CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW
A. Literature Review 1.
a. Definition of Pronunciation Pronunciation is the act or manner of pronouncing words; utterance of speech, a way of speaking a word, especially a way that is accepted or generally understood, and a graphic representation of the way a word spoken, using phonetic symbols. Further Pronunciation definition taken from Oxford Dictionary states pronunciation is the way in which a language or a particular word or sound is spoken. If one is said to have "correct pronunciation", then it refers to both within a specific dialect.” A word can be spoken in different ways by various individuals or groups, depending on many factors, such as: the area in which they grew up, the area in which they now live, if they have a speech or voice disorder, their ethnic group, their social class, or their education. Fraenkel (1984) express that there are two main steps to learning how to pronounce a language: 1) Receptive/list stage In this stage, we learn to differentiate the significant sounds and pattern by listening to the language. 2) Productive/speaking stage
By this stage, we learn to speak or to produce what we have learned before. b. Teaching Pronunciation Learning English language with teaching media like audiovisual will bring students easy to learn and make students interest. The pronunciation teacher should be a good model to the students, otherwise; the students will imitate bad pronunciation and lead making mistakes. Teacher should produce the accurate sounds and their productions of speech to the students in order to make the students really understand about how correct pronunciation is produced. Harmer (2000) states that concentrating on sounds, showing where they are made in the mouth, making students aware of where words should be stressed- all things give them extra information about spoken English and help them achieve the goal of improved comprehension and intelligibility. Teaching pronunciation is teaching about aspects that influence meanings of sentences through segmental phonemes. It is important to teach, because pronunciation is a basic sub skill in speaking. Therefore, good pronunciation avoids misunderstanding in communication. When people say, for example, “soap” in a situation such as a restaurant where they should have said “soup,” the inaccurate production of a phoneme can lead to misunderstand. It happens because Indonesian students have difficulties in pronouncing English words due to influence of students’ seventh language and environment. As Daniel Jones states that : The difficulties of pronunciation are:
The student of spoken English or any other spokenlanguage is faced at the outset with difficulties of five kinds in the matter of pronunciation. They are as follows:1) He must learn to recognize readily and with certainty the various speech-sounds occurring in the language, when he hears them pronounced; he must more oven learn to remember the acoustic qualities of those sound; 2) He must learn to make the foreign sounds with his own organs of speech; 3) He must learn to use those sound in their proper places in connected speech; 4) He must learn the proper usage in the matter of the ‘sound-attributes’ or ‘prosodies’ as they are often called (especially length,stress and voice pitch); 5) He must learn to catenate sounds, i.e. to join each sound of a sequence on the next, and to pronounce the complete sequence rapidly and without stumbling. The Materials in Pronunciation Teaching
a). English Vowels. According to Jones, vowels are some of the continuous voiced sound produced without obstruction in the mouth unaccompanied by any frictional noise. Jones (1958:15) in his book “The Pronunciation of English” classifies the vowels into 5 based on the position of the tongue: (1). Front vowels, in the production of which the ‘front’ of the tongue is raised in the direction of the hard palate. For example, /i:/ in /fi:d/ feed. (2). Back vowels, in the production of which the ‘back’ of the tongue is raised in the direction of the soft palate. For example, /u:/ in /fu:d/ food. (3). Central vowels, when the position of the tongue is in the middle or in the intermediate of front and back. For example, /з:/ in /bз:d/ bird. (4). Close vowels, when the tongue is held as high as possible consistently with not producing a frictional noise. For example, /i:/ in /fi:d/ feed and /u:/ in /fu:d/ food. (5). Open vowels, when the tongue is held as low as possible as in /a:/ in /fa:
ðə / father. b). English consonants According to Kelly (2000:47) consonants can be described in terms: (1). The place of articulation (a). Labiodental Sound which is articulated by the tip tongue against the upper teeth; e.g. /f/ (b). Dental Sounds articulated by the tip tongue against the upper teeth. e.g : / ð / (c). Alveolar Namely sounds articulated by the tip or blade of the tongue against the teeth-ridge; e.g. normal English /t/ (f). Palatals Namely sounds articulated by the back of the tongue against the hard palate; e.g / j /. (g). Velars Namely sounds articulated by the back of the tongue against the soft palate; e.g. /k/ (h). Glottal Namely sounds articulated in the glottis; e.g / h /. (2). Manner of articulation (a). Plosive A complete closure is made somewhere in the vocal tract, and the soft palate is also raised. Air pressure increases behind the closure, and is then
