good. However, if disconnects cannot be triggered on two successive receivers, no further contacts will be attempted. A11.3.3.3.1. Exceptions to the restrictions are: A11.3.3.3.1.1. During fuel emergency situations. A11.3.3.3.1.2. When necessary to complete receiver over-water deployment or redeployment. A11.3.3.3.1.3. Operational missions.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

203

A11.3.3.4. Manual/Emergency Boom Latch Training. The following conditions must be met in order to complete training or an evaluation in manual /emergency boom latching: A11.3.3.4.1. An AR IP must be at a set of controls during the receiver contacts. A11.3.3.4.2. Contacts will be limited to the minimum required. A11.3.3.4.3. The receiver aircraft AR system must be fully operable, and a disconnect capability with the receiver must have been previously determined by a boom operator initiated disconnect. A11.3.3.5. Prohibited Refueling Maneuvers. When operating in manual/emergency boom latching or when the tanker does not have disconnect capability, limit contacts to the minimum number necessary to complete mission requirements. The following maneuvers are prohibited: A11.3.3.5.1. Practice emergency separation while in contact. A11.3.3.5.2. Demonstration of envelope limits. A11.3.3.6. Practice Emergency Separations. A11.3.3.6.1. Prior to the actual accomplishment of a practice emergency separation, coordination between the tanker pilot, boom operator, and receiver pilot is mandatory. Coordination must include when the separation will occur and who will give the command of execution. Tanker pilot coordination may be accomplished over interphone with the boom operator. A11.3.3.6.2. If separation is initiated from the contact position, the receiver’s A/R system must be in normal, and a boom operator disconnect capability with the receiver must exist. A11.3.3.6.3. Practice emergency separations will not be accomplished with passengers on board unless passengers are seated with seat belts fastened. A11.3.3.7. Limits Demonstration. Prior to a limits demonstration, a disconnect capability must have been previously determined by a boom operator initiated disconnect. A11.3.3.8. Receiver AR Training. A qualified and current receiver IP will conduct training. The receiver pilot must inform and obtain acknowledgment from the tanker pilot and boom operator when an unqualified receiver pilot is receiving AR training. A boom operator qualified for the applicable category receiver must operate the boom controls, and if the tanker autopilot is off, the tanker must be flown by a pilot current and qualified in tanker AR. A11.3.3.9. Altitude. A/R operations are normally conducted above 12,000 feet MSL, or 10,000 feet AGL, whichever is higher. A/R operations based at or above 12,000 feet MSL which momentarily fall below 10,000 feet AGL, but not lower than 5,000 feet AGL, due to overflight of mountain ridges, peaks, etc., are authorized. A/R operations in support of C-130 receivers at the receiver's optimum refueling altitude, but no lower than 5,000 feet AGL are authorized. A/R performed below those altitudes will only be on an approved test plan or for other operational considerations approved by the OG/CC. Except as noted above, A/R operations below 6,000 feet AGL is considered Low Altitude Air Refueling (LAAR) and must comply with the following:

204

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A11.3.3.9.1. Consideration will be given to wearing helmets with visor down for protection against bird strikes. When available, a boom mike may be used to facilitate cross-cockpit communications. A11.3.3.9.2. A knowledgeable safety observer will be used to the maximum extent possible. A11.3.3.9.3. Maximum time per sortie for LAAR will be 1 hour. A11.3.3.9.4. Perform during day, under VFR conditions. A11.3.3.9.5. Minimum altitude is 3,000 feet above the highest obstacle or terrain within 4 NM of course centerline. A11.3.3.9.6. Forecast, reported, or observed winds less than or equal to 27 knots. A11.3.3.9.7. Less than forecast, reported or observed moderate turbulence. A11.3.3.9.8. Over flat and rolling terrain or a minimum of 10 NM from land over contiguous water. A11.3.3.9.9. The autopilot rudder axis or yaw damper will be used if functioning. Consideration will be given to not utilizing the other axes of the autopilot based upon maneuvering requirements. A11.3.3.9.10. Flight manual restrictions for low altitude operations will be complied with.

A11.4. Instrument Procedures. A11.4.1. Aircraft Category. The C-135 is approach category D. A11.4.2. Traffic Advisory and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS). Operate the TCAS with sensitivity set to Traffic Advisory/Resolution Advisory (TA/RA) to the maximum extent possible. ATC procedures and the “see and avoid concept” will continue to be the primary means of ensuring aircraft separation. Pilots shall not deviate from an assigned ATC clearance based solely on TA information. Attempt to attain visual contact and maintain safe separation. However, if visual separation with the intruding traffic cannot be assured, it is imperative to follow resolution advisories (RA) to obtain aircraft separation computed by TCAS. Failure to follow the computed RA may increase the probability of a midair collision. Do not exceed aircraft structural limits or safe flight speed in order to follow the RA. Always attempt to visually clear the airspace before maneuvering your airplane in response to a TCAS advisory. Advise ATC as soon as practical when a deviation becomes necessary due to a TCAS resolution advisory. A11.4.3. Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (E-GPWS) and/or Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS). When operating in the low altitude structure, it is imperative to follow E-GPWS advisories. Advise ATC as soon as practical when deviation from an ATC clearance is directed by E-GPWS/TAWS. A11.4.4. Aircraft Systems Operations and Navigation Procedures A11.4.4.1. MFD. Pilot Flying (PF) must have a MFD with the full ADI for all takeoffs, final approaches and landings. Course guidance (other than stick map) appropriate for

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 the current ATC clearance, will be displayed on a PF MFD. malfunctions limit the pilot to a single operable MFD.

205 Exception: When

A11.4.4.2. Weather Radar. Configure the weather radar based on mission requirements. For Pacer CRAG: The Predictive Wind Shear (PWS) function of the weather radar should normally be operating for all takeoffs, approaches, and landings. A11.4.4.3. Flight Progress. A11.4.4.3.1. Prior to flight, plot the oceanic portion of the flight on an appropriate chart. Annotate the chart with the mission number, AC's name, preparer’s name, and date. If practical, chart may be reused. A11.4.4.3.2. The PIC will ensure the navigation waypoints loaded in the INS (FMS for Pacer CRAG) flight plan accurately reflect the intended/cleared route of flight. This can be done using one or more of the following methods: A11.4.4.3.2.1. Latitude/longitude from current FLIP A11.4.4.3.2.2. Bearing/distance from a flight plan after latitude/longitude are verified for each waypoint. A11.4.4.3.2.3. Ground Based NAVAIDS. A11.4.4.3.3. In-Flight, use all available NAVAIDS to monitor INS performance. Immediately report malfunctions or any loss of navigation capability, which degrades centerline accuracy to the controlling ARTCC. Use the following procedures for flight progress: A11.4.4.3.4. Obtain a coast out fix prior to, or immediately on entering the Category I Route or over-water segment. Perform a gross error check using available NAVAIDs and annotate the position and time on the chart. A11.4.4.3.5. When approaching each waypoint, recheck coordinates for the next waypoint. A11.4.4.3.6. Approximately 10 minutes after passing each oceanic waypoint, record and plot the aircraft position and time on the chart, and ensure compliance with courses and ETA tolerances. A11.4.4.3.7. If a revised clearance is received, record and plot the new route of flight on the chart. A11.4.4.3.8. For Pacer CRAG, periodically check all solution position differentials on the INAV pages. A11.4.4.3.9. Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) Airspace. Airspace where RVSM is applied is considered special qualification airspace. See FLIP GP for aircraft equipment requirements. Both the operator and the specific aircraft must be approved for operations in these areas. Always refer to the appropriate Area Planning (AP) publication for specific theater RVSM requirements. A11.4.4.3.10. Required Navigation Performance (RNP) Airspace. Airspace where RNP is applied is considered special qualification airspace. Both the operator and the specific aircraft type must be approved for operations in these areas. The PIC is

206

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 responsible for a thorough review of the aircraft forms and maintenance logs to ascertain the status of RNP equipment. Document (in the aircraft forms) malfunctions or failures of RNP required equipment, including the failure of this equipment to meet RNP tolerances. A11.4.4.3.10.1. RNP-10. Compliance includes navigation accuracy within 10NM of actual position 95% of the time. Aircraft not possessing integrated GPS with receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM), or equivalent system, are limited in how long they may operate in RNP-10 airspace. See FLIP for RPN-10 long term requirements/aircraft capabilities. KC-135 aircraft with properly functioning steering solutions may operate in RNP-10 airspace without time limitations. If the capability to update the inertial navigation solution with the GPS is lost, or if the receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) is lost, the aircraft is limited to 6.2 hours of operation in RNP-10 airspace after the GPS or RAIM is degraded. A11.4.4.3.10.2. Enroute. At least two long-range navigation systems certified for RNP-10 must be operational at the oceanic entry point. Periodic crosschecks will be accomplished to identify navigation errors and prevent inadvertent deviation from ATC cleared routes. Advise ATC of the deterioration or failure of navigation equipment below navigation performance requirements and coordinate appropriate actions. A11.4.4.3.11. Basic Area Navigation (BRNAV) Airspace. BRNAV is defined as RNAV with an accuracy that meets RNP-5 for operations under IFR in that European airspace designated for BRNAV/RNP-5 operations. When operating in BRNAV airspace, aircrews will immediately notify ATC if any of the required equipment fails, or is unable to meet BRNAV tolerances. Document in the aircraft forms malfunctions or failures of RNP required equipment including the failure of this equipment to meet BRNAV tolerances. The KC-135 is approved for BRNAV operations. A11.4.4.3.12. MNPS Airspace Operations. Operations within the North Atlantic area’s MNPS airspace, Canadian MNPS, or selected Pacific routes are designed for INS-auto-pilot coupled operation. (See FLIP AP/2, chapter 5 and AFI 11-202V3). When not engaged in AR operations, aircrews will adhere to these procedures. Comply with FLIP for operations in North Atlantic Minimum Navigation Performance Specification Airspace, and US West Coast to Hawaii Route System Procedures. A11.4.4.3.12.1. Malfunctioning equipment that reduces the aircrew’s capability to comply with MNPS, whether occurring prior to, or within MNPS airspace, will immediately be reported to the controlling agency and subsequent agencies throughout the route of flight. Prior to airspace entry, aircrews will return to the nearest maintenance repair facility unless the aircraft has a minimum of two operable and correctly functioning INUs, unless specifically cleared to proceed along original, or revised routing by the controlling agency. If subsequent failures occur, advise ARTCC, comply with track restrictions, and use all means available (HF DR, dead reckoning, etc) to ensure navigation accuracy. A11.4.4.3.12.2. When flying in MNPS airspace, exercise special caution to

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

207

ensure the coordinates of the assigned track and associated landfall and domestic routings are fully understood and correctly inserted into the automatic DR navigation system with appropriate cross-checks. If at any time the route (rerouting, if appropriate) is in doubt, check the details with ARTCC facility. A11.4.4.3.12.3. When flying in MNPS airspace, crews will utilize Strategic Lateral Offset Procedures (SLOP) to the max extent possible. Refer to the MNPS Manual and AFI 11-217 for further information on SLOP. A11.4.4.3.13. Inoperative Navigation Systems (Oceanic systems include: INU-1, INU-2, and GPS with RAIM). A11.4.4.3.13.1. One unit inoperative: Advise ARTCC unless within range of normal radio aids. Plot position on navigation chart every 30 minutes. Check the accuracy of remaining nav systems, using all available NAVAIDs. A11.4.4.3.13.2. Two units inoperative: Advise ARTCC. Cross-check compass system heading with mission plan at each waypoint or every 30 minutes. Verify last recorded position on chart. Use flight plan as guide. Use ADF, VOR/DME, weather radar ground mapping mode, to update estimated positions. If desired and other methods fail, try to obtain an HF DF fix. This service can be requested through the regular ARTCC frequencies. A11.4.4.3.13.3. Differences Between Navigation Systems. When there is a difference between navigation systems, normally two of the three will be in close proximity, so that it will be simple to determine that the malfunctioning system is the one, which is most distant from the other two. When available, check position using available ground NAVAIDs. Comparing the doppler groundspeed with the groundspeed derived from each system may also provide a good indication of a malfunctioning system. A11.4.5. RNAV Operations. A11.4.5.1. KC-135R (BLK 40) (IAW FAA AC 90-100A and KC-135 (BLK 40) airworthiness certification) aircraft are approved for unrestricted RNAV/RNP 1, RNAV/P-RNAV/RNP 2, NAV/RNP 4, BRNAV, RNP operations and RNP 0.3, lateral navigation (LNAV) only procedures. A11.4.5.1.1. All pilots/navigators/CSOs (if applicable) must complete KC135 RNAV/GPS Operations Certification training before utilizing RNAV 1 (SIDs & STARs) and RNAV 2 ("Q" & "T" routes) airspace or RNP 0.3 RNAV (LNAV minima) approaches. Training requirements are located on the AFMC/A3V CoP. The AFMC training overview (word document) provides the appropriate training guidance. A11.4.5.1.2. The KC-135 aircraft is not authorized to fly "overlay GPS approaches", due to concerns about the ability to accurately code the missed approach portion of these procedures. "Overlay GPS approaches" are characterized by "Or GPS" in the title (i.e. VOR or GPS RWY 15), these approaches are designed differently from RNAV, RNAV (GPS) and GPS approaches, because overlays are designed around ground based NAVAIDs and interpreted for space based navigation. This does not

208

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 preclude the use of "GPS in lieu of" to define individual points on a conventional approach, such as a final approach fix defined by an NDB for an aircraft that is not equipped with an NDB; crews can still use GPS to define these individual points IAW 11-217V1 paragraph 7.12.4. A11.4.5.1.3. GPS overlays of conventional SIDs and STARs found in aircraft database are only authorized for situational awareness and require the pilots to use the ground based NAVAIDs as their primary navigational source, where RNAV SIDs and STARs do not require the use of ground based NAVAIDs. A11.4.5.1.4. When flying RNAV SIDs KC-135 crews will accomplish a gyro takeoff and ensure pilot flying's primary course as a minimum is set to FMS. The crew will ensure the flight directors are set to NAV/LOC to provide flight director guidance prior to reaching 500 feet AGL, IAW FAA Advisory Circular 90-100A. A11.4.5.1.5. Flight director lateral guidance must be available anytime the KC-135 is operating in RNP 0.3 airspace IAW KC-135 (BLK 40) performance assessment summary. A11.4.5.1.6. To mitigate KC-135 (BLK 40) RNAV instrument approach FMS leg length limitations, crews must to evaluate distance-to-fly displayed as the FMS sequences to the next point against the charted value while flying RNAV approaches. If deviations from the charted values are observed the crew should consider aborting the approach.

A11.5. Operational Procedures and Restrictions. A11.5.1. Flight Duty Period. Observe AFI 11-202V3 restrictions, and the following: A11.5.1.1. Basic Crew FDP. A11.5.1.1.1. Maximum FDP for a basic crew is IAW AFI 11-202V3. Reduce this period to 12 hours without an operative autopilot altitude hold. If the autopilot fails after departure, continue to the next scheduled stop and then comply with this restriction. A11.5.1.2. Augmented Crew FDP. A11.5.1.2.1. Maximum FDP for an augmented crew (operational missions only) is IAW AFI 11-202V3. Reduce this period to 16 hours without an operative autopilot altitude hold. In this case, only the pilot portion of the crew need be augmented. A11.5.1.2.2. Basic crews will not be augmented after FDP has started. A11.5.1.2.3. Authorized only for a maximum of four intermediate stops/sorties. Sorties are defined as stops for the purpose of refueling or stops with significant ground time/delay. Waiver authority is the OG/CC. A11.5.2. Duty Station. The pilot, copilot, flight engineer, navigator/CSO, and boom operator will be at their duty stations during all critical phases of flight. During other phases of flight, crewmembers may leave their duty station to meet physiological needs and to perform normal crew duties. During cruise flight, the flight engineer, navigator/CSO, or boom operator may leave his/her duty station for longer periods with pilot approval.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

209

Crewmembers will notify the pilot in command prior to departing assigned primary duty stations. A11.5.2.1. Crewmembers performing instructor or flight examiner duties are exempt from seat belt requirements if not occupying a primary crew position; however, they will have a seat available with an operable seat belt. A11.5.3. Control Cabin Entry. Pilot in command may authorize passengers and observers access to the control cabin during all phases of flight. In all cases, sufficient oxygen sources must be available to meet the requirements of AFI 11-202V3. Passengers or observers will not be permitted access to the pilot or copilot position regardless of its availability. Exceptions are IAW AFI 11-401/AFMC Sup 1. A11.5.4. Command Radios. A11.5.4.1. The pilot not flying the aircraft normally makes all ATC radio calls. A11.5.4.2. In terminal areas the pilot, copilot, navigator/CSO, flight engineer, and boom operator will monitor the primary command radio unless directed otherwise. A11.5.4.3. The pilot operating the command radios will inform the crew when the primary radio is changed. A11.5.4.4. One pilot should record and will acknowledge all ATC clearances. The navigator/CSO or boom operator will monitor the read-back and will ensure compliance with all clearances. A11.5.4.5. Both pilots will monitor UHF guard (or VHF guard when appropriate) emergency frequency regardless of primary radio. Exception: Only one crewmember is required to monitor guard frequency during tanker or receiver rendezvous and A/R. During tanker A/R, the PNF normally monitors guard. A11.5.5. Fuel Jettison Procedures. Use jettison altitudes above 20,000-feet AGL to the maximum extent possible. If jettison is accomplished, record all pertinent data to include flight conditions, altitude, airspeed, air temperature, wind direction and velocity, type and amount of fuel, aircraft type and position at time of jettison, time and duration of jettison activity, and reason jettison was accomplished. Retain this information for 6 months as documentation in the event of claim against the government resulting from the fuel jettison. A11.5.6. Qualification Training. Initial qualification, re-qualification, or upgrade training for pilots will not be conducted on missions with passengers onboard. Mission qualification or mission instructor training may be conducted on missions with passengers onboard only if the individual in training is qualified (completed aircraft checkride with a valid AF Form 8). A11.5.7. Three-Engine Ferry Operations. Consider three-engine ferry operations only after exhausting all other options to return an aircraft with an inoperative engine to full mission ready status. Each three-engine ferry sortie must be approved IAW AFI 11-202V3 AFMC Sup. The owning MAJCOM will provide execution authority for these sorties. The following procedures apply: A11.5.7.1. Plan ferry operations well ahead to allow sufficient time for completion of maintenance preparation actions.

210

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A11.5.7.2. Plan the flight to the nearest destination possessing a usable maintenance support capability. Obtain clearances and alert all en route, alternate, and abort bases along the intended route of flight. A11.5.7.3. Use the minimum crew necessary for the ferry operation. Do not carry passengers or other non-essential personnel. Observe aircraft flight manual limitations. A11.5.7.4. All primary aircraft systems not associated with the failed engine must be fully operational. A11.5.7.5. Performance data must satisfy takeoff field length requirements, gear down 3engine climb performance, and final segment two-engine asymmetric go-around capability. A11.5.7.6. Download cargo (including mission support kits) prior to ferry operations. A11.5.8. Power Management Control (PMC) Operations. The pilot in command may (authorize) takeoff with one PMC inoperative. Do not turn off an operational PMC to practice a PMC inoperative takeoff. Simulated three-engine approaches and touch-and-go landings are not authorized with a PMC inoperative. A11.5.9. Flight Maneuvers. The following maneuvers are authorized for qualification and continuation training. They are applicable to all mission and series C-135 aircraft, except when prohibited or restricted by the flight manual, partial/modification flight manual or other applicable directives. Direct instructor-pilot (IP) super-vision requires the IP to have immediate access to the controls. Comply with Training Restrictions in Table 5.1 of this instruction and the following: A11.5.9.1. Simulated Engine Failure. Perform practice or simulated loss of engines IAW this instruction, the applicable flight manual. A11.5.9.2. Approach and Landing, Simulated Engine-Out (direct IP supervision). A11.5.9.3. Approach and Go-Around, Simulated Engine-Out (Power Rudder On). A planned three-engine go-around may be started at any time before the power is reduced in the flare. For an unplanned go-around use all four engines as soon as safe and practical. A11.5.9.4. Approach and Go-Around, Simulated Engine-Out (Power Rudder Off) (direct IP supervision). This maneuver will not be accomplished unless an IP has briefed the maneuver prior to flight. The go-around will be started no lower than 200 AGL. For an unplanned go-around, use all four engines as soon as safe and practical. A11.5.9.5. Simulated Engine Failure Takeoff Continued (direct IP supervision). A11.5.9.6. Simulated 2-Engine Approach/Landing (direct IP supervision). May be practiced using two symmetric engines or three engines using two-engine procedures. Two-engine approaches and landings will not be practiced in an extensively modified aircraft. Note: During a go-around or missed approach, use the asymmetric engine as required to ensure at least a 3.3% climb gradient. A11.5.9.7. Simulated Jammed Stabilizer Demonstration (spoiler use only) (direct IP supervision). A11.5.9.8. Landing Attitude Demonstration (IP supervised).

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

211

A11.5.9.9. Spoiler/Lateral Control Demonstration (IP supervised). A11.5.9.10. Trim Demonstration (IP supervised). A11.5.10. Touch-and-Go Landing Limitations. A11.5.10.1. Touch and Go landings may be performed under direct instructor pilot supervision or by a certified mission pilot IAW this instruction, AFI 11-2FTV1, and the applicable flight manual. Refer to AFI 11-2FT Vol. 1 as supplemented for specific touch and go training requirements, restrictions and approved airfields (without IP). A11.5.10.2. Touch-and-go landings with passengers are IAW AFI 11-401 AFMC Sup restrictions. A11.5.10.3. Brief touch-and-go landing considerations with the other appropriate aircrew members prior to final approach. On successive approaches, if the briefing remains the same and there are no questions, the briefing need not be repeated. A11.5.11. Prohibited maneuvers. The following maneuvers, in addition to those already specified in applicable flight manuals, are prohibited unless part of an approved test plan, USAF TPS curriculum, FCF profile, or an actual emergency or system failure exists. A11.5.11.1. Stalls. A11.5.11.2. Initial Buffet. A11.5.11.3. Dutch Roll. A11.5.11.4. Emergency Descent. A11.5.11.5. Simulated 3 engine, rudder power-off landings. A11.5.11.6. Compound Emergencies (except simulated engine-out with rudder power or EFAS off). A11.5.11.7. Takeoffs and landings with the EFAS off. A11.5.11.8. Actual practice engine shutdown. A11.5.12. Operating Limitations. Unless specifically authorized elsewhere in this section, do not practice emergency procedures that degrade aircraft performance or flight control capabilities (in-flight). A11.5.12.1. In-flight, prior to simulating emergency procedures (EP), the pilot will notify all crewmembers. A11.5.12.2. In the event of an actual emergency, all student training and simulated EPs will be terminated. Training will resume only when the pilot in command has determined that no hazard to safe aircraft operations exist. A11.5.12.3. Rudder power, series yaw damper (SYD) and EFAS will be on for all C/KC135R/T takeoffs. Rudder power, SYD and EFAS will be on for all landings, unless specifically directed by an applicable technical order procedure. A11.5.12.4. Do not practice traffic pattern operations, instrument approaches, low approaches or go-around at gross weights that will not afford minimum AFI 11-202V3

212

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 climb gradients three engine, flaps-30, gear-up (gear-down for emergency procedures practice), and at approach speed for F-108 equipped aircraft. A11.5.13. Landing Limitations. The following landing limitations apply to both touch-andgo and full stop landings: A11.5.13.1. Gross weight. Landing gross weights will be at a gross weight that will permit a safe, full stop landing in the runway available. At gross weights above 200,000 pounds pilot will brief and comply with flight manual sink rate limitations. A11.5.13.2. Flap Setting. Do not practice landings with less than 30 degree flaps. Full stop landings should normally be made with 50 degree flap settings. Consideration should be given to runway length, landing distance (including flare and stopping distance), crosswinds, RCR, and other factors influencing the landing ground roll in deciding to land with less than 50 degrees of flaps. A11.5.13.3. Multiple Full Stop Landings. subsequent takeoff.

Compute brake energy prior to each

A11.5.13.4. Final Landing Fuel. Final landing fuel will not be less than 5,900 pounds. Engineering analysis has proven that engine fuel starvation is imminent past this point. A11.5.14. Zero-Degree Flap Approach. Do not practice zero-degree flap approaches unless an instructor pilot has access to a set of flight controls and no emergencies (actual or simulated) exist. The approach will be terminated no lower than 200 feet AGL. A11.5.15. Practice Emergency or Abnormal Gear and Flap Operation. Accomplish clear of clouds (not applicable when IP-supervised). May be accomplished day or night. A11.5.16. Simulated Instrument Flight. Artificial vision restricting devices are not authorized for any phase of flight unless as part of an approved flight test plan. Simulated instrument flight may be flown and logged without the use of a vision-restricting device.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

213 Attachment 12

C-146 OPERATING PROCEDURES A12.1. General Information . This attachment, in conjunction with other governing directives, outlines procedures for operation of the C-146A and NC-146A (Do-328 Test Bed) aircraft under most circumstances. AFMC aircrews and all management levels concerned with operation of the C-146A/NC-146A/Do-328 aircraft must comply with the outlined requirements and consult AFMC/A3V for waivers to this attachment. The NC-146A Test Bed aircraft follows the same guidance as the C-146A in this attachment unless otherwise stated. Operations or procedures not specifically addressed may be accomplished if they enhance safe, effective mission accomplishment. A12.1.1. Interfly. Interfly is the exchange and/or substitution of aircrew members and/or aircraft between MAJCOMs to accomplish flying missions. Normally, interfly should be limited to specific operations/tests, exercises, or special circumstances. A12.1.1.1. 645 AESG maintains current Memorandums of Agreement (MOA) between AFMC, AFSOC, and Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC). Unless otherwise specified in the MOA: A12.1.1.1.1. If a test or test support mission is to be flown then, the aircraft will operate under AFMC flight orders. A12.1.1.1.2. Crew member(s) will follow operational procedures of the MAJCOM that is signing the Flight Authorization. A12.2. Mission Planning . A12.2.1. Aircrew Publication Requirements In Flight. A12.2.1.1. C-146A. The Aircrew Operating Handbook (Vol 1,2,3,4) are required to be issued and possessed by each qualified aircrew member. The Quick Reference Handbook, including normal and emergency checklists will be carried in flight. A12.2.1.2. D-328 Test Bed Aircraft. The Aircraft Flight Manual will be issued and possessed by each qualified aircrew member. A12.2.1.3. Electronic Flight Bag (EFB). Aircrew members may utilize EFBs IAW the most current version of the AFMC Concept Of Employment. A12.2.2. Aircraft Weight and Balance. The pilot-in-command is responsible for the proper loading, including load security, weight and weight distribution. Weight and balance for the aircraft is accomplished in accordance with TO1-1B-50, Weight and Balance, and the AOH. A12.2.2.1. Compute weight and balance by using the moments method or the approved spreadsheet supplied by the unit possessing the aircraft. A12.2.3. NVGs. All crewmembers will carry and preflight their own NVGs prior to flight for missions using NVGs. A12.2.4. Fuel Planning. A12.2.4.1. Plan to arrive in the terminal area at destination or alternate (if required) with:

214

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A12.2.4.1.1. 600 lbs. of fuel remaining during VFR A12.2.4.1.2. 900 lbs. of fuel remaining during IFR conditions. A12.2.4.1.3. Land with no less than 450 pounds of fuel on board. A12.2.4.1.4. Plan to consume 300 lbs. of fuel for each instrument approach to be flown. A12.2.4.2. Minimum Fuel is 450 pounds and Emergency Fuel is 250 pounds. Pilots will declare “Minimum Fuel” or “Emergency Fuel” to ATC when fuel quantity reaches the respective value and the aircraft has not been given an approach or landing clearance. A12.2.4.3. Plan an additional 15 minutes of fuel per hour at a maximum cruise power fuel consumption rate for that portion of the flight where structural icing or thunderstorms requiring off-course maneuvering are forecast or reported. A12.2.4.4. For missions with extended periods over large bodies of water or desolate land areas, if no suitable alternate exists between the ETP and final destination, pilots will include an additional 10% of enroute fuel to their total fuel requirements for contingencies (ex., flight at aircraft depressurization altitude). A12.2.5. TOLD. Compute TOLD using the AOH performance data charts, approved tabulated data, or approved SDP/TOLD program. Compute TOLD for initial takeoff prior to engine start. Recompute data for pressure altitude changes of 500 feet, temperature changes of 5° C, or gross weight changes of 500 lbs. A12.2.5.1. Options for calculating TOLD are in priority order: A12.2.5.1.1. Option 1: Use 1.2 Variable V2 (KVS) and a V1/VR of 1.0. A12.2.5.1.2. Option 2: If the runway length is limiting and climb gradient is not a factor, use 1.13 KVS and V1/VR of 1.0. A12.2.5.1.3. Option 3: V1/VR combination.

Use TOLD calculations to find an optimized KVS and

A12.2.5.1.4. Option 4: Use Short Field Operations procedures to calculate TOLD per A12.3.4. A12.2.6. Aircrew Uniforms. Aircrews will wear conservatively styled civilian clothing when OCONUS and when required for mission or operational requirements and approved by the squadron CC or Director of Operations (DO). A12.2.6.1. The PIC is the approval authority for operations with degraded equipment within the guidelines of the aircraft Minimum Equipment List (MEL) and Minimum Equipment Subsystems List (MESL). Operating outside of the aircraft MEL or MESL guidelines requires FOA approval. This can be a verbal or email communication. A12.2.6.1.1. Radar. The weather radar must be operative for flights into areas of known or forecast thunderstorms. A12.2.6.1.2. Icing. The NC-146A will not operate into known or forecasted icing with the sponsons and/or pods installed. A12.3. Mission Guidance .

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

215

A12.3.1. Crew Complement. The minimum crew complement for flight operations is two pilots. A12.3.1.1. Additional Crew Members. Personnel not authorized to be placed on the Aeronautical orders but supporting unit missions can be flown in MESP, MEP, or passenger status IAW AFI 11-401, AFMC Sup. Comply with applicable directives governing flights with these personnel IAW this instruction and the AFMC sup to AFI 11-202V3. The PIC or designated representative will brief all MEPs on emergency procedures, egress, and appropriate FCIF items. A12.3.2. Runway Requirements. A12.3.2.1. Taxiway width. Minimum width for all operations is 22 feet. A12.3.2.2. Runway width. Minimum width for normal operations is 35 feet. Note: Operations on runways or taxiways with widths less than the minimum turn radius of 47 ft. 6 inches require an additional level of risk management. Runways narrower than the minimum turn radius will require the crew to accomplish star turns or other procedures to reposition the aircraft for departure. Crews must also consider the distance from the nose gear to the main landing gear (24 ft. 4 inches) when attempting turnarounds. A12.3.3. Normal Operations. A12.3.3.1. Takeoff and Landing. Minimum runway length is the greater of Takeoff Distance or Accelerate-Stop Distance. A12.3.3.2. Touch-and-Go Operations. A touch-and-go will not be continued unless sufficient touch-and-go distance remains. A minimum of 6,000 feet of runway is required for Flaps 20 touch-and-go landings. A minimum of 7,000 feet of runway is required for zero-flap or Flaps 32 touch-and-go landings. Touch-and-go distance is defined as Flaps 20 landing distance plus +10% of Flaps 20 landing distance + 1,000 feet prior to takeoff power application A12.3.3.2.1. Wet Runways. Touch-and-go operations are prohibited when the runway is wet and crosswinds exceed 15 kts. A12.3.3.2.2. Icy Runways. Stop-and-go or touch-and-go operations are prohibited on runways with an RCR of 4. A12.3.3.3. Stop-and-go operations. Available runway distance remaining after stopping the aircraft will be at least Takeoff Distance or Accelerate-Stop Distance, whichever is greater. If the runway remaining is less, taxi the aircraft to achieve the required distance. A12.3.4. Short Field Operations. A12.3.4.1. Takeoff. Minimum runway length for a short field takeoff is the greater distance of takeoff ground roll + 10% of takeoff ground roll, accelerate-stop distance at KVS 1.13-V1/VR 0.85, or 2,000 ft. A12.3.4.2. Landing. Minimum runway length for a short field landing is the greater distance of landing ground roll + 10% of landing ground roll or 2,000 ft.

