Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter

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Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter Section Quiz: The Atom: From Philosophical Idea to Scientific Theory In the space provided, write the letter of the correct term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question.

______ 1. John Dalton thought that atoms a. contain molecules. b. cannot be broken down further. c. are all composed of carbon. d. have no mass. ______ 2. Using improved chemistry equipment in the late 1700s, chemists observed that mass is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction. This scientific law is called the law of a. definite proportions. b. gravity. c. conservation of mass. d. conservation of momentum. ______ 3. In an experiment, Alex and Rachel discover that their sample of table salt, also known as sodium chloride, NaCl, consists of 39.34% by mass sodium, Na, and 60.66% by mass chlorine, Cl. Later, Alex wonders what the percentage of Na might be in the table salt in his saltshaker at home. Rachel tells him, correctly, that it is a. 39.34%. b. 60.66%. c. 90%. d. impossible to tell, without analyzing the salt. ______ 4. The fact that every sample of a particular chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass is known as the law of a. conservation of energy. b. conservation of mass. c. atomic theory. d. definite proportions. ______ 5. A molecule of carbon monoxide, CO, has one atom of oxygen while a molecule of carbon dioxide, CO2, has two. In a sample of CO containing 1 g of carbon, 1.33 g of oxygen will combine with the carbon to form the molecule. What is the mass of oxygen in a sample of CO2 containing 1 g of carbon? a. 1.33 g b. 3.0 g c. 2.66 g d. 0.0 g

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Modern Chemistry

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Section Quiz, continued ______ 6. If two or more compounds are composed of the same two elements, then the ratio of the masses of the second element that is combined with a certain mass of the first element is always a ratio of small whole numbers. This statement is called the law of a. definite proportions. b. conservation of mass. c. atomic theory. d. multiple proportions. ______ 7. In 1808, John Dalton established his atomic theory. Which of the following is not part of Dalton’s atomic theory? a. All matter is composed of atoms. b. An atom consists of a nucleus and a cloud of electrons. c. Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed. d. In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged. ______ 8. Which of the following statements of Dalton’s atomic theory describes conservation of mass? a. All matter is composed of atoms. b. Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and other properties. c. Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed. d. Atoms of different chemical elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to form chemical compounds. ______ 9. Which of the following statements of Dalton’s atomic theory describes the law of multiple proportions? a. All matter is composed of atoms. b. Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and other properties. c. Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed. d. Atoms of different chemical elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to form chemical compounds. ______10. Which is one way that Dalton’s atomic theory has been shown to be incorrect? a. Atoms can change identity in chemical reactions. b. Atoms can be split into subatomic particles. c. Atoms can be destroyed by chemical reactions. d. Some atoms of a particular element are identical to atoms of other elements.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Modern Chemistry

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Answer Key 1 Matter and Change Section: Chemistry is a Physical Science 1. 3. 5. 7. 9.

d b a c b

2. 4. 6. 8. 10.

a d d c c

3 Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter Section: The Atom: From Philosophical Idea to Scientific Theory 1. 3. 5. 7. 9.

Section: Matter and its Properties 1. 3. 5. 7. 9.

c b c b a

2. 4. 6. 8. 10.

a a d a c

c a d b d

2. 4. 6. 8. 10.

c c a c b

2 Measurements and Calculations Section: Scientific Method 1. 3. 5. 7. 9.

d c d c b

2. 4. 6. 8. 10.

a a d d b

1. 3. 5. 7. 9.

c d d a a

2. 4. 6. 8. 10.

d b a b c

1. 3. 5. 7. 9.

b b d b d

2. 4. 6. 8. 10.

b b b c c

b a b d c

2. 4. 6. 8. 10.

d c c b c

c a b c b

2. 4. 6. 8. 10.

c d b a c

4 Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms Section: The Development of a New Atomic Model 1. 3. 5. 7. 9.

a c c d b

2. 4. 6. 8. 10.

b b a c a

Section: The Quantum Model of the Atom 1. 3. 5. 7. 9.

Section: Using Scientific Measurements 1. 3. 5. 7. 9.

c d d c b

Section: Counting Atoms

Section: Units of Measurement 1. 3. 5. 7. 9.

2. 4. 6. 8. 10.

Section: The Stucture of the Atoms

Section: Elements 1. 3. 5. 7. 9.

b a c b d

c c a d b

2. 4. 6. 8. 10.

a b b c c

Section: Electron Configurations 1. 3. 5. 7. 9.

d a c d a

2. 4. 6. 8. 10.

b c b b c

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Modern Chemistry

152

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Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter

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