released ‘explosively’, e.g. /p/ and /b/ (b) Affricative A complete closure is made somewhere in the mouth, and the soft palate is raised. Air pressure increases behind the closure, and is then released more slowly than in plosives, e.g. /t / and /d / (c). Fricative When two vocal organs come close enough together for the movement of air between them to be heard, e.g. /f/ and /v/ (d). Nasal A closure is made by the lips, or by the tongue against the plate, the soft plate is lowered, and air escapes through the nose, e.g. /m/ and /n/ (e) Lateral A partial closure is made by the blade of the tongue against the alveoral ridge. Air is able to flow around the sides of the tongue, e.g. /l/ (f) Approximant Vocal organs come near to each other, but not so close as to cause audible friction, e.g. /r/ and /w/ c). English Diphthongs Diphthongs are sounds, which involve a change in quality during is their production. It is the combination of vowel sounds. Diphthongs are represented phonetically by sequences of two letters. The first showing the starting point and the second indication the direction of the movement. There are three kinds of diphthongs. They are (closing) diphthongs, falling diphthongs, centering
diphthongs. (1). Raising or Closing Diphthongs. The position of the tongue when the second vowel is pronounced higher than the first one. For example: • /ai/, like in time /taim/, fine /fain/ • /ei/, like in make /meik/, take /teik/ • / i/, like in boy /boi/ • /au/, like in now /nau/, how /hau/ • /əu/, like in no /nəu/, go /gəu/ (2). Falling Diphthongs. The position of the tongue when utters the second vowel is lower than the first one. For example: • /i ə/, like in fear /fiə(r)/, hear /hiə(r)/ • /ə/, like in pure /pjə(r)/ (3). Centering Diphthongs The position of the tongue when utters the second vowel is at the id central. For example: • /ə/, like in fore /fə(r) /, more /mə(r)/ • / εə /, like in there /ðεə / (4). Supra-segmental phonemes Supra-segmental phonemes are classified into seven classes; they are: •
Stress. Stress is the pressure of breath with which sounds are produced.
Intonation. Intonation is the changes in the music of the voice while producing speech.
Pause. Pause is the silent between parts of un utterance.
Juncture. Juncture is a very short time of pause. It is the space in speech between sounds or words.
Rhythm. Rhythm is the beat of language. It is the stress-time. Meaning between two primary stresses is the same.
Pitch. Pitch is the height and/or direction (up-down contrast level of pitch can distinguish word. For example, in Chinese there are four levels of sounds that can differentiate meaning.
Length. Length is the long or short a phoneme should be pronounced.
d). Stress According to Jones (1958:57), the force of the breath with which a syllable is pronounced is called stress. Stress varies from syllable to syllable. Syllable which are pronounced with greater stress than the neighbor syllables are said to be stressed. It is in fact generally sufficient to distinguish two degrees only-stressed and unstressed. Stress syllables are marked when necessary by ‘placed immediately before them, thus father, 'f : ə, arrive, ə'raiv, opportunity, pə'tju:niti, what shall we do? '(h)w t əlwi:'du.
The same words and sentences are not always stressed in the same way. Variations are sometimes necessary for making the meaning clear, and they are
eventually needed due to rhythmical considerations. Thus the word injudicious when simply taken to mean “foolish” would have stress on the third: 'di əsyllable, thus he was very injudicious, hi:wəz'veriind u:'di əs, but when used in contrast with judicious, the chief stress would be on the first syllable, the stress on the third being only secondary, e.g. that was very judicious, twəz'verid u:'di əs,
injudicious,'ai ədk :litveri'ind u:di əs. Untrained speakers often fail to bring out contrast of this kind properly. In '(h)w t əlwi:'du:, '(h)w t'
'(h)w t əl'wi:du:, the variations of stress actually modify the meaning of the words. The word unknown,
nnoun shows clearly how rhythm may affect stress.
Compare an unknown land, ən' nnoun'l nd with quite unknown, 'kwait n'noun. When isolated the word would generally be pronounced, the two syllables having equal stress. The rhythmical principle underlying these changes is a tendency to avoid consecutive stressed syllables when possible. e). Intonation Jones (1958:59) states in speaking, the pitch of the voice, i.e. the pith of the musical note produced by the vocal chords, is constantly changing. These variations in pitch are called intonation (or inflection). Intonation is thus quite independent of stress, with which it is sometimes confused by beginners. Fluctuations in pitch either involve a rising pitch or a falling pitch. Intonation is found in every language and even in tonal languages, but the realization and function are seemingly different. It is used in non-tonal languages
to add attitudes to words (attitudinal function) and to differentiate between whquestions, yes-no questions, declarative statements, commands, requests, etc. Generally speaking, the following intonations are distinguished: • Rising Intonation means the pitch of the voice rises over time [ա]; • Falling Intonation means that the pitch falls with time [բ]; • Dipping Intonation falls and then rises [բա]; • Peaking Intonation rises and then falls [աբ]
2). Principles in Pronunciation Teaching According to Penny, principles in teaching pronunciation are: a). Having a suitable curriculum When teachers teach something, they start to help students acquire some primary concepts on which they can build more complex understanding. For example, when teachers teach science, they make sure students have a basic understanding science before teach them about science. It is absolutely the same as teaching pronunciation, before teachers teach pronunciation, they should have a rough curriculum for teaching pronunciation to access material relevant in particular situation. b). Being the student centre Teachers have to know how to make students understand information given. For example, for teachers who cannot pronounce some English sounds need to have more knowledge about pronunciation. Additionally, the teachers can give more explanations to students. At that time, students learn through teachers experience how to pronounce English sounds.