216

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A12.3.5. Semi-prepared Surface Operations. Observe guidance contained in AFI 13-217, Drop Zone and Landing Zone Procedures and C-146A Aircraft Operating Handbook (AOH ) for operations on unpaved or semi-prepared runways. A12.3.6. NVG Operations. Due to the nature and limitations of NVG operations, increased ORM should be considered when using NVGs to enhance mission capabilities. A12.3.6.1. Aircrews may land at an LZ marked with any AMP configuration provided the pilots define identifiable touchdown and go-around points (e.g., visual point/location, timing past intended landing point, etc.) prior to landing. A12.3.6.2. NVG go-around points will be briefed for all runways of intended landing. A12.3.7. Reverse Taxi. CAUTION: Using brakes to stop the aircraft while reverse taxiing may result in aircraft empennage contacting the ground. A12.3.7.1. The pilot performing reverse taxi operations will coordinate reverse taxi directions and signals to be used with the marshaller prior to commencing reverse taxi operations. A12.3.7.2. A loadmaster, third pilot, or FTE will be in a position to direct reverse taxi, report any hazards and provide the pilot with timely interphone instructions on turns, distance remaining, condition of the maneuvering area, and stopping point. WARNING: Ensure the aircraft is depressurized prior to opening the crew door. A12.3.7.3. During night reverse taxi operations, the pilot will ensure visibility in the taxi area is sufficient to conduct safe taxi operations. A12.3.7.3.1. Stop no less than 25 feet from an obstruction even if using a wing walker. A12.3.7.4. Secure all cargo and ensure passengers are seated prior to reverse taxi operations. A12.3.8. Operations Over Arresting Cables. Do not roll over arresting cables at high speed during taxi, takeoff, or landing to preclude damage to bottom of aircraft. A12.3.8.1. Do not taxi over raised arresting cables when the gravel guard is installed on the nosewheel. Raised runway barriers are elevated above the runway surface using rubber "doughnuts". A12.3.9. Enhanced Field Performance. For semi-prepared operations, the TOLD assumes that maximum takeoff power is applied within three seconds of brake release. The semiprepared accelerate check time also assumes this. Based on this guidance, the standard procedure for semi-prepared operations will be to set Flight Idle prior to brake release, directing the PNF to set takeoff power within three seconds. This technique has been proven to prevent propeller damage. A12.3.10. Torque Calls. The FTE, when positioned in the loadmaster jump seat, will provide torque call-outs starting at 70% TQ. The FTE will call 70%, 80%, and 90% as the engine with the higher power setting reaches those limits. The pilots will slow throttle movement at 80% and cease movement at 90% to allow engine stabilization. Once the engine has stabilized, the power can be advanced to its final setting. The FTE will announce an advisory “Torque” call over the interphone when the engine torque reaches either 100% or

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

217

the green torque markers, whichever is lower. The PNF will verbally acknowledge the call. This procedure does not apply to enhanced field performance operations and aircraft installed with an engine torque aural advisory alert system. A12.4. Instrument Procedures . No additional information required. A12.5. Operating Procedures and Restrictions . A12.5.1. FDP. The C-146A/Do-328 is considered a transport aircraft and will comply with FDP criteria outlined in AFI 11-202V3, AFMC Sup. A12.5.2. Checklists. In the absence of a loadmaster, the FTE or third pilot will ensure the cabin is secure prior to critical phases of flight and will respond to PNF checklist queries by stating “cabin secure” or “unsecure, followed by the reason.” A12.5.3. Prohibited Maneuvers. The following maneuvers or procedures are prohibited in the aircraft: A12.5.3.1. Spins. A12.5.3.2. Aerodynamic Stalls (past the pusher). A12.5.3.3. Simulated runaway trim malfunctions. A12.5.3.4. Bank exceeding 60 degrees. A12.5.4. Confidence Maneuvers. All confidence maneuvers will be accomplished in VMC conditions with a discernible horizon. Ensure the airspace around the aircraft is clear of traffic by visually clearing the area prior to the maneuver. Do not exceed AOH limitations unless operating under an approved test plan or waiver. A12.5.4.1. Stall Series. Begin stall series at least 5,000 feet AGL or 5,000 feet above the clouds if operating “VFR on top”. For stall series training, recover from the stall at the first definite indication (e.g., stick shaker, actual stall of aircraft, decay of control effectiveness, or pusher if required by a test plan). An IP at a set of flight controls is required to perform this maneuver. A12.5.4.1.1. Simulated or actual engine-out stalls are prohibited. A12.5.4.2. Steep Turns. Accomplish steep turns at least 1,500 feet AGL, 1,500 feet above the clouds if operating “VFR on top”. Do not exceed 60 degrees of bank. A12.5.4.3. Slow Flight. Do not fly less than 5 KIAS below VREF for aircraft configuration. Do not exceed 15 degrees of bank. Authorized in day VMC only at a minimum of 1,500 feet AGL or 1,500 feet above a clouds if operating “VFR on top”. A12.5.5. Simulated Emergency Procedures. A12.5.5.1. Practice simulated emergencies which require placing switches in other than their normal position or the aircraft in an abnormal configuration as specified in the AOH only during training, evaluation, or currency flights when an instructor or flight examiner pilot is in one of the pilot seats. Preface all simulated emergencies with the word “simulated” and terminate simulated emergencies if an actual emergency arises. Note: For training, 0 Flap approaches and landings are not considered emergency procedures;

218

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 however, if an actual condition exists that leads to a flapless landing, run appropriate emergency or abnormal checklists. A12.5.5.2. IP candidates who occupy a pilot seat and are under the direct supervision of a flight examiner pilot not in the seat, may practice simulated emergency procedures during upgrade evaluations to IP. A12.5.5.3. For simulated engine out operations, retard the appropriate throttle to approximately 10% torque to simulate zero thrust on the simulated failed engine. A12.5.5.4. Actual Engine Shutdown and Air start. If required by a formal training syllabus test plan, or FCF, one engine may be shut down in day VMC only at a minimum of 5,000 feet above the ground or cloud deck, whichever is higher.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

219 Attachment 13

E-3/E-8/B707 OPERATING PROCEDURES A13.1. General Information. This attachment, in conjunction with other governing directives, outlines procedures for operation of the E-3/E-8 aircraft under most circumstances. AFMC aircrews and all management levels concerned with operation of all E-3/E-8 aircraft must comply with the outlined requirements and consult AFMC/A3V for waivers to this attachment. Operations or procedures not specifically addressed may be accomplished if they enhance safe, effective mission accomplishment. A13.2. Mission Planning. A13.2.1. Melbourne Intl, (KMLB), performance data may be calculated using RCR 16 in lieu of RCR 10 per performance manual with a runway condition reported as "wet" without standing water. Use actual MU or RCR if reported by ATC, for performance calculations. A13.3. Common Mission Guidance. A13.3.1. Crew Complement. Minimum aircrew complement will be commensurate with Flight Manual and /or mission specific requirements. A13.3.2. Maneuver Restrictions. A13.3.2.1. In-flight, prior to simulating emergency procedures (EP), the pilot will notify all crewmembers. A13.3.2.2. In the event of an actual emergency, all student training and simulated EPs will be terminated. Training will resume only when the pilot in command (PIC) has determined that no hazard to safe aircraft operations exist. A13.3.3. Prohibited Maneuvers. A13.3.3.1. This section adds aircraft limitations and restrictions to those already specified in flight manuals and applies to all aircrew. Unless on an approved test plan or an actual emergency exists, deviations from the aircraft flight manual are prohibited. The following maneuvers are prohibited: A13.3.3.1.1. Stalls A13.3.3.1.2. Zero Flap Landings A13.3.3.1.3. Dutch Roll (unless in approved lesson plan) A13.3.3.1.4. Simulated Emergency Descent A13.3.3.1.5. Simulated 3 engine, rudder power-off landings are prohibited A13.3.3.1.6. Simulated Compound Emergencies. (Excludes 3-engine, 25 degree flaps landing). A13.3.3.1.7. Actual practice engine shutdown (unless in approved lesson plan) A13.3.4. Landing Limitations. The following landing limitations apply to both touch-and-go and full stop landings: A13.3.4.1. All pilots will plan to land on centerline within the touchdown zone.

220

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A13.3.4.2. All touchdowns will be at a gross weight and at a point and speed that will permit a safe, full stop landing in the remaining runway. If this is not possible, initiate a go-around. A13.3.5. Engine Running Crew Changes. Unless otherwise published, use the following procedures. A crewmember should be positioned at the point of entry to act as a safety observer. Crewmembers should approach and depart the aircraft from the nose. Crewmembers should ensure that all loose items are secure prior to entering and exiting the aircraft. Pilot in Command (PIC) will ensure that the aircraft is clear prior to taxi. A13.3.6. Air Refueling Limitations. A13.3.6.1. Do not accomplish AR operations when: A13.3.6.1.1. Conditions are encountered which, in the opinion of either aircraft commander or the boom operator result in marginal control of either aircraft. A13.3.6.1.2. Either the tanker or the receiver has less than the full number of engines operating. A13.3.6.1.3. The tanker aircraft is unable to retract the landing gear. A13.3.6.2. Tanker Autopilot. Conduct AR using all axes of the tanker autopilot except when either the tanker or receiver requires training with the tanker autopilot off or when the tanker autopilot is inoperative. Tanker pilots must notify the receiver pilot when any axis of the autopilot is not being used. For autopilot off tanker must have normal disconnect capability, unless fuel emergency exists. A13.3.6.3. AR without Tanker Disconnect Capability. AR without tanker disconnect capability means the boom operator is unable to get an immediate disconnect by triggering the disconnect switch. After a known loss of tanker disconnect capability with a particular receiver, no further contacts will be attempted with that receiver. The inability to get an immediate disconnect from one receiver by triggering a disconnect does not prohibit contact attempts with other receivers, if the tanker system (signal coil) checks good. However, if disconnects cannot be triggered on two successive receivers, no further contacts will be attempted unless required for the safe recovery of the aircraft. A13.3.6.4. Practice Maneuvers. A13.3.6.4.1. Restrictions. Practice emergency separations while in the contact position and demonstration of boom envelope limits are prohibited when the tanker has lost disconnect capability or during manual/emergency boom latching. A13.3.6.4.2. Maneuvers initiated from the contact position require that the tanker AR system be in normal, and a disconnect capability with the receiver must have been previously determined by a boom operator initiated disconnect A13.3.6.5. Practice Emergency Separation. Prior to the actual accomplishment of a practice emergency separation, coordination between the tanker pilot, boom operator, and the receiver pilot is mandatory. Coordination must include when the maneuver will occur and who will give the command of execution. Tanker pilot coordination may be accomplished over interphone with the boom operator. All crewmembers will be briefed on interphone prior to the practice emergency separation.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

221

A13.3.6.6. Air Refueling Envelope Limits Demonstration. Prior to a limits demonstration, a disconnect capability must have been previously determined by a boom operator initiated disconnect. A13.3.6.7. Receiver AR Training. A qualified receiver IP will conduct training. The receiver pilot must inform and obtain acknowledgment from the tanker pilot and boom operator when an unqualified receiver pilot is receiving AR training. During this time, a boom operator qualified for the applicable category receiver must operate the boom controls, and if the tanker autopilot is off, the tanker must be flown by a pilot current and qualified in tanker AR. A13.3.7. Formation Flying. Formation is authorized IAW applicable technical order. A13.4. Instrument Procedures. A13.4.1. The E3/E8 is instrument category D. A13.5. Operating Procedures and Restrictions. A13.5.1. Simulated Loss of Engines. A13.5.1.1. Perform practice or simulated loss of engines IAW this instruction, the applicable flight manual, and the following: A13.5.1.2. Simulated engine-out approaches may end in a missed approach, a full-stop landing, or a touch-and-go landing using all engines during the takeoff phase. A planned three-engine go-around may be started at any time before the power is reduced in the flare. If no IP or EP is onboard, the go-around will be initiated no lower than 200 feet AGL. Use all four engines as soon as safe and practical A13.5.1.3. Simulated two-engine approaches and landings will be practiced under IP supervision only. Simulated two-engine approaches can be practiced using two symmetric engines or three engines using two-engine procedures. Two-engine approaches and landings will not be practiced in an extensively modified aircraft. (Simulator only) A13.5.1.4. Simulated engine-out, rudder-power-off approach and go-around will not be accomplished unless an IP has briefed the maneuver prior to flight and an IP has access to a set of flight controls. The go-around will be started no lower than 200 AGL. For an unplanned go-around, use all four engines as soon as safe and practical. (Simulator only) A13.5.2. Practice Emergency Gear and Flap Operation. Accomplish day or night, clear of clouds. A13.5.3. Zero-Degree Flap Approach. Do not practice zero-degree flap approaches unless an instructor pilot has access to a set of flight controls and no emergencies (actual or simulated) exist. The approach will be terminated no lower than 200 feet AGL.

222

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 Attachment 14 F-15 OPERATING PROCEDURES

A14.1. General Information. This attachment, in conjunction with other governing directives, outlines procedures for operation of the F-15 aircraft under most circumstances. AFMC aircrews and all management levels concerned with operation of all F-15 aircraft must comply with the outlined requirements and consult AFMC/A3V for waivers to this attachment. The notation, F15, is used to describe the F-15A/B/C/D, F-15E and F-15SA. Operations or procedures not specifically addressed may be accomplished if they enhance safe, effective mission accomplishment. A14.2. Mission Planning. A14.2.1. Unit Developed Checklists. Unit developed checklists may be used in lieu of flight manual checklists (except -25 checklists) provided they contain, as a minimum, all items (verbatim and in order) listed in the applicable checklist. A14.2.2. Low Altitude Map Preparation / Terrain Following (TF) Flight Map. A14.2.2.1. On all low altitude flights, each aircraft in the flight will contain a minimum of one map of the low altitude route or training areas. The map will have current VVOD and be of a scale and quality that terrain features, hazards, and chart annotations are of sufficient detail to allow navigation and safe mission accomplishment. A14.2.2.2. Planned night TF turn point bank angles should reflect system limitations to ensure maps accurately display planned routes. Flight leads should select TF letdown points that avoid initial descents into rugged or mountainous terrain at night (defined by TO 1F-15E-1 as any vertical change that exceeds 900 ft./NM). A14.2.3. Briefing/Debriefing. A14.2.3.1. Emphasize low altitude flight maneuvering, obstacle and ground avoidance, Low Altitude Warning System (LAWS) features and limitations, low altitude comfort level, and complacency avoidance on all low-level mission briefings. For low altitude training over water and featureless terrain, include specific considerations with emphasis on minimum altitudes and spatial disorientation. A14.2.3.2. Weapon Systems Officers (WSOs) should brief items applicable to rear cockpit duties during the mission. A14.2.4. Stowing Equipment in Bay 5 (F-15A/C). Stow containers or baggage with hard sides inside a Bay 5 cargo container. Without a cargo container, stow only soft-sided personal equipment baggage, such as hang-up or A-3 bags, in Bay 5. Items stowed in Bay 5 will be positioned so as not to interfere with circuit breakers, test equipment, and ICS cables. Items should be secured with non-stretchable cord in such a manner to prevent movement in all three axes of motion. The pilot is responsible for ensuring items stowed in Bay 5 are loaded correctly and properly secured. The carriage restrictions for the Bay 5 cargo container are identical to the MXU-648/A cargo pod except for the airspeed restriction, which does not apply. Aircraft with items stowed in Bay 5 will not perform aerobatics but may execute tactical intercept missions restricted to LIMITED maneuvering. Do not execute zero or negative G maneuvers unless safety of flight dictates.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

223

A14.3. Common Mission Guidance. A14.3.1. Ground Visual Signals. When ground intercom is not used, use visual signals IAW AFI 11-218, Aircraft Operations and Movements on the Ground and this volume. The following signals augment AFI 11-218. A14.3.1.1. Jet Fuel Starter (JFS) Start: With clenched fist, pilot makes a pulling motion. A14.3.1.2. Flight Controls Check: Raise arm, clench fist, and make a stirring motion. A14.3.1.3. Brake Check: Hold left or right arm horizontal, open hand and push forward, breaking at the wrist (as in applying rudder pedal pressure with feet). A14.3.1.4. Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC), Improved Digital Electronic Engine Control (IDEEC)/Automatic Thrust Departure Prevention System (ATDPS) Check: With the fingers and thumb of each hand extended and joined at the tips, open and close the fingers and thumbs of both hands simultaneously, simulating nozzle opening and closing. A14.3.1.5. Target Pod Clear: Extend arm and rotate a closed fist in a circular motion. A14.3.2. Taxi / Takeoff. If the computed military power takeoff distance exceeds one-half of the available runway, takeoff using afterburner. A14.3.3. Join-Up/Rejoin. Flight leaders will maintain 350 KCAS until join-up is accomplished unless mission requirements necessitate a different airspeed. A14.3.4. Tactical Formation. A14.3.4.1. Wingmen/trail elements will cross above the lead/lead element when deconfliction is required during tactical maneuvering. A14.3.4.2. Deconfliction Responsibilities. The wingman is responsible for flight path deconfliction during tactical maneuvering unless he calls “Padlocked", “Blind”, or “Engaged” and flight lead acknowledges. A14.3.5. Minimum Altitudes. A14.3.5.1. Nose high, low speed recoveries and Aircraft Handling Characteristics (AHC) vertical maneuvers: 10,000 feet AGL. A14.3.5.2. Aerobatics: 5,000 feet AGL. A14.3.6. Radio Procedures. A14.3.6.1. Any flight member may make a "Knock-It-Off" or "Terminate" call IAW AFI 11-214. A KIO applies to any phase of flight and any type of mission. A14.3.7. Air-to-Air Weapons Employment. A14.3.7.1. Simulated Gun Employment. Missions may be flown with a loaded gun provided the gun is safe IAW TO 1F-15A/ E-34-1-1-CL-1 and a trigger check is performed prior to the first engagement. Never perform a trigger check with a hot gun, regardless of Master Arm switch position. A14.3.7.2. Maneuvering Limitations. Minimum airspeed during low altitude offensive or defensive maneuvering (LOWAT) is 350 KCAS.

224

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A14.3.8. Air-to-Surface Weapons Employment. A14.3.8.1. Simulated Attacks against Off-Range or Manned Targets May be conducted, to include use of Master Arm, A/G Master Mode and pickle button actuation, when carrying practice ordnance under the following restrictions: A14.3.8.1.1. No live or carted heavyweight inert A/G ordnance, or live A/A missiles are loaded. A14.3.8.1.2. The A/G training mode is used on the Programmable Armament Control Set (PACS). A14.3.8.1.3. Stations loaded with carted practice ordnance are not selected on the training PACS. A14.3.8.1.4. The combat laser may be used only in approved areas. A14.3.8.2. Loft Recovery Procedures in Night or IMC Conditions. Escape maneuvers following loft deliveries are instrument recoveries which exceed numerous TF limits. Use the following procedures to manually recover to within TF limits: A14.3.8.2.1. Recovery Initiation Altitude (RIA) is the sum of the escape corridor MSA and altitude lost during the dive recovery. Compute RIA for the planned escape corridor. The escape corridor is defined as a 10NM wide corridor, starting at the planned roll out point and extending for 8NM along the egress heading. The MSA is 1,000 feet above the highest obstacle within the corridor, rounded up to the nearest 100 feet. A14.3.8.2.2. Confirm the standby attitude indicator is reliable prior to pull-up. Display an Electronic Attitude Director Indicator (EADI) in both cockpits throughout the loft maneuver and recovery. A14.3.8.2.3. Following release, roll to 120-135 degrees of bank and execute a 4-5g slicing turn. As the nose passes the horizon, decrease bank angle to 90 degrees and continue to decrease bank angle to keep the nose from dropping lower than 10 degrees nose low. Roll out on egress heading or upon reaching 10 degrees nose low and follow TF steering when it appears. If approaching RIA before rolling out, or before TF steering appears, pull to recover at or above MSA. A14.3.8.2.4. If the TF system fails during recovery, maintain the appropriate minimum altitude (ESA/MSA) that provides terrain clearance. A14.3.8.2.5. If at any time during a low altitude, nose-high LANTIRN weapons delivery (loft) or recovery, airspeed drops below 300 KCAS, abort the maneuver and recover. Direct primary emphasis towards aircraft attitude, altitude and regaining airspeed. A14.3.8.3. Pop-Up Attacks. Abort pop-up attacks if airspeed decreases below 350 KCAS (300 KCAS above 10,000 feet AGL). A14.3.9. Low Altitude Procedures. A14.3.9.1. Fly low-level formation positions/tactics using AFTTP 3-1vMDS, AFTTP 33vMDS as guides.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

225

A14.3.9.1.1. Line abreast formation is authorized at or above 300 feet AGL. When flying below 300 feet AGL, direct the wingman to a wedge formation position. A14.3.9.2. Obstacles. A14.3.9.2.1. If unable to visually acquire or ensure lateral separation from known obstacles that could be a factor to the flight, flight leads will direct a climb not later than 3 NM prior to ensure sufficient vertical separation. Do not descend back into the low-level environment until visual with the obstacle or positional awareness dictates it is safe to do so. A14.3.9.2.2. Low Altitude Warning System (LAWS) equipped aircraft. During all low altitude operations set the LAWS at 90 percent of the briefed minimum altitude or 90 percent of the command-directed minimum altitude, whichever is higher. A14.3.9.3. Minimum Airspeed. The minimum airspeed for low-level (less than 1000’AGL) navigation is 300 KCAS. A14.3.9.4. For Air to Surface range operations min altitudes will be determined by Range restrictions, AFI 11-214 restrictions, or aircrew minimums, whichever is greater. A14.3.9.5. Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) Route/Area Abort Procedures. Comply with VFR altitude restrictions, maintain VMC and squawk applicable (IFF/SIF) modes and codes. Attempt contact with controlling agency, if required. A14.3.9.6. IMC Route/Area Abort Procedures. Immediately climb to, or above, the briefed ESA and maintain preplanned ground track. Execute appropriate lost wingman procedures if necessary. If deviations from normal route/area procedures are required, or if the ESA/MSA is higher than the vertical limits of the route/area, squawk (IFF/SIF) emergency. Attempt contact with the appropriate ATC agency for an Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) clearance. If required to fly in IMC without an IFR clearance, cruise at appropriate VFR altitudes until IFR clearance is received. A14.3.10. General Terrain Following (TF) Operations. A14.3.10.1. The minimum altitude for TF training will be the higher of MTR, MOA, or aircrew LASDT qualification, but not lower than 500’ AGL at night or in IMC. A14.3.10.2. An operational LANTIRN system is required to conduct night or day IMC low-level operations below the MSA. A14.3.10.3. For training, unarmed TF operations are prohibited. A14.3.10.4. Minimum equipment required for TF operations is TF radar, radar altimeter (RALT), and E-SCOPE. For IMC TF a functioning A/A and A/G radar is also required. For night operations, a usable Navigation/Forward Looking Infrared (NAV/FLIR) HUD image is required. NVGs may be used in place of the NAV/FLIR. A14.3.10.5. Each crew will confirm by inter-cockpit communication that the TF and RALT are on and working properly before descending below the MSA. A14.3.10.6. Any maneuvering that will put the aircraft outside of TF limits, negating flyup protection, will be at or above the applicable MSA or ESA.

226

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A14.3.10.7. Abnormal Operation during IMC TF. Aircrews who experience failure of any portion of the TF system or A/A / A/G radar while flying IMC TF will immediately climb to (or above) the MSA (or ESA if not within 5NM of course). If the failure(s) can be cleared and safe TF regained, TF operations may resume. Otherwise terminate the low-level portion of the mission. A14.3.11. NVGs. A14.3.11.1. Night BD checks are permitted only when wearing NVGs. A14.3.11.2. Aircrew that are NVG Medium Altitude Qualified may fly below the MSA while wearing NVGs during low-level navigation if using the TF system for terrain avoidance. With any failure of the TF system the aircrew will immediately climb to (or above) the MSA (or ESA if not within 5NM of course) A14.3.12. Approaches and Landings. A14.3.12.1. The desired touchdown point is 500-1000 feet past the runway threshold for a VFR pattern or 500-1000 feet past the Runway Point of Intercept (RPI) for a precision approach. A14.3.12.2. Landing Restrictions: A14.3.12.2.1. Do not land over any raised web barrier (e.g. MA-1A, 61QS11), or loose or slack cable (e.g. BAK-12/13/14).

A14.4. Instrument Procedures. A14.4.1. The F-15 is Approach Category E. A14.4.2. Area Navigation. The F-15 INS and EGI are approved for Enroute Area Navigation (RNAV); however, RNAV and GPS approaches are not authorized. A14.4.3. Trail Departures. A14.4.3.1. Each aircraft/element will accelerate in MIL/AB power until reaching 350 KCAS. Climb at 350 KCAS until reaching cruise mach/TAS IAW Flight Manual, unless otherwise briefed. A14.4.3.2. Upon reaching 350 KCAS, the flight leader will set 850 FTIT for PW-100/220 and 900 FTIT for PW-229 unless otherwise briefed. A14.4.4. Electronic Attitude Director Indicator (EADI) – F-15E. In IMC the EADI must be used as the primary attitude reference by the crewmember flying the aircraft. The F-15E HUD is not certified as a Primary Flight Reference (PFR) IAW AFI 11-217V1; therefore, it cannot be used as a sole attitude reference. A14.4.4.1. The HUD is the primary reference for low-level/TF operations. Do not use the HUD to recover from an unusual attitude or when executing lost wingman procedures except when no other reference is available. A14.5. Operating Procedures and Restrictions. A14.5.1. General. Follow the procedures in this chapter when other than normal circumstances occur. These procedures do not supersede flight manual guidance. A14.5.2. Aircraft Over-G Procedures.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

227

A14.5.2.1. Non-OWS equipped aircraft and OWS equipped aircraft whose OWS is not operational will terminate the mission and land as soon as practical from a straight-in approach. A14.5.2.2. Aircraft equipped with an operable OWS system will immediately terminate maneuvering and call up the OWS matrix. A14.5.2.2.1. If level "1" (one) is displayed in any column of the matrix except Mass Items (MIT), perform a battle damage check. If no abnormalities are noted, the flight lead may continue the briefed mission. If a subsequent level "1" or greater over-G occurs, terminate the mission, perform a battle damage check, RTB and fly a straightin approach. A14.5.2.2.2. If level "1" (one) or greater is displayed in the MIT column, or level "2" (two) or greater is displayed in any column of the matrix, terminate the mission, perform a battle damage check, RTB and fly a straight-in approach. A14.5.2.2.3. Document over-Gs (level 1 or greater) in the AFTO Form 781. A14.5.3. In-flight Practice of Emergency Procedures. A14.5.3.1. A Simulated Emergency Procedure is defined as any procedure that produces an effect that closely parallels an actual emergency, such as retarding the throttle to simulate the drag equivalent to a flamed out engine. A14.5.3.2. Practice aborted takeoffs only in the flight simulator, Cockpit Procedures Trainer (CPT), or a static aircraft. A14.5.3.3. Simulated in-flight loss of both engines and practice in-flight engine shutdown is prohibited. Exceptions: Upgrading/qualified in FCF or AHM, or part of a syllabus for a formal training course such as TPS. A14.5.3.4. Emergency Landing Patterns. Include the type of practice emergency pattern if appropriate in the gear down call.

228

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 Attachment 15 F-16 OPERATING PROCEDURES

A15.1. General Information. This attachment, in conjunction with other governing directives, outlines procedures for operation of the F-16 aircraft under most circumstances. AFMC aircrews and all management levels concerned with operation of all F-16 aircraft must comply with the outlined requirements and consult AFMC/A3V for waivers to this attachment. Operations or procedures not specifically addressed may be accomplished if they enhance safe, effective mission accomplishment. A15.2. Mission Planning. A15.2.1. Takeoff and Landing Data. A15.2.1.1. Compute a 2,000 foot acceleration check speed anytime the computed takeoff roll exceeds 2,500 feet. When the computed takeoff roll is 2,500 feet or less, use the actual takeoff distance versus the computed takeoff distance to evaluate aircraft performance. A15.3. Common Mission Guidance. A15.3.1. General Requirements and Restrictions. A15.3.1.1. (B/D model aircraft) When the rear cockpit is occupied by other than a fully qualified F-16 pilot, the stick control switch will be placed in the FWD position. A15.3.1.2. Baggage or equipment will not be carried in the avionics bay behind the cockpit or in the aft canopy fixed transparency area. A15.3.1.3. Baggage or equipment will not be carried in an unoccupied F-16B/D rear cockpit. A15.3.1.4. Objects will not be placed in or on top of the engine intake. A15.3.1.5. Publications, maps and personal items placed in the cockpit will be secured to avoid flight control and throttle interference. A15.3.1.6. Pilots will ensure the ejection seat survival kit deployment switch is in the automatic position. A15.3.1.7. The CAT III position of the Stores Configuration Switch will be selected when the aircraft is configured with a Category III loading in accordance with aircraft technical orders. A15.3.1.8. Aircraft will not descend below 5,000 feet AGL during any portion of aerobatic maneuvering. A15.3.1.9. Flight through wingtip vortices and jet wash should be avoided. If unavoidable, the aircraft should be unloaded immediately to approximately 1 G. A15.3.1.10. Unless conducting authorized High AOA training, do not attempt to bypass flight control limiters to improve performance. Examples are: fuel transfer to alter center of gravity or use of the manual pitch override (MPO).

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

229

A15.3.1.11. Unless conducting authorized High AOA training, the minimum airspeed for all maneuvering is based upon activation of the low speed warning tone. When the low speed warning tone sounds, the pilot will take immediate action to correct the low speed condition. A15.3.1.12. The minimum airspeed for low-level navigation is 300 KCAS. If conditions allow, enough airspeed and altitude should be maintained to allow a zoom and JFSassisted airstart attempt in the event of engine failure. A15.3.1.13. Use of Altimeters. A15.3.1.13.1. General. For those aircraft so equipped, the radar altimeter will be on for all flights. The MSL Floor altitude advisory will be used for those missions that are conducive to spatial disorientation (night/IMC), or where minimum altitudes must be observed (ACBT floors). A15.3.1.13.2. Non-TFR Operations. Set the ALOW function of the radar altimeter no lower than the briefed minimum altitude. A15.3.1.14. Afterburner Use. Do not use AB below 2,000 pounds total fuel or established bingo fuel, whichever is higher, unless required for safety of flight. A15.3.2. Ground/Taxi Operations. A15.3.2.1. Ice FOD Procedures. The following procedures apply when the conditions in the flight manual indicate engine damage due to icing is possible. A15.3.2.1.1. The first aircraft will start 5 minutes early to check for inlet ice formation. The pilot will brief the crew chief to look for ice build up on the inlet lip and strut heater. Shutdown immediately if icing is visually detected, and notify the SOF and the squadron supervision. A15.3.2.1.2. Position ANTI ICE switch to ON prior to engine start. A15.3.2.1.3. An ice FOD monitor must be available to monitor the engine inlet for ice buildup whenever the aircraft is stopped for an extended period of time (i.e. ramp/shelter and EOR). While taxiing, avoid unnecessary stops en-route to EOR. If possible, remain at the ramp, or in the shelter until traffic delays are eliminated. Avoid standing water and snow or slush accumulations. When pulling into the arming area, attempt to stop the aircraft over an area clear of water, ice, or snow. A15.3.2.1.4. Hold in the arming spot with an ice FOD monitor present until cleared for take-off. A15.3.2.1.5. Shutdown immediately if icing is visually detected and notify the SOF and the squadron supervision. Make an appropriate entry in the aircraft forms. A qualified crew chief should accomplish an intake inspection prior to restarting the engine. A15.3.2.2. Quick Check and Arming. Place hands in view of ground personnel while the quick check inspection, arming, or de-arming are in progress. If the intercom system is not used during EOR checks, the pilot will establish and maintain visual contact with the maintenance team chief or weapons load chief to facilitate the use of visual signals.

230

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A15.3.2.3. EPU Check. When accomplishing EPU checks at EOR, pilots will ensure that maintenance technicians do not approach the aircraft until the EPU check is complete. Use a "thumbs up" signal or the intercom to indicate when it is safe. A15.3.2.4. When an F-16 aircraft is used to certify a BAK-12 interconnected with a BAK-14 cable retraction system, the minimum engagement speed will be 75 knots and the maximum engagement speed will be 90 knots. As the F-16 engages a BAK-12/14 at a speed approaching and/or exceeding 100 knots damage to the underside of the F-16 aircraft may result. A15.3.3. Takeoff. A15.3.3.1. Do not takeoff if the computed takeoff roll exceeds 80 percent of the available runway single ship or 70 percent for a formation takeoff. A15.3.3.2. Make an afterburner takeoff anytime the computed MIL power takeoff roll exceeds 50 percent of the available runway. A15.3.3.3. When centerline stores are carried, start the takeoff roll beyond a raised approach end cable, unless runway length, runway conditions (wet/icy), winds, gross weight or cable availability dictate otherwise. Aircraft configured with a centerline fuel tank may takeoff across approach end BAK-12 arrestment cables which are tied down with an 8-point system. A15.3.3.4. For single ship takeoffs, aircraft will steer toward the center of the runway. A15.3.3.5. To takeoff in formation, aircraft must be within 2,500 pounds gross weight of each other and have the same type engine (PW-220 vs. PW-220, etc.). A15.3.4. Overhead Traffic Patterns. A15.3.4.1. Tactical entry to the overhead traffic pattern is permitted if the following conditions are met: A15.3.4.1.1. Published overhead pattern altitude and airspeed will be used. A15.3.4.1.2. Specific procedures will be developed locally and coordinated with appropriate air traffic control agencies. A15.3.4.1.3. Four aircraft are the maximum permitted. Aircraft (or elements) more than 6,000 feet in trail will be considered a separate flight. A15.3.4.1.4. Regardless of the formation flown, no aircraft should be offset from the runway in the direction of the break. The intent is to avoid requiring a tighter than normal turn to arrive on normal downwind. A15.3.4.1.5. Normal downwind, base turn positions, and spacing will be flown. A15.3.5. Functional Check Flights (FCF). If an FCF is flown for engine-related causes, a maximum afterburner takeoff will be performed to maximize climb capability to obtain an immediate SFO high key position. A ceiling, if present, must be confirmed to be at least 500 feet above computed high key altitude. In all cases, departure-field weather must permit an immediate overhead SFO pattern where VMC can be maintained throughout the pattern. All engine-related FCF checks must be accomplished within gliding range of a suitable landing field and weather must permit a VMC descent to high key and VMC SFO at that airfield.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

231

Pilots flying engine-related FCFs will verify that these requirements can be met prior to takeoff. A15.3.5.1. If the ceiling directly over the departure field is lower than 500 above the computed high key altitude, the following alternate procedures are authorized. A preplanned and coordinated position and altitude (alternate high key) that will allow for an immediate VMC SFO will be determined prior to takeoff. The weather at the alternate high key must have a ceiling no lower than 500 feet above the computed altitude required, the field must be visible from this position, and the pilot must be able to maintain VMC throughout the SFO. These procedures must be coordinated and published locally, and pilots must be able to practice SFOs from the alternate high key position. A15.3.6. Advanced Handling Characteristics. Minimum altitude for the Horn Awareness and Recovery Series (HARTS), Confidence Maneuvers, and Advanced Handling Maneuvers is 10,000 feet AGL. Reference the applicable exercises or maneuvers for minimum and recommended entry altitudes. Procedures for these maneuvers are found in AFTPP 3-3.F-16. HARTS maneuvers will be flown in CAT-1 configured aircraft only. A15.3.7. NVG Lighting Restrictions. The use of the “WING/TAIL – OFF” simultaneously with “COVERT-FORM” or “COVERT-ALL” is a prohibited external lighting configuration for NVG operations. A15.3.8. Air-to-Air Operations. A15.3.8.1. Maneuvering Limitations. A15.3.8.1.1. Minimum airspeed during offensive or defensive maneuvering below 5,000 ft. AGL is 350 KCAS. A15.3.8.1.2. All CAT I configurations are authorized for unlimited maneuvering, as defined by AFI 11-214. CAT III configured aircraft must maintain 200 KCAS minimum during maneuvering. A15.3.8.1.3. For D-model F-16s, restrict maximum-commanded or abrupt control inputs below 150 KIAS. Maneuvering may be resumed at or above 150 KIAS. A15.3.8.2. Simulated Gun Employment. The gun is considered SAFE and simulated gun employment is authorized if the following conditions are met: A15.3.8.2.1. Preflight. Procedures.

Accomplished IAW DASH-34 Cold Gun (SAFE)

A15.3.8.2.2. In-Flight. A trigger check must be performed with the Master Arm switch in SIMULATE and the aircraft pointed away from other aircraft and inhabited areas. If HUD symbology reads "ARM" or SMS/MFD symbology reads "RDY," do not depress the trigger or continue with simulated weapons employment. Regardless of Master Arm switch position, do not perform a trigger check with a "hot" gun. A15.3.9. Air-to-Surface. A15.3.9.1. Off-Range Attacks. With expendable stores (bombs, external fuel tanks, TERs carted at the pylon, etc.) loaded on the aircraft, simulated weapons will be loaded (zero quantity) in the SMS/MFD only on empty or uncarted/unexpendable stations.

232

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 Exception: When loaded, captive Maverick and HARM missiles may be selected. The Master Arm switch will be confirmed in OFF or SIMULATE prior to the first attack. A15.3.9.2. Pop-Up Attacks. Abort pop-up attacks if airspeed decreases below 350 KCAS (300 KCAS above 10,000 feet AGL). A15.3.9.3. Night Weapons Delivery/Range Operations. A15.3.9.3.1. Compute a MSA for the entire bombing pattern. A15.3.9.3.2. Do not exceed 135 degrees of bank when returning to the low altitude structure following practice or actual night weapons deliveries. A15.3.9.4. LANTIRN Weapons Delivery/Range Operations. A15.3.9.4.1. If CARA ALOW and/or MSL Floor altitude advisory warnings are used for altitude cues on medium altitude weapons deliveries, care must be taken to reset them as appropriate when descending into the low-level structure. A15.3.9.4.2. The LANTIRN Attitude Advisory Function (LAAF) must be operational and set at the IP to TGT run-in MSA plus 5,000 feet for all night, selfdesignated laser-guided bomb (LGB) Loft deliveries. A15.3.9.4.3. The pilot will perform no duties (i.e., adjusting designation cursor on targeting pod) other than maintaining aircraft control from the initial pull-up during the performance of a night weapons delivery. During safe escape maneuver or during a night climbing delivery which employs a descent back to low altitude, pilots will focus solely on aircraft control until the aircraft is recovered back within TFR limits and TFR indications are adequate to continue safe low altitude operations. A15.3.9.5. Strafe Procedures. To prevent accidental gun firing, pilots will not select strafe mode until just prior to roll-in and will deselect strafe mode after establishing safe recovery parameters from each pass. A15.3.10. LANTIRN Operations. A15.3.10.1. Minimum Altitude. The minimum altitude for LANTIRN training will be the higher of VR/IR/MOA minimum altitude, or pilot minimum altitude as certified by the unit commander. A15.3.10.2. Vision Restriction Device (VRD) Restrictions: A15.3.10.2.1. VRDs will only be worn while conducting LANTIRN low-level training and LANTIRN weapon deliveries. A15.3.10.2.2. When a VRD is in use, a safety observer must be present. A safety observer is defined as a crewmember qualified in that aircraft in the rear cockpit of a two-place aircraft or another aircraft flying in the chase position. The chase aircraft must maintain continuous visual contact and have two-way radio communication between aircraft. A15.3.10.2.3. When a VRD is in use with the safety observer in the rear cockpit, pilots are restricted to the same altitude and procedures they are cleared to for night LANTIRN operations.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

233

A15.3.10.3. Operational Procedures. All procedures in AFI 11-214 apply in addition to the following: A15.3.10.3.1. Terrain following is prohibited after any alignment other than a full performance INS ground alignment, or extended interrupted alignment with a flashing RDY/ALIGN (status 10 or better) displayed. A15.3.10.3.2. TFR/LANTIRN systems will be in-flight checked using flight manual procedures on every flight involving TFR/LANTIRN operations. A15.3.10.3.3. Pilots must ensure all LANTIRN systems are functioning properly prior to sustained low-level operations. If any feature that is critical to overall system performance - Flight Control System (FLCS), INS, Combined Altitude Radar Altimeter (CARA) - is questionable or disabled, the checks and/or LANTIRN portion of the mission will be discontinued. When in formation, all pilots will confirm by radio call that the TFR and radar altimeter are on and working properly before descending below the MSA; "(Call Sign), RALT ON, TFR ON." A15.3.10.3.4. For TFR/LANTIRN operations, the ALOW feature of the CARA will be on and set no lower than 90 percent of the set clearance plane (SCP). The CARA may be placed to standby or off only during air refueling operations. Pilots need to ensure the CARA is tracking properly when descending through 4,500 feet AGL. A15.3.10.3.5. Minimum airspeed for TFR navigation is 400 KCAS. A15.3.10.3.6. During descent, pilots will accomplish a 1,000 foot Set Clearance Plane (SCP) level off prior to selecting a lower SCP. A15.3.10.3.7. Pilots will not conduct LANTIRN operations in IMC below the MSA, and must abide by FLIP weather minimums while on military training routes. A15.3.10.4. Abnormal Operation: A15.3.10.4.1. Pilots who experience failure of the terrain following system or failure of the LANTIRN HUD/FLIR imagery system while flying low-level missions will immediately climb to the MSA or above. The mission may be continued at the MSA within the low-level structure provided the aircraft position is known. If aircraft position cannot be positively determined, pilots will terminate that portion of the mission and execute route abort procedures. A15.3.10.4.2. If the TFR/LANTIRN system fails prior to route entry, pilots may still enter the route and continue the mission at the MSA, provided the above provisions are met. A15.3.10.4.3. Pilots will honor all system fly-ups and will not continue low-level operations below the MSA without TFR protection. The following procedures will be used at the first indication of a fly-up (pilots need only accomplish sufficient steps of the fly-up procedure to assure terrain clearance or until the fly-up terminates/clears): A15.3.10.4.4. Allow the fly-up to develop. CAUTION: If an automatic fly-up is not initiated by the system and aural or visual pull-up warnings are present, pilots will manually initiate a fly-up and comply with these procedures.

234

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A15.3.10.4.5. Throttle - As required. CAUTION: Military Power may be required to maintain a safe airspeed. Do not hesitate to use AB if required. A15.3.10.4.6. When terrain clearance ensured, Paddle Switch - Depress and release. CAUTION: Holding the paddle switch depressed inhibits fly-up commands to the FLCS. A15.3.10.5. If the system does not reset: A15.3.10.5.1. Climb to MSA. CAUTION: Using climb angles greater than 20 degrees can result in rapid airspeed bleed off. The use of AB and/or steep climb angles can result in spatial disorientation. A15.3.10.5.2. Level off at or above MSA and refer to checklist (if required). A15.3.10.5.3. If the malfunction can be reset, pilots may continue TFR operations. A15.3.11. High AoA. F-16 Flight Manual prohibited maneuvers of "intentional departures, not recovering at activation of low-speed horn, rudder-assisted rolls, and expanded g-limits" are allowed for test and safety review board approved flight tests and when used during approved High-AOA training programs.

A15.4. Instrument Procedures. A15.4.1. The F-16 is approach category E. A15.4.2. The F-16 INS/GPS and EGI are approved for enroute Area Navigation (RNAV). Neither RNAV nor GPS approaches are authorized. A15.4.3. Use of the Heads Up Display (HUD). Regardless of Block or OFP, do not use the HUD to recover from an unusual attitude or while executing lost wingman procedures except when no other reference is available. The HUD in F-16 Block 25/30/32 aircraft and Block 40/50 aircraft with Operational Flight Program (OFP) 40T5/50T4 (TV Code 117/115) and later OFPs may be used as a primary flight reference in night/IMC conditions. The HUD in all other F-16 Blocks and OFPs may be used as an additional instrument reference, but not the sole reference, in night/IMC conditions. A15.4.4. Spatial Disorientation (SD) has proven to be a leading killer of F-16 pilots. Although SD is most common at night or in IMC, it can and has happened in day VMC. Reference AFPAM11-417 for information on the causes of SD, how to avoid it, and how to mitigate its consequences. A15.4.4.1. Enabling PARS is an acceptable recovery method from SD induced unusual attitudes, reference AFTTP 3-3.F16 for recommended throttle techniques during PARS recoveries. A15.4.4.2. Pilots should ensure deconfliction from other aircraft (primarily above or below their position) prior to PARS activation. A15.5. Operating Procedures and Restrictions. A15.5.1. Takeoff Aborts. If aborting above 120 KCAS, suspect hot brakes. Taxi the aircraft to the designated hot brake area and follow hot brake procedures. During any abort, the tailhook should be lowered if there is any doubt about the ability to stop on the remaining runway.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

235

A15.5.2. In-flight Practice of Emergency Procedures. A15.5.2.1. Aborted Takeoff Practice. All practice and/or training related to aborted takeoffs will be accomplished in the flight simulator, Cockpit Familiarization Trainer (CFT) or (if trainer unavailable) a static aircraft. A15.5.2.2. Practice in-flight engine shutdown is prohibited unless conducting authorized airstart training. A15.5.2.3. SFO’s will not be performed to a touch and go or full stop landing if aircraft gross weight exceeds 23,000 lbs. (A/B model) or 25,000 lbs. (C/D model).

236

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 Attachment 16 F-22 OPERATING PROCEDURES

A16.1. General Information. This attachment, in conjunction with other governing directives, outlines procedures for operation of the F-22 aircraft under most circumstances. AFMC aircrews and all management levels concerned with operation of all F-22 aircraft must comply with the outlined requirements and consult AFMC/A3V for waivers to this attachment. Operations or procedures not specifically addressed may be accomplished if they enhance safe, effective mission accomplishment. A16.2. Mission Planning. Nothing additional. A16.3. Common Mission Guidance. A16.3.1. General Requirements. A16.3.1.1. Wear of the upper pressure garment is required when flying above 44,000 feet MSL. A16.3.2. Ground/Taxi Operations. A16.3.2.1. When ground intercom is not used, use visual signals IAW AFI 11-218, Aircraft Operations and Movement on the Ground, and this instruction. All signals pertaining to operation of aircraft systems will originate with the pilot. The crew chief will repeat the given signals when it is safe to operate the system. The pilot should not activate any system that could pose danger to the ground crew prior to receiving proper acknowledgment from ground personnel. The following signals augment AFI 11-218: A16.3.2.1.1. APU Start. With clenched fist, make a pulling motion. A16.3.2.1.2. Engine Start. Hold up number of fingers corresponding to which engine is being started, and make circling motion. A16.3.2.1.3. Flight Control Check. Raise right arm, clench fist, and make a stirring motion. A16.3.2.1.4. Refueling Receptacle Open or Close. Display hand flat on top of helmet with fingers extended. To open, raise fingers to the vertical position and heel of hand remaining stationary. To close, reverse signal. A16.3.2.1.5. Weapons Bay Open or Close. Display hands with fingers extended, palms up and edges of hands touching. Move hands apart several times. A16.3.3. Takeoff. A16.3.3.1. Make an afterburner takeoff when configured with two external wing tanks or anytime the computed MIL power takeoff roll exceeds 50 percent of the available runway. A16.3.3.2. Do not takeoff with an SES LOW ICAW. A16.3.3.3. Formation takeoffs with inert internal munitions are permitted.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

237

A16.3.4. Maneuvering Parameters. For aerobatics, remain above 5,000 feet AGL. During nose high/low speed and Advanced Handling Characteristics vertical maneuvering, ensure maneuvers are terminated to allow recovery above 5,000 feet AGL. A16.3.5. Ops Checks. A16.3.5.1. Accomplish sufficient ops checks to ensure safe mission accomplishment. Ops checks are required during climb or at level off after takeoff, prior to each engagement, and following air refueling. A16.3.5.2. Minimum items to check are ICAWS, total fuel, g-suit connection, oxygen system, cabin altitude, and HUD maximum G indicator. A16.3.5.3. The query and response for ops checks will include total fuel amount as read on the Standby Flight Group. If wingmen are within 500 lbs. of the flight lead, a “same” call may be used. A16.3.5.4. When external tanks are feeding, add a “tanks feeding” call to the normal ops check reply. Make a “tanks dry” call once the external tanks are confirmed dry. Once the “tanks dry” call has been made, no further reference to tanks needs to be made on subsequent ops checks. A16.3.6. Fuel Requirements. Do not use AB below established bingo fuel, unless required for safety of flight. A16.3.7. Battle Damage Checks. When circumstances permit, flight leads will direct a battle damage check after each mission prior to or during RTB. Brief deconfliction responsibilities and position change procedures. A16.3.8. Overhead Traffic Patterns. Overhead patterns can be made with unexpended live/inert ordnance. A16.3.9. Approaches and Landings. A16.3.9.1. Formation landings with inert internal munitions are permitted. A16.3.10. Night Procedures. A16.3.10.1. Night Lighting. A16.3.10.1.1. When ground personnel are working under the aircraft, the POSN/ANTI-COLL switch will be placed in BRT (position lights 100 percent, steady, anti-collision light off). A16.3.10.1.2. The landing light and a position light on each wingtip must be operational for flight. If only two position lights are operating, one must be on top of the wing and one on the bottom. A16.3.10.1.3. For taxi and takeoff, the POSN/ANTI-COLL switch should be set to FLASH. In jets modified with reduced-intensity anti-collision lights, the ANTICOLL/BRT setting may be used. A16.3.11. Air-to-Air Weapons Employment A16.3.11.1. Simulated Gun Employment. A loaded gun is considered safe and simulated gun employment is authorized if the following conditions are met:

238

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A16.3.11.1.1. Preflight. Procedures.

Accomplished

IAW

1F-22A-34-1-1CL-1

Cold

Gun

A16.3.11.1.2. In-Flight. A trigger check must be performed with the Master Arm switch in ARM with Embedded Training deselected. Point the aircraft away from other aircraft and inhabited areas. Do not perform a trigger check with a hot gun. A16.3.11.2. Maneuvering Limitations. A16.3.11.2.1. Minimum airspeed during low altitude offensive or defensive maneuvering (LOWAT) is 350 KCAS. A16.3.11.3. Air-to-Air Training. With expendable stores (bombs and external fuel tanks) loaded on the aircraft, simulated air-to-air missiles will only be loaded on empty or uncarted/unexpendable stations. Simulated missile shots will only be performed from the Embedded Training mode. A16.3.12. Air-to-Surface Weapons Employment A16.3.12.1. Off-Range Attacks. With expendable stores (bombs and external fuel tanks) loaded on the aircraft, simulated bombs will only be loaded on empty or uncarted/unexpendable stations. Simulated bomb releases will only be performed from the Embedded Training mode. A16.3.13. Low Altitude Procedures. The minimum airspeed for low-level navigation is 300 KCAS. A16.4. Instrument Procedures. A16.4.1. Instrument Approach. A16.4.1.1. The F-22 is approach category E. Missed approach airspeed is 250 KCAS. A16.4.1.2. The F-22 GINS is approved for enroute Area Navigation (RNAV). RNAV approaches are prohibited. A16.4.2. Use of Heads Up Display (HUD). The HUD is the primary instrument reference. A16.4.3. Trail Procedures. A16.4.3.1. Trail Departures. A16.4.3.1.1. Each aircraft/element will accelerate in MIL/AB power until reaching 350 KCAS. Climb at 350 KCAS until reaching 0.88 Mach, unless otherwise briefed. A16.4.3.1.2. Upon reaching 350 KCAS, the flight leader will set and maintain 90% ETR, unless otherwise briefed. A16.4.3.2. Trail Recoveries. A16.4.3.2.1. Minimum spacing between flight members is 9,000 feet. A16.5. Operating Procedures and Restrictions. A16.5.1. Takeoff Aborts. If aborting above 110 KCAS, suspect hot brakes. Taxi the aircraft to the designated hot brake area and follow hot brake procedures. During any abort, the tailhook should be lowered if there is any doubt about the ability to stop on the remaining runway.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

239

A16.5.2. In-flight Practice of Emergency Procedures. A16.5.2.1. Practice aborted takeoffs only in the flight simulator. A16.5.2.2. Practice in-flight engine shutdown is prohibited unless conducting authorized training. A16.5.2.3. HUD-off and Standby Flight Group approaches will only be practiced in the flight simulator. A16.5.2.4. Simulated single-engine approaches. Simulated single-engine approaches will be flown in day VMC only from a straight-in approach and will not use the Flight Test Display control law option unless under control room monitoring. A16.5.2.5. Practice Safe Return-to-Base (SRB) recoveries in day VMC only.

240

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 Attachment 17 F-35 OPERATING PROCEDURES

A17.1. General Information. This attachment, in conjunction with other governing directives, outlines procedures for operation of the F-35 aircraft under most circumstances. AFMC aircrews and all management levels concerned with operation of all F-35 series aircraft must comply with the outlined requirements and consult AFMC/A3V for waivers to this attachment. Operations or procedures not specifically addressed may be accomplished if they enhance safe, effective mission accomplishment. A17.1.1. The notation, F-35, will be used to describe all F-35 variants (F-35A/B/C) unless specified. A17.1.2. Aircraft Operating Limits (AOL). Nothing in this AFI overrides any existing AOL that may be in effect and more restrictive. AOLs, flight clearances, and Flight Series Data (FSD) restrictions supersede any item outlined in this attachment. Due to concurrent flight testing, it is imperative that operators know all applicable limits prior to flight and comply accordingly. A17.2. Mission Planning. A17.2.1. Maximum Asymmetry. Various emergency procedures reference aircraft lateral asymmetric values despite having no real-time computation displayed in the cockpit. During mission planning, pilots will identify conditions where lateral asymmetry could exceed 15,000 and 30,000 foot-pounds in the event those emergency procedures are required. A17.3. Common Mission Guidance. A17.3.1. Ground Visual Signals. Visual signals IAW AFI 11-218, Aircraft Operations and Movement on the Ground, NAVAIR 00-80T-113, Aircraft Signals NATOPS Manual, and this attachment will be used when not utilizing the ground intercom. A17.3.1.1. INTEGRATED POWER PACKAGE (IPP) START. Move forefinger in a circular motion. A17.3.1.2. ENGINE START. Same as IPP start but accomplished after IPP is running. A17.3.1.3. FLIGHT CONTROLS CLEAR or VEHICLE SYSTEMS BUILT-IN TEST (VS BIT). Raise arm, clench fist with thumb up, and make a stirring action. A17.3.1.4. REFUELING RECEPTACLE OPEN or CLOSED (F-35A). Display hand flat on top of helmet with fingers extended. To open, raise fingers to the vertical position and heel of hand remaining stationary. To close, reverse signal. A17.3.1.5. REFUELING PROBE OPEN or CLOSED (F-35B/C). Display right arm with a clenched fist. To open, rotate the arm outward away from the chest to mimic the probe extending. To close, move the arm from the extended position back toward the chest. A17.3.1.6. WEAPONS BAY OPEN or CLOSE. For open, display hands with palms up and fingertips touching, then move hands apart. For close, move hands together with palms up until fingertips touch.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

241

A17.3.1.7. TAIL HOOK DOWN or UP (F-35C). Display right fist with thumb extended downward. Move thumb downward suddenly to meet horizontal palm of left hand. To open, reverse the motion (thumb upward suddenly to meet the horizontal palm of left hand). A17.3.1.8. BRAKE CHECK. Hold left or right arm horizontal, open hand and push forward, breaking at the wrist (as in applying rudder pedal pressure with feet). A17.3.1.9. LAUNCH BAR RAISE or LOWER (F-35C). Rest the right elbow in left palm with right forearm horizontal. To raise, bring right hand up to shoulder level. To lower, bring right hand down to horizontal. A17.3.1.10. WING FOLD or SPREAD (F-35C). To fold, display arms straight out at sides, then swept forward and hugged around shoulders. To spread, display arms hugged around shoulders, then swept straight out to the sides. A17.3.1.11. LOSS OF BRAKES WHILE TAXIING (F-35A/C). Lower tail hook. A17.3.1.12. MAINTENANCE INTERFACE PANEL (MIP) SWITCHES in SAFE or FLIGHT. For safe, display three raised fingers on the right hand and then rotate the hand to point the fingers downward. For flight, display three fingers on the right hand pointed downward and then rotate the hand so that they point upward. A17.3.1.13. GUN ARMAMENT CHECK. Point index finger forward with thumb upward simulating a pistol and shake head yes for arm or no for de-arm. A17.3.2. Ice FOD Procedures. Unless otherwise specified in AOLs, the following procedures will be followed when FSD indicates engine damage due to icing is possible: A17.3.2.1. If conditions warrant, the Supervisor of Flying (SOF)/Top 3 will have the first flight lead start 5 minutes early to check for inlet ice formation. A17.3.2.2. An ice FOD monitor must be available to monitor the engine inlets for ice buildup whenever the aircraft is stopped for an extended period of time (i.e. ramp/shelter and end of runway (EOR)). Avoid standing water and snow/slush accumulations. A17.3.2.3. Hold in the arming spot with an ice FOD monitor present until cleared for takeoff. A17.3.2.4. Shutdown immediately if icing is visually detected and notify the SOF/Top 3. Make an appropriate entry in the portable maintenance aid (PMA) and qualified personnel must accomplish an intake inspection prior to restarting the engine. A17.3.3. Takeoff. A17.3.3.1. Conduct a thorough TOLD review comparing military power and afterburner when computed takeoff distance exceeds one-half of the available runway. In some instances, particularly during reduced RCRs, afterburner is less conservative for refusal speeds. A17.3.3.2. Use a minimum of 15 seconds (20 seconds for afterburner) takeoff interval between aircraft due to high engine turbulence. A17.3.4. Functional Check Flights (FCF). If an FCF is flown for engine-related reasons, the ceiling, if present, must be confirmed to be at least 500 feet above computed high key

242

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 altitude. In all cases, departure-field weather must permit an immediate overhead PFO (precautionary flameout) pattern where VMC can be maintained throughout the pattern. All engine-related FCF checks must be accomplished within gliding range of a suitable landing field and weather must permit a VMC descent to high key and VMC PFO at that airfield. Pilots flying engine-related FCFs will verify that these requirements can be met prior to takeoff. A17.3.4.1. If the ceiling directly over the departure field is lower than 500 above the computed high key altitude, the following alternate procedures are authorized. A preplanned and coordinated position and altitude (alternate high key) that will allow for an immediate VMC PFO will be determined prior to takeoff. The weather at the alternate high key must have a ceiling no lower than 500 feet above the computed altitude. A17.3.5. Rejoin. Flight leaders will maintain 300-350 knots indicated airspeed (KCAS) until join-up is accomplished unless mission requirements or noise abatement procedures necessitate a different briefed speed. A17.3.6. Radio Procedures. Comm A (alpha) is assumed. Example: “Jester 11 Push mission.” All other comm (B, C, datalinks, etc) should be specified as required. A17.3.7. Low Altitude Procedures. A17.3.7.1. Fly low-level formation positions using AFTTP 3-1.F-35 and AFTTP(I) 33.F35 as guides. A17.3.7.2. Minimum airspeed for low-level navigation is 300 KCAS. A17.3.7.3. Minimum airspeed during low altitude offensive or defensive maneuvering (below 5,000 feet AGL) is 350 KCAS. A17.3.8. Approaches and Landings. A17.3.8.1. The desired touchdown point is 500-1000 feet past the runway threshold or the Runway Point of Intercept for a precision approach. A17.3.8.2. Do not land over any raised web barrier or loose or slack cable. A17.3.9. Night Operations. A17.3.9.1. Night Lighting Requirements. A17.3.9.1.1. Position lights. Only one position light (POSIT) on each wing is required. However, if each wing only has one light, they must be on opposite sides; one upper, one lower (ex: top left, bottom right). Substituting a formation light in lieu of a wingtip position light is not permitted. A17.3.9.1.2. Landing/Taxi Light. The landing/taxi light must be operational prior to takeoff. The taxiing aircraft will come to a stop if the area cannot be visually cleared without the landing/taxi light. A17.3.9.1.3. Strobe lights. One operational strobe light (STROB) is required for night operations (ground and air). The strobe lights can be turned DIM or OFF if it causes distraction to the pilot. If the strobe lights are turned off while outside operational airspace, then at least one aircraft within a standard formation must have

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

243

POSIT switch in the FLASH setting. Position lights in the FLASH setting meet AFI 11-202V3 requirements for anti-collision. A17.3.9.2. Night Ground Operations. A17.3.9.2.1. When ground personnel are working under or around the aircraft, select POSIT BRT STDY, STROB OFF (position lights 100%, steady, strobe lights off). A17.3.9.2.2. For taxi and takeoff, set POSIT BRT FLASH, STROB BRT. A17.3.9.3. Night Vision Devices (NVDs). A17.3.9.3.1. Night vision in the F-35 is unique from other weapon systems. The pilot has two options, the Night Vision Camera (NVC) and the Distributed Aperture System (DAS), which are selectable by Hands-on-throttle-and-stick (HOTAS) rather than physically secured to the helmet. They are reliant on different wavelengths of near-infrared and infrared respectively. These systems are under test and AFIs that describe NVG/NVD usage should not be considered applicable to the F-35 systems. A17.3.9.3.2. The NVC and DAS do not require donning or doffing. However, pilots should plan their usage of these systems in order to minimize the potential of spatial disorientation and the detrimental effects to night vision during administrative phases of flight (e.g., approach to landing or aerial refueling). A17.4. Instrument Procedures. A17.4.1. The F-35A/B is approach Category E. Accomplish missed approach IAW FSD procedures. Missed approach airspeed is 250 KCAS. A17.4.2. The F-35C is approach Category D. Accomplish missed approach IAW FSD procedures. Missed approach airspeed is 250 KCAS. A17.4.3. Trail Departures A17.4.3.1. Each aircraft/element will accelerate in MIL/AB power until reaching 350 KCAS. Climb at 350 KCAS until reaching cruise Mach/TAS IAW FSD, unless otherwise briefed. A17.4.3.2. Upon reaching 350 KCAS, the flight leader will set and maintain 90% ETR, unless otherwise briefed. A17.4.4. The F-35 is not approved for RNAV/GPS approaches. A17.4.5. Endorsed Primary Flight Reference (PFR). Anytime flight conditions or procedures require flight by reference to instruments, the pilot must select and continuously display an endorsed PFR. For the F-35, these include the virtual Heads-Up Display (vHUD) or the Electronic Flight Instrument (EFI). Note that both are heads down displays. The standby ADI and HMD are not endorsed PFRs. A17.5. Operating Procedures and Restrictions. A17.5.1. Air-to-Air Operations. Follow guidance contained within 11-2F-35AV3. A17.5.2. Air-to-Surface Operations. Follow guidance contained within 11-2F-35AV3. A17.5.3. In-flight Practice of Emergency Procedures.

244

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A17.5.3.1. Aborted takeoffs will only be practiced in the simulator. A17.5.3.2. Flameouts cannot be accurately simulated in the aircraft and will only be practiced in the simulator. These training events are logged as simulated flameouts (SFO). A17.5.3.3. Precautionary Flameouts (PFO) can be practiced in the aircraft or simulator. A17.5.3.3.1. A practice PFO will be terminated if the aircraft is not properly configured with the appropriate airspeed and in a position to safely complete the landing by 2,000 feet AGL. A17.5.3.3.2. Touch-and-go landings from a practice PFO are authorized.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

245 Attachment 18

H-1 OPERATING PROCEDURES A18.1. General Information. This attachment, in conjunction with other governing directives, outlines procedures for operation of the UH/TH-1 aircraft under most circumstances. AF and contractor aircrews and all management levels concerned with operation of all UH/TH-1 aircraft must comply with the outlined requirements and consult AFMC/A3V for waivers to this attachment. Operations or procedures not specifically addressed may be accomplished if they enhance safe, effective mission accomplishment. A18.1.1. Reference to the Air Force Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures 3-3.H-1 (AFTTP 3-3.H-1) for conducting standard H-1 operations is encouraged, especially during upgrade training. A18.1.2. Mission Descriptions. In general, the mission symbols assigned by AFI 11-401, AFMC Supplement 1 and their descriptions define an “operational” mission versus “training.” Direct test missions (O4 symbol) and test support missions (O5 symbol) resulting from an approved test plan/test directive are considered operational. If the unit is supporting test wing customers paying for helicopter support of their training activities (such as paradrops or helocast), conducting Distinguished Visitor (DV) support, natural disaster response, search and rescue operations, or actual firefighting, those missions are also considered “operational” (O7 symbol). If the main objective of the mission is helicopter crew continuation or upgrade training, those should be considered “training” (O6 symbol). A18.2. Mission Planning. A18.2.1. Weather Minimums. A18.2.1.1. Ceiling and visibility requirements are in compliance with AFI 11-202V3 and applicable supplements, except for VFR training missions which require 1000 feet / 3 miles visibility. A18.2.1.2. Flight profiles consisting of only hover operations require a minimum of one mile visibility for both operational and training missions. A18.2.1.3. Wind Limitations. A18.2.1.3.1. Operational – IAW T.O. 1H-1(U)N-1 and T.O. 1H-1(T)H-1. A18.2.1.3.2. Training – 40 knots peak wind or 20-knot gust spread. A18.2.2. Minimum Crew Requirements. Minimum crew requirements are established by T.O. 1H-1(U)N-1 and T.O. 1H-1(T)H-1. In addition to flight manual requirements, Table A18.1 specifies minimum crew requirements for missions accomplished within AFMC. Special Missions Aviators add significantly to the safety and efficiency of all helicopter missions and should be used to the maximum extent possible. On single-pilot missions, additional aircrew or passengers may sit in the left front seat when not required in the cargo compartment.

246

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

Table A18.1. Minimum Aircrew Requirements. Mission Profile

Basic Sortie EP Training 1, 2, 3 Instruments (VMC) Instruments (IMC) Flight with passengers (includes DV) 4 Remote Operations (day or NVG) 5

Minimum Required Crewmembers Pilot 1 1 1 1 1 1

Co-Pilot

SMA Co-Pilot / SMA 1 1

1 1

Night Unaided to prepared landing areas (airfields) 1 1 SAR / MEDEVAC 1 1 1 Live Alternate Insertion and Extraction (AIE) 1 1 1 Training AIE (actual device use, hoist/rope ladder) 1 1 1 Controlled Burn 1 1 1 Cargo Sling / Water Bucket 1 1 1 Functional Check Flight (FCF) 1 1 Shipboard Operations 1 1 1 Paradrop Operations 1 1 1 1 1 Chase6, 7 NOTES: 1. An instructor pilot must be designated on the flight orders and at a set of controls. 2. Training flights accomplished as a part of an upgrade (to copilot, aircraft commander or instructor) will have a special missions aviator. 3. Passengers will not be on the aircraft when practice emergency procedures are flown. 4. Mission profile and passenger personal requirements must be carefully considered prior to flying single-pilot. Cabin doors will be closed when flying single-pilot with passengers. 5. Single-pilot landings at prepared sites and/or within a range complex are permitted provided a minimum of 300 feet rotor disk clearance is provided. Landings may be made to areas that provide a minimum of 75 feet rotor disk clearance (from each blade tip) with a pilot and a co-pilot/SMA. If landing to areas that do not meet these requirements, minimum crew is a pilot, co-pilot, and special missions aviator. 6. If the chase formation includes aircraft with a crew complement less than a pilot, copilot, and SMA, the minimum aircraft separation is 3 rotor diameters, based on the aircraft with the largest rotor diameter. 7. Minimum separation will be no less than one rotor diameter, based on the aircraft with the largest diameter. A18.2.3. Weight and Balance. A18.2.3.1. Weight and Balance will be computed IAW T.O. 1H-1(U)N-1, T.O. 1H1(T)H-1, T.O. 1H-1(U)N-5, T.O. 1H-1(T)H-5, and T.O.1 -1B-50.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

247

A18.2.3.2. Weight and Balance computations will be accomplished in handwritten form or by use of the current Automated Weight and Balance System (AWBS). When computing weight and balance, the “Transport” side of the Form F will be used. Weight and Balance is normally computed by the special missions aviator but can be computed by any qualified crewmember. The original Form F will be signed by the crewmember that completed all computations and by the aircraft commander. The crewmember accomplishing the weight and balance Form F will make a copy of the original to be carried on board the aircraft and the original Form F will be filed with the operations desk or, when off station, the base operations section prior to crew step. A18.2.4. Takeoff and Landing Data (TOLD). Whenever possible, TOLD should be completed prior to the aircrew briefing and re-computed in flight as applicable to mission profile. A standardized TOLD/Lineup card will be used, as determined by the AFMC H-1 Command Chief Pilot. The Mini-TOLD card, as published in T.O. 1H-1(U)N-1, can be placed on the cockpit glare shield for quick-reference in flight. Tab Data has been provided in T.O. 1H-1(U)N-1 to facilitate computing TOLD while in flight. TOLD may be computed in flight using flight manual charts or Tab Data contained in T.O. 1H-1(U)N-1CL-1. TH-1 TOLD will be annotated using the card in T.O. 1H-1(T)H-1. A18.2.5. Non-standard Checklist Use. Copies of the Before Takeoff, Before Landing, Hoist Operator’s Before Pickup, and Hoist Operator’s After Pickup checklists may be posted in the cabin and used by the aircrew at the discretion of the flight commander. Accuracy of these extracts must be maintained and checked prior to each use. A18.2.6. Passengers. The UH-1N is a utility aircraft and is utilized through a variety of mission sets, including passenger transport. DoD 4515.13-R and AFI 11-401 contain guidance on passenger airlift and orientation flights. Units must ensure compliance with these publications for passenger transport covered by their provisions. The following guidance addresses passenger transport not covered by the provisions of DoD 4515.13-R and AFI 11-401, which allows unit commanders to use aircraft under their control to perform other official missions as required. A18.2.6.1. Passengers may be flown on H-1 aircraft during contingency operations of the unit, such as hurricane relief or rescue operations. Comply with AFI 11-202 requirements for manifests. A18.2.6.2. Military personnel not on aeronautical orders nor approved in another capacity such as MEP/MESP, may still fly aboard the H-1 when supporting activities such as special forces team insertions/extractions, SERE instruction, and picking up simulated survivors. Comply with AFI 11-202 requirements for manifests. A18.3. Altitude Restrictions. H-1 navigation and cruise flight below 2,000 feet AGL are considered normal operations and no Low Altitude Step Down Training (LASDT) program is required nor desired for operations between 300 and 2,000 feet AGL. A18.3.1. Conduct all operations at or above 300 feet AGL except when lower altitudes are required for takeoff, departure, arrival, landing, operational missions, training flights in approved areas, approved test missions, or when directed lower by a FAA/NACO Helicopter Route Chart.

248

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A18.3.2. For continuous navigation below 300 feet a low-level program or detailed test procedures in an approved test plan are required to allow H-1 cruise flight at altitudes less than 300 feet AHO but no lower than 50 feet AHO. This restriction does not apply to remote operations, search operations, water bucket firefighting, controlled burn operations, takeoffs, landings, or when directed by ATC. A18.3.3. Night Vision Goggle (NVG) Operations. Use of NVGs during takeoffs, landings, and hover operations is authorized. The minimum enroute cruise altitude while flying with NVG’s is 300 feet. A18.3.4. Unaided Night VMC (cruise flight). Minimum altitude while flying unaided during night VMC is 500 feet above the highest obstacle, within five nautical miles of course centerline. A18.3.5. Operational Searches. Altitudes are determined by the aircraft commander and are dependent on terrain, aircraft limitations, crew limitations, weather, etc. A18.3.6. Training Searches. Any search training below 300’ must be in a surveyed lowlevel area. Day search training can be accomplished down to a minimum altitude of 100’ AHO. NVG search training can be accomplished to a minimum altitude of 300’ AGL / AWL. Night unaided search training can be accomplished to a minimum altitude of 500’ AGL/AWL.