c). Helping learners become self-reliant Many students have wrong perceptions about what is involved in learning pronunciation – or in learning a language in general. Teachers have to tell the students that pronunciation is a sub skill that involves remembering and practicing. Sometimes, different students’ accent makes they lack of confident in learning pronunciation. They feel embarrass to pronounce English word, but they can learn from their mistakes. Teachers’ roles are to help students feel confident to pronounce English words. d). Giving opportunities to practice. In fact, pronunciation is a sub skill of speaking skill. Teachers’ role is giving training to students to pronounce English words and giving correction to students in pronouncing English words. Sometimes students wriggle out of practicing English pronunciation by saying they are embarrassed. In this case, teachers have to make students more feel confident in practicing pronunciation. A good method in teaching pronunciation is to use several repetitions saying together in the chorus. Then choose one student for individual rehearsal, choose another student again, and so on. Sometimes students will get bored with this. However, the material is useful and challenging; students love this kind of work. 3). Strategies in Pronunciation Teaching According to Kelly (2000:16), there are some strategies in pronunciation teaching: a). Drilling
Drilling is main way of pronunciation practice in classroom. Basic form of drilling involves teacher saying a word or structure, and getting students to repeat it. Aim of drilling is to help students achieve better pronunciation of language items, and help them remember new item. Drilling often follows a process known as eliciting. It is to encourage students to bring up a word, phrase of structure as they study before. Teachers generally use prompts, pictures, mimes etc, to help learning process along. Teacher’s main role of drilling is to provide a model of the word, phrase or structure for students to copy. b). Chaining Chaining is used to drill long sentences involving difficult words and sounds. Teachers separate certain words from sentence, and model them separately for students to repeat, and gradually build the sentence up until they become complete sentences. There are two kinds of chaining: (1). Back chain Students are drilled to pronounce sentences and build up parts of the end of the sentences from the end, gradually add to length. Students’ mistake in pronounce certain part of word will be drilled by teachers separately. Each part of sentence is modeled by teachers, and repeated by students. Example : ......would’ve told. .......if I’d seen him.
(2). Front chain Students are drilled to pronounce sentences and build up parts of start of the sentences from the start, gradually adding to its length. Students’ wrong in pronounce certain part of word will be drilled by teachers separately. Each part of sentence is modeled by teachers, and repeated by students. Example: If I’d seen him.... I would’ve...... I would’ve told him. (3). Substitution drilling Substitution drilling is another important and useful variation. This involves drilling a structure, but substituting items into the sentence being dealt with, as follow: Teacher : it’s in the corner Student 1: it’s in the corner Teacher : it’s on the table Student 2 : it’s on the table. (4). Open pair drilling Question and answer drills might be set up across the class, by one student asking, another responding, and so on. For example, a big letter Q and a big letter A written on cards. Teachers will invite students to question each other and respond in turn across the class.
Student 1: have you ever been to Paris? Student 4: yes. I have Student 5: have you ever been to New York? Student 2: no I haven’t. (5). Giving Feedback Giving feedback is making correction which is used by teachers in order to reduce errors made by students in pronunciation. Giving more feedback will help students accurately in their own use of language. When teachers give feedback, they should have different kinds of correction techniques or strategies. For instance, teachers give feedback by practice rising and falling of their intonation, giving one that is chosen for student which is true or false, and writes some correction in blackboard. By giving feedback, teachers actually can reduce students’ errors. Consequently, students will be more confident in pronounce pronouncing English words. c. Problems of Pronunciation Many students have problems in learning English especially in spoken English language. There are many problems faced by students to study pronunciation according to Harmer (2007:250). They are as follows: 1) What students can hear Some students have great difficulty hearing pronunciation features which we want them to reproduce. Frequently, speakers of different first languages have problems with different sounds 2) What students can say
Learning a foreign language often presents us with the problem of physical unfamiliarity (i.e. it is actually physically difficult to make the sound using particular parts of the mouth, uvula or nasal cavity). 3) The intonation problem Some of us (and many of our students) find it extremely difficult to hear tunes or to identify the different patterns of rising and falling tones. According to Gerald Kelly (2000:13), there are two main problems in teaching pronunciation: 1). Pronunciation tends to be neglected. 2). When it is not neglected, it tends to be reactive to a particular problem that has arisen in the classroom rather than being strategically planned. There are two reasons that pronunciation tends to be neglected. First, teachers are lack interest to teach pronunciation. Secondly, teachers do not know how to teach pronunciation due to having lack of knowledge of pronunciation theory. When pronunciation is not neglected, it tends to be reactive to a particular problem that has arisen in the classroom rather than being strategically planned. Teachers need to improve their practical skill in teaching pronunciation. Additionally, students show considerable enthusiasm for pronunciation. Students feel enthusiastic, because pronunciation is something that would help them to communicate well. Therefore, both teachers and learners consider that pronunciation is very important in a language learning process. To solve these problems, pronunciation teachers need: (a). A good grounding in theoretical knowledge
Before teaching pronunciation, teachers firstly have to know how to pronounce words, so teachers when teach students can give good pronunciation to students imitated. (b). Practical classroom skills Teachers necessarily have strategies of how to attract students. Consequently, materials presented by teachers will be easily understood by students. (c). Access to good ideas for classroom activities. It is necessarily for teachers to teach pronunciation attractive. So, students will not get bored with available materials. They will get more enthusiastic in learning pronunciation. d. Pronunciation Test Brown (2004:3) stated that a test, in simple terms, is a method of measuring a person’s ability, knowledge, or performance in a given domain. A test is first a method. It is an instrument—a set of techniques, procedures, or items—that requires performance on the part of test-taker. Second, a test must measure. Some tests measure general ability, while others focus on very specific competencies or objectives. A test measured an individual’s ability, knowledge, or performance. Furthermore, according to Hughes (2003:8), there are some purposes of testing in teaching learning process: 1). To measure language proficiency. 2). To discover how successful students have been in achieving the objectives of
a course of study. 3). To diagnose students’ strengths and weaknesses, in identifying what they know and what they don’t know. 4). To assist placement of students by identifying the stage or part of a teaching program most appropriate to their ability. Obviously, pronunciation is tested globally in different types of conversational exchange, interview, reading aloud, etc., that go on in the classroom. What seems to be insufficient is the testing of accuracy-that is, testing to assess the learner’s management of specific features, segmental or suprasegmental. This insufficiency is due to two main causes. First, many teachers do not consider it useful to test specific features. This attitude is based on the belief that the mastery of specific features, taken individually, does not matter much in real-life situations where the context always provides the clue for the learner to interpret what he hears (Heaton 1988:64) or to make him understood even if the ideal quality of phonemes is not reached. “It is possible for people to produce practically all the correct sounds but still be unable to communicate their ideas appropriately and effectively. On the other hand, people can make numerous errors in both phonology and syntax and yet succeed in expressing themselves fairly clearly.” (Heaton 1988:88) Taking segmental phonemes and word stress as illustrations, this article explores some ways of testing specific features of English pronunciation, both as a teaching activity and as part of an examination. The ideal way of testing pronunciation is actually listen to the learner. However, since this is not always
possible or suitable, the alternatives discussed below can be used for testing segments and word stress. 2. General Concept of Film as an Audiovisual Aid a. The Notion of Audiovisual Aids An audiovisual aid is one of the media of teaching pronunciation. The most important reason for utilizing audiovisual materials in junior high school instruct Freudenstein in Alatis (1981: 275) says that there are three media in order to run the teaching and learning process effectively and efficiently. They are defined as follows. 1). Visual: boards (blackboard, magnetic board, slot board), chart (wall chart, flow chart), and pictures. 2). Audio: radios and tape recorder. 3). Audio visual: film, TV, and video. b. Film as Media for Teaching Film is the media of teaching which has benefit for teachers and students. As the teacher analyzes students’ responses to the questions and situations which are projected, both teacher and learner benefit from evaluative strength of audiovisual aids. One of the best uses of film is to bring to the children experiments and demonstration which are ordinarily impractical in the classroom. Goldwyn (1993) states that English teachers seem to have liked film because of its artistic seriousness which in turn meant that is worth studying, pupils also liked this rather out of the ordinary treat so different from most of their lessons in school.