A18.4. Instrument Procedures. A18.4.1. UH/TH-1 aircraft are flown under Approach Category A. Prior to departing from an airfield with marginal weather conditions, or if IMC flight is expected, the aircraft commander will complete an instrument cockpit check and brief the appropriate instrument approach for emergency IFR return. A18.4.2. Any crewmember seeing deviations greater than 10 degrees of heading, 10 knots of airspeed, or 100 feet of altitude will inform the pilot flying. Deviations from prescribed procedures for the approach being flown will also be announced. A18.4.3. Mandatory altitude calls for the pilot not flying / special missions aviator during non- precision approaches: A18.4.3.1. “One hundred feet above minimum descent altitude” (MDA). A18.4.3.2. “Minimums” at MDA. A18.4.3.3. “Runway in sight.” Call when the runway environment is in sight. Do not call too soon when obstructions to vision (such as fog, haze, low stratus clouds, etc.) are present. A18.4.3.4. “Go-around.” Call at missed approach point if the runway environment is not in sight. A18.4.4. Mandatory altitude calls for the pilot not flying / special missions aviator during precision approaches: A18.4.4.1. “One hundred feet above decision altitude.” A18.4.4.2. “Land.” Call at decision altitude if the runway environment is in sight and the aircraft is in a position for a normal landing.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

249

A18.4.4.3. “Go-around.” Call at decision altitude if the runway environment is not in sight or if the aircraft is not in a position for a normal landing. A18.4.5. Mandatory calls for the pilot not flying / special missions aviator during climb out/descent: A18.4.5.1. “Five hundred feet below/above assigned altitude” and “one hundred feet below/ above assigned altitude.” A18.4.5.2. “Five hundred feet above/below initial approach fix altitude or holding altitude” and “one hundred feet above/below initial approach fix altitude or holding altitude.” A18.5. General Operating Procedures and Restrictions. A18.5.1. Survival Equipment and Restraint Devices. A18.5.1.1. Overwater flight. Life preserver and HEED (Helicopter Emergency Egress Device or equivalent device) will be worn by aircrew and a life raft will be on board for over water flights when route of flight is beyond autorotational gliding distance of land. Ensure sufficient LPUs are available for all passengers. Life rafts are not required if a radio-equipped boat or a hoist-equipped helicopter provides mutual support coverage. A18.5.1.2. Survival vests will be IAW AFI 11-301 and applicable supplements. A18.5.1.3. Restraint Devices. Gunner’s belts (or equivalent harness) are authorized for crew members when duties require them in lieu of a seat and lap belt. Only one gunner’s belt may be attached to a tie down ring at any one time. If seats are available, aircrew members will be seated in a seat with a lap belt. Passengers involved in AIE operations and / or paradrop operations may be restrained by alternate methods, such as a 5,000 lb cargo strap or a personal restraint harness with locking steel carabineer (pigtail), provided multiple individuals are not secured to the same tie down ring. A18.5.2. Preflight. A18.5.2.1. Before applying power to the aircraft and / or operating aircraft systems, the AFTO 781 series forms will be reviewed by a qualified crewmember. The exceptional release (ER) must be signed prior to flight by an authorized maintenance representative or, in the absence of a maintenance representative, the aircraft commander. A18.5.2.2. An operable white light (landing or searchlight) is required for all night flights. A18.5.3. Aircraft Servicing and Ground Operations. A18.5.3.1. Crewmembers may accomplish refueling duties when maintenance personnel are not available. Crewmembers will comply with T.O. 00-25-172. When not directly involved in the refueling operation, personnel will remain a minimum of 50 feet from the aircraft. Hot refueling (engines running) may be accomplished IAW T.O. 1H-1(U)N-1, T.O. 1H-1(T)H-1, T.O. 1H-1(T)H-1CL-1 and T.O. 1H-1(U)N-1CL-2. A18.5.3.2. Engine-running crew changes may be accomplished under the following provisions: one pilot will have seat belt and shoulder harness fastened during pilot

250

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 change, the new aircraft commander will review aircraft forms, weight and balance and configuration, and current takeoff and landing data must be computed. A18.5.3.3. Fire Guard. A fire guard will be used for all engine starts. When maintenance personnel are not available, a crewmember may perform this duty. The primary duty is to assist the crew in evacuating the aircraft should a fire occur, not fight the fire at the engine compartment. A18.5.4. En Route. A18.5.4.1. Dual Engine Power Available Check. Perform a dual engine power available check for: A18.5.4.1.1. Operations below 300 feet AGL (except when operating on routes depicted on published Federal Aviation Administration [FAA]/National Aeronautical Charting Office [NACO] Helicopter Route Charts). A18.5.4.1.2. Non-Surveyed/Unprepared Landing Area/Remote Operations. A18.5.4.1.3. Search Operations. A18.5.4.1.4. Cargo Sling Operations (including Water Bucket). A18.5.4.1.5. Hoist/Non-Hoist AIE (Ropes)/Water Operations. A18.5.4.1.6. Controlled Burn Operations. A18.5.4.1.7. Times when the need for maximum or near-maximum power is anticipated. A18.5.4.2. Perform the power check as near as possible to the same Pressure Altitude (PA) and Outside Air Temperature (OAT) as the operating area. Slowly apply collective pitch without drooping Nr below 97 percent until computed power or a limit (as defined by the flight manual, section 5) is reached. The engines must produce power equal to or greater than computed from the power available charts in the flight manual. If the engines fail the power check or Nr droops below 97 percent prior to reaching computed power or a limit, terminate the sortie. A18.5.4.3. Power Requirements. The following criteria apply when planning and / or accomplishing training missions. (Exception: due to the unique ability to instantaneously release the water or jettison the water bucket, the following restricted escape route power requirements do not apply to water bucket operations. The crew must confirm release and jettison capability prior to performing OGE hovers.) A18.5.4.3.1. Clear escape route: power for intended hover +5%. A18.5.4.3.2. Restricted escape route: Out of Ground Effect (OGE) hover power +5%. A18.5.4.4. Forced or Precautionary Landings. Aircraft commanders must consider a precautionary landing as an option when mechanical malfunctions or deteriorating weather interfere with mission accomplishment. The following procedures apply to all forced and precautionary landings:

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

251

A18.5.4.4.1. Make every effort to notify a controlling agency (i. e., declare an emergency if necessary IAW FLIP guidance) before making a forced or precautionary landing (time permitting). A18.5.4.4.2. Every effort will be made to contact the unit operations supervisor (ground-to-ground/ground-to-air/ telephone) once the aircraft is safely on the ground. A18.5.4.4.3. For precautionary landings due to deteriorating weather, the flight may be continued at the discretion of the aircraft commander. A18.5.4.4.4. For actual, impending, or potential malfunctions, corrective action will be completed before continuing flight and OG/CC approval must be received prior to continuing flight. If contact cannot be established and if the aircraft commander determines it is potentially more hazardous to await maintenance assistance, he/ she may continue the flight to the nearest suitable area if the aircraft commander determines flight manual actions have corrected the malfunction. A18.6. Transition Maneuvers/Emergency Procedure Training . For TH-1H emergency procedure training, comply with requirements in AFI 11-2TH-1H, Volume 3. Reference to the techniques provided in AFTTP 3-3.H-1for transition and emergency procedure training is highly encouraged. A18.6.1. Emergency procedures will be conducted at an approved landing area under radio communications with the appropriate controlling agency (for example, tower, runway supervisory unit, UNICOM, etc.). Aircraft rescue and fire-fighting equipment will be immediately available. All practice emergency procedures will be briefed during the flight briefing. Crews will complete the transition/emergency procedure briefing in the UH-1N InFlight Guide. A18.6.2. Slide Landing Training Areas. Slide landings will only be accomplished to runways or suitable taxiways, with ATC approval. Exercise extreme caution on barrierequipped runways or when sliding on surfaces containing embedded lighting. Slide landings may also be accomplished to other approved surfaces meeting helicopter runway criteria specified in AFMAN 32-1123, Airfield and Heliport Planning. Minimum dimensions will be IAW UFC 3-260-01, Airfield Facilities Design. If wind information at the slide area cannot be obtained through tower or AWOS, a wind detection device must be present. The aircraft commander will accomplish the following: A18.6.2.1. Brief the hazards of the landing area prior to commencing any slide landings. A18.6.2.2. Visually inspect the slide area for hazards and surface condition. If the visual inspection was inconclusive, test the surface prior to commencing emergency procedures by accomplishing a slide landing with both throttles full open. A18.6.3. Simulated Emergency Procedures. A18.6.3.1. Prohibited Training Maneuvers. The following maneuvers will not be intentionally accomplished in the aircraft: A18.6.3.1.1. Actual engine shutdown. A18.6.3.1.2. Blade stall and power settling. A18.6.3.1.3. Dual fuel control failures.

252

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A18.6.3.1.4. Dual hydraulic system failures. A18.6.3.1.5. Hovering autorotation. A18.6.3.2. Training Restrictions. Unusual attitude training and emergency procedures involving engines (to include simulated autorotations), engine fuel systems, flight controls, or hydraulic systems will be accomplished only: A18.6.3.2.1. During visual meteorological conditions. A18.6.3.2.2. After official sunrise/prior to official sunset. A18.6.3.2.3. When passengers are not on board. A18.6.3.2.4. With an instructor pilot designated on the flight authorization. A18.6.3.3. Single Engine Emergencies. Simulated single engine failure will be entered no lower than 150 feet AGL and 55 KIAS while in-flight. Single engine emergencies may be initiated from the ground or in a hover if single engine hover power is available. Single engine approaches may be initiated below 150 feet AGL as long as simulated torque available is limited with both throttles full open. If a throttle is reduced to flight idle, ensure that combined torque is below single engine computed to prevent exceeding limits on the remaining engine. Single engine approaches and landings must be practiced to a slide or hard surface landing area. A18.6.3.4. Boost Off. Minimum entry altitude and airspeed is 500 feet AGL and 70 KIAS during straight and level flight, or on the ground. A18.6.3.5. Manual Fuel. Minimum entry altitude and airspeed is 500 feet AGL and 70 KIAS, in a hover if single engine hover capability is available, or on the ground. Before entering into manual fuel, ensure that the collective setting is below single engine computed torque available. After entering into manual fuel, maintain torque on the manually governed engine approximately five to ten percent below the governed engine. During high density altitude conditions, it may be required to maintain torque on the ungoverned engine less than five percent to preclude over temp, over speed, and/or over torque of the governed engine. A18.6.3.6. Practice Autorotations. Due to the risk associated with this maneuver, carefully consider wind, density altitude, aircraft gross weight, and individual pilot proficiency prior to performing autorotations. The IP will terminate the maneuver and initiate a power recovery at the first indication of abnormally high or low rotor RPM, excessive sink rate, low airspeed, ineffective flare or at any time an inadvertent touchdown may occur. A18.6.3.6.1. The initial autorotation will be a straight-ahead autorotation accomplished by the instructor to evaluate aircraft performance. On evaluation flights, the instructor (or instructor candidate) receiving the evaluation may accomplish this requirement. A18.6.3.6.2. Practice autorotations will be accomplished to an area clear of obstructions that permits a safe go-around. A18.6.3.6.3. Practice autorotations require the aircraft landing direction to be aligned within 45 degrees of the wind direction when wind is 15 knots or greater. With winds

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

253

less than 15 knots, aircraft landing direction must be within 90 degrees of wind direction. A18.6.3.6.4. Minimum entry altitude is 800 feet above ground level (AGL) for 180degree turning autorotations; 500 feet AGL for all others. Practice autorotations in excess of 180 degrees must terminate with a power recovery at or above 500 feet AGL unless aligned on final for an approved training area within normal autorotation parameters. A18.6.3.6.5. Simulated instrument autorotation must be terminated with full power recovery no lower than 500 feet AGL unless conducted to an area meeting the requirements above. A18.7. Flight Test and Mission Operations Procedures. A18.7.1. Flight Test. One of the primary tasks for H-1 aircraft in AFMC is to conduct flight tests and test support missions. Some examples of H-1 testing include use as a target for radar system upgrades, as a platform carrying seekers and sensors for munition development, as a chase platform, or used in testing H-1 modifications and upgrades. The test planning and approval process establishes the procedures and limits for a particular effort. A18.7.1.1. Flight Test Techniques (FTT). When conducting helicopter performance and handling quality testing, comply with U.S. Naval Test Pilot School Flight Test Manual 106 (USNTPS FTM 106) and USNTPS FTM 107. TPS graduates (or TPS students with an IP) may practice FTM 106 and FTM 107 flight test techniques at a set of flight controls on training flights. Low airspeed control response, tethered hover, pace vehicle, and H-V diagram FTT practice may only be accomplished as spin-up for an approved test program. Pace vehicle operations may be unit developed but approved by the OG/CC during the test and safety review process. A18.7.1.2. Chase Procedures. H-1 crews will comply with the applicable procedures of paragraph 3.6.4. when flying chase missions. A18.7.1.3. Qualitative Evaluations. Qualitative evaluations are intended to allow TPS graduates and TPS students to experience flying a completely different aircraft and be exposed to the unique handling qualities, flight control mechanical characteristics, and performance capabilities of rotary-wing aircraft. TPS graduate and student pilots and flight test engineers may participate in the qualitative evaluation program. The aircraft commander must be an IP. The IP may demonstrate practice autorotations to a power recovery if a UH-1 pilot/SMA is in the cabin to assist in monitoring aircraft performance. Do not allow unqualified members to conduct autorotations, and no other emergency procedures are to be demonstrated. See paragraph 3.6.14. for more guidance. A18.7.1.4. Modification Flight Manual. Comply with the requirements for Modification Flight Manuals (MFM) and Tailored Aircrew Checklists IAW AFI 11-215, USAF Flight Manuals Program. Aircrews should be familiar with the configurations contained in the MFM and all applicable limits and emergency procedures. A18.7.2. Operational / Unprepared Landing Site Procedures. This section provides guidance for the successful accomplishment of operational and unprepared landing site (remote) operations. For dedicated training missions a Helicopter Landing Zone (HLZ) survey is

254

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 required for remote operations (see paragraph A18.8). The aircraft commander must consider crew qualification, aircraft power and capability, weather (including winds), terrain, environmental factors, illumination and mission requirements before performing any approach to these landing areas. The final decision to accomplish the approach or landing rests with the aircraft commander. A18.7.2.1. Landing Area Evaluations. This section discusses both the remote site evaluation and the operational site evaluation (OSE). A18.7.2.1.1. Remote Site Evaluation. Areas not defined as operational sites are considered unprepared or unfamiliar landing areas. Operating into these areas requires a remote site evaluation which consists of a high and low reconnaissance. The full site evaluation does not need to be re-accomplished during successive approaches to the same area where conditions are equal to or less restrictive than previous approaches. A18.7.2.1.1.1. High Reconnaissance. The high reconnaissance is flown at a minimum of 300 feet above the site and a minimum airspeed of 50 KIAS. During this reconnaissance, in addition to T.O. 1H-1(U)N-1 or T.O. 1H-1(T)H-1 requirements, the crew will evaluate: A18.7.2.1.1.1.1. Winds – direction, turbulence, and null areas. A18.7.2.1.1.1.2. Elevation, pressure altitude. A18.7.2.1.1.1.3. Temperature. A18.7.2.1.1.1.4. Power available, power required, power margin. A18.7.2.1.1.1.5. Approach and departure route. A18.7.2.1.1.1.6. Size, slope, surface suitability. A18.7.2.1.1.1.7. Touchdown point. A18.7.2.1.1.1.8. Escape route (brown out / white out heading and torque, abort Go/No-Go). A18.7.2.1.1.2. Low Reconnaissance. Complete a power check prior to conducting the low reconnaissance. The low reconnaissance confirms items noted in the high reconnaissance. Pilots may descend to a minimum of 50 feet above the highest obstacle along the flight path and at a minimum of 50 knots to reconfirm items noted on the high reconnaissance. The pilot should fly the low reconnaissance on the same approach angle and approach route as discussed during the high reconnaissance. If the selected approach route is not satisfactory, select another route and execute another low reconnaissance. The low reconnaissance may be accomplished on final approach if OGE hover power is available. A18.7.2.1.1.3. Communication. On final approach, the pilot not flying / special missions aviator will make advisory calls in 100 foot increments when above 300 feet AGL and 50 feet increments when below 300 feet AGL. The advisory will include altitude and airspeed and, at the pilot’s discretion, descent rate and power applied (i.e.,”250 feet, 40 knots, sink 500 [fpm], torque 50”). After each advisory

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

255

call, the SMA/scanner(s) will provide terrain/hazard clearance inputs. Advisory calls should be clear and concise with commentary on the progress of the approach and hover operation. A18.7.2.1.1.4. Landing. When landing in an unfamiliar LZ, plan the approach to a hover to avoid landing on hidden obstacles. After landing, slowly reduce power until surface stability is verified. This procedure will facilitate an immediate departure as well as prevent possible tipping and/or aircraft damage due to unstable surface. When landing to dry grassy areas, landing/searchlights should be turned off to prevent inadvertent ground fires. A18.7.2.1.1.5. Obstacle Clearance. Whenever rotor clearance is 25 feet or less, the scanner will inform the pilot of the clock position relative to the nose of the aircraft and estimated distance to the obstacle. A18.7.2.2. Operational Site Evaluation (OSE). The pilot will review the site diagram prior to accomplishing an Operational Site Evaluation (OSE) for all operational site landings. This review will highlight hazards and will assist the crew in determining the best approach/departure route. The pilot will review the site diagram prior to all landings and takeoffs at the site. Evaluate and confirm elevation, power requirements, obstructions, wind, and approach and departure routes before initiating final approach. A power available check is not required unless the aircraft commander believes a critical requirement exists. The purpose of the site evaluation is to alert the pilot to unforeseen, dangerous situations prior to being committed for final landing. If a site diagram is unavailable or non-current, complete a remote site evaluation. See paragraph A18.8.2. for information regarding operational site diagrams. A18.7.3. Night Operations (Unaided). A18.7.3.1. Unaided night approaches/landings to remote sites are not authorized. Unaided night approaches to prepared landing areas, such as a lighted helipad or an airfield, are authorized with sufficient lighting to see the landing area (landing light). Do not leave flight altitude until the location of the landing area has been identified. A18.7.3.2. During night VFR descents, the pilot not flying / special missions aviator will call 1,000 feet above intended altitude, 500 feet above intended altitude, 100 feet above intended altitude, and intended altitude. On final approach, the pilot not flying / SMA will call rates of descent greater than 500 fpm. A18.7.4. NVG Operations. A18.7.4.1. The searchlight must be operable and equipped with an IR filter for flights conducted below 20 percent EMI (Equivalent Moon Illumination). When EMI is below 20 percent, minimum enroute altitude is 300 feet AHO with an operable radar altimeter. If both radar altimeters are inoperative, minimum enroute altitude is 500 feet AHO. A18.7.4.2. Comply with the NVG preflight procedures in applicable NVG T.O. (e.g., T.O. 12S10-2AVS9-2). Do not fly with NVGs that fail to meet the visual acuity requirements.

256

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A18.7.4.3. Training will not be conducted with less than 5% EMI. Adequacy of lighting on moonless nights will be evaluated by crew, taking into consideration cultural lighting and cloud cover. A18.7.5. Medical Evacuation / Search and Rescue (SAR). A18.7.5.1. Aeromedical Evacuation Missions. Aircraft will not be used for routine patient transfer. Medical evacuation flights may be operated to transport seriously ill or injured persons and/or to transport medical personnel, equipment, or supplies under emergency conditions when other means are not suitable or readily available. A18.7.5.2. Search and Rescue (SAR). SAR missions involving life threatening injuries/illnesses will not launch until authorized and thorough mission planning is complete. Crews will attempt to coordinate medical support if time and circumstances permit. A18.7.6. Ship Board Operations. A18.7.6.1. General. Aircrews will abide by the provisions, to include marshaling procedures, outlined in the following: Joint Publication 3-04.1 Joint Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Shipboard Helicopter Operations (Electronically or updated CD version) and AFI 11-218, Aircraft Operations and Movement on the Ground. Aircrew will conduct shipboard operations training IAW Navy/Army/Air Force Memorandum of Understanding. Refer to AFI 11-2FT Volume 1 for all training requirements. Reference to the techniques listed in AFTTP 3-3.H-1 is encouraged. A18.7.6.2. Mission Commanders will ensure that all personnel receive a pre- deployment briefing consisting of the following: A18.7.6.2.1. Launch Procedures and light/hand signals. A18.7.6.2.2. Landing Procedures and light/hand signals. A18.7.6.2.3. Aircraft control doctrine and procedures. A18.7.6.2.4. Emergency procedures peculiar to shipboard operations. A18.7.6.2.5. Special procedures for night and IFR. A18.7.6.2.6. Communication. A18.7.6.2.7. Ship Resume. A18.7.7. Paradrop Operations. A18.7.7.1. Unit commanders may authorize parachutists to deploy from aircraft under their control. Personnel authorized must have a valid operational currency, administrative, or training requirement. In addition, the personnel must be graduates of an accredited armed forces parachutist course and possess aeronautical parachutist orders. The AC or a designated representative will inform the jumpmaster of required qualifications. It is the jumpmaster’s responsibility to ensure all participants are in compliance with these requirements. For water jumps utilizing SCUBA equipment, personnel must be certified military SCUBA divers. Comply with AFI 11-202 requirements for manifests.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

257

A18.7.7.2. Drop Procedures. Refer to AFI 11-410, Personnel Parachute Operations, AFI 11-301V1, Aircrew Flight Equipment (AFE) Program, AFI 13-210, Joint Airdrop Inspection Records, Malfunction/Incidents, Investigations, and Activity Reporting, 11402, Aviation and Parachutist Service, Aeronautical Rating and Aviation Badges , FM 31- 19 (US Army), and applicable T.O.s for all operations. For static line jumps ensure the jumpmaster tapes the portions of doorframe, skids, and cabin that present a snagging hazard. Reference to the techniques listed in AFTTP 3-3.H-1 is encouraged. A18.7.7.3. Night Paradrop. Use NVGs when conducting night paradrop operations. Tape chem sticks to each end of the personnel restraint device (cargo strap) used to secure the team personnel during cruise flight. Ensure the DZ is clearly marked and can be seen under NVGs. A18.7.7.4. Paradrop Mission Planning. Conduct a face-to-face briefing with the jumpmaster prior to beginning paradrops. Each member jumping shall be given a safety briefing which will include normal passenger type items but also jump specific hazards such as avoiding the skids on exit. Aircraft commanders should plan time for the team members to rehearse cabin movement and exit on a static aircraft. A18.7.8. External Load Operations. A18.7.8.1. External load operations refers to equipment transport via cargo hook. This includes cargo sling and water bucket operations. Refer to the UH-1N In-Flight Guide for preflight criteria. A18.7.8.2. Crews will complete the applicable briefings outlined in the UH-1N In- Flight Guide prior to accomplishing the mission. A18.7.8.3. Refer to T.O. 1H-1(U)N-1, T.O. 1H-1(T)H-1, AFJAM 11-223 Volumes 1-3, AFOSHSTD 91-46 for the cargo sling. Reference to the techniques listed in AFTTP 33.H-1 is encouraged. A18.7.9. Water Bucket Operations. A18.7.9.1. General. Firefighting is one of the most hazardous missions performed by the UH-1N. During actual fires, the entire crew must exercise extreme caution due to the rapidly changing conditions and multiple aircraft operating in and around the fire area. If at any time the safety of the crew is in question, aircraft commanders will cease operations and clear the area. Avoid over-flight of ground personnel, structures, vehicles, etc. to the maximum extent possible. Reference to the techniques listed in AFTTP 3-3.H1 is encouraged. A18.7.9.2. Mission Preparation. A18.7.9.2.1. Conduct a water bucket briefing prior to all water bucket operations. Crews will use the Tailored Aircrew Checklist from the MFM when conducting water bucket missions. The ingress checklist will be accomplished per the guidance in the UH-1N In-Flight Guide. Complete the egress checklist upon leaving the fire area. A18.7.9.2.2. Water Bucket Terminology. The water bucket itself is referred to as the “bucket,” and the water source is referred to as “water.” If at any time the presence of the bucket constitutes a hazard, any crewmember may call “Pickle, Pickle, Pickle.” If this call is made, the pilot will jettison the entire cargo hook load (bucket, water

258

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 release hardware, and electrical connections) immediately, without discussion. Normal terminology for commanding a normal water release is “Dump, Dump, Dump.” A18.7.9.3. Drop Control. A18.7.9.3.1. Airspeed and Direction. Drops made into the wind or at slower airspeed increase the concentration of the drop by shortening the swath. Drops made downwind or at higher airspeeds will reduce concentration and increase swath length. A18.7.9.3.2. Altitude. Altitude affects concentration in swath width; the lower the drop, the narrower the swath and the heavier the concentration. Conversely, the higher the drop, the more time the water mass has to break up into droplets and be dispersed by wind drift, therefore, the wider the swath and the lighter the concentration. The standard drop is from 50-foot AHO bucket height and 50 knots indicated airspeed. A18.7.9.3.2.1. Set the radar altimeters for the length of the load plus 10 feet. When calling altitudes, special missions aviators will relay bucket height above the ground and /or obstacles. A18.7.9.4. Drop Techniques. Drops on structures, equipment or personnel should be avoided unless specifically requested or there is an obvious threat to someone’s life. A18.7.9.4.1. Hover / Spot Drops. Unless a stationary hover is required to protect personnel/equipment, a slow forward hover at or above ETL is preferred at an altitude that limits the downwash (50 - 100 ft. bucket height). Except on isolated snags or trees, hover/spot drops are not recommended on active ground fire, unless well inside a burned area, since the rotor downwash will intensify and spread far more fire than the drop will extinguish. A18.7.9.4.2. Straight-Ahead Drop. If attempting to concentrate the bulk of a drop on a single target, a low airspeed, high altitude drop will be just as effective while avoiding adverse consequences of the rotor downwash. Fly inbound at 100 to 200 feet bucket height at 50-60 KIAS. Upon reaching the target, the pilot will initiate a cyclic flare to allow the fire bucket to swing forward toward the fire. When the bucket reaches its apex, initiate the release by calling “Dump, Dump, Dump” and recover by rolling left/right, allowing the nose to fall to back to the horizon and regain airspeed. A18.7.9.4.3. Turning Drop. A sharp turn while releasing the water allows the pilot to hit a target without flying directly overhead and is particularly useful for steep terrain or thick smoke. Approach the target area such that you can turn away from the main portion of the fire and associated smoke. Altitude should be 100-300 feet bucket height, at 60 - 70 KIAS. The SMA or pilot flying will call a break turn, followed by the “Dump, Dump, Dump” command. Initiate the release as the bucket swings to apex toward the fire. Turn into the wind once complete if conditions allow. A18.7.9.4.4. Cross-slope drops. Cross-slope drop, whether above or below the fire, usually present no special problems; however, watch the main rotor clearance on the uphill side in steep terrain.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

259

A18.7.9.4.5. Down slope drops. Down slope drops low on the slope may be approached cross-slope at a reduced airspeed with a 90-degree descending turn to the target. This allows the pilot flying to see the target if turning in the direction of the side they are sitting on. Another less recommended method is to come directly over the ridge for the drop. This type of drop requires careful planning, especially in steep terrain. The pilot must pick out objects on top of the ridge above the fire and in the background beyond the fire to line up on, as the down slope drop presents a blind run. This means that the pilot cannot see the target until crossing the ridge above the fire and only if not obscured by smoke. If the slope is very steep it may be advisable to approach the ridge top at a reduced airspeed, using caution not to get too slow if downwind or too low when on the leeward side. Slowing prior to the “dive” reduces the chance of excessive airspeed. The pullout must be planned to provide adequate terrain clearance in the event the drop is aborted for any reason. Down slope drops may be made at a slower airspeed and are more effective if made into the wind. A18.7.10. Day Water Operations (Helocast, Hoist, Rope Ladder). If working in water areas that provide less than 300-foot rotor clearance around the aircraft, conduct a remote site evaluation prior to commencing the water operations. Areas providing greater than 300-foot rotor clearance do not require a remote site evaluation. A18.7.10.1. Conduct all water operations training a minimum of 50 yards offshore in approved water training areas. Reference to the techniques listed in AFTTP 3-3.H-1 is encouraged. A18.7.10.2. Both radar altimeters must be operable for all water operations. A18.7.10.3. Observation pass. If an observation pass is required, after the initial sighting of the survivor, maneuver to a position approximately 100 feet downwind of the survivor from which an observation pass can be accomplished. Pattern direction (either left or right patterns) is at the discretion of the pilot. If swimmer deployment is anticipated, the observation pass will be made at a maximum of ten-feet AWL and ten knots with a heading from zero to 90 degrees off the wind line to allow for swimmer deployment. If swimmer deployment is not required, make the observation pass above ETL at a minimum of 25 feet AWL. After the observation pass, initiate a climbing turn at 50 feet AWL to a 100 feet AWL minimum downwind altitude. If OGE hover power is not available, a minimum of 50 KIAS and 50 feet AWL is required prior to initiating the climbing turn to downwind. If OGE hover power is available, start the turn at a minimum of translation lift airspeed and 50 feet AWL. A18.7.10.4. Approach to Hover. On final, consider descending to 100 feet prior to initiating the slowdown. The pilot flying will make the “ONE MINUTE” call to the crew. Generally, use a normal approach profile to arrive at 30 KGS and 100 feet altitude at 0.3 NM from the intended deployment/recovery point. Once this point is reached, the power and attitude adjustments required to initiate a 200 to 300 feet-per-minute descent and continued deceleration to less than 10 KGS are critical. If the aircraft is in a level deceleration at approximately 9 to 10 degrees nose up, lowering the nose to approximately 6 degrees nose up and increasing torque by 5 to 10 percent will generally result in a controlled, decelerative descent.

260

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A18.7.10.4.1. Do not descend below 50 feet AWL until established on final. If the survivor is not ready for immediate pickup, situation permitting, establish a holding hover approximately 75 feet downwind of the survivor. On final, descend to hover altitude and slow to approximately five knots forward hover speed 75 feet downwind from the survivor. If the helicopter instrument panel interferes with forward visibility, the final approach may be displaced to the side. A18.7.10.4.2. During helocast operations, a rapid cross-check is critical to identify and correct negative trends. The cross-check should include altitude, ground speed, drift, and heading. The pilot not flying (PNF) will continue to make ground speed and altitude calls throughout the deployment. With good meteorological conditions, most of these critical helocast flight parameters can be determined through reference to the outside. Once in helocast parameters (maximum 10 KGS, 10 feet), radar altitude, drift, and ground speed should be the primary cross-check with occasional reference to heading. A18.7.10.4.3. Altitude control is also critical during helocast operations. Injuries to deploying personnel are more likely with excessive altitude than with excessive speed. Additionally, excessive altitude may result in equipment difficulties once the deployment is complete. Generally, get as low as conditions permit for equipment/personnel delivery. A18.7.11. Alternate Insertion/Extraction Operations. A18.7.11.1. Alternate Insertion/Extraction (AIE) is the insertion or extraction of any personnel by means other than landing the aircraft (or paradrop). Hoist, rope ladder, and swimmer deployment via helocast are examples of AIE operations. A18.7.11.2. Equipment. The special missions aviator will accomplish preflight and postflight inspections of all AIE equipment used in flight. Preflight/post-flight will be accomplished IAW T.O. 1H-1(U)N-1, T.O. 1H-1(T)H-1, and the UH-1N In-Flight Guide. The special missions aviator will also accomplish all required cleaning of AIE equipment which is outlined in the cleaning criteria checklist located with the AIE equipment. A18.7.11.2.1. During all live land AIE training, personnel being inserted / extracted will wear eye protection, any uniform that completely covers the arms and legs, a helmet, and either leather or flight gloves. During water AIE training the personnel being inserted/extracted may wear swim mask/goggles in lieu of a helmet/eye protection, as well as appropriate swim gear as determined by the team leader/cast master (snorkel/fins/shorts/gloves). A18.7.11.2.2. All hoist-equipped aircraft will have precision wire rope cutters readily available in the event the electrical cable cut guillotine fails. Affix cable cutters to the aircraft or hoist for quick access. A18.7.11.2.3. Quick Splice. A hoist cable quick splice device will be carried on all hoist-equipped aircraft. A18.7.11.3. Hoist Operations. (Reference to the techniques listed in AFTTP 3-3.H-1 is encouraged.)

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

261

A18.7.11.3.1. Limitations. Restrict live hoist training to the minimum necessary to accomplish initial qualification, re-qualification and support training. The unit CC/DO will determine eligibility of personnel to ride the hoist during training. A18.7.11.3.2. Land Hoist. Recommended “live” hoist altitude is 10 feet, but will be no greater than 25 feet for training. A18.7.11.3.3. Water Hoist Altitude. Recommended hoist altitude over water or vessels is the minimum altitude necessary to avoid salt spray (30 feet) and/or shipboard obstacles. Do not conduct live hoist training over water or ships if required hover altitude exceeds 50 feet. A18.7.11.3.4. Water Hoist Recoveries. Install the flotation collar prior to lowering the forest penetrator. It is recommended to place at least one seat paddle in the down position and remove one safety strap from the stowed position. Do not unhook the safety strap fastener from the penetrator. A18.7.11.3.5. Grounding. Ground the hoist hook to discharge static electricity to prevent personnel on the ground or water from sustaining a shock. To preclude ignition of fuel, do not ground the hoist near damaged aircraft or vehicles. A18.7.11.3.6. Hoist Rescue Devices. USAF approved rescue devices will be used and include the forest penetrator, rescue basket, stokes litter, hook and survivor’s sling/strop. A survivor unfamiliar with the rescue device will be assisted by a crewmember to ensure proper entry and security for a safe pickup. The aircrew determines which device is most appropriate for each scenario. A18.7.11.4. Rope Ladder, Fast Rope, and Rappel Operations. Refer to AFTTP 3-3.H-1 procedures for rope AIE operations. Rope ladder operations may be done over land or during day water operations. A18.8. Helicopter Landing Zones (HLZ) and Operational Site Diagrams . HLZ surveys are required for all dedicated training missions and recommended as part of the normal mission planning for supporting customers like special forces who may use HLZ repeatedly. HLZ surveys are not required if another survey is available (i.e. fixed-wing DZ/LZ survey or FARP survey). Approved operational sites are not considered HLZs. For operational missions (as defined in paragraph A18.1.1) HLZ surveys are not required. A18.8.1. HLZ Surveys. When creating HLZ site diagrams for remote operations training use the following guidance in lieu of AFI 13-217. A18.8.1.1. HLZ Selection. HLZs are dependent on the aircraft type, weight and size, and whether the HLZ will be used for takeoffs/landings or alternate insertion/extraction (AIE) operations. Selecting the HLZ location is the joint responsibility of the SQ/CC and the supported force commander. A18.8.1.2. HLZ Survey Requirements. The HLZ survey program is an SQ/DO function. The SQ/DO must ensure surveys are conducted IAW the procedures below. A18.8.1.2.1. Completing the HLZ survey process involves a physical inspection of the HLZ, documenting the information on the AF IMT 4303, Helicopter Landing Zone Survey, a safety-of-flight review, and final approval. Surveys may be accomplished by the using units whose equipment or personnel are being landed or

262

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 for an AIE. The user must conduct a physical inspection of the HLZ prior to use to identify and evaluate potential hazards to personnel/equipment, man-made or natural structures, and ground personnel. If the survey was conducted using any other method than GPS-derived coordinates, provide the reviewer with the raw coordinate data and the method of conversion. A18.8.1.2.2. The physical inspection of the HLZ may be accomplished utilizing an airborne asset. In this instance the crew will perform a full remote site evaluation. The initial approach will be conducted to a hover to visually inspect the area below the helicopter prior to landing. When conducting HLZ surveys, Alternate Insertion/Extraction (AIE) considerations will be included on the AF IMT 4303. A18.8.1.2.3. A 1:50,000 scale chart or less should be used when available for the objective area for the ingress and egress. Portable Flight Planning Software (PFPS) or Joint Use Mission Planning Software (JUMPS) may be used instead of paper charts. Ground or aerial photographs and satellite imagery should be added to the survey package. Ensure the review lists all obstructions such as terrain, towers, or power lines that may affect the helicopter’s route of flight. Also list any prohibited areas, noise sensitive areas, special use airspace, route of flight to avoid such areas, preferred routing, NOTAM requirements, etc. Evaluation of terrain/obstructions should consider the ability to fly over and/or land on the HLZ or hover over any obstruction. If these criteria cannot be met, the ingress must be modified, or the review denied. A18.8.1.2.4. When conducting operations on a HLZ that was previously surveyed by another unit, the commander of the using unit is responsible for ensuring the HLZ meets the criteria for that operation. In all cases, the using unit must accept responsibility for all personnel injuries, parachute or load damage, and property damage. A18.8.1.3. HLZ Review Process. The following paragraphs outline the HLZ review process from performing the initial groundwork to the final coordination. All completed surveys will be forwarded to the OG/OGV office for coordination. Surveys will be reaccomplished when the user and/or provider determine changes in the ground or air aspects of the HLZ data require a new survey. A18.8.1.3.1. The HLZ surveys will be conducted during daylight by a qualified combat controller or any qualified helicopter aircrew member (pilot/SMA). The surveyor (AF IMT 4303, item 4A) performs the actual ground portion of the HLZ survey (i.e., measurements, coordinates, calculating size, obtaining maps and creating diagrams) and annotates results on the AF IMT 4303. The surveyor may be a member of the unit that intends to use the HLZ, or a member of another unit may perform the ground portion of a survey if requested and time permits. To facilitate future use of surveyed HLZs, initial surveys will encompass the largest area available and will not be limited by specific mission requirements. The surveyor will forward the completed survey to the SQ/DO office for review. Include recommended use, any deviations from HLZ standards contained in service or MAJCOM directives, and other pertinent remarks.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

263

A18.8.1.3.2. The AF IMT 4303 reviewer is the SQ/DO. The reviewer (AF IMT 4303, item 4B) ensures the HLZ can be safely used from a flight perspective. Throughout the review process, HLZ survey packages will include all applicable maps, photos, charts and diagrams necessary to determine the safety and utility of the HLZ. A18.8.1.3.3. Approval Authority (AF IMT 4303, item 4C). Prior to use, surveys will be approved for air operations by the OG/CC. This approval assures the review has been accomplished and the HLZ is considered safe for air operations. A18.8.1.3.4. Once item 4C of AF IMT 4303 is completed, the survey is ready for use. The SQ/DO will determine where HLZ surveys are maintained. Surveys will be accessible to aircrews for use in pre-mission planning. A18.8.1.3.5. HLZ surveys document the conditions that existed at the time the survey was accomplished, and may not account for changes to seasonal topography. Recommended uses may be based on minimum requirements and should not be misconstrued to be all-inclusive (i.e., a HLZ recommended for two UH-1s may not be suitable for a HH-60). It is the responsibility of the flying and ground units involved to ensure that any HLZ being considered for use meets the requirements for their specific operation. A18.8.1.3.6. Helicopter Landing Zone Survey Updates. HLZ surveys will be updated every six months. HLZs that are not updated in the six-month time period will be considered closed for use until resurveyed using the above criteria (does not require a new AF IMT 4303). The absolute minimum to update a HLZ survey requires a qualified combat controller or qualified helicopter aircrew member (pilot/SMA) to resurvey the HLZ during daylight. This member must evaluate items 6 through 10 of AF IMT 4303. Annotate date of update and surveyor’s initials in remarks section. A HLZ survey that has not been updated for 12 months is considered expired and a new AF IMT 4303 will be accomplished and rerouted for approval. A18.8.1.4. Expedited HLZ Surveys. The expedited HLZ survey process may be used to meet specific commander’s objectives when time constraints exist that could preclude completion of the full HLZ survey process in time to meet mission training requirements. The expedited HLZ survey process may also be used when the unit has no intention of establishing and maintaining the HLZ as a frequently used HLZ with an approved IMT 4303 and subsequent periodic reviews. A18.8.1.4.1. Though preferable, the use of an AF IMT 4303 is not required for an expedited HLZ survey. Requests and surveys may be passed electronically through the most expeditious media. Expedited survey requests should include, at a minimum, an HLZ name, the date surveyed, name and unit of surveying personnel, the HLZ controlling agency and phone/e-mail contact information, long axis headings of HLZ, GPS coordinates, length/width, slope, elevation, and remarks regarding obstacles, hazards and surface conditions. A18.8.1.4.2. Requests for expedited HLZ surveys will be forwarded to the OG/CC for final review.