Forney in Smith (2009) suggests that film is a great tool for students because it allows them to learn outside of the average college parameters such as books, lectures, papers, and the like. She sees the value in these methods of learning, but she also states that a student can get a real active picture of material from a film, such as watching a counseling subject’s progress over time in a film like Good Will Hunting (1997). She also explains how there are different student learning styles that different types of media can encourage, film being part of the ‘concrete experience’ group. Overall, Forney (2004) finds entertainment media to be invaluable for the student learning experience based on its easy accessibility and the students’ built in knowledge of it. c. Types of Films According to Wikipedia the types of films as follows: 1) Factual films present ideas and information precisely, using pictures and sound to clarify meaning in ways which are superior to and different from the usual illustrated lecture. 2) Pictorial reports are comprised of film footage which records events such as track meets or time and motion studies much as they occurred with little or no editing. 3) Fictional drama films often present stirring, believable versions of literacy classics. They are useful in developing attitudes, building appreciation, and presenting information. 4) True drama films portray events in the lives of actual people. 5) Travelogues give geographic information.
6) Training films stress religious history and dramatize situation 7) Involving moral and spiritual values. 8) Documentary films are a major special type with important educational opportunities. 9) Cartoon film is a film made by animating a series of drawings. Teachers use film in many different ways and for a variety of purposes: to communicate information, to change or to strengthen attitudes, to develop skills, to stimulate interest, to raise problems, to seek moods, to emotionalize learning. They sometimes use films to test abilities of their students to apply principles to problem situation. 3. The Relationship between Watching Film and Pronunciation Mastery According to Gilbert (2008:6), while it may be easy to see the benefit of good pronunciation instruction for increasing intelligibility, it is just as useful for increasing listening comprehension. Students who are taught about English prosodic patterns often report improved understanding of speech on TV, in films, and in face-to-face conversation. Gilbert (2008) states that these days, films are often chosen as an authentic materials, since we can expect that authentic materials will increase learners’motivation: Rost 1991, Home 2004, Kimura 1997, Imai 2004, Kono 1980. Home in Smith (2009) also states that theacers should search for studentfriendly materials in different varieties of English spoken around the world, not only British and American English. One popular source is cable TV. Dales (1945) mentions that they supply a concrete basis for conceptual thinking, and
they have a high degree for interest for student. Kono (1980) also mentions that film arise learners’ interest, and learners challenge to undeestand ehat the actors are talking in film. However, films often turn out too difficult to poor learners. Authentic materials will be usedby high proficiency learners.Harmer (2003) states that “real langua gthat they have to work hardest to understand. Authentic material is language where no concessions are made to foreign speaker. It is normal, natural language used by native-or competent-speakers of a language. This is what our students encounter (or will encounter) in real life if they come into contact with target-languagr speakers.” (Harmer, 2003:2005) In order to comprehend spoken utterances, knowledge of sound system will be necessary. Brown in (1981) states that the loss of training in phonetic changes impinges not only on teaching of pronunciation but also on the teaching of listening comprehension (1987). Balasco (1969) sterss the importance of teaching the mechanism of connected speech to learners in early stages “in the initial states of internalizing basic phonological, syntatic patterns of the language, and sandhi-variation patterns of tha language.” Rixon (1986) mentions, spoken word do not await a listener, and real utterances include a lot of phonetic changes, which might listening veryy difficult. Ur (1992) also states that most of the discourse in TV dramas, interviews, most classroom exchanges we hear is quite informal, being booth spontaneous and colloquial in character, and some of the skill the learner nedds to develop are closely bound up with the peculiarities of spontaneous and colloquial speech.
B. Conceptual Framework Pronunciation is the way a word or a language is spoken, or the manner in which someone utters a word. If one is said to have "correct pronunciation", then it refers to both within a particular dialect. A word can be spoken in different ways by various individuals or groups, depending on many factors, such as: the area in which they grew up, the area in which they now live, if they have a speech or voice disorder, their ethnic group, their social class, or their education. Therefore, watching films make it possible for students to keep practicing, and responding about the pronunciation skill that they receive. When the students are already in the real time and situation of English, it is easier for them to understand the use of certain expression for certain conditions or occasions. It is important to say the right thing in the right time because it helps to improve the pronunciation skill. Meanwhile, using it inappropriately can result in the opposite effect. It is a great help for the learning process and also give a great benefit to the learners. The mastery of pronunciation then is believed supported by the conversation in films that is involved the students into communication in real time. C. Research Hypothesis The hypothesis is constructed in the following statement; ‘There is a positive and significant relationship between watching films and students’ pronunciation mastery among the seventh grade students at SMPN 1 Pakem, Sleman.”