264

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A18.8.1.4.3. The OG/CC’s authorization may be granted for landing anywhere within defined geographic boundaries, such as a test and training range complex, or grant a specific time frame authorization, usually associated with a specific exercise. A18.8.1.4.4. These areas may only be designated after a thorough survey and any exclusions are documented. Prior to conducting operations in the designated area, the applicable information from the expedited survey will be made available to the aircrew(s) for mission planning. If there are probable locations for HLZs, include each location in the expedited HLZ survey request. Use of HLZs that are approved by the applicable range group are highly encouraged. Multiple possible landing areas within the boundaries may be utilized at the discretion of the aircraft commander. A18.8.1.4.5. To assess an HLZ utilizing expedited HLZ survey rules, AFMC crews will adhere to the following methods (in order of precedence): Overflight of the HLZ prior to the mission; use of aerial photography; ground site survey/photography; use of satellite imagery; other methods like a PFPS map study. A18.8.2. Operational Site Diagrams. Operational sites are areas specifically prepared and maintained for helicopter operations (not including airports or helipads listed in FLIP documents). Squadron commanders will designate/approve permanent operational sites and develop site diagrams in-unit. These sites may be used for routine landings and do not require a full remote site evaluation. Diagrams should include site elevation, location of wind indicator (if available), significant obstacles (to include power/telephone lines, poles, antennas, and fences), GPS coordinates and any unique site hazards. If there are any sites with unique hazards, the unit commander should ensure there is a method of highlighting these hazards to the crews. Additionally, the unit commander coordinates with the base safety, operations support, and civil engineering offices to determine the feasibility of making changes to the site to eliminate or reduce hazards. Units review the sites annually and annotate the review date in the site folder. Aircrews planning to use operational sites should have access to site diagrams in flight.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

265 Attachment 19

HH-60 OPERATING PROCEDURES A19.1. Operate the HH-60 IAW with approved test plans and applicable lead MAJCOM flight operations procedures. (T-2).

266

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 Attachment 20 KC10 OPERATING PROCEDURES

A20.1. General Information. This attachment, in conjunction with other governing directives, outlines procedures for operation of the KC-10 aircraft under most circumstances. AFMC aircrews and all management levels concerned with operation of all KC-10 aircraft must comply with the outlined requirements and consult AFMC/A3V for waivers to this attachment. Operations or procedures not specifically addressed may be accomplished if they enhance safe, effective mission accomplishment. A20.2. Common Mission Guidance. A20.2.1. Intersection Takeoffs. Intersection takeoffs are authorized if available runway length meets or exceeds the aircraft minimum runway length from Table 2.1. A20.2.2. Landing Guidance. The following landing limitations apply to both touch-and-go and full stop landings: A20.2.2.1. All pilots will plan to land on centerline within the touchdown zone. A20.2.2.2. All touchdowns will be at a gross weight and at a point and speed that will permit a safe, full stop landing in the remaining runway. If this is not possible, initiate a go-around. A20.2.2.3. The maximum crosswind component for takeoff and full stop landings is 31 knots or flight manual limits, whichever is less. A20.2.2.4. Transition, to include approaches and touch-and-go landings, can be conducted up to Flight Manual gross weight limits. A20.2.2.5. Do not land on approach end arresting cables (does not include recessed cables). If the aircraft lands before the cable, the crew should contact the tower to have the cable inspected. Do not takeoff or land over an approach end cable that has been reported slack, loose, or improperly rigged by NOTAMs, ATIS, or ATC. A20.2.2.6. Perform touch-and-go landings IAW this instruction and the applicable flight manual. A20.2.2.7. Before final approach, the instructor pilot or qualified Mission Pilot (MP) will brief touch-and-go landing considerations with the other appropriate aircrew members. On successive approaches, if the briefing remains the same and there are no questions, the briefing need not be repeated and the pilot may simply state, “Briefing remains the same.” A20.2.2.8. Do not accomplish touch-and-go landings on slush-covered runways. A20.2.2.9. The center gear will be extended for touch-and-go landings. A20.2.2.10. A minimum of 9 wheel brakes must be operational. operational wheel brakes must be functioning normally.

Antiskid on all

A20.3. Instrument Procedures. The KC-10 is approach category D, unless gross weight dictates category E.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

267

A20.4. Operating Procedures and Restrictions. A20.4.1. Prohibited Maneuvers. This section adds aircraft limitations and restrictions to those already specified in flight manuals and applies to all aircrew. Engine out training is covered by AFI 11-2FTV3, Table 5.1. The following maneuvers are prohibited unless on an approved test plan: A20.4.1.1. Stalls. A20.4.1.2. Dutch Roll. A20.4.1.3. Emergency descents. A20.4.1.4. Unusual attitudes. A20.4.2. Air Refueling (AR) Limitations. A20.4.2.1. Do not accomplish AR operations when: A20.4.2.1.1. Conditions are encountered which, in the opinion of either aircraft commander or the boom operator, result in marginal control of either the aircraft or the boom. A20.4.2.1.2. Either the tanker or the receiver has less than the full number of engines operating (except B-52). A20.4.2.1.3. The tanker aircraft is unable to retract the landing gear. A20.4.2.2. Tanker Autopilot. Aircrews will notify and receive acknowledgement from the receiver pilot any time any axis of the autopilot is not being used. A20.4.2.3. AR without tanker disconnect capability. AR without tanker disconnect capability means the boom operator cannot trigger an immediate disconnect using either the normal disconnect system or the independent disconnect system (IDS). AR (tanker or receiver) will not be conducted after a known loss of tanker disconnect capability. Exceptions to the restrictions are: A20.4.2.3.1. During emergency fuel situations. A20.4.2.3.2. When necessary deployment/redeployment.

to

complete

receiver

over-water

A20.4.2.4. Manual boom latching (MBL), emergency boom latching (EBL) and override boom latching (OBL). The MBL, EBL and OBL with IDS system operative may be accomplished without restrictions. To complete training or evaluation in MBL, EBL and OBL procedures without IDS, the following conditions must be met. A20.4.2.4.1. An AR instructor pilot must be at a set of controls during the receiver contacts (if other than fighter type). A20.4.2.4.2. Contacts will be limited to the minimum required. A20.4.2.4.3. The receiver aircraft AR system must be fully operable. A20.4.2.4.4. Boom operator and receiver pilot must coordinate all actions as required by applicable directives and checklists when making contacts during the situations listed above.

268

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A20.4.2.5. Practice Emergency Separations. Prior to the actual accomplishment of a practice emergency separation, coordination between the tanker pilot, boom operator and the receiver pilot is mandatory. Coordination must include when the separation will occur and who will give the command of execution. Tanker pilot coordination may be accomplished over interphone with the boom operator. Practice emergency separations may be accomplished with passengers onboard. Ensure all passengers are seated with seat belts fastened. Prior to a practice emergency separation from the contact position when conducting AR behind a KC135, a disconnect capability must have been previously determined by a boom operator initiated disconnect. A20.4.2.6. Limits Demonstration. Prior to a limits demonstration, when conducting AR behind a KC135, a disconnect capability must have been previously determined by a boom operator initiated disconnect. A20.4.2.7. Receiver AR Training. A qualified receiver IP will conduct training. The receiver pilot must inform and obtain acknowledgement from the tanker pilot and boom operator when an unqualified receiver pilot is receiving AR training. During this time, a boom operator qualified for the applicable category receiver must operate the boom controls, and if the tanker autopilot is off, the tanker must be flown by a pilot current and qualified in tanker AR. A20.4.2.8. All personnel will be strapped in a crew position during either receiver or tanker AR operations unless a test plan requires personnel to be unrestrained. A20.4.2.9. Altitude. A/R operations are normally conducted above 12,000 feet MSL, or 10,000 feet AGL, whichever is higher. A/R operations based at or above 12,000 feet MSL which momentarily fall below 10,000 feet AGL, but not lower than 5,000 feet AGL, due to overflight of mountain ridges, peaks, etc., are authorized. A/R operations in support of C-130 receivers at the C-130's optimum refueling altitude, but no lower than 5,000 feet AGL are authorized. A/R performed below those altitudes will only be on an approved test plan or for other operational considerations approved by the OG/CC. Except as noted above, A/R operations below 10,000 feet AGL is considered Low Altitude Air Refueling (LAAR) and must comply with the following: A20.4.2.9.1. A knowledgeable safety observer will be used. A20.4.2.9.2. Perform during day, under VFR conditions. A20.4.2.9.3. Minimum altitude is 3,000 feet above the highest obstacle or terrain within 4 NM of course centerline. A20.4.2.9.4. Less than forecast, reported or observed moderate turbulence. A20.4.2.9.5. Over flat and rolling terrain or a minimum of 10 NM from land over contiguous water. A20.4.2.9.6. Flight manual restrictions for low altitude operations will be complied with. A20.4.3. Cargo Loading Procedures. The KC10 cargo loading will only be performed by a KC10 boom operator that was previously fully cargo qualified in AMC and has operational cargo loading experience. This restriction does not apply to crew chiefs during aircraft reconfiguration.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

269

270

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 Attachment 21 KC-46 OPERATING PROCEDURES

A21.1. Operate the KC-46 IAW with approved test plans and applicable contractor flight operations procedures. (T-2).

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

271 Attachment 22

MQ-1 OPERATING PROCEDURES A22.1. General Information. A22.1.1. Scope. This attachment, in conjunction with other governing directives, outlines procedures for the operation of the MQ-1 Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) under most circumstances. AFMC aircrews operating all MQ-1 aircraft must comply with the outlined requirements and consult AFMC/A3V for waivers to this attachment. Operations or procedures not specifically addressed may be accomplished if they enhance safe, effective mission accomplishment. A22.2. Mission Planning. A22.2.1. Mission Planning Requirements. The PIC is responsible for mission planning and briefing. Mission planning and briefing are two separate activities. The PIC and mission planners (if available) will jointly review mission plans to ensure safety and mission effectiveness. Crewmembers other than the crew flying the mission may accomplish mission planning. Commanders will ensure currency of all mission planning materials and compliance with command guidance. Squadron and Forward Operating Location operations officers will schedule adequate mission planning time prior to flight. A22.2.2. Inflight Publications. FLIP terminal instrument procedure books are not required in the GCS except when operating from an airfield with a published MQ-1 compatible approach. If the MQ-1 compatible approaches are separately published plates, then only those plates are required in the GCS. If units annotate the ground track from compatible MQ1 approach plates on the PSO Tracker display chart, it will be to scale and reflect current FLIP products. A taxi diagram will be loaded in both PSO racks or in the GCS for the aircrew to reference. A22.2.3. Local Area Maps And Inflight Guides. A local area map of sufficient detail to remain within assigned operational or training areas will be available to crewmembers and displayed in the GCS. Units will ensure that, as a minimum, the PSO racks contain charts that are accurate enough to ensure the safe operation of the aircraft. Maps, charts, and FLIP required for navigation for both the planned IFR and VFR phases of flight shall be available to the aircrew at all times. A22.2.4. Briefing/De-briefing. A22.2.4.1. Briefing Attendees. Crewmembers who are logging individual events for currency do not need to attend the mission briefing iaw Chapter 2, however, they must receive a changeover brief in their respective crew position before participating in the flight. Other crewmembers who did not attend a mission briefing must obtain Squadron Operations Officer (SQ/DO) approval prior to participating in a flight. The pilot in command or MC will ensure crewmembers participating in a flight under SQ/DO approval are adequately briefed prior to assuming crew duties. A22.2.4.2. Brief Content. A Go/No-Go and Operational Risk Management (ORM) checklist will be completed by the aircraft commander with all available crewmembers. Any subsequent PIC with crewmembers who did not attend the flight briefing will also

272

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 perform these actions. The extent and depth of the briefings will depend on the type of flight, complexity of the tests and equipment, previous mission and flight crew experience. Those items published in unit standards and understood by all participants may be briefed as “standard.” Mission briefings will be accomplished IAW Mission Briefing Guides contained within the unit In-Flight Guides. A22.2.4.2.1. In-flight Changes. Do not fly unbriefed missions and/or events. If operationally necessary, mission elements and events may be modified while the MQ1 is airborne as long as changes do not compromise flight safety. The PIC will ensure all crewmembers understand any changes. A22.2.4.3. Crew Change/Handover Brief. When conducting handover operations the LRE and MCE pilots should carefully plan and coordinate handover locations, times, and other mission pertinent information. Emphasis should be placed on notifying the other element of current mission status, mission accomplishment, items not accomplished, and any deviations from previously coordinated operations. A22.2.5. Crew. The crew is defined as the personnel responsible for safe operation of the MQ-1 aircraft. For the MQ-1, the term pilot refers to a pilot in the LRE or MCE. A22.2.5.1. Pilot-in-command (PIC). An aircraft commander will be designated in the flight authorization IAW AFI 11-401. For sorties with multiple crews, a PIC will be designated for each crew. A22.2.5.2. Pilot/Sensor Operator (PSO) racks. For normal ground and flight operations, the pilot in control of the aircraft will occupy the left seat unless equipment malfunctions dictate use of an alternate control rack. In addition, during critical phases of flight, a pilot or sensor operator must be in the right seat. The crewmember in the right seat will act as a safety monitor while operating the Multi-Spectral Targeting System (MTS) to ensure the safety of the aircraft and ground personnel. A22.2.6. Flight Plan. When required by the FAA CoA, the PIC or delegated shall file a flight plan prior to flight. A flight plan may not be required due to the unique nature of RPA operations. The PIC’s initials on the Flight Authorization (AF IMT 4327a) cover the requirements stipulated in AFI 11-202V3.

A22.3. Common Mission Guidance. A22.3.1. Ground Control Station (GCS). A22.3.1.1. The GCS will be considered the flight deck of the aircraft under operation with no exceptions. A22.3.1.2. At the beginning of every flight, the PIC will display the appropriate access signs on the GCS entry points. A22.3.1.3. Critical phases of flight: takeoff to initial climb configuration; final approach to touchdown (or low approach); LRE to MCE (and vice versa) handover operations; medium or high risk test point execution, and terminal attack sequences (maneuver-toattack to weapons impact). A22.3.1.4. Crews will maintain a sterile environment consistent with good CRM procedures during all critical phases of flight or at PIC discretion.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

273

A22.3.1.5. GCS Entry Procdeures. GCS Entry is at PIC discretion. The PIC has final authority on number of personnel in the GCS. The PIC can designate the technician to limit the nonessential personnel within the GCS. Technicians should post an access sign instructing personnel to call for entry. During an emergency situation, requested personnel can enter the rear door without calling. Exit from the GCS through the rear door. If no rear exit is available, coordinate with the PIC prior to entering or exiting. Talking should be minimized and only if necessary for the execution of the mission in the GCS. During all phases of flight there will be no entry or exit through the forward door, unless the GCS does not have an aft door. A22.3.1.6. Aircrew will not answer pages in the GCS and the PA system should be turned down in volume. The PA can be used to perform communication as outlined in the appropriate airfield ground and flight operations procedures documents. A22.3.1.7. Limitations/Restrictions. While in the GCS, crewmembers will operate only those electronic items necessary for flight and/or mission operations. A22.3.1.8. Landline usage is authorized in the GCS while the RPA is in flight. The use of personal cell phones is not allowed except in emergency or NORDO situations as authorized by the PIC. If crewmembers are unable to answer the phone, a technician may answer and ask the crew if they are able to take the call. A22.3.1.9. Smoking is prohibited in or within 50 feet of the GCS. A22.3.2. Checklists. A22.3.2.1. Aircrew will not place items (checklists, charts, etc.) behind the flap lever, propeller control lever, throttle, or speed lever at any time. Aircrew will ensure no items interfere with aircraft controls or the Heads-Down Displays (HDD). Items may be placed on the shelf above the HDD. A22.3.2.2. Each crewmember will reference applicable checklists during all phases of flight. The PIC is responsible for checklist completion. Electronic checklists are authorized for use however spare electronic or paper copy checklists must be available to each crewmember should failure of the primary checklist source occur. A22.3.2.3. Aircrews should make every effort to avoid non-essential tasks when below 2,000 feet AGL. A22.3.2.4. Approved checklists contained within AFTTP 3-1.Predator and AFTTP 3-3 Predator are authorized for use during weapons deliveries. A22.3.2.5. Setting up a GCS for another crew (also referred to as “running presets”) shall be avoided to the maximum extent possible. Local OG/CCs may authorize a qualified crew other than the gaining handover crew to execute gaining handover checklist procedures where local procedures are adopted and published which provide guidance to accomplish this practice safely. The gaining handover PIC is responsible for the completion of all checklists necessary to gain control of the aircraft regardless of checklist items briefed as complete. A22.3.2.5.1. Aircrews will advise the operations supervisor a GCS is being set up for a later crew.

274

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A22.3.3. Required Equipment. A22.3.3.1. Video Sources. Two separate video sources are required for flight operations. At least one nose camera, either EO or IR, must be available. A22.3.3.2. INS/GPS A22.3.3.2.1. Both the inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning systems (GPS) must be operational. A22.3.3.3. Transponder. The aircraft shall have an operable transponder with altitude encoding for all flights, unless the PIC has contacted the controlling facility and been given permission to fly without it. The PIC should get the name and phone number of the individual at the controlling facility granting permission to fly the mission. A22.3.3.4. Sensor Equipment at Night. A minimum of one IR sensor must be operational for any mission with planned operations between the hours of official sunset and official sunrise. A22.3.3.5. Data Recording. GCS shall have HUD Video for each PSO with operational voice recording. A22.3.3.6. Ground Crew Communication. Two way communications are required between the pilot and ground crew during all ground operations and airborne operations that require ground crew participation. A22.3.4. Engine Starts. The engine will only be started on the command of the pilot and all engine starts require a fire guard. A22.3.5. Taxi Operations. A22.3.5.1. Maintain safe taxi speeds at all times. Maximum taxi speed is 10 knots ground speed on taxiways and 20 knots ground speed on runways. Maximum taxi speed is 5 knots ground speed in turns. A22.3.5.2. Do not taxi over arresting gear (i.e. BAK 9/12 or BAK-14). A22.3.5.3. Prior to arm/de-arm, pilots will notify the ground crew that hands are clear of all aircraft controls. A22.3.5.4. Aircrew will will not taxi an aircraft within 25 feet of obstructions without wing walkers unless exempted or waived. A22.3.5.5. The sensor operator will use the MTS to ensure the aircraft is clear of obstructions during taxi operations. The sensor operator will obtain clearance from the pilot prior to releasing the MTS from position mode. A22.3.5.6. If the pilot is only using the MTS to taxi, the aircraft will be brought to a complete stop before releasing the MTS from position mode. The MTS will be placed in position mode prior to resuming taxi. A22.3.5.7. Pilots will exercise caution and increase following distance when taxiing behind heavy or jet powered aircraft. A22.3.5.8. Prior to unpinning/arming, pilots will confirm with the ground crew that hands and feet are clear of all aircraft controls and parking brake is set.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

275

A22.3.6. Takeoff/Departure. A22.3.6.1. For takeoff, the sensor operator will select a different HUD video source and camera from the one selected by the pilot. A22.3.6.2. Do not takeoff, land or accomplish touch-and-go landings over raised webbing-type barriers (e.g., MA-1A, 61QSII). Pilots may takeoff, land or accomplish touch-and-go landings before, beyond or between raised cables or barriers provided the available distance meets minimum runway length requirements. A22.3.6.3. Command the MTS to position mode whenever below 500’ AGL. Above 500’ AGL and with pilot concurrence, the sensor operator may use the MTS at their discretion. A22.3.6.4. Maintain an engine-out glideback capability to the maximum extent possible. A22.3.6.5. For initial takeoffs on test sorties, do not takeoff if the computed ground roll exceeds 80% if the available runway. Additionally, the available runway for landing must exceed total planned landing distance by at least 500 feet. This is meant to apply to emergency heavy weight landings that occur immediately after takeoff. Attempt to dump fuel or jettison ordnance to reduce gross weight and landing distance. In all other cases, landings will be planned so that the available runway exceeds landing distance by at least 1000 feet. A22.3.6.6. The sensor operator will place the MTS in position mode for takeoff. Flight graphics will be displayed on both PSO racks until at least 500 ft. AGL. A22.3.7. Ops Checks. A22.3.7.1. Accomplish sufficient ops checks to ensure safe mission execution. Time between ops checks will not exceed one hour. A22.3.7.2. Minimum items to check are: communication links, engine instruments, total fuel quantity and distribution, current feeding fuel tank, and aircraft weight. A22.3.8. Enroute. PICs shall maintain normal VFR/IFR separation utilizing chase aircraft and two way radio communications with a controlling agency. If flying within the National Airspace System (NAS), the PIC will request flight following from ATC as much as possible. A22.3.9. Recovery. The normal procedure is to bring the RPA into visual range of the ground crew. Once the aircraft has landed, the aircrew may clear the chase aircraft off by stating “CLEARED OFF”. Once cleared off, chase will either leave the area of operations or orbit south of the field and land after the runway is clear. A22.3.10. Approach and Landing. A22.3.10.1. Stabilized Approach. Stabilized approach is defined as payload in position mode, configured for landing, normal glidepath, and on target airspeed (minus 5 KIAS and plus 15 KIAS). Aircraft must be stabilized by 200 feet AGL. If the aircraft becomes un-stabilized below 200 feet AGL, or if the following sink rate limits are exceeded, a go around is mandatory. Sink rate limits: 1200 feet per minute (FPM) descent rate below 200 feet AGL and 600 FPM below 50 feet AGL. Momentary deviations do not require a go around as long as immediate corrective actions are taken.

276

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A22.3.10.2. The desired touchdown zone for a visual approach is 500 to 1500 feet from the threshold, or the glide path interception point for a precision approach. When local procedures or unique runway surface conditions require landing beyond a given point on the runway, adjust the desired touchdown zone accordingly and brief applicable crewmembers. A22.3.10.3. During a go-around or low approach, do not fly directly over aircraft on the runway at low altitude. A22.3.10.4. Comply with the wake turbulence avoidance criteria for a small aircraft (category 1). A22.3.10.5. Pilots will not practice EO nose-camera landings at night. A22.3.10.6. The crewmember in the right seat will announce altitude deviations (plus or minus) exceeding 100 feet at the initial approach fix and the final approach fix. The crewmember in the right seat will announce “DECISION HEIGHT” or “MDA” (Minimum Descent Altitude) when reaching these altitudes for precision and nonprecision approaches. A22.3.10.7. The MTS will be placed in position mode and flight graphics displayed on both PSO racks prior to descending below 500 feet AGL. A22.3.10.8. For landing, the SO will select a different HUD video source and camera from the one selected by the pilot. SO should confirm Payload position by checking VIT 11. A22.3.10.9. If the MTS is the only available video source for landing, the SO will not conduct a non-uniformity correction (NUC) of the MTS on final approach without prior coordination with the PIC. If the MTS is not suitable for landing below 1,500 feel AGL on final approach, and no other video sources are available, the crew must initiate a go around. A22.3.10.10. Above Maximum Allowable Gross Weight (MAGW) Operations. Above MAGW operations may require an OG/CC waiver. (Expections: Emergancy, part of Approved Test Card/Plan). A22.3.11. Chase Operations. A22.3.11.1. Chase Crew Requirements. Two pilots are required for night chase operations. The safety pilot (pilot not flying) is responsible for clearing for traffic while the pilot flying is responsible for maintaining aircraft control and visual separation with the RPA. Two pilots are also required when oxygen is required by FAA regulations. A single pilot may be used in day chase missions. A22.3.11.2. It is the chase aircraft’s responsibility to advise the RPA aircrew if the flight path indicates a possible conflict with other aircraft or weather. Two-way radio communication will be maintained between the chase aircraft and the RPA. If there has been no communication between the chase aircraft and the RPA in the last 15 minutes, a radio check between the two aircraft will be accomplished.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

277

A22.3.11.3. Weather Minimums. Chase operations will be conducted in VMC. For rejoins underneath a ceiling, minimum ceiling/visibility criteria are 1000 feet/3 NM for day, 3000 feet/3 NM for night. A22.3.11.4. Altitude Minimums. Chase aircraft will not go below 500 feet AGL during chase procedures in day/VMC conditions. Chase aircraft will not go below minimum safe altitude (MSA) during chase procedures at night. MSA is defined as 1000 feet above the highest obstacle in the defined testing/training area and will be briefed on every mission. (Recommend the MSA be based on a 5 NM radius from the RPA.) A22.3.11.5. Distance Minimums. Chase aircraft will maintain 300 feet to 1500 feet of separation from the RPA. Chase aircraft should maintain a slight stack and 2 to 5 aspect on the RPA. A22.3.11.6. Equipment Procedures. The chase aircraft and the RPA will have their beacons and strobe lights on during daylight operations to increase visibility for other aircraft. A22.3.11.7. The RPA will squawk the transponder code for the formation. The chase aircraft will squawk standby and be ready to squawk for the formation in the event the RPA’s transponder fails. A22.3.11.8. The chase crew will call “READY FOR REJOIN” when in position and visual the RPA. Additionally, the chase crew will report all gear up and gear down positions. A22.3.11.9. The RPA will call all turns at night or in close formation, as well as all altitude and airspeed changes. A22.3.12. Lost Communication. A22.3.12.1. RPA Lost Communication. If the chase aircraft detects the RPA is lost comm, the chase crew will contact the RPA ops desk and direct the RPA to recover to the local area. If the RPA does not recover, chase crew will provide ATC with the actual position and probable destination of the RPA. If the chase aircraft cannot safely continue to execute chase responsibilities (maintain VMC, chase low on fuel, a potential threat of a collision exists, etc.), the chase aircraft will proceed to and loiter, well clear of the landing runway. If radio communications are regained, chase aircraft will request to rejoin. Otherwise, the chase aircraft will return to base (RTB). A22.3.12.2. Chase Aircraft Lost Communication. If the RPA crew detects a communication failure with the chase aircraft, the RPA crew will RTB. A22.3.13. Loss of Visual Contact. If the chase aircraft loses visual contact with the RPA, immediate separation is essential. Upon losing sight of the RPA, the chase aircraft will call “BLIND” with altitude over the radio. The RPA will acknowledge the blind call and immediately transmit heading, altitude, and airspeed. The RPA will remain predictable and continue its current flight path unless directed otherwise. The sensor operator will utilize the MTS (if available) in an attempt to clear the RPA flight path and avoid a collision. The chase aircraft will obtain a minimum of 500 feet altitude separation until visual contact is regained. If visual contact is lost for more than 30 seconds, chase aircraft will request

278

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 assistance from ATC to reacquire the visual. While the chase aircraft is visually searching, the RPA will make position reports and call turns. A22.3.14. Encountering IMC. The chase aircraft should be directive to avoid IMC penetration; however, if an inadvertent IMC penetration occurs resulting in loss of visual, immediate separation from the RPA is essential. Smooth application of control inputs is imperative to minimize the effects of spatial disorientation. The chase aircraft will simultaneously transition to instruments, maneuver away from the last known RPA position, and call “BLIND, POPEYE” over the radio. The RPA aircrew will acknowledge the blind call and immediately transmit heading, altitude, and airspeed. The RPA will remain predictable and maintain its current flight path unless directed otherwise. The sensor operator will utilize the MTS (if available) to clear the RPA’s flight path. The chase aircraft will obtain a minimum of 500 feet altitude separation until visual contact is regained. If visual contact is lost for more than 30 seconds, chase aircraft will request assistance from ATC to reacquire the visual. While the chase aircraft is visually searching, the RPA aircrew will make position reports and call turns. The chase aircraft and the RPA will coordinate separate ATC clearances to ensure separation with each other as well as other aircraft (IFR clearance, squawk, etc). Once clear of IMC and visual the chase aircraft will request rejoin with the RPA. A22.3.15. Chase Rejoins. A22.3.15.1. Takeoff. This is the preferred method of rejoin. Chase aircraft will normally takeoff prior to the RPA, loiter south of the field and call “IN POSITION” on the Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF) or other pre-briefed frequency. The RPA aircrew will announce takeoff on the CTAF. Chase aircraft will keep the RPA in sight, climb with it, and plan to rejoin by 2000 feet AGL. Chase aircraft will not go below final approach speed during rejoin. A22.3.15.2. In-flight. If the RPA is airborne prior to the chase aircraft’s arrival, the chase aircraft will remain south of the runway environment until visual. The RPA will assist the rejoin by stating the RPA’s location, heading, airspeed and altitude. Once visual, the chase aircraft will request to rejoin.

A22.4. Instrument Procedures. A22.4.1. The MQ-1 is an approach category A aircraft. A22.4.2. Weather Minimums, Restrictions, and Planning Factors. The MQ-1 is a turbulence category III aircraft. A22.4.2.1. All flights shall be conducted under VFR conditions throughout the planned route of flight (1500 feet ceiling, 3 SM visibility, +/- 1 hr ETA). Pilots will maneuver the aircraft so as to maintain appropriate VFR cloud clearances during departure, enroute, and recovery IAW AFI 11-202V3 A22.4.2.2. Operating the MQ-1 with ceiling and/or visibility below VFR minimums requires a published airport surveillance radar or precision approach radar terminal approach procedure at the operating airfield. The MQ-1 INS/GPS is not certified for flying GPS instrument approaches.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

279

A22.4.2.3. Normally, declaring an alternate airfield is not an available option for the MQ-1 unless the airfield has a pre-positioned GCS (or LRGCS). If a pre-positioned GCS is available, use published alternate weather requirements IAW AFI 11-202V3. Holding (instead of an alternate airport) is authorized for RPA operations. While airborne, if the actual weather deteriorates below 1500 feet ceiling or the visibility is below 3 SM, MQ-1 crewmembers will increase recovery fuel to allow the aircraft to hold for at least one hour, in addition to, normal recovery fuel. A22.4.2.4. When the ceiling is below 3,000 feet or the visibility is below 3 miles, crewmembers will increase recovery fuel to allow the aircraft to hold for a minimum of two hours at best endurance, then penetrate and land with normal recovery fuel. This visibility requirement does not apply if the MTS IR camera is operable and visibility is below minimums due to sand/dust. A22.4.2.5. While airborne, if the actual weather deteriorates below forecasted and is below the minima specified at the actual time of arrival, pilots are authorized to fly to pilot weather category or published approach minimums, whichever is higher, if necessary to recover the aircraft. A22.5. Operating Procedures and Restrictions. A22.5.1. Wind. A22.5.1.1. Actual winds must be within flight manual limits at takeoff and landing. Forecast winds must be within flight manual limits at ETA (±1 hour). A22.5.1.2. While airborne, if revised forecast winds for ETA (±1 hour) exceed limits specified in the flight manual, the pilot will terminate the mission in time to return to the operating base before the forecast time of increased winds, or terminate the mission in time to return to the operating base with sufficient fuel to fly low approaches for a minimum of two hours (or as directed by Local Operating Procedures) unless a suitable alternate is available. A22.5.1.3. If sufficient fuel remains and mission allows, the pilot may establish a new ETA to overfly the forecast period of increased winds. The fuel requirements specified in Table 2.1 must be complied with for any updated ETA. A22.5.2. Turbulance: Aircrews will not takeoff if forecast or reported severe turbulence for Light/Category I aircraft is present along the route of flight. A22.5.3. Thunderstorms and Lightning. Lightning strikes and electrostatic discharges can occur in what may look like bening conditions. All flight and ground operations are prohibited when lightning is reported within five (5) nautical miles of the airfield. All ground operations are prohibited if thunderstorms are producing hazardous conditions such as hail, strong winds above 30 knots, heavy rain or lightning. A22.5.3.1. The PIC will not operate the aircraft within 25 NM of known thunderstorm activity. A22.5.4. Cold-Weather Operating Procedures. Do not takeoff with frost, ice or snow accumulation on the wings. Whenever the outside air temperature is less than 40 degrees Fahrenheit or the pilot is concerned about frost, ice or snow, apply an ice retardant to the wings or inspect the aircraft for frost immediately prior to takeoff. Pilots should avoid

280

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 penetration of visible moisture or precipitation to the maximum extent possible, particularly above the freezing level. If precipitation cannot be avoided, pilots should maximize climb or descent rate to exit potential or actual icing conditions. A22.5.4.1. Icing Procedures. Do not conduct flight into forecast icing greater than light. Do not conduct flight into known icing conditions. If encountering icing in flight, take action to exit icing conditions immediately. A22.5.5. Runway/Taxiway Conditions. Units will specify minimum runway condition reading (RCR) for taxi operations. Do not takeoff or land with an RCR less than 12 (waiver authority is OG/CC). When no RCR is available, refer to International Civil Aviation Organization conversions in the Flight Information Handbook. Handling characteristics of the MQ-1 on ice or snow are not optimum. Minimize power settings to limit taxi speed to no more than 5 KGS. If required to stop, try to stop over clear portions of the taxiway. The pilot will remain focused on the outside video display at all times.

A22.6. Air-To-Surface Operations. A22.6.1. Live/Heavyweight Ordnance Procedures. A22.6.1.1. IMC Weapons Deliveries. Pilots may release live or inert weapons in or thru IMC IAW the following procedures, unless restricted by range procedures or theater ROE (verification requirements against known target coordinates only applies to training sorties): A22.6.1.2. Master Arm switch. When carrying releasable ordnance, configure IAW 11214. A22.6.1.2.1. The use of Master Arm and release switches is authorized when not carrying releasable ordnance. When carrying releasable ordnance, remain two switch positions away from release at all times prior to intentionally releasing live or inert ordnance. The two deselected switches will be the master arm switch and the trigger. A22.6.1.3. Crews will perform battle damage and weapons checks prior to or during RTB. This check is mandatory following expenditure of live ordnance. If unable to complete the check using organic sensors, request support from the chase aircraft or a ground observer before landing. A22.7. Abnormal Procedures A22.7.1. Ground Emergencies. A22.7.1.1. Pilots will not taxi with nose-wheel steering, brake system, video path, or telemetry/datalink malfunctions. A22.7.1.2. In the event of an inadvertent entry onto soft or unprepared surfaces, pilots will not attempt to recover the aircraft to the prepared surface by using engine power and/or differential braking. A22.7.2. In-flight Emergencies. A22.7.2.1. Air Aborts. Abort the mission, regardless of apparent damage or subsequent normal operation, if any of the following occur: bird strike, Over-G, flight control system anomalies (including uncommanded flight control inputs), or engine failure.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

281

A22.7.2.2. Landing Gear Malfunctions. If encountering a landing gear malfunction and the gear are down, leave them down and do not make touch and go landings. A22.7.2.3. Forced Landing. Comply with forced landing procedures in the flight manual. If a Ku-band forced landing to a runway or primary site cannot be completed without endangering personnel or property on the ground, then another site will be selected even if attempting a landing at that alternate site may result in destruction of the aircraft. A22.7.3. Emergency Mission Planning. Maintain awareness of current and forecast weather along the planned and emergency mission routes of flight, and at the intended landing field. Update the emergency mission route for weather hazards (e.g., cloud layers, icing, turbulence, etc.) throughout the flight. Alter the route, if necessary, and use care to select appropriate aircraft parameters to avoid hazardous weather conditions.

282

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 Attachment 23 MQ-9 OPERATING PROCEDURES

A23.1. General Information. A23.1.1. Scope. This attachment, in conjunction with other governing directives, outlines procedures for the operation of the MQ-9 Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) under most circumstances. AFMC aircrews operating all MQ-9 aircraft must comply with the outlined requirements and consult AFMC/A3V for waivers to this attachment. Operations or procedures not specifically addressed may be accomplished if they enhance safe, effective mission accomplishment. A23.2. Mission Planning. A23.2.1. Mission Planning Requirements. The PIC is responsible for mission planning and briefing. Mission planning and briefing are two separate activities. The PIC and mission planners (if available) will jointly review mission plans to ensure safety and mission effectiveness. Crewmembers other than the crew flying the mission may accomplish mission planning. Commanders will ensure currency of all mission planning materials and compliance with command guidance. Squadron and Forward Operating Location operations officers will schedule adequate mission planning time prior to flight. A23.2.2. Inflight Publications. FLIP terminal instrument procedure books are not required in the GCS except when operating from an airfield with a published MQ-9 compatible approach. If the MQ-9 compatible approaches are separately published plates, then only those plates are required in the GCS. If units annotate the ground track from compatible MQ9 approach plates on the PSO Tracker display chart, it will be to scale and reflect current FLIP products A taxi diagram will be loaded in both PSO racks or in the GCS for the aircrew to reference. A23.2.3. Local Area Maps And Inflight Guides. A local area map of sufficient detail to remain within assigned operational or training areas will be available to crewmembers and displayed in the GCS. Units will ensure that, as a minimum, the PSO racks contain charts that are accurate enough to ensure the safe operation of the aircraft. Maps, charts, and FLIP required for navigation for both the planned IFR and VFR phases of flight shall be available to the aircrew at all times. A23.2.4. Briefing/De-briefing. A23.2.4.1. Briefing Attendees. Crewmembers who are logging individual events for currency do not need to attend the mission briefing iaw Chapter 2, however, they must receive a changeover brief in their respective crew position before participating in the flight. Other crewmembers who did not attend a mission briefing must obtain Squadron Operations Officer (SQ/DO) approval prior to participating in a flight. The pilot in command or MC will ensure crewmembers participating in a flight under SQ/DO approval are adequately briefed prior to assuming crew duties. A23.2.4.2. Brief Content. A Go/No-Go and Operational Risk Management (ORM) checklist will be completed by the aircraft commander with all available crewmembers. Any subsequent PIC with crewmembers who did not attend the flight briefing will also

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

283

perform these actions. The extent and depth of the briefings will depend on the type of flight, complexity of the tests and equipment, previous mission and flight crew experience. Those items published in unit standards and understood by all participants may be briefed as “standard.” Mission briefings will be accomplished IAW Mission Briefing Guides contained within the unit In-Flight Guides. A23.2.4.2.1. In-flight Changes. Do not fly unbriefed missions and/or events. If operationally necessary, mission elements and events may be modified while the MQ1 is airborne as long as changes do not compromise flight safety. The PIC will ensure all crewmembers understand any changes. A23.2.4.3. Crew Change/Handover Brief. When conducting handover operations the LRE and MCE pilots should carefully plan and coordinate handover locations, times, and other mission pertinent information. Emphasis should be placed on notifying the other element of current mission status, mission accomplishment, items not accomplished, and any deviations from previously coordinated operations. A23.2.5. Crew. The crew is defined as the personnel responsible for safe operation of the MQ-1 aircraft. For the MQ-1, the term pilot refers to a pilot in the LRE or MCE . A23.2.5.1. Pilot-in-command (PIC). An aircraft commander will be designated in the flight authorization IAW AFI 11-401. For sorties with multiple crews, a PIC will be designated for each crew. A23.2.5.2. Pilot/Sensor Operator (PSO) racks. For normal ground and flight operations, the pilot in control of the aircraft will occupy the left seat unless equipment malfunctions dictate use of an alternate control rack. In addition, during critical phases of flight, a pilot or sensor operator must be in the right seat. The crewmember in the right seat will act as a safety monitor while operating the Multi-Spectral Targeting System (MTS) to ensure the safety of the aircraft and ground personnel. A23.2.6. Flight Plan. When required by the FAA CoA, the PIC or delegated shall file a flight plan prior to flight. A flight plan may not be required due to the unique nature of RPA operations. The PIC’s initials on the Flight Authorization (AF IMT 4327a) cover the requirements stipulated in AFI 11-202V3. A23.3. Common Mission Guidance. A23.3.1. Ground Control Station (GCS). A23.3.1.1. The GCS will be considered the flight deck of the aircraft under operation with no exceptions. A23.3.1.2. At the beginning of every flight, the PIC will display the appropriate access signs on the GCS entry points. A23.3.1.3. Critical phases of flight: takeoff to initial climb configuration; final approach to touchdown (or low approach); LRE to MCE (and vice versa) handover operations; medium or high risk test point execution, and terminal attack sequences (maneuver-toattack to weapons impact). A23.3.1.4. Crews will maintain a sterile environment consistent with good CRM procedures during all critical phases of flight or at PIC discretion.

284

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A23.3.1.5. GCS Entry Procdeures. GCS Entry is at PIC discretion. The PIC has final authority on number of personnel in the GCS. The PIC can designate the technician to limit the nonessential personnel within the GCS. Technicians should post an access sign instructing personnel to call for entry. During an emergency situation, requested personnel can enter the rear door without calling. Exit from the GCS through the rear door. If no rear exit is available, coordinate with the PIC prior to entering or exiting. Talking should be minimized and only if necessary for the execution of the mission in the GCS. During all phases of flight there will be no entry or exit through the forward door, unless the GCS does not have an aft door. A23.3.1.6. Aircrew will not answer pages in the GCS and the PA system should be turned down in volume. The PA can be used to perform communication as outlined in the appropriate airfield ground and flight operations procedures documents. A23.3.1.7. Limitations/Restrictions. While in the GCS, crewmembers will operate only those electronic items necessary for flight and/or mission operations. A23.3.1.8. Landline usage is authorized in the GCS while the RPA is in flight. The use of personal cell phones is not allowed except in emergency or NORDO situations as authorized by the PIC. If crewmembers are unable to answer the phone, a technician may answer and ask the crew if they are able to take the call. A23.3.1.9. Smoking is prohibited in or within 50 feet of the GCS. A23.3.2. Checklists. A23.3.2.1. Aircrew will not place items (checklists, charts, etc.) behind the flap lever, propeller control lever, throttle, or speed lever at any time. Aircrew will ensure no items interfere with aircraft controls or the Heads-Down Displays (HDD). Items may be placed on the shelf above the HDD. A23.3.2.2. Each crewmember will reference applicable checklists during all phases of flight. The PIC is responsible for checklist completion. Electronic checklists are authorized for use however spare electronic or paper copy checklists must be available to each crewmember should failure of the primary checklist source occur. A23.3.2.3. Aircrews should make every effort to avoid non-essential tasks when below 2,000 feet AGL. A23.3.2.4. Approved checklists contained within AFTTP 3-1.Predator and AFTTP 3-3 Predator are authorized for use during weapons deliveries. A23.3.2.5. Setting up a GCS for another crew (also referred to as “running presets”) shall be avoided to the maximum extent possible. Local OG/CCs may authorize a qualified crew other than the gaining handover crew to execute gaining handover checklist procedures where local procedures are adopted and published which provide guidance to accomplish this practice safely. The gaining handover PIC is responsible for the completion of all checklists necessary to gain control of the aircraft regardless of checklist items briefed as complete. A23.3.2.5.1. Aircrews will advise the operations supervisor a GCS is being set up for a later crew.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

285

A23.3.3. Required Equipment. A23.3.3.1. Video Sources. Two separate video sources are required for flight operations. At least one nose camera, either EO or IR, must be available. A23.3.3.2. INS/GPS A23.3.3.2.1. Both the inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning systems (GPS) must be operational. A23.3.3.3. Transponder. The aircraft shall have an operable transponder with altitude encoding for all flights, unless the PIC has contacted the controlling facility and been given permission to fly without it. The PIC should get the name and phone number of the individual at the controlling facility granting permission to fly the mission. A23.3.3.4. Sensor Equipment at Night. A minimum of one IR sensor must be operational for any mission with planned operations between the hours of official sunset and official sunrise. A23.3.3.5. Data Recording. GCS shall have HUD Video for each PSO with operational voice recording. A23.3.3.6. Ground Crew Communication. Two way communications are required between the pilot and ground crew during all ground operations and airborne operations that require ground crew participation. A23.3.4. Engine Starts. The engine will only be started on the command of the pilot and all engine starts require a fire guard. A23.3.5. Taxi Operations. A23.3.5.1. Maintain safe taxi speeds at all times. Maximum taxi speed is 10 knots ground speed on taxiways and 20 knots ground speed on runways. Maximum taxi speed is 5 knots ground speed in turns. A23.3.5.2. Do not taxi over arresting gear (i.e. BAK 9/12 or BAK-14). A23.3.5.3. Prior to arm/de-arm, pilots will notify the ground crew that hands are clear of all aircraft controls. A23.3.5.4. All aircrew will abide by taxi distances and restrictions IAW AFI 11-218, “Aircraft Operations and Movement on the Ground”, and will not taxi an aircraft within 25 feet of obstructions without wing walkers unless exempted or waived. A23.3.5.5. The sensor operator will use the MTS to ensure the aircraft is clear of obstructions during taxi operations. The sensor operator will obtain clearance from the pilot prior to releasing the MTS from position mode. A23.3.5.6. If the pilot is only using the MTS to taxi, the aircraft will be brought to a complete stop before releasing the MTS from position mode. The MTS will be placed in position mode prior to resuming taxi. A23.3.5.7. Pilots will exercise caution and increase following distance when taxiing behind heavy or jet powered aircraft.

286

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A23.3.5.8. Prior to unpinning/arming, pilots will confirm with the ground crew that hands and feet are clear of all aircraft controls and parking brake is set. A23.3.6. Takeoff/Departure. A23.3.6.1. For takeoff, the sensor operator will select a different HUD video source and camera from the one selected by the pilot. A23.3.6.2. Do not takeoff, land or accomplish touch-and-go landings over raised webbing-type barriers (e.g., MA-1A, 61QSII). Pilots may takeoff, land or accomplish touch-and-go landings before, beyond or between raised cables or barriers provided the available distance meets minimum runway length requirements. A23.3.6.3. Command the MTS to position mode whenever below 500’ AGL. Above 500’ AGL and with pilot concurrence, the sensor operator may use the MTS at their discretion. A23.3.6.4. Maintain an engine-out glideback capability to the maximum extent possible. A23.3.6.5. For initial takeoffs on test sorties, with safety and test review board approval, the available runway for landing must exceed total planned landing distance by at least 500 feet. This is meant to apply to emergency heavy weight landings that occur immediately after takeoff. Attempt to dump fuel or jettison ordnance to reduce gross weight and landing distance. In all other cases, landings will be planned so that the available runway exceeds landing distance by at least 1000 feet. A23.3.6.6. The sensor operator will place the MTS in position mode for takeoff. Flight graphics will be displayed on both PSO racks until at least 500 ft. AGL. A23.3.7. Ops Checks. A23.3.7.1. Accomplish sufficient ops checks to ensure safe mission execution. Time between ops checks will not exceed one hour. A23.3.7.2. Minimum items to check are: communication links, engine instruments, total fuel quantity and distribution, current feeding fuel tank, and aircraft weight. A23.3.8. Enroute. PICs shall maintain normal VFR/IFR separation utilizing chase aircraft and two way radio communications with a controlling agency. If flying within the National Airspace System (NAS), the PIC will request flight following from ATC as much as possible. A23.3.9. Recovery. The normal procedure is to bring the RPA into visual range of the ground crew. Once the aircraft has landed, the aircrew may clear the chase aircraft off by stating “CLEARED OFF”. Once cleared off, chase will either leave the area of operations or orbit south of the field and land after the runway is clear. A23.3.10. Approach and Landing. A23.3.10.1. Stabilized Approach. Stabilized approach is defined as payload in position mode, configured for landing, normal glidepath, and on target airspeed (minus 5 KIAS and plus 15 KIAS). Aircraft must be stabilized by 200 feet AGL. If the aircraft becomes un-stabilized below 200 feet AGL, or if the following sink rate limits are exceeded, a go around is mandatory. Sink rate limits: 1200 feet per minute (FPM) descent rate below

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

287

200 feet AGL and 800 FPM below 50 feet AGL. Momentary deviations do not require a go around as long as immediate corrective actions are taken. A23.3.10.2. The desired touchdown zone for a visual approach is 500 to 1500 feet from the threshold, or the glide path interception point for a precision approach. When local procedures or unique runway surface conditions require landing beyond a given point on the runway, adjust the desired touchdown zone accordingly and brief applicable crewmembers. A23.3.10.3. During a go-around or low approach, do not fly directly over aircraft on the runway at low altitude. A23.3.10.4. Comply with the wake turbulence avoidance criteria for a small aircraft (category 1). A23.3.10.5. Pilots will not practice EO nose-camera landings at night. A23.3.10.6. The crewmember in the right seat will announce altitude deviations (plus or minus) exceeding 100 feet at the initial approach fix and the final approach fix. The crewmember in the right seat will announce “DECISION HEIGHT” or “MDA” (Minimum Descent Altitude) when reaching these altitudes for precision and nonprecision approaches. A23.3.10.7. For MQ-9 landings using beta range (full reverse), the pilot will call “Full Reverse” after he pulls the power lever into reverse. The right seat crew member will call "Full Reverse" after he confirms the pilot’s action. The right seat crew member will call ground speeds as the aircraft decelerates in 10 knot increments (60 kts, 50 kts, 40 kts, 30 kts) then call out the directive: "Ground Idle". The pilot will call "Ground Idle" after moving the power lever to ground Idle. The right seat crew member will again verify the pilot’s action. A23.3.10.8. The MTS will be placed in position mode and flight graphics displayed on both PSO racks prior to descending below 500 feet AGL. A23.3.10.9. For landing, the SO will select a different HUD video source and camera from the one selected by the pilot. SO should confirm Payload position by checking VIT 11. A23.3.10.10. If the MTS is the only available video source for landing, the SO will not conduct a non-uniformity correction (NUC) of the MTS on final approach without prior coordination with the PIC. If the MTS is not suitable for landing below 1,500 feel AGL on final approach, and no other video sources are available, the crew must initiate a go around. A23.3.10.11. Aircraft returning to base with unexpended free-fall live ordnance will fly a straight-in approach to a full stop, unless operational requirements dictate otherwise. Pattern work, to include touch and go’s are authorized with unexpended inert free-fall and “pinned” training munitions. A23.3.10.12. Above Maximum Allowable Gross Weight (MAGW) Operations. Above MAGW operations may require an OG/CC waiver. (Expections: Emergancy, part of Approved Test Card/Plan).

288

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A23.3.11. Chase Operations. A23.3.11.1. Chase Crew Requirements. Two pilots are required for night chase operations. The safety pilot (pilot not flying) is responsible for clearing for traffic while the pilot flying is responsible for maintaining aircraft control and visual separation with the RPA. Two pilots are also required when oxygen is required by FAA regulations. A single pilot may be used in day chase missions. A23.3.11.2. It is the chase aircraft’s responsibility to advise the RPA aircrew if the flight path indicates a possible conflict with other aircraft or weather. Two-way radio communication will be maintained between the chase aircraft and the RPA. If there has been no communication between the chase aircraft and the RPA in the last 15 minutes, a radio check between the two aircraft will be accomplished. A23.3.11.3. Weather Minimums. Chase operations will be conducted in VMC. For rejoins underneath a ceiling, minimum ceiling/visibility criteria are 1000 feet/3 NM for day, 3000 feet/3 NM for night. A23.3.11.4. Altitude Minimums. Chase aircraft will not go below 500 feet AGL during chase procedures in day/VMC conditions. Chase aircraft will not go below minimum safe altitude (MSA) during chase procedures at night. MSA is defined as 1000 feet above the highest obstacle in the defined testing/training area and will be briefed on every mission. (Recommend the MSA be based on a 5 NM radius from the RPA.) A23.3.11.5. Distance Minimums. Chase aircraft will maintain 300 feet to 1500 feet of separation from the RPA. Chase aircraft should maintain a slight stack and 2 to 5 aspect on the RPA. A23.3.11.6. Equipment Procedures. The chase aircraft and the RPA will have their beacons and strobe lights on during daylight operations to increase visibility for other aircraft. A23.3.11.7. The RPA will squawk the transponder code for the formation. The chase aircraft will squawk standby and be ready to squawk for the formation in the event the RPA’s transponder fails. A23.3.11.8. The chase crew will call “READY FOR REJOIN” when in position and visual the RPA. Additionally, the chase crew will report all gear up and gear down positions. A23.3.11.9. The RPA will call all turns at night or in close formation, as well as all altitude and airspeed changes. A23.3.12. Lost Communication. A23.3.12.1. RPA Lost Communication. If the chase aircraft detects the RPA is lost comm, the chase crew will contact the RPA ops desk and direct the RPA to recover to the local area. If the RPA does not recover, chase crew will provide ATC with the actual position and probable destination of the RPA. If the chase aircraft cannot safely continue to execute chase responsibilities (maintain VMC, chase low on fuel, a potential threat of a collision exists, etc.), the chase aircraft will proceed to and loiter, well clear of the landing runway. If radio communications are regained, chase aircraft will request to rejoin. Otherwise, the chase aircraft will return to base (RTB).

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

289

A23.3.12.2. Chase Aircraft Lost Communication. If the RPA crew detects a communication failure with the chase aircraft, the RPA crew will RTB. A23.3.13. Loss of Visual Contact. If the chase aircraft loses visual contact with the RPA, immediate separation is essential. Upon losing sight of the RPA, the chase aircraft will call “BLIND” with altitude over the radio. The RPA will acknowledge the blind call and immediately transmit heading, altitude, and airspeed. The RPA will remain predictable and continue its current flight path unless directed otherwise. The sensor operator will utilize the MTS (if available) in an attempt to clear the RPA flight path and avoid a collision. The chase aircraft will obtain a minimum of 500 feet altitude separation until visual contact is regained. If visual contact is lost for more than 30 seconds, chase aircraft will request assistance from ATC to reacquire the visual. While the chase aircraft is visually searching, the RPA will make position reports and call turns. A23.3.14. Encountering IMC. The chase aircraft should be directive to avoid IMC penetration; however, if an inadvertent IMC penetration occurs resulting in loss of visual, immediate separation from the RPA is essential. Smooth application of control inputs is imperative to minimize the effects of spatial disorientation. The chase aircraft will simultaneously transition to instruments, maneuver away from the last known RPA position, and call “BLIND, POPEYE” over the radio. The RPA aircrew will acknowledge the blind call and immediately transmit heading, altitude, and airspeed. The RPA will remain predictable and maintain its current flight path unless directed otherwise. The sensor operator will utilize the MTS (if available) to clear the RPA’s flight path. The chase aircraft will obtain a minimum of 500 feet altitude separation until visual contact is regained. If visual contact is lost for more than 30 seconds, chase aircraft will request assistance from ATC to reacquire the visual. While the chase aircraft is visually searching, the RPA aircrew will make position reports and call turns. The chase aircraft and the RPA will coordinate separate ATC clearances to ensure separation with each other as well as other aircraft (IFR clearance, squawk, etc). Once clear of IMC and visual the chase aircraft will request rejoin with the RPA. A23.3.15. Chase Rejoins. A23.3.15.1. Takeoff. This is the preferred method of rejoin. Chase aircraft will normally takeoff prior to the RPA, loiter south of the field and call “READY FOR REJOIN” on the Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF) or other pre-briefed frequency. The RPA aircrew will announce takeoff on the CTAF. Chase aircraft will keep the RPA in sight, climb with it, and plan to rejoin by 2000 feet AGL. Chase aircraft will not go below final approach speed during rejoin. A23.3.15.2. In-flight. If the RPA is airborne prior to the chase aircraft’s arrival, the chase aircraft will remain south of the runway environment until visual. The RPA will assist the rejoin by stating the RPA’s location, heading, airspeed and altitude. Once visual, the chase aircraft will request to rejoin. A23.4. Instrument Procedures. A23.4.1. The MQ-9 is an approach category B aircraft. A23.4.2. Weather Minimums, Restrictions, and Planning Factors. The MQ-9 are turbulence category IV aircraft.

290

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A23.4.2.1. All flights shall be conducted under VFR conditions throughout the planned route of flight (1500 feet ceiling, 3 SM visibility, +/- 1 hr ETA). Pilots will maneuver the aircraft so as to maintain appropriate VFR cloud clearances during departure, enroute, and recovery IAW AFI 11-202V3. A23.4.2.2. Operating with ceiling and/or visibility below VFR minimums requires a published airport surveillance radar or precision approach radar terminal approach procedure at the operating airfield. The INS/GPS is not certified for flying GPS instrument approaches. A23.4.2.3. Normally, declaring an alternate airfield is not an available option for the MQ-9 unless the airfield has a pre-positioned GCS (or LRGCS). If a pre-positioned GCS is available, use published alternate weather requirements IAW AFI 11-202V3. Holding (instead of an alternate airport) is authorized for RPA operations. While airborne, if the actual weather deteriorates below 1500 feet ceiling or the visibility is below 3 SM, crewmembers will increase recovery fuel to allow the aircraft to hold for at least one hour, in addition to, normal recovery fuel. A23.4.2.4. When the ceiling is below 3,000 feet or the visibility is below 3 miles, crewmembers will increase recovery fuel to allow the aircraft to hold for a minimum of two hours at best endurance, then penetrate and land with normal recovery fuel. This visibility requirement does not apply if the MTS IR camera is operable and visibility is below minimums due to sand/dust. A23.4.2.5. While airborne, if the actual weather deteriorates below forecasted and is below the minima specified at the actual time of arrival, pilots are authorized to fly to pilot weather category or published approach minimums, whichever is higher, if necessary to recover the aircraft.

A23.5. Operating Procedures and Restrictions. A23.5.1. Wind. A23.5.1.1. Actual winds must be within flight manual limits at takeoff and landing. Forecast winds must be within flight manual limits at ETA (±1 hour). A23.5.1.2. While airborne, if revised forecast winds for ETA (±1 hour) exceed limits specified in the flight manual, the pilot will terminate the mission in time to return to the operating base before the forecast time of increased winds, or terminate the mission in time to return to the operating base with sufficient fuel to fly low approaches for a minimum of two hours (or as directed by Local Operating Procedures) unless a suitable alternate is available. A23.5.1.3. If sufficient fuel remains and mission allows, the pilot may establish a new ETA to overfly the forecast period of increased winds. The fuel requirements specified in Table 2.1 must be complied with for any updated ETA. A23.5.2. Turbulance: Aircrews will not takeoff if forecast or reported severe turbulence for Light/Category I aircraft is present along the route of flight. A23.5.3. Thunderstorms and Lightning. Lightning strikes and electrostatic discharges can occur in what may look like bening conditions. All flight and ground operations are prohibited when lightning is reported within five (5) nautical miles of the airfield. All

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

291

ground operations are prohibited if thunderstorms are producing hazardous conditions such as hail, strong winds above 30 knots, heavy rain or lightning. A23.5.3.1. The PIC will not operate the aircraft within 25 NM of known thunderstorm activity. A23.5.4. Cold-Weather Operating Procedures. Do not takeoff with frost, ice or snow accumulation on the wings. Whenever the outside air temperature is less than 40 degrees Fahrenheit or the pilot is concerned about frost, ice or snow, apply an ice retardant to the wings or inspect the aircraft for frost immediately prior to takeoff. Pilots should avoid penetration of visible moisture or precipitation to the maximum extent possible, particularly above the freezing level. If precipitation cannot be avoided, pilots should maximize climb or descent rate to exit potential or actual icing conditions. A23.5.4.1. Icing Procedures. Do not conduct flight into forecast icing greater than light. Do not conduct flight into known icing conditions. If encountering icing in flight, take action to exit icing conditions immediately. A23.5.5. Runway/Taxiway Conditions. Units will specify minimum runway condition reading (RCR) for taxi operations. Do not takeoff or land with an RCR less than 12 (waiver authority is OG/CC). When no RCR is available, refer to International Civil Aviation Organization conversions in the Flight Information Handbook. Handling characteristics of the MQ-9 on ice or snow are not optimum. Minimize power settings to limit taxi speed to no more than 5 KGS. If required to stop, try to stop over clear portions of the taxiway. The pilot will remain focused on the outside video display at all times. A23.6. Air-To-Surface Operations. A23.6.1. Live/Heavyweight Ordnance Procedures. A23.6.1.1. IMC Weapons Deliveries. Pilots may release live or inert weapons in or thru IMC IAW the following procedures, unless restricted by range procedures or theater ROE (verification requirements against known target coordinates only applies to training sorties): A23.6.1.1.1. Ballistic Ordnance releases. Verify stores management system (SMS) target coordinates against known target coordinates prior to release and ensure weather minimums will allow for minimum of 8 seconds of available guidance time from buddy lase platform and/or ground party lasing the target. A23.6.1.1.2. Inertially Aided Munitions (IAM). Verify SMS target coordinates against known target coordinates prior to release. A23.6.1.1.2.1. SAR derived KAATS target coordinates may be used. For training, verify the final KAATS derived coordinates against known target coordinates prior to release if available. A23.6.1.2. Inertial Aided Munitions (IAM) Bomb on-coordinate release / Coordinate only releases: Before releasing live or inert IAMs in a bomb-on-coordinate mode or employing any ordnance in a system delivery mode using coordinates only (i.e. manually created target) verify Navigation system accuracy within 15 minutes of release by confirming GPS Figure of Merit (FOM) less than or equal to 5.

292

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A23.6.2. Procedures for carrying live or inert GBU 12/38 ordnance. Procedures for carrying live or inert GBU 12/38 ordnance in conjunction with cocked Linear Electromechanical Actuators (LEMAs) on empty stations. WARNING: There is no overt indication on the pilot heads-up display (HUD) or stores management system (SMS) screens that differentiate between live, inert, or simulated GBU 12/38 ordnance to include empty stations with cocked LEMAs. To prevent inadvertent selection and release of live or inert ordnance, aircrew will adhere to the following procedures: A23.6.2.1. If live or inert GBU 12/38 ordnance is being carried in conjunction with a cocked LEMA on any empty station, live or inert weapons must be loaded on the inboard stations first. Cocked LEMAs will be configured primarily on outboard stations. If a single live or inert weapon is carried, it will be loaded on station 5, and LEMAs may be cocked on all empty stations (including station 3). If three lives or inerts are carried, station 2 will be used to load the outboard live/inert, and station 6 will be used for the cocked LEMA. A23.6.2.2. All dry attacks will be conducted with the cocked LEMA if available. At no time will crews select the live or inert inboard stations until ready to release the live or inert ordnance. A23.6.2.3. The cocked LEMA station(s) will not be activated (“fired”) until all live or inert ordnance has been visually confirmed released with the Multi-Spectral Targeting System (MTS). A23.6.3. Master Arm switch. When carrying releasable ordnance, configure IAW 11-214. A23.6.3.1. The use of Master Arm and release switches is authorized when not carrying releasable ordnance. When carrying releasable ordnance, remain two switch positions away from release at all times prior to intentionally releasing live or inert ordnance. The two deselected switches will be the master arm switch and the trigger. A23.6.4. Crews will perform battle damage and weapons checks prior to or during RTB. This check is mandatory following expenditure of live ordnance. If unable to complete the check using organic sensors, request support from the chase aircraft or a ground observer before landing.

A23.7. Abnormal Procedures A23.7.1. Ground Emergencies. A23.7.1.1. Pilots will not taxi with nose-wheel steering, brake system, video path, or telemetry/datalink malfunctions. A23.7.1.2. In the event of an inadvertent entry onto soft or unprepared surfaces, pilots will not attempt to recover the aircraft to the prepared surface by using engine power and/or differential braking. A23.7.2. In-flight Emergencies. A23.7.2.1. Air Aborts. Abort the mission, regardless of apparent damage or subsequent normal operation, if any of the following occur: bird strike, Over-G, flight control system anomalies (including uncommanded flight control inputs), or engine failure.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

293

A23.7.2.2. Landing Gear Malfunctions. If encountering a landing gear malfunction and the gear are down, leave them down and do not make touch and go landings. A23.7.2.3. Forced Landing. Comply with forced landing procedures in the flight manual. If a Ku-band forced landing to a runway or primary site cannot be completed without endangering personnel or property on the ground, then another site will be selected even if attempting a landing at that alternate site may result in destruction of the aircraft. A23.7.3. Emergency Mission Planning. Maintain awareness of current and forecast weather along the planned and emergency mission routes of flight, and at the intended landing field. Update the emergency mission route for weather hazards (e.g., cloud layers, icing, turbulence, etc.) throughout the flight. Alter the route, if necessary, and use care to select appropriate aircraft parameters to avoid hazardous weather conditions.

294

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 Attachment 24 PC-12/U-28 (AND VARIANTS) OPERATING PROCEDURES

A24.1. General Information. This attachment, in conjunction with other governing directives, outlines procedures for operation of the U-28/PC-12 aircraft and U-28/PC-12 modified aircraft. AFMC aircrews and all management levels concerned with operation of all U-28/PC-12 aircraft must comply with the outlined requirements and consult AFMC/A3V for waivers to this attachment. Operations not specifically addressed may be accomplished if they enhance safe, effective mission accomplishment. A24.2. Mission Planning. A24.2.1. Fuel Requirements. Plan an additional 15 minutes of fuel per hour at Maximum Cruise Power fuel consumption rates for that portion of the flight where structural icing or thunderstorms requiring off-course maneuvering are forecast or reported. A24.2.2. Flight Logs. A24.2.2.1. Prepare a flight log for each off-station mission and include the following as a minimum: turn points, headings, distances, Estimated Time Enroute (ETE), Minimum Safe Altitude (MSA) (for low-level operations), and fuel computations. A flight log is not required if the above information is included on a flight map A24.2.2.2. A flight log is not required for flights within 2.5 hours of home station. It is the responsibility of the aircraft commander to brief fuel requirements and meet the minimum fuel requirements of Table 2.1. A24.2.3. Departure Planning. Use AFI 11-202V3, AFMAN 11-217 and this instruction when planning an IFR departure. A24.2.3.1. IFR Departures. A24.2.3.1.1. Takeoff gross weight (GW) must not exceed that which would lower the rate of climb to less than a 3.3 percent climb gradient (200ft/NM). A24.2.3.1.2. If no minimum climb gradient is published, use 200 ft./NM. Review AFMAN 11-217 for further guidance. A24.2.3.2. VFR Departures will not be flown in lieu of proper obstacle clearance planning. VFR departures require detailed planning to ensure obstacles and high terrain are avoided. A24.3. Common Mission Guidance. A24.3.1. Crew Complement. Minimum crew for the U-28/PC-12 is one U-28/PC-12 qualified pilot. In addition to the qualified pilot, a second qualified pilot or instrument rated safety pilot is required if other crewmembers are on board. Crew complement for the U28/PC-12 is IAW Table A24.1. Table A24.1. Crew Complement. Crew Position Aircraft Commander

Basic 1

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 Safety Pilot Observer

295

1 (A/R) 3 (A/R)

A24.3.1.1. Non-current or unqualified crewmembers may perform in their primary crew position when supervised by an instructor of like specialty. For pilots, the instructor must occupy the other pilot seat. A24.3.2. Safety Belts, Shoulder Harnesses. A24.3.2.1. The aircraft commander will ensure crewmembers and passengers have safety belts securely fastened during takeoffs, approaches, landings, simulated emergencies, and when turbulence is encountered or anticipated. A24.3.2.2. When occupying their crew position, the pilot and copilot will have safety belts fastened at all times, and safety belts with shoulder harnesses fastened for taxi, takeoff, approach and landing. A24.3.3. Runway and Taxiway Minimums. A24.3.3.1. The aircraft commander will determine that all airfield facilities are of suitable construction, and weight bearing capacity. A24.3.3.2. Minimum Takeoff Runway. The Accelerate-Stop Distance must be less than 80% of usable runway available. A24.3.3.3. Minimum Landing Runway. The computed Landing Distance must be less than 80% of useable runway (without propeller reverse). A24.3.3.4. Operations from other than hard surfaced runways are not authorized. A24.3.4. Take-off/Landing Procedures. A24.3.4.1. Only qualified U-28/PC-12 pilots will conduct the takeoff and landing unless the other pilot is a U-28/PC-12 instructor. Either pilot can taxi the airplane onto the runway for take-off. A24.3.4.2. Crosswind for Takeoff and Landings. Table A24.2 will be used to determine the recommended maximum crosswind component for takeoffs or landings. The pilot’s operating handbook does not introduce RCR into performance factors for takeoff or landing. Table A24.2. Maximum Crosswind Component.

A24.3.5. Touch-and-Go/Stop-and-go Landings.

296

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A24.3.5.1. Conduct touch and go operations IAW the PC-12/U-28 Checklists. Touchand-Go operations require two qualified pilots or an IP if the other pilot is unqualified or non-current. A24.3.5.2. The Touch-and-Go Checklists may be used when performing multiple instrument approaches or VFR pattern practice at the same airport or transitioning to another airport within 25 NM. Pilots will complete the Climb, Cruise, Descent, and Before Landing Checklists after the initial takeoff or if transiting to another airfield greater than 25 NM from the airport where instrument-approach or VFR-pattern practice was accomplished. A24.3.5.3. When the runway surface is reported as wet and crosswinds exceed 75% of the maximum demonstrated crosswinds listed in the Pilot Operating Handbook (POH), Stop-and-Go or Touch-and-Go operations are prohibited. A24.3.5.4. Stop-and-Go or Touch-and-Go operations are prohibited on icy or snowpolluted runways. A24.3.6. Minimum runway length for touch and go operations is 5,000 feet for full and partial flap landings and 6,000 feet for no-flap landings. A24.3.7. Stop and go landings are authorized if the Accelerate-Stop Distance is less than 80% of usable runway available. Stop-and-go landings will not be accomplished unless a minimum of 2400 RVR, or ½ SM mile (if RVR is unavailable) and useable runway length is not less than 80% of Accelerate-Stop distance. A24.3.8. Touch-and-Go Landings are authorized when ceiling and visibility range are better than 300 and ¾. A24.3.9. Aircraft Loading/Cargo Handling. Ensure a weight and balance computation is accomplished prior to each flight. Use of spreadsheet products is acceptable, provided all weights and moments are properly accounted for by flight station. A24.3.10. Taxi. All aircraft doors will be closed during taxi operations. A24.3.11. Flap Setting. Takeoff flap setting will be 15 degrees. Takeoff flap setting of 30 degrees is permissible, provided the procedure is briefed by the pilot. A24.3.12. Oxygen Requirements. Oxygen will be used as prescribed in AFI 11-202V3 or the flight manual, whichever is more restrictive. A24.3.13. Communications. A24.3.13.1. Sterile Cockpit. Limit conversation to that essential for crew coordination and mission accomplishment during taxi, takeoff, approach, landing, and any flight below 10,000 feet MSL (except cruise). A24.3.13.2. Aircraft Interphone. Primary crewmembers will monitor interphone during critical phases of flight. Crewmembers will advise the aircraft commander prior to checking off interphone. A24.3.13.3. Command Radios.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

297

A24.3.13.3.1. The pilot not flying the aircraft normally makes all air traffic control (ATC) radio calls. During periods of high tasking it is acceptable for the pilot flying the aircraft to assume ATC radio duties. A24.3.13.3.2. The pilot operating the radios will announce which radio is primary, and will inform the crew when the primary radio changes. A24.3.13.3.3. One pilot will record and acknowledge all ATC clearances. Another crewmember should monitor the read back and ensure compliance. A24.3.13.3.4. Both pilots will monitor UHF guard (or VHF guard when appropriate) regardless of primary radio. A24.3.14. Functional Check Flights. For initial takeoff weather minimums during FCF/ACF operations, PC-12 aircrews will use the fighter, attack, trainer, and U-2 guidance regarding weather found in Table 3.1. A24.4. Instrument Procedures. A24.4.1. The U-28/PC-12 is approach category B. The pilot may fly circling approaches at higher speeds raising the circling minimums to the category for the speed to be flown. The PF is responsible for briefing speeds and flying the approach according to the correct minimums. A24.4.2. During night or marginal weather, fly a precision approach, if available. If a PAR or ILS is not available, fly any available approved instrument approach. On training and evaluation flights, or flights at familiar airfields, pilots may fly non-precision approaches or VFR patterns to accomplish required training or evaluation requirements. A24.5. Operating Procedures and Restrictions. A24.5.1. Maximum Gross Weights. Operating weights will be in accordance with the flight manual (and supplements) weight, altitude, and temperature limits. A24.5.2. Flight Duty Period. Observe restrictions and guidance of AFI 11-202V3 and AFMC Sup 1 for transport type aircraft. In addition to the restrictions for FDP in AFI 11202V3, limit crew duty day to 12 hours with an inoperative autopilot even if a second qualified U-28/PC-12 pilot is available. If the autopilot fails after departure, continue to the next scheduled stop and then comply with the 12-hour duty day limitation. A24.5.3. Survival/Aircrew Flight Equipment Requirements. A24.5.3.1. On missions carrying passengers, ensure oxygen masks are available for all occupants regardless of planned flight altitude. A24.5.3.2. A minimum One first aid kit should be onboard the aircraft at all times. A24.5.4. Air Work A24.5.4.1. Descent. Prior to descent into unfamiliar areas, appropriate terrain charts (Operational Navigation Chart (ONC), Sectional Aeronautical Chart, Tactical Pilotage Chart (TPC), or Joint Operations Graphic (JOG)) should be reviewed to increase aircrew situational awareness of obstructions. Primary crewmembers will not be involved in duties other than aircraft operations, descent and approach monitoring, and required checklist items from the initial descent point to landing.

298

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A24.5.4.2. Unusual attitudes, stalls, steep turns, and flight at minimum control airspeed will be accomplished clear of clouds and at or above 5,000 feet AGL. A24.5.4.3. Steep turns will be limited to 60 degrees of bank during level flight in day, VMC; otherwise, bank is limited to 45 degrees. Review stall speeds before accomplishing. A24.5.4.4. Traffic Pattern Stall Series requires day VMC at a minimum of 5000 feet AGL or 5000 feet above cloud deck. A24.5.5. Practice/Simulated Emergencies. A24.5.5.1. Practice/simulated emergencies will not be accomplished with passengers onboard. Emergency procedures, which require placing switches in other than their normal positions or placing the aircraft in an abnormal configuration, may only be accomplished during training, evaluation, or currency flights when an instructor or flight examiner is in one of the pilot seats. Instructor pilot candidates who occupy a pilot seat and are under the supervision of a flight examiner pilot (not in a pilot seat) may practice simulated emergency procedures during initial or re-qualification upgrade evaluations. Preface all simulated emergencies with the word “simulated” and terminate simulated emergencies when an actual emergency arises. A24.5.5.2. Simulated engine-out. Simulated engine-out maneuvers will only be accomplished near a suitable landing area. A24.5.5.3. Simulated Forced Landings. Simulated forced landings outside the airfield environment due to simulated engine malfunction/failure and other emergencies will only be accomplished in VMC under VFR. The IP will initiate the simulated emergency to practice a forced landing only in an area previously studied by the IP for hazards and obstacles. The IP will terminate the simulated forced landing and direct a go-around no lower than 100 feet AGL. A24.5.5.4. Practice engine shut-downs will not be accomplished. A24.5.6. Aircraft Equipment A24.5.6.1. A fully mission capable aircraft is the ultimate objective of the maintenance effort. The final responsibility regarding equipment required for a mission rests with the aircraft commander. If one aircraft commander accepts an aircraft to operate a mission or mission segment without an item or system, this acceptance does not commit that aircraft commander, or a different aircraft commander, to subsequent operations with the same item or system inoperative. When the aircraft commander considers an item essential, designate the component mission essential (ME) on the AFTO Form 781 (or user equivalent), and the item will be repaired or replaced prior to departure. A24.5.6.2. Engine performance, aircraft attitude, vertical velocity indications, altitude, airspeed, and heading instruments should be operative in both pilot positions. For instruments with both analog and digital displays, as a minimum the analog portion must be operational.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

299 Attachment 25

RQ-4 OPERATING PROCEDURES A25.1. General Information. This attachment, in conjunction with other governing directives, outlines procedures for operation of the RQ-4 aircraft under most circumstances. AF and contractor aircrews and all management levels concerned with operation of all RQ-4 aircraft must comply with the outlined requirements and consult AFMC/A3V for waivers to this attachment. Operations or procedures not specifically addressed may be accomplished if they enhance safe, effective mission accomplishment. A25.1.1. Phase Manuals. Phase manuals are "how to" documents that expand on basic procedures in flight manuals and applicable USAF instructions. Training units may develop these manuals from procedures contained in relevant documents to enhance volume and provide student crewmembers with explanatory study material. Phase manuals will not be less restrictive than flight manuals and applicable USAF instructions. Operational units may use phase manuals to augment mission qualification and continuation training. A25.1.2. Crew. The crew is defined as personnel responsible for safe operation of the RQ-4 aircraft. For the RQ-4, the term pilot refers to a pilot in the LRE or MCE or to the Mission Commander (MC). A25.1.2.1. Minimum Crew: Common Ground Station (CGS): Pilot (MCE/LRE/MC) A25.1.2.2. The MC is responsible for the smooth conduct of the mission including air vehicle routing, collection objectives, and crew duties. Though not always directly controlling the aircraft, the MC is the Pilot In Command (PIC) with the authority and responsibilities outlined in AFI 11-202V3. The MC is the final authority on mission and flight issues. The MC should maximize the mission objectives while maintaining safety of flight. A25.1.2.2.1. For all ground and flight operations, at least one pilot will occupy the controlling shelter at all times. Normally, two pilots will be scheduled for each shift of a long mission allowing each to take breaks. A25.1.2.3. The SO is responsible for mission collection planning and management. The SO is responsible for monitoring image quality, controlling the automatic or manual imagery dissemination, and assisting the pilot as required with checklists and available crew aids. A25.1.2.4. The Hawkeye is responsible for executing the pilot’s aircraft exterior inspection; verifying the aircraft is properly configured for each phase of ground movement, takeoff, and landing; visually clearing appropriate taxiways and runway areas prior to and during taxi, takeoff, and landing operations; alerting the PIC of any required corrective action; and maintaining constant communications with the PIC in order to maintain safe ground operations prior to launch and after landing until engine shut down and ground safety pin insertion. A25.2. Mission Planning. A25.2.1. Responsibilities.

300

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A25.2.1.1. Mission Commanders (MC). The MC is responsible for mission planning and briefing. Mission planning and mission briefing are two separate activities. The MCs and mission planners will jointly review mission plans to ensure mission effectiveness and safety if a mission planner is available. (mission planner may not be on-site at FOLs). A25.2.1.2. Commanders will ensure currency of all mission planning materials and compliance with command guidance. Squadron and Forward Operating Location operations officers will schedule adequate mission planning time prior to flight. A25.2.1.3. Crewmembers other than the crew flying the mission may accomplish mission planning. If operationally necessary, mission elements and events may be modified the day of the flight or while the RQ-4 is airborne as long as changes do not compromise flight safety. The MC will ensure all crewmembers acknowledge any changes. A25.2.1.4. Complete sufficient mission planning to ensure safe mission accomplishment. Areas covered will include, at a minimum, fuel requirements, takeoff and landing data (when applicable), mission objectives, threat study (when applicable), departure/arrival procedures including thorough contingency route planning, communication plan, and collection plan. The use of RQ-4 certified departures and arrivals ensure safe margins for varying conditions including winds, wet runway, aircraft weight, Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) tolerances, etc. This does not relieve the MC of ensuring a safe mission plan for current conditions. Any additional risks must be briefed and elevated to the appropriate authority for approval if required. A25.2.2. Mission Materials. A25.2.2.1. Mission Plan. The mission plan is created entirely in AFMSS or JMPS, consisting of Navigation route, collection plan, communications plan, and other required files. A25.2.2.2. Mission Materials. AFMSS and JMPS systems produce products to aid the crew in mission monitoring. Products may include electronic or paper copies of flight plan, sensor plan, action points, screen capture charts showing the route in various scales, etc. Units will standardize the mission materials package to allow for maximum situational awareness and flexibility to the pilot and cover all possible contingencies. A copy of the Flight Operators Manual and associated directives will be available in each ground shelter. A25.2.3. Briefing/Debriefing. A25.2.3.1. Briefing Guides. Briefing guides provide the briefer with a reference list of items that may apply to particular missions. The briefer should cover only mission essential information. Those items understood by all participants may be briefed as "standard.” Reference 452 FLTS OI 11-1RQ for squadron specific briefing guides. A25.2.3.2. Mission Brief (or T-1 Brief). The MC will brief all crew members to ensure safe and effective mission accomplishment. Use the following procedures for all mission briefings: A25.2.3.2.1. All crewmembers scheduled to support the mission will attend the briefing. Students in combined Initial Qualification Training (IQT)/Mission

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

301

Qualification Training (MQT) and crewmembers who are logging individual events for currency do not need to attend the mission briefing provided they are under the supervision of an instructor who attended the briefing; however, they must receive a changeover brief in their respective crew position before participating in the flight. Other crewmembers who did not attend a mission briefing must obtain Squadron Operations Officer (SQ/DO) approval prior to participating in a flight. The pilot in command or MC will ensure crewmembers participating in a flight under SQ/DO approval are adequately briefed prior to assuming crew duties. A25.2.3.2.2. Brief any manual pilot interventions in the case of contingencies not autonomously handled by the AV (if applicable). A25.2.3.2.3. Mission elements and events may be modified and briefed while the RQ-4 is airborne as long as changes do not compromise flight safety. Do not fly unbriefed missions and/or events. The pilot or MC will ensure all crewmembers acknowledge all changes. A25.2.3.2.4. Changeover Briefs. Individual crewmembers will complete a changeover brief for each crew position changeover. A25.2.3.2.5. Mission Debrief. After changeover or landing, debrief all missions as a crew. A25.3. Common Mission Guidance. A25.3.1. Common Ground Station (CGS). A25.3.1.1. The MC is the approval authority for visitor seating in the CGS. Only qualified pilots or students in a formal course of training and under instructor supervision may fly the RQ-4. A25.3.1.2. Ensure the RQ-4 is not in a critical phase of flight before entering the CGS. While the RQ-4 is airborne, all personnel will limit extraneous conversations. A25.3.1.3. Place no items (checklists, charts, etc.) on the keyboards or on the mouse at any time during ground or flight operations. A25.3.1.4. The MC will ensure the CGS is clean and orderly after a mission. All crewmembers are responsible for personal and professional items prior to departing the CGS. A25.3.1.5. The MC will ensure removal of all classified material from the CGS upon mission completion. A25.3.1.6. Smoking is prohibited in or within 50 feet of the CGS. A25.3.1.7. Crewmembers will take appropriate unclassified logs to mission debrief. A25.3.1.8. Crewmembers will operate in the CGS only those electronic items necessary for flight and/or mission operations. A25.3.2. Communications. Crewmembers will use the following crew positions for intercom identification and call up: “MC,” “pilot,” “SO,” “CX,” and “QC” for the shelter. Call sign for the Vehicle Test Controller (VTC) is “VTC.” Do not discuss classified information when making radio transmissions.

302

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A25.3.2.1. Ground Communications. A25.3.2.1.1. The pilot and ground crew will maintain good communication during all ground checks and anytime the aircraft's engine is operating on the ground. A25.3.2.1.2. VTC operator will maintain communication with the pilot as per checklist procedures A25.3.2.2. In-flight Communications. A25.3.2.2.1. Limit intercom communications to flight critical information from start of “Before Starting Engine” checklist until completion of “After Takeoff and Climb” checklist and from initiation of “Descent and Landing” checklist until completion of “Shutdown” checklist. During critical phases of flight, keep a sterile environment consistent with good CRM procedures. Critical phases of flight are taxi, takeoff and departure up to safe altitude, arrival and landing, taxi back, shutdown, and any other time determined by the pilot in command. A25.3.2.2.2. Limit telephone calls to the CGS to time-critical flight related items. A25.3.2.2.3. Pilots flying the aircraft should not use the telephone during a critical phase of flight unless absolutely necessary for safe operations. A25.3.2.2.4. All crewmembers will monitor the intercom to the maximum extent possible and advise the pilot prior to going off intercom and will announce when back on intercom. A25.3.3. Checklists. Each pilot will have and refer to appropriate checklists during flight operations to ensure accomplishing required actions. The PIC will ensure accomplishment of all checklist items and when completed state applicable “Checklist Complete." A25.3.4. Engine Start/Taxi. A25.3.4.1. All engine starts require a fireguard. A25.3.4.2. VTC operator starts the engine on pilot’s command and announces each state of the start process (engine parameters, BIT checks, etc.). Ground Chase (“Hawkeye”) will monitor engine start and maintain area control for the pilot. A25.3.4.3. The pilot taxiing the aircraft should designate only one ‘in-control’ link. For local operations, two ‘in-control’ links may be utilized to ensure C2 coverage and mitigate undesired taxi interruptions provided it is briefed and the pilot not in control also executes Stop Taxi commands as required. A25.3.4.4. Hawkeye will maintain position to accurately assess the position of the aircraft while taxi operations are performed. He will inform the pilot of any deviations in crosstrack, heading, and speed. The pilot will inform Hawkeye of impending turns, speed changes, stops, etc., as required. A25.3.5. Takeoff. A25.3.5.1. Do not taxi and/or takeoff over a raised cable or into a raised webbing-type barrier. Pilots may takeoff beyond or between raised cables provided there is 8000 ft. of runway beyond or between barriers.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

303

A25.3.5.2. During departure/arrival pilots will monitor the aircraft performance and advise Air Traffic Control of any deviations from planned route or Air Traffic Control clearance. A25.3.5.3. Any crewmember or ground crew member noting a safety-of-flight malfunction will alert the pilot and give a brief description of the problem. The pilot will make the decision to continue or abort. A25.3.6. Approach/Landing. A25.3.6.1. The pilot or MC will pre-coordinate the handoff to the LRE in the mission briefing. Any change to handoff procedures will be briefed during the mission in a noncritical phase of flight. Positive exchange of aircraft control is mandatory. A25.3.6.2. All pilots will monitor the approach and landing and backup the PIC as necessary. All available links should be maintained to limit loss of communications (Contingency 1). Good CRM procedures are essential. A25.4. Instrument Procedures. A25.4.1. Approach Category. The RQ-4 is an approach category C aircraft. A25.4.2. Weather Minimums. A25.4.2.1. The weather (TEMPO or prevailing) for RQ-4 operations at any airfield must be at or above a ceiling and visibility of 1000 feet and 2 miles. The weather for RQ-4 operations must be at or above these minimums at the time of takeoff and be forecast for the ETA +/- 2 hours. If the arrival window forecast weather degrades below 1000 feet and 2 miles during the mission, RQ-4 pilots will return aircraft to their operating base with sufficient fuel to hold for a minimum of 2 hours (if required) then penetrate and land with normal recovery fuel. If the weather remains below landing minimums (1000/2), the pilot will recover the aircraft to the designated alternate landing surface unless landing below weather minimums is approved by the OG/CC. The OG/CC may approve landing below weather minimums down to and including zero feet ceiling and zero visibility conditions. A25.4.2.2. The Global Hawk aircraft autonomously executes the planned approach and landing without any requirement for visual reference with the runway. For Global Hawk approaches, visibility minimums are observed to allow Hawkeye (SOF), or the pilot using the aircraft’s nose camera, to visually verify that the aircraft is on runway centerline during the final stages of the approach. A25.4.3. Self Contained Approach Planning. All Global Hawk approaches are self contained. Approaches are the product of the GH Mission Planning System, and are built using predetermined slopes appropriate for either normal or engine out (emergency) operations. All approaches are constructed in compliance with local ATC restrictions and host nation agreements. SCA operations are routine to every flight, and as such, no requests are submitted through HQ or other agencies for approval. A25.4.4. Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA). Approaches planned on the mission planning system emulate precision approaches, and as such do not include MDAs.

304

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A25.4.5. SCA Construction. Use current DAFIF sources for all topographical, point obstruction, and airfield information (DAFIF and Chart Updates provided each 28 days by NGIA). NAVAIDs are not used in constructing the approach. A25.4.6. Enroute Altitudes. Descent to the first point on a Global Hawk approach is generally from a cruising altitude near FL 600, though lower enroute descents may be appropriate in some instances. The last enroute point is assigned an attribute which associates it with the IAF for the desired approach. Descents are normally spirals performed at the IAF from the operating altitude. A25.4.7. Obstacle Clearance: Use the published FLIP minimum and emergency safe altitudes for the Inner Terrain Clearance Elevation (ITCE) and Outer Terrain Clearance Elevation (OTCE) respectively. ITCEs and OTCEs interact with the navigation software to ensure that the aircraft remains above those altitudes out to the appropriate distances (25 and 100 NM). A25.4.8. Global Hawk approaches fall into three categories, Standard, Missed, and Minimal, and are constructed as described in the next three paragraphs. An approach to any given runway contains at least two of these three approaches. A25.4.8.1. Standard Approaches are constructed as depicted in Figure A25.1. Standard approach glide slope is determined by the planning system based on aircraft performance factors at the estimated gross weight, winds, aircraft configuration and airspeed.

Figure A25.1. RQ-4 Standard Instrument Approach Construction Procedure (typical).

A25.4.8.2. Minimal Approaches are straight-in approaches which begin ten miles from the end of the runway. They are provided with the planning system as a means of quickly

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

305

building an approach to a runway or ditch point. Glideslope values are the same as in a standard approach. A25.4.8.3. Missed approaches are intended to bring the aircraft around to a point at which the approach may be re-attempted. The last point of the missed approach is associated with the first point of the next approach, which may be the same as the original standard approach, or a shorter, modified standard approach. Values for distances between optional waypoints may be selected and filled in by the planner, or not used. Altitudes are set into the system by the planner. A25.4.9. Glideslope Planning. A25.4.9.1. Approaches are typically built using 4.5 degrees, and 5.25 for emergency/engine-out operations. Terrain clearance is included in the AFMSS/JMPS function with the appropriate Digitized Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) and vertical obstruction files loaded. A25.5. Operating Procedures and Restrictions. A25.5.1. Minimum Equipment. Two communications links are required for flight operations. Where applicable certifications (e.g. FAA COA) and/or airspace regulations allow, the OG/CC may approve single link operations for Higher Headquarters (HHQ) directed missions and trans-oceanic transit. If INMARSAT is the only communications link available, the pilot should keep the air vehicle on a mission-planned track or designated orbit. A25.5.1.1. Both the MCE and LRE will have an active C2 link for terminal area flight operations. In addition, the RQ-4 will not exit restricted airspace without two good command and control links. A25.5.1.2. The OG/CC is the approval authority for approach and landing with a single C2 link. A25.5.2. Authorized Airfields. The following airfields are approved for use by GV CTF UAS in accordance with AFI 11-202V3, paragraph 4.10: Edwards AFB, CA; Beale AFB, CA; Grand Forks AFB, ND, Patuxent River NAS, MD. A25.5.3. Weather Avoidance. Thunderstorm restrictions and avoidance shall be IAW AFI 11-2RQ-4 Volume 3, paragraph 4.3, RQ-4 Operations Procedures.

306

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 Attachment 26 T-6 OPERATING PROCEDURES

A26.1. General Information. This attachment, in conjunction with other governing directives, outlines procedures for operation of the T-6 aircraft under most circumstances. AFMC aircrews and all management levels concerned with operation of all T-6 aircraft must comply with the outlined requirements and consult AFMC/A3V for waivers to this attachment. Operations or procedures not specifically addressed may be accomplished if they enhance safe, effective mission accomplishment. A26.2. Mission Planning. Complete takeoff and landing data (TOLD) for all flights. Tab data derived from TO-1T-6A-1 and TO-1T-6A-1CL-1 approved performance charts is acceptable and may be utilized when available. If utilized, mission planning/TOLD software will comply with paragraph 2.3 of this instruction. A26.2.1. Runway Requirements. Minimum runway length and width for T-6 operations is 4,000 feet long by 75 feet wide. An intersection takeoff must provide 4,000 feet of usable runway. T-6 operations require 4,000 feet between arresting cables located on or above the runway surface. A26.2.2. Weather Requirements. In addition to the weather requirements listed in Table 3.1, during all engine-related and propeller-related check flight sorties, the minimum weather shall allow a line of sight to a suitable airfield within engine-out glide range. A26.2.3. Crosswind Limitations: A26.2.3.1. Icy runway—5 knots. A26.2.3.2. Standing water—5 knots. A26.2.3.3. Standing water due to patchy standing water (ponding) (as determined by the [supervisor of flying - SOF])—10 knots. A26.2.3.4. Wet runway—10 knots. A26.2.3.5. Formation wing takeoffs and landings—15 knots. A26.2.3.6. Touch-and-go landings—20 knots. A26.2.3.7. Initial takeoffs and full-stop landings on a dry runway—25 knots. A26.2.4. Operating in High Wind or Sea States. T-6 flying operations will be restricted when high winds or sea states would be hazardous to aircrew members in ejection situations. Local flights are not permitted over land when steady state surface winds (forecast or actual) in operating areas exceed 35 knots. Over-water flights will not be permitted when forecast or actual wave heights exceed 10 feet or surface winds exceed 25 knots in training or operating areas. A26.3. Operating Procedures and Restrictions. A26.3.1. General Requirements and Restrictions.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

307

A26.3.1.1. Unit-Developed Checklists and Local Pilot Aids. Unit-developed checklists may be used in lieu of TO 1T-6A-1CL-1, Pilot’s Abbreviated Flight Crew Checklist, if they contain, as a minimum, all items (verbatim and in order) listed in the checklist. A26.3.1.2. Required Personal Equipment. In addition to equipment specified in AFI 11-202V3, the following requirements apply: A26.3.1.2.1. Due to the nature of the T-6 egress system, each crewmember will wear a visor during all phases of flight, and should be down prior to lowering the canopy. A26.3.1.2.2. A clear visor will be worn at night or when needed for restricted visibility. A26.3.2. Instrument Procedures. A26.3.2.1. Instrument Approach Category. The T-6 is approach category B. A26.3.2.2. Global Positioning System (GPS): A26.3.2.2.1. The T-6A KLN 900 GPS is FAA Technical Standard Order (TSO) C129a, Airborne Supplemental Navigation Equipment Using the Global Positioning System (GPS), certified for enroute area navigation (RNAV) GPS approaches down to lateral navigation (LNAV) MDA minimums. A26.3.2.2.2. The T-6A KLN 900 GPS is FAA Advisory Circular (AC) 90-100A, U. S. Terminal and En Route Area Navigation (RNAV) Operations, certified for RNAV 2 (T and Q routes) procedures. It is not possible to retrieve entire RNAV T and Q routes from the data base of the KLN 900; however, extracting individual named fixes from the database is permitted under FAA AC 90-100A, provided all fixes along the published route to be flown are inserted. Manual entry of waypoints using latitude and/or longitude or place and/or bearing is not permitted. A26.3.2.2.3. The T-6A KLN 900 GPS meets or provides an equivalent level of safety and performance mandated by FAA AC 90-100A for RNAV 1 (standard instrument departures [SID], standard terminal arrivals [STAR], departure procedures [DP]) and is operationally approved to perform these operations with the following restrictions. A26.3.2.2.4. If flying RNAV SIDs, DPs, STARs, T or Q routes, aircrew will check predictive receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) for their route of flight during preflight planning at http://www.raimprediction.net or an approved alternate site to ensure GPS satellite coverage. The T-6A KLN 900 GPS does not have a predictive RAIM capability for these operations. Aircrew should utilize the baroaided tabs when utilizing these sites. A26.3.2.2.5. When flying an RNAV SID, DP or STAR the procedure must be retrieved by procedure name from the onboard navigation database in its entirety and conform to the charted procedure. If a SID, DP, or STAR contains a course to fix leg, course to altitude leg, or a fix to manual termination leg, utilization of the omnibearing select (OBS) function and manual selection of the course may be necessary. While this does not meet the requirement for automation under FAA AC 90-100A and FAA AC 90-105, Approval Guidance for RNP Operations and Barometric Vertical Navigation in the U.S. National Airspace System, aircrew with

308

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 proper MAJCOM directed training are authorized under AFI 11-202V3, to perform these operations. Radius to fix legs will not be flown in the T-6A. A26.3.2.2.6. When flying RNAV SIDs or DPs aircrew will have an RNAV GPS approach loaded for the airfield that they are departing. This will ensure proper RAIM sensitivity within 30 nautical miles (NM) of the departure airfield and that the course deviation index (CDI) is in the proper scale. For SIDs and DPs extending beyond 30 NM, aircrew will select a CDI scale of 1nm from the Mode page for the remainder of the SID or DP. Note: While it is possible for aircrew to select a desired CDI scale for the KLN 900, it is not possible to select the RAIM sensitivity. Improper RAIM sensitivity beyond 30 NM is permitted under FAA AC 90-100A. A26.3.2.2.7. When flying RNAV STARs aircrew will have an RNAV GPS approach or an approach labeled “or GPS” loaded for their destination to ensure proper RAIM and CDI sensitivity within 30 NM of their destination. If commencing an RNAV STAR outside of 30 NM, aircrew will change the CDI sensitivity to 1 NM from the Mode page. Improper RAIM sensitivity beyond 30 NM is permitted under FAA AC 90-100A. A26.3.2.2.8. When flying conventional SIDs, DPs, and STARs using GPS or RNAV, comply with guidance in AFI 11-202V3 AETC Sup. A26.3.2.2.9. The T-6A KLN 900 GPS is installed according to FAA AC 20-138A, Airworthiness Approval of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Equipment. The GPS equipment also employs step error detection according to FAA TSO C129a, which satisfies all requirements in AFI 11-202V3. This equipment is approved for en route, terminal, and nonprecision approach operations and other instrument procedures requiring a minimum required navigation performance (RNP) value of 0.3 or greater. Instrument approaches may be flown in accordance with AFI 11-202V3, and MAJCOM and local supplements down to, but not below, LNAV MDA minimums. Crews must complete MAJCOM-directed training for use of these systems down to RNP 0.3 before IFR use. Fault detection and exclusion (FDE) must be checked before using GPS as a primary source of IFR navigation. In order to meet the requirements of AFI 11-202V3, FDE must indicate “YES” before using GPS as a primary source of IFR navigation within the National Air Space System. A26.3.3. Flap Settings: A26.3.3.1. Aircrew should use TO or UP flap settings for full-stop and touch-and-go landings when the crosswind (steady state or gust) exceeds 10 knots. This is not intended to limit aircrew in the event of emergency or unusual circumstance if the landing (LDG) flap setting is appropriate. A26.3.3.2. Aircrews may use any flap setting when flying multiple touch-and-go landings. A26.3.3.3. Crosswind permitting, the LDG flap setting should be used for full-stop landings when the landing distance is greater than or equal to 80 percent of the actual field length. A26.3.4. Out-of-Control Flight (OCF) Recoveries:

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

309

A26.3.4.1. When conducting OCF recoveries over clouds, plan to complete all OCF recoveries (to include dive recoveries) at least 3,000 feet above the clouds. A26.3.4.2. To avoid entering IMC during a check flight sortie where OCF and/or spin recoveries are required, a minimum of 10,000 feet of airspace clear of clouds should exist below OCF or spin entry altitude. A26.3.5. Minimum Altitudes. A26.3.5.1. Perform all parts of aerobatic maneuvers, unusual attitudes, abnormal flight recoveries, practice lost wingman, extended trail, stalls, and slow flight only in specialuse airspace and above 6,000 feet AGL. A26.3.5.2. The minimum altitude to complete configured aircraft slips is 300 feet AGL. A26.3.6. Icing. Do not cruise in forecast or reported icing conditions. Refer to TO 1T-6X-1 for additional icing restrictions. A26.3.7. Formation. A26.3.7.1. Maximum Size. The maximum flight formation size is four aircraft. A26.3.7.2. Takeoff: A26.3.7.2.1. Two-ship formation wing takeoffs require a minimum of 150 feet of runway width. A26.3.7.2.2. Minimum wingtip distance will be 20 feet for wing takeoffs. A26.3.7.2.3. For wing takeoffs, the ceiling and visibility must be greater than or equal to circling minimums, or 500 feet and 1 1/2 miles, whichever is higher. A26.3.7.2.4. For interval takeoffs and subsequent rejoins under the weather, the ceiling and visibility must be greater than or equal to 1,500 feet and 3 miles. A26.3.7.2.5. Four-ship echelon lineup requires a runway greater than or equal to 300 feet wide. A26.3.7.2.6. Four-ship interval lineup requires 500 feet of element spacing on runways less than 200 feet wide. A26.3.7.3. En route. Four-ship formations will not cruise in IMC, but may climb or descend through IMC. A26.3.7.4. Approach and Landing: A26.3.7.4.1. Planned formation low approaches will be initiated no lower than 200 feet AGL so as to comply with the minimum altitude of 100 feet AGL as specified in paragraph 3.3.5.10. A26.3.7.4.2. Formation wing landings require a minimum of 150 feet of runway width. A26.3.7.4.3. Minimum wingtip distance will be 20 feet for wing landings. A26.3.7.4.4. For formation approaches and landings, the ceiling and visibility must be greater than or equal to 500 feet and 1 1/2 miles or approach minimums, whichever is higher.

310

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A26.3.8. Emergency Landing Patterns (ELP): A26.3.8.1. When flying practice emergency landing patterns, maintain proper visual flight rules (VFR) cloud clearances. Additionally, the ELPs in a tower-controlled pattern require 500 feet below clouds and 3 miles visibility according to Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Order 7610.4J Ch 3, Special Military Operations. A26.3.8.2. When conducted in controlled airspace, ELPs must be coordinated with the ATC agencies responsible for the airspace the ELP will transit. A26.3.9. AOA Patterns. When flying AOA patterns, the following restrictions apply: A26.3.9.1. AOA patterns will not be flown to AOA landings. Aircrews will fly AOA patterns to a normal roundout and flared touchdown. A26.3.9.2. AOA patterns will not be flown when the tower is reporting wind gusts. A26.3.9.3. AOA patterns may be flown with all flap settings.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

311 Attachment 27

T-38 OPERATING PROCEDURES A27.1. General Information. This attachment, in conjunction with other governing directives, outlines procedures for operation of the T-38 aircraft under most circumstances. AFMC aircrews and all management levels concerned with operation of all T-38 series aircraft must comply with the outlined requirements and consult AFMC/A3V for waivers to this attachment. Operations or procedures not specifically addressed may be accomplished if they enhance safe, effective mission accomplishment. A27.2. Mission Planning. A27.2.1. Takeoff Requirements. A27.2.1.1. Compute takeoff and landing data for all flights. MAJCOM approved tab data may be used when available. Also, 558th ASCG T-38C (PMP) and T-38C (nonPMP) TOLD calculators may be used. A27.2.1.2. Operations without a BAK-15. Use Refusal Speed (RS) - Both Engines Operating (RS-BEO) as Go/No-Go speed when Decision Speed (DS) is less than RSBEO. A27.2.1.2.1. When DS is greater than RS-BEO, the OG/CC (or designated representative) approval is required. Use Refusal Speed Engine Failure (RS-EF) as the Go/No-Go speed. (Note: Aborts for other than engine failure (e.g., generator lights, fire lights, etc.) initiated between RS-BEO and RS-EF may result in overrunning the runway surface.) A27.2.1.2.2. When DS is greater than RS-EF takeoffs are not authorized. A27.2.1.3. Operations with a BAK-15. Use Refusal Speed - Engine Failure (RS-EF) as Go/No-Go speed when DS is less than or equal to RS-EF. (Note: Aborts for other than engine failure (e.g., generator lights, fire lights, etc.) initiated between RS-BEO and RSEF may result in barrier engagement.) A27.2.1.3.1. When DS is greater than RS-EF and less than Takeoff Speed (TOS), takeoffs are allowed with OG/CC (or designated representative) approval. Use TOS as Go/No-Go speed with a remotely controlled BAK-15. With a non-remotely controlled BAK-15 in the raised position use Single Engine Takeoff Speed (SETOS) as Go/No-Go speed. A27.2.1.3.2. When DS is greater than or equal to TOS, or DS & SETOS cannot be validated, takeoffs are not authorized unless specific procedures for operational requirements are developed and approved by the OG/CC. (Note: For some extreme combinations of temperature and pressure altitude, the performance charts will not yield a valid DS or SETOS. This occurs on the DS chart where the curves on the gross weight plot do not extend far enough upwards and on the SETOS chart where the gross weight plot is labeled "SINGLE ENGINE TAKEOFFS NOT POSSIBLE.") A27.3. Common Mission Guidance. A27.3.1. General Requirements and Restrictions.

312

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A27.3.1.1. Pilots must take into consideration deviations from standard day temperatures at altitude when planning flights above FL300. The engine compressor stall/flameout susceptibility area chart will be consulted and flight will not be planned into the black striped area. A27.3.2. Ground/Taxi Operations. A27.3.2.1. Cold Weather Start. A27.3.2.1.1. In the event of T-38C EED oil pressure indicator erroneously latching red immediately after a battery start in cold weather (oil pressure in excess of 55 psi), pilots are authorized to continue operating engines until oil pressure returns to within ops limits and then clear the latched oil pressure indication by, with both engines at IDLE, monitoring engine operation via the EED Repeater in the MFD while performing EED IBIT as detailed in the aircraft flight manual. A27.3.3. Air-to-Air Operations. A27.3.3.1. Maneuvering Limitations. A27.3.3.1.1. Minimum airspeed during offensive or defensive air-to-air maneuvering below 5,000 ft. AGL is 350 KIAS. A27.3.3.1.2. Minimum maneuvering airspeed during ACBT is 150 KIAS. A27.3.4. Air-to-Surface. A27.3.4.1. Off-Range Attacks. With expendable ordnance loaded on the aircraft, simulated weapons employment off range is permitted. However, the master arm must remain safe, and the pickle button or trigger will not be used. A27.3.4.2. Popup Attacks. Abort pop-up attacks if airspeed decreases below 300 KIAS. A27.3.4.3. Night Weapons Delivery and Range Operations. Night weapons delivery and range operations are prohibited. A27.3.5. Low-level A27.3.5.1. The minimum airspeed on low-level navigation routes is 300 KIAS. A27.3.5.2. Low-level missions will be flown no lower than 500 feet AGL unless specified in an approved test plan or approved by the OG/CC, and the aircrew is LASDT qualified and current.

A27.4. Instrument Procedures. A27.4.1. The T-38C is approach category E. A27.5. Operating Procedures and Restrictions. A27.5.1. Icing Restrictions. Do not cruise in forecast or reported icing conditions. Climbs or descents through forecast icing conditions more severe than light rime are prohibited. A27.5.2. Maneuvering Parameters. A27.5.2.1. On other than FCF missions, enter T-38 stalls and slow flight below 20,000 feet MSL and terminate above 8,000 feet AGL.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

313

A27.5.2.2. Aerobatic Maneuvers. A27.5.2.2.1. Aircraft will not descend below 5,000 feet AGL during any portion of aerobatic maneuvering. Aerobatic flight must be performed in special use airspace. A27.5.2.2.2. Do not extend the flaps in an attempt to improve aircraft performance. A27.5.2.2.3. Use T-38 aerobatic maneuver guidelines in Table A27.1. Table A27.1. T-38 Aerobatic Maneuvers. A MANEUVER 1 Lazy-8 2 Chandelle 3 Aileron Roll 4 Barrel Roll 5 Split-S/Sliceback 6 Cloverleaf 7 Cuban 8, Loop, or Immelmann 8 Pitch Back

B ENTRY 300 to 400 KIAS 350 to 400 KIAS 150 KIAS minimum 300 to 500 KIAS 200 to 300 KIAS 400 KIAS minimum 450 to 500 KIAS 350 KIAS 300 to 500 KIAS

C POWER SETTING 90% RPM minimum 90% RPM minimum As required 90% RPM minimum As required 90% RPM minimum 500C EGT minimum AB 500C EGT minimum

D REMARKS

Enter above 15,000 feet AGL

314

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 Attachment 28 U-2 OPERATING PROCEDURES

A28.1. General Information. This attachment, in conjunction with other governing directives, outlines procedures for operation of the U-2 aircraft under most circumstances. AF and contractor aircrews and all management levels concerned with operation of all U-2 aircraft must comply with the outlined requirements and consult AFMC/A3V for waivers to this attachment. Operations or procedures not specifically addressed may be accomplished if they enhance safe, effective mission accomplishment. A28.2. Mission Planning. A28.2.1. Flight Logs. A28.2.1.1. Flight logs generated using the approved mission planning software “Green Card” are authorized. A28.2.2. Minimum Oxygen Requirements. A28.2.2.1. T.O. U-2S-1 minimum oxygen requirements may be waived by the OG/CC for a short ferry flight or during mission unique situations. This waiver will be documented and attached to the flight mission paperwork. A28.3. Common Mission Guidance. A28.3.1. Specific Maneuvers. A28.3.1.1. Approach and Landings. Conduct multiple patterns, touch and go landings, and simulated emergency patterns only when a qualified instructor pilot is in the aircraft or occupying the mobile vehicle. A qualified SOF/FSS must be in the mobile and in a position to monitor the pattern and landing. (Note: An ACC qualified mobile meets the requirements of this paragraph.) A28.3.1.2. Do not intentionally perform touch and go landings or practice emergency patterns with Primary Mission Equipment (PME) on board. A28.3.1.3. All AFMC and Contractor U-2 pilots are authorized to perform SFOs to a touch and go or full stop. A28.3.1.4. All AFMC and Contractor U-2 pilots are authorized to perform touch and go landings at any military airfield in the local training area, to include Beale AFB, consistent with the above mobile requirement. A28.3.2. Supervisory Requirements. A28.3.2.1. A qualified SOF or Flight Safety Supervisor (FSS) will monitor all initial takeoffs and full stop landings. The control room will monitor every test sortie flown and a SOF or Flight Safety Supervisor from the mobile vehicle will monitor every take-off, approach, and recovery. Additional information about the SOF and FSS program is contained in AFLCMC Det 4 sup to AFMCI 11-201. A28.3.3. Personal GPS Units (PGUs)/Tablets.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

315

A28.3.3.1. Aircrew members will not use PGUs/Tablets for routine en-route navigation. Follow PGU/Tablet guidance in AFI 11-202V3 and the AFMC Electronic Flight Bag CONEMP. (Note: PGUs carried by U-2 pilots are used for emergency and situational awareness use only) A28.4. Instrument Procedures . A28.4.1. The U-2 is approach category B. A28.4.2. Instrument evaluations will not routinely be conducted in the U-2. A28.5. Operating Procedures and Restrictions. A28.5.1. Weather Restrictions. A28.5.1.1. Operations during high winds result in an increased risk, primarily caused by higher possibility of crosswind problems, windshear, and turbulence. The following wind limits will be used when determining go-no go weather. A28.5.1.2. Maximum forecast wind, to include gust effects, for launch is 30 knots. Once airborne, a recall should be initiated if the forecast wind (gust) exceeds 35 knots. Maximum wind for actual landing is not specified, however, consideration should be given to the crosswind component (15 knots maximum recommended), gust factors, and the aircraft tow limit of 40 knots. Note: Sorties may launch if the landing is planned for one hour prior to the effective time of the out of limit wind forecast. Planned landings one hour after the effective time are not recommended. The OG/CC may waive these wind restrictions dependent on mission priorities. A28.5.1.3. Takeoff. Maximum tail wind for initial takeoff is 10 knots. A28.5.1.4. Touch and Go's. When flying touch and go’s: the maximum crosswind component limit is 12 knots and a maximum tail wind component is 5 knots. A28.5.2. Functional Check Flight (FCF). A28.5.2.1. Initial FCF/ACF weather minimums are a 5000 foot ceiling, with 5 miles visibility. This limit may be waived, by the 412 OG/CC for USAF pilots and by AFMC/A3V for contractor pilots, to the minimums specified in chapter 3 of this instruction. Additionally, weather should allow continuous visual contact with the ground sufficient to allow a VMC recovery to either the primary airport or emergency alternates. A28.5.2.2. Subsequent ACF and FCF minimums: 3000 foot ceiling and 3 miles visibility. This limit may be waived by the OG/CC to the minimums specified in chapter 3 of this instruction. A28.5.3. Weather Minimums. A28.5.3.1. Minimum weather required for engineering support flights, if not otherwise specified, is 1500 feet and 3 miles visibility or as outlined in the test plan, whichever is more restrictive. This minimum may be waived by the OG/CC but will not deviate from the specifics of the approved test plan and safety review board recommendations. A28.5.3.2. Operational, Training and Delivery flights will follow command weather minimums.

316

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A28.5.4. Crew Rest Requirements. A28.5.4.1. Fatigue associated with flights in pressure suits and at high cabin altitudes is very insidious and accelerated by less than ideal crew rest prior to flight. The following restrictions apply to high altitude pressure suit flights: A28.5.4.2. Pressure suit flying in excess of 6.5 hours, in a 24-hour period requires 18 hours recovery time between high flight landing and any subsequent takeoff. A28.5.4.3. No more than two pressure suit flights allowed in a 12-hour period or three total sorties allowed in a 24-hour period. (A sortie includes an engine start, take off, and engine shutdown). A28.5.4.4. No more than 13 flying hours in a 48 hour period. A28.5.4.5. Maximum high altitude pressure suit sortie hours in any seven-day period is 25 hours. A28.5.4.6. Crew duty day for pressure suit flying is 10 hours. The OG/CC, GFR, operations officer, or LMAC Chief Pilot may waive this to 12 hours, with the consent of the pilot flying. Waivers to 12 hours for any night flight will be approved by the 412 OG/CC for USAF pilots and by AFMC/A3V for contractor pilots, but only under extreme circumstances. For flights requiring duty periods greater than 12 hours, MAJCOM/DO approval is required. Document all waiver action in the remarks section of the flight authorization. A28.5.5. Pressure Suit Requirements. A28.5.5.1. A full pressure suit will be worn for all high flights (flights above FL 450) and crewmembers will pre-breath 100 percent oxygen for a minimum of one hour prior to takeoff.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

317 Attachment 29

V-22 OPERATING PROCEDURES A29.1. General Information. This attachment, in conjunction with other governing directives, outlines procedures for operation of the V-22 aircraft under most circumstances. AFMC aircrews and all management levels concerned with operation of all V-22 aircraft must comply with the outlined requirements and consult AFMC/A3V for waivers to this attachment. Operations or procedures not specifically addressed may be accomplished if they enhance safe, effective mission accomplishment. A29.1.1. Unless otherwise stated in this instruction, the V-22 is considered a helicopter for the purpose of terminal area operations (takeoff, approach, and landing) or with the nacelles off the down stops and below 140 KCAS. The V-22 will be considered a fixed wing for other operations. A29.2. Mission Planning. A29.2.1. Flight Planning Systems. The primary flight/mission planning system is the Special Operations Forces Planning and Rehearsal System (SOFPARS). SOFPARS is a subset of the Air Force Mission Support System (AFMSS) that includes the Portable Flight Planning Software (PFPS) and the Joint Mission Planning System (JMPS). The core mission planning software (PFPS or JMPS) in conjunction with V-22-specific modules and hardware interfaces is known as the V-22 Mission Planning System (VMPS). A29.2.2. For flight planning purposes, fuel requirements for descent, approach, and missed approach will be no less than 1,200 pounds. A29.2.3. Weight and Balance. If the basic weight/moment of the aircraft is changed, a new DD Form 365-4, Weight and Balance Clearance Form F-Transport, will be computed. A new or corrected DD Form 365-4 need not be recomputed provided the initial takeoff gross weight (item 16) is not changed by more than 500 lbs. If the change is more than 500 lbs., the crew will modify the weight and balance using the cockpit management system (CMS). The crew will ensure CG and weight limits are not exceeded. These computations will be briefed during the crew, mission brief, or during flight, as required. A29.2.4. Weather Planning. A29.2.4.1. OG/CCs or equivalent may establish minimum weather criteria (ceiling or visibility) less than day minimums for flights during which only hovering maneuvers will be performed (i.e. hover checks, OCF, FCF). A29.2.4.2. VFR Minimums. Comply with AFI 11-202V3, weather minimums unless local weather minimums are more restrictive. In the absence of more restrictive criteria, the following minimum weather criteria (ceiling/visibility) apply during all VFR operations: A29.2.4.2.1. Day/NVG: A29.2.4.2.1.1. VTOL/CONV (≥60 nacelle): 500/2 SM. A29.2.4.2.1.2. APLN (<60 nacelle): 1,000/3 SM. A29.2.4.2.2. Night (Unaided): 1,500/3 SM.

318

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A29.2.4.3. IFR Minimums. Use category A approach minimums and comply with AFI 11-202V3 helicopter weather minimums unless local weather minimums are more restrictive. If the reported ceiling is below minimums for the approach, but the visibility value is at or above the authorized minimums before initiating an en-route descent or published approach, ensure fuel remaining is sufficient to accomplish the en-route descent, approach, missed approach, and flight to alternate with appropriate reserves. A29.2.4.4. Illumination and NVG Requirements. A29.2.4.4.1. Any training or test missions planned when the effective illumination (regardless of methodology or measurement) is forecast to be less than 10 percent, or .8 millilux, during the mission will require an additional level of Operational Risk Management (ORM). A29.2.4.4.2. The Squadron CC/DO will be made aware of the ORM assessment and risk mitigation conducted for missions planned to be flown in low illumination conditions. A29.2.5. En Route Planning. Crews should fly test missions at the highest altitude commensurate with test requirements. A29.2.6. Low-level Planning. Maps with a scale of 1:500,000 or greater detail are required for low-level operations. Maps with a scale of 1:250,000 or greater are highly desired. A29.2.6.1. Emergency Safe Altitude (ESA). ESA is an altitude that will provide positive terrain clearance in IMC during situations that require the exiting of the low-level environment. To compute ESA, add 1,000 feet (2,000 feet in mountainous terrain) to the highest obstacle or terrain feature within 10 NM of route centerline or intended flight path, rounded to the next 100- foot increment. Use of area ESAs is recommended whenever possible, however, a single ESA is sufficient when there are no significant changes in topography. A29.2.6.1.1. Failure to maintain an accurate altimeter setting during flight may cause lower than planned terrain clearances or impact with terrain when using the computed emergency safe altitude ESA/MSA. A29.2.6.2. Minimum Safe Altitude (MSA). MSA provides terrain clearance during situations that require the interruption of low-level operations. To compute MSA for each leg or leg segment, add 500 feet (or the planned set clearance for TF operations) to the elevation of the highest terrain or obstacle within 3 NM of route centerline or the planned flight path, and round up to the next 100-foot increment. A29.2.6.2.1. Failure to maintain an accurate altimeter setting during flight may cause lower than planned terrain clearances or impact with terrain when using the computed emergency safe altitude ESA/MSA. A29.2.6.3. Aeronautical Chart Preparation. Pilots will carry a chart on all flights and ensure all charts used for flight have the most current hazards posted. Aircrew will also ensure appropriate civil airspace is annotated along their route of flight. A29.2.6.4. Route Surveys. Prior to any low-level operations in non-surveyed areas, accomplish a survey of the route or area as follows:

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

319

A29.2.6.4.1. Conduct an extensive map study of the selected routes and areas. Annotate all manmade obstacles over 50 feet AGL (or the lowest altitude to be flown), except when below the tree line. Additionally, annotate any published lowlevel routes, avoid areas or other hazards within the boundaries. Use the VVOD to ensure current obstacles are depicted on maps. A29.2.6.4.2. Fly the survey during the day. Conduct a visual search of the proposed route or area at the lowest applicable altitude down to a minimum altitude of 50 feet AGL in CONV mode or 100 feet AGL in APLN mode. Check the obstacle location against map location and any additional obstacles charted. A29.2.6.4.3. If a route or area has been inactive or flight operations have not been conducted at survey minimums for 12 months, re-accomplish the survey or restrict operations to or above the lowest level flown during the 12-month period. A29.2.7. Crew Complement. The crew complement for operations is specified in the flight manual and Table A29.1. Table A29.1. Crew Complement. Mission Pilot Copilot Flight Engineer Engine Ground Run1 1 1 3 Ferry/FCF/Prof 1 1 1 Day4/Night 1 1 2 4 Tactical /LVAs Air Refueling 1 1 1 2 Hot Refueling 1 1 2 Notes: 1. Minimum crew is either 1 Pilot and 1 Flight Engineer or 2 Pilots. 2. Only one FE is required while operating at a location with sufficient ground crew to perform hot refueling duties. 3. This mission category includes all basic non-tactical operations to and from improved/approved areas (airfields, helipads, etc.) day and night. Qualified crews may use night vision goggles (NVGs) as appropriate to improve general flight safety. 4. At the discretion of the squadron (SQ/CC), crew complement may be 2 pilots and 1 Flight Engineer (FE). Crew complement will not be reduced if Low Visibility Approaches (LVAs) are anticipated. A29.2.8. Security. V-22 aircraft are priority C resources when they are not configured for special missions that require higher security priority. This security priority designation applies to operational aircraft worldwide. Some aircraft contain equipment and documents which require protection per DOD 5200.1, DOD Information Security Program/AFI 31-401, Information Security Program Management. Requirements for protection of the aircraft in a transient status at US and foreign bases are found in DOD 5200.1 and AFI 31-401. A29.2.9. Arming of Crewmembers. Unit commanders may direct arming of crewmembers as deemed necessary by mission threat analysis. During operations where weapons are on board, it may be necessary to arm a weapon qualified aircrew member. Protect these weapons and others installed IAW AFI 31-207, Arming and Use of Force by Air Force Personnel and AFMAN 31-229, USAF Weapons Handling Manual.

320

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

A29.3. Mission Guidance. A29.3.1. Landing Zones. A29.3.1.1. A thorough review of the landing zone survey and accompanying photographs or imagery will be accomplished by all crewmembers during the aircrew brief. The PIC is responsible for ensuring that any crewmember unable to attend the brief either reviews the landing zone survey or is briefed on the hazards associated with the LZ. A29.3.1.2. V-22 aircrew will follow procedures for Helicopter Landing Zones in AFI 13217. A29.3.2. Altitude Restrictions. Except for navigation profiles flown as part of approved test plans or in conjunction with FCF profiles, do not operate the aircraft lower than the altitudes shown below. A29.3.2.1. Conduct all APLN mode operations at or above 500 feet AGL and CONV/VTOL mode operations above 300 feet AGL, except when lower altitudes are required for takeoff, landing, test missions, training flights in approved surveyed areas or routes, or while conducting a route survey under day VMC. A29.3.2.2. Conduct low-level sorties in mountainous terrain no lower than 300 ft. modified contour or 200 ft. set clearance plane (SCP) in airplane mode, or 100 ft. in CONV mode. In non-mountainous terrain or over water where there is a valid mission requirement, crews may descend to no lower than 100 feet AGL in APLN and 50 ft. CONV with Sq/DO approval. Limit the time at minimum altitudes to the duration required for mission accomplishment. Without an operational FLIR, lowest altitude permitted is 500 ft. modified contour. A29.3.2.3. Unaided (no NVG and no TF system). Minimum en-route altitude for night navigation, for testing and training, is 500 feet above the highest obstacle within 3 NM (MSA). A29.3.2.4. Aided. NVGs or TF systems are the only approved methods for conducting night operations below 500 feet AGL. Time spent at the minimum altitude should be the minimum required to complete the test or complete mission proficiency training and night water operations. A29.3.3. Low-level Operations. The low-level environment is defined as operations below 500’ AGL in APLN mode and 300’ AGL in CONV/VTOL mode during the day. The night NVG low-level environment is defined as operations below 1000’ AGL in APLN mode and 500’ AGL in CONV/VTOL mode. A29.3.4. IMC Terrain Following (TF)/Terrain Avoidance (TA) Training. A29.3.4.1. IMC TF flight may be accomplished on published IFR Military Training Routes (IR). The lowest set clearance plan (SCP) will be in accordance with published route restrictions or 300 feet, whichever is higher. A29.3.4.2. Prior to entering IMC conditions the aircrew must ensure the TF/TA radar and navigation systems are functioning properly.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

321

A29.3.4.3. Altitude Restrictions. For IMC TF/TA en-route training, the minimum altitude is 200 feet SCP. A29.3.4.4. IMC TF and flight director (FD) approach (APPR) approaches will be conducted to surveyed/approved landing zones along specified routes. Visual contact with the ground allowing confirmation of aircraft position and drift state (by someone on the crew) will be established prior to decelerating below 30 KGS. A29.3.4.5. Degraded systems training will not be conducted during IMC TF/TA operations. A29.4. Operating Procedures and Restrictions. A29.4.1. Aircraft Equipment. A29.4.1.1. General. A fully mission capable aircraft is the ultimate objective of the logistics effort. The final responsibility regarding equipment required for a mission rests with the aircraft commander. If one aircraft commander accepts an aircraft to operate a mission or mission segment without an item or system, this acceptance does not commit that aircraft commander, or a different aircraft commander, to subsequent operations with the same item or system inoperative. When the aircraft commander considers an item essential, designate the component mission essential (ME) on the AFTO Form 781, and the item will be repaired or replaced prior to departure. This section provides guidance on how to operate with degraded equipment. A29.4.1.1.1. Radar Altimeter. The radar altimeter will be operational for night, lowlevel tactical events as well as all low-level operations over open water. A29.4.1.1.2. Avionics Cooling. Avionics cooling will be operational prior to departure. Should avionics cooling malfunction after departure, flight may be continued as long as airspeed is at or above 200 KCAS. Flight below 200 KCAS should be minimized to the maximum extent possible. A29.4.1.1.3. Environmental Control System (ECS). If environmental conditions permit, the aircraft may be flown without ECS. Crew comfort, type of mission, and length of mission should be considered when deciding whether or not to proceed. A29.4.1.1.4. Electrical Systems. If a variable frequency generator (VFG) fails at an en route stop, the mission may continue. Loss of a single VFG and/or converter with no other system failures will not adversely impact the electrical system and flight may be continued at the discretion of the PIC. Comply with all flight manual guidance. Continued operations with 1 VFG inoperative are authorized for a period not to exceed 35 flight hours. A29.4.1.1.5. Fuel Systems. Degraded operation is permissible, however, flight crews must consider potentially trapped fuel (center of gravity (CG) limits) and decreased range should further degradation occur. A29.4.1.1.5.1. Fuel Pumps. All suction lift pumps should be operational prior to departure. All boost pumps will be operational prior to departure. A29.4.1.1.5.2. Operations will not be conducted with any malfunction in the fuel system that affects the fuel quantity warning system.

322

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A29.4.1.1.6. Landing Gear. If a landing gear malfunction is encountered, only a full stop landing will be made. The discrepancy will be corrected prior to the next flight. Exception: If repair capability does not exist and a positive determination is made that further flight can be accomplished with the gear down and locked, the aircraft may be flown to a destination where repair capability exists provided the gear is not moved from the down and locked position. Required en-route stops are authorized. Takeoffs and landings should be minimized and made from a hover. A29.4.1.1.7. Navigation Systems. The aircraft will not be flown with more than one inertial navigation system (INS) failure as this would remove any redundancy in the aircraft attitude indicating system and flight control system. A29.4.1.1.8. Cockpit Displays. If the standby altitude indicator (AI) is inoperative, the aircraft may only be flown in day visual meteorological conditions (VMC) conditions. Flight in night VMC conditions permitted if night vision goggles (NVGs) are used. If any of the standby pitot-static instruments are inoperative, the aircraft will not be flown. Should there be degraded performance or damage to pitot-static probes 1, 2, or 4, standby instrumentation will be affected and the aircraft will not be flown. As a minimum, one operating multi-function display (MFD) is required at the pilot and the copilot position and one operable display electronics unit (DEU) is required. A29.4.2. Aircrew Flight Equipment Requirements. Upon reporting to the aircraft, the PIC or designated representative will ensure sufficient quantities of appropriate serviceable aircre flight equipment, survival equipment, and protective clothing are aboard the aircraft. Aircrew flight equipment and medical kits below 200 lbs may be secured with seat belts. A29.4.2.1. Aircrew members will wear life preservers and underwater breathing devices on overwater flights when route of flight is beyond gliding distance of the shore. Passengers will have life preservers available and will be worn at the discretion of the Pilot in Command. Life rafts will be available to cover all personnel on board. Life rafts, life preservers, and helicopter emergency egress device (HEED)/Helicopter Aircrew Breathing Device (HABD) are not required when over-water flight occurs only for short distances, takeoff, approach, and before landing. A29.4.2.2. Survival vests will be onboard the aircraft and available to the crew for all flights and may be worn at the discretion of the PIC. A29.4.2.3. Crewmembers occupying a primary crew position should accomplish a communications and operations check of their oxygen masks prior to flight. This oxygen mask will remain connected and readily available for cockpit crewmembers and available for cabin crewmembers for use before engine start until after engine shutdown. A29.4.2.4. V-22 crews will use helicopter requirements for over water flight. See AFI 11-301, MAJCOM Sup 1, for further guidance. A29.4.3. Flying Clothing/Safety Equipment. A29.4.3.1. Eye Protection. A29.4.3.1.1. Use protective goggles, plastic/shatter resistant lens, glasses/sunglasses, or the helmet visor for eye protection if duties require personnel to be in close

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

323

proximity of the aircraft when the proprotors are turning. Wear goggles whenever dust, sand, dirt, etc., constitute a hazard. A29.4.3.1.2. During all live firing of weapons from the aircraft, ensure that all personnel involved in the firing of weapons wear eye protection to include one of the following: helmet visors, shatter resistant glasses/eye protection, safety goggles, or aircrew gas mask. Glass lens eyeglasses alone do not satisfy the requirement. A29.4.4. Maximum Flight Duty Period (FDP). A29.4.4.1. FCF/ACF, proficiency training, test sorties, test support sorties and tactical events must be completed during the first 12 hours of the FDP and are limited to a maximum of three sorties per day. A29.4.4.2. The basic FDP is 16 hours provided no tactical events, test sorties, test support sorties, proficiency training, Functional Check Flights (FCF) (including maintenance ground runs) are accomplished after 12 hours and no Aerial Refueling (AR) is accomplished after 14 hours. If the autopilot (coupled modes) is not fully operational for the required mission profile, or its use is denied for more than 4 hours, the FDP will be 12 hours. A fully operational autopilot is defined as a system which is capable of coupling course (ENAV or INAV), speed, and altitude. For the purposes of this paragraph, NVG terminal operations to a prepared surface are not considered tactical events and use of NVGs is authorized throughout the flight duty period. A29.4.4.3. The OG/CC or equivalent may extend FDP up to 2 hours IAW AFI11-202V3 and AFMC Supplement. A29.4.5. Checklist. Accomplish all checklists with strict discipline using the challenge and response method as required. A29.4.6. Aircraft Forms/Fuel Card. Review the aircraft forms before applying power to the aircraft or operating aircraft systems. Ensure that the USAF fuel card and/or other authorized method of payment are aboard the aircraft. A29.4.7. Control. A qualified pilot will be at a set of flight controls at all times when proprotors are turning. A29.4.8. Crew Duties and Responsibilities. A29.4.8.1. Change of Aircraft Control. The change of flight controls will be accomplished using a positive change of controls. Use a statement which includes the crew position such as, “Pilot/Copilot has controls” to transfer control. The other aircrew member will acknowledge using the crew position also such as, “Pilot/Copilot has controls.” A29.4.8.2. Boldface. The aircraft commander normally calls for boldface procedure execution. The pilot not flying should be the primary crewmember responsible for executing BOLDFACE and other emergency checklist procedures that involve cockpit switches while the pilot flying maintains aircraft control and reacts appropriately. The flight engineer, if in the cockpit, will confirm any switches prior to being actuated and will reference the checklist for guidance during the emergency. Additional crewmembers, if on board, should review the flight manual and assist as needed/requested.

324

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 A29.4.9. Communications. A29.4.9.1. Interphone Communications. A29.4.9.1.1. Limit intercommunication system (ICS) transmissions to those essential for crew coordination. A29.4.9.1.2. Clearance is required from the PIC prior to going off ICS. A29.4.9.2. The pilot operating radios will brief the crew on which radio is primary. All crewmembers will monitor the primary radio unless specifically directed to do otherwise by the PIC. A29.4.9.2.1. Regardless of the primary radio, monitor ultra high frequency (UHF) GUARD (243.0). A29.4.10. Aircraft Lighting. Operate aircraft lighting IAW AFI 11-202V3, MAJCOM supplements. Additionally, All anticollision lights will be operational for day or night operations. When flying in formation, only the trail aircraft is required to have a visible anticollision light on. In the event of failure of any light or all lights of the anticollision light system after takeoff, flight may be continued. A29.4.11. Arresting Cables. Avoid rolling over arresting cables at high speed to preclude damage to the bottom of the aircraft. A29.4.12. Proprotor Turning Offload and Onload Procedures. procedures when engines are running:

Employ the following

A29.4.12.1. Do not approach the aircraft until cleared by the crew. A29.4.12.2. Place one engine condition lever (ECL) in START (or reduce both ECLs), when practical, to reduce the proprotor downwash whenever personnel are present near the aircraft. A29.4.12.3. Personnel and equipment should approach and depart between the 4 and 8 o’clock position during engine running ground operations. When using the crew door, approach and depart from the nose of the aircraft as much as possible to stay in the pilot’s field of view until clear of the aircraft. Avoid the regions directly outboard of the nacelles (3 and 9 o’clock) due to engine exhaust deflected by the coanda system. A29.4.13. Oxygen Requirements. Comply with AFI 11-202V3, for unpressurized aircraft. A29.4.14. Aircraft Servicing and Ground Operations. A29.4.14.1. Conduct hot refueling IAW AFI 11-235, Forward Area Refueling Point (FARP) Operations, TO 00-25-172, Ground Servicing of Aircraft and Static Grounding/Bonding, and appropriate flight manuals. The guidance in this section supplements the procedures outlined in TO 00-25-172, Ground Servicing of Aircraft and Static Grounding/Bonding, appropriate flight manuals, and checklist. A29.4.14.2. Transmissions on other than line of sight (LOS) radios are prohibited unless part of an approved test plan. A29.4.14.3. Aircrew will not wear Gortex garments within 50 feet of the aircraft when refueling with JP-4 or Jet B.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

325

A29.4.14.4. Personnel not directly involved in refueling operations will remain clear by a minimum of 50 feet. A29.4.14.5. In the absence of qualified maintenance personnel, aircrew may service aircraft hydraulic and oil systems IAW the flight manual. A29.4.15. Forced or Precautionary Landings. If the crew becomes doubtful of the aircraft’s airworthiness or encounters hazardous weather conditions preventing further flight, they should execute a precautionary landing, provided the landing conditions are not more hazardous than the in-flight problem. Report all precautionary landings through the appropriate chain of command as soon as communications are established. A29.4.16. Radar Altimeter Procedures. A29.4.16.1. During low-level operations, the recommended low altitude warning setting is 80 percent of intended cruise altitude. A29.4.16.2. For instrument approaches, set the radar altimeter low altitude warning to the appropriate height above touchdown (HAT) or height above aerodrome (HAA) prior to the final approach fix (FAF). A29.4.17. Radar Advisories. Participate to the maximum extent possible while operating in VFR or simulated IFR conditions. A29.4.18. Power Checks. A29.4.18.1. Aircrew will reconfirm power requirements using either the cockpit management system (CMS) or performance charts when power required is within ten (10) percent of power available. A29.4.18.2. Takeoff and landing will be executed utilizing interim power at the pilot’s discretion. For tactical approaches to and from LZs, interim power will be used. A29.4.19. Personnel Restraints. A29.4.19.1. Aircrew. At least one pilot will have seat belt and shoulder harness fastened when engines are running. Crewmembers may perform duties that require them to be unrestrained for short periods of time, provided they are not in close proximity to an open door. A29.4.19.2. Except for primary and additional aircrew all cabin occupants must be seated with seat belts fastened during taxi, initial takeoff, and initial approach and landing. A29.4.20. Power Required for Tactical Terminal Operations Training. A29.4.20.1. Clear escape route – out of ground effect (OGE) hover power. A29.4.20.2. Restricted escape route – OGE hover power plus 10 percent. A29.4.21. Obstacle Clearance for Tactical Terminal Operations Training. Horizontal obstacle clearance will be no less than 25 feet from the proprotor tip path plane. Shipboard operations to marked spot cleared for V-22 may be conducted with less clearance. A29.4.22. Flare and Chaff Guidance. Dispense flares IAW controlling agency procedures and restrictions. When over water, dispense flares at least 3 NM from any surface vessel,

326

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 platform, or landmass. Upon next landing, deplane a crewmember to visually inspect dispensers to ensure that there are no hung flares. If a hung flare is detected, follow appropriate procedures. A29.4.23. Simulated Instrument Flight. The use of a hood or other artificial visionrestricting device is not authorized for any phase of flight unless IAW approved test plan. A29.4.24. Emergency Procedures. Emergency procedures are normally practiced in the aircrew training device (ATD). Do not retard ECL’s or fail any aircraft systems, except as required during FCF’s. A29.4.25. Mission Employment. Refer to V-22 CONOPS Annex C as appropriate. A29.4.26. Direct Support Operator Procedures. Refer to V-22 CONOPS Annex C as appropriate. A29.4.27. Flight Engineer Procedures. Refer to V-22 CONOPS Annex C as appropriate.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

327 Attachment 30

YQ-11 OPERATING PROCEDURES A30.1. Operate the YQ-11 IAW with approved test plans and applicable contractor flight operations procedures. (T-2).

328

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 Attachment 31 NON-USAF AIRCRAFT OPERATING PROCEDURES

A31.1. General Information. AFI 11-401/AFMC Sup 1 paragraph 1.11.1.2 designates the Commandant of the USAF Test Pilot School (TPS) as the approval authority for TPS curriculum missions conducted in non-USAF aircraft. TPS uses leased sailplanes (gliders) to support the Soaring Program. A31.1.1. Soaring. TPS operates contractor-owned glider aircraft in support of the TPS curriculum. Glider aircrew consist of assigned or attached military, civil service, and contractor pilots who are trained and qualified under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR 61), Certification: Pilots, Flight Instructors, and Ground Instructors. Operation of the gliders is governed by 14 CFR 91, General Operating and Flight Rules. TPS Operating Instruction 11-4, Soaring contains specific guidance for administration of the glider program. Guidance is provided for aircrew selection, training, mission qualification and operating procedures.

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

329 Attachment 32

OTHER AIRCRAFT OPERATING PROCEDURES A32.1. General Information. There are numerous aircraft in the USAF inventory that are fielded and fully operational. These aircraft occasionally enter AFMC status, primarily while undergoing heavy maintenance (PDM) or extensive modifications. AFMC does not maintain a standing crew force to operate these aircraft. Instead, they are flown during post maintenance/modification check flights by owning unit aircrew on a TDY basis to the maintenance facility. While the aircraft is flown for check flight purposes and while under AFMC control (does not include delivery flight), the following aircraft may be operated IAW published AFI 11-2MDS guidance without the need for further coordination or approval from AFMC/A3V. AFMC retains all waiver authority for any required item or issue involved in the check flight. A32.1.1. Aircraft governed by this attachment: A32.1.1.1. C-20 A32.1.1.2. C-21 A32.1.1.3. C-22 (B727) A32.1.1.4. C/RC-26 A32.1.1.5. C-32 (B757) A32.1.1.6. C-38 (Gulfstream G100) A32.1.1.7. C-40 (B737) A32.1.1.8. DHC-8-Q200 A32.1.1.9. E-4 A32.1.1.10. T-1 Jayhawk A32.1.1.11. T-41 A32.1.1.12. T-43 A32.1.1.13. VC-25 A32.1.1.14. UV-18

330

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017 Attachment 33 PASSENGER BRIEFING GUIDE

A33.1. Egress Procedures. A33.1.1. - Ground Egress A33.1.1.1. - General methods (normal and emergency) A33.1.1.2. - Emergency signals A33.1.1.3. - Location of primary and alternate exits, slides, escape ropes, etc. A33.1.1.4. - Activation of hatches, exits, and slides A33.1.1.5. - Egress direction and safety precautions A33.1.2. - Inflight Egress/Bailout A33.1.2.1. - Donning of required equipment A33.1.2.2. - Location of primary and alternate exits A33.1.2.3. - Emergency signals A33.1.2.4. - Exiting aircraft A33.1.3. - Ditching (ground and water) A33.1.3.1. - Location and use of primary and alternate exits A33.1.3.2. - Donning of equipment and floatation devices A33.1.3.3. - Activation of hatches, exits, life rafts, and floatation devices A33.1.3.4. - Emergency signals and crash position A33.1.4. - Location and use of: A33.1.4.1. - Fire extinguishers A33.1.4.2. - Walk around bottles A33.1.4.3. - Crash axes A33.1.4.4. - first aid kits A33.2. Aircrew and Passenger Flight Equipment/Systems Usage Information. A33.2.1. - Use of oxygen system/quick dons A33.2.2. - Location and use of parachutes/associated equipment A33.2.3. - Location and use of POK/EPOS, smoke masks/Personal Breathing Equipment, EEBDs A33.3. Safety Precautions and Restrictions. A33.3.1. - Seat and safety belt requirements A33.3.2. - FOD Hazards

AFI11-2FTV3 1 MARCH 2017

331

A33.3.3. - Hearing Protection A33.3.4. - Portable electronic transmitting devices (Cell phones, CB radios, etc.) not authorized for ground or flight operations A33.3.5. - Portable no-transmitting devices authorized above 10,000 ft. AGL: AV recorders/playback, computers and peripherals, electronic entertainment devices, radio receivers. A33.3.6. - Devices authorized anytime: hearing aids, pacemakers, electronic watches, handheld nonprinting calculators, portable tape player w/o record capability such as Walkmans, etc, electric shavers. A33.3.7. - Portable GPS Units, Cameras A33.3.8. - Hazardous Cargo A33.3.9. - Smoking A33.4. Special Procedures. A33.4.1. - Passenger loading and unloading A33.4.2. -Special procedures and instructions for use during training, formation, or operational missions.

Loading...

BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE AIR - AF.mil

BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE AIR FORCE INSTRUCTION 11-2FT, VOLUME 3 1 MARCH 2017 Flying Operations FLIGHT TEST OPERATIONS PROCEDURES C...

2MB Sizes 0 Downloads 0 Views

Recommend Documents

BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE AIR FORCE
Oct 1, 2012 - This budget program funds replacement inert and dummy training (D-1 through D-5 and T-1 through T-5) missi

BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE AIR FORCE
Dec 10, 2010 - Units will validate go/no-go qualification IAW AFI 11-202, Volume 2, Aircrew ... of Staff/Logistics, Inst

BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE AIR - AF.mil
Mar 15, 2007 - This manual prescribes Air force policy and procedures on pay and allowances for members of the Air. Rese

BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE AIR - AF.mil
Dec 7, 2006 - exercises It applies to ACC and ACC gained units who participate in the JPEC, including the planning .....

BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE AIR - AF.mil
Apr 15, 2008 - charged with configuring and operating HC/MC-130P aircraft for Combat Search ... Information Management S

BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE AIR - AF.mil
Jan 11, 2017 - AFMAN36-203 11 JANUARY 2017 accordance with AFMAN 33-363, ... OPPORTUNITY AND AFFIRMATIVE EMPLOYMENT POLI

BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE AIR - AF.mil
[PDF]BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE AIR ... - AF.milstatic.e-publishing.af.mil/production/1/af_a1/publicatio

BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE AIR - AF.mil
Jan 31, 2017 - narrative parts of the standard structures for ease of reference and to facilitate future updates; and ..

BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE AIR - AF.mil
Jan 10, 2013 - This pamphlet is an informational “how to” publication that provides historical references and guidan

BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE AIR - AF.mil
Nov 28, 2014 - provides guidance and procedures on Patient Centered Medical Home Operations for Air Force. Family